Chapter 11- Blood 9-15-08

Plasma - Liquid portion of the blood. Plasma Proteins * Abumins- osmotic pressure; keeps fluid within vessels and prevents leakage into the tissues. Attracts water. #1 majority of plasma protien; helps to thicken the blood; needed for healing. Normal level is 3.5 to 5.0. * Globulins- deals with immunity. * Fibrinogen- #1 clotting factor * Prothrombin- #2 clotting factor; produced in the liver; vitamin K is produced in the colon or large intestines. Serum is the liquid portion of the blood without the clotting factors. Let the blood clot and the top portion is the serum of the blood. Colloidal solution- Blood (jello) Formed Elements 1. RBC (erythrocytes)- carries O2 to cells and tissues; contains Hgb (red pigment). Oxyhemoglobin- mixing of O2 and Hgb. Hgb contains iron (Fe) Normal RBC- 4.5-5.4 million per mm cubed; Hgb. Level is 12-18 Hematocrit is 38%-54%. *Dehydrated people appear to have a higher % Hct level due to a decrease in fluid. Fluid overload= Hct. % Goes down. 9% of body weight is blood. 55% of the blood is plasma Mature RBC has NO nucleus! Test: Reticulocyte count - measures # of immature RBC (because they contain a nucleus) Retic count= internal bleeding. Red Bone Marrow (myeloid tissue) produces all blood cells except for some lymphocytes and monocytes are produced by lymphatic tissue such as the thymus, nodes and spleen. *RBC are disc-shaped *Polycythemia- excess # of RBC *Life span of a RBC is 120 days!

Platelets Function: Blood Clotting Normal Life Span is 7-10 days

Normal level: 150,000- 450,000

Megakaryocyte- stem cells for platelets in red bone marrow. Stick together (platelet aggregation) to help for blood clots. *All blood cells come from stem cells. Red bone marrow is primarily found in the sternum, ribs, and pelvis. Irregular bones White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) Function: fight infection

Normal count: 5,000-10,000

There are 5 types of white blood cells and they all fall into 2 categories: granulocytes (contain granules) and agranulocyes (non-granules) GranulocytesLife span: few days

1. NeutrophilsLavender in color. Microphage- (Have ability of phagocytosis) most numerous; first to the site of an infection. Mature WBC has a segmented nucleus (segs). Also called polymorphic (polys)(because each nucleus looks different). Immature WBC has “bands” that look like commas inside the cell. More bands than segs indicate an acute infection. {this is called a “shift to the left”}. 2. EosinophilsPink in color.

*Assists with parasitic infections and allergic reactions; weak phagocytes. 3. BasophilsDark Blue in color

*Releases histamine and heparine to prevent blood clotting during an inflammatory reaction. *Heparine- prevents clotting * Histamine - dilates blood vessels to allow more blood to area, gets more WBC to area, produces heat and redness. *Swelling is caused by increased vessel permeability.

Agranulocytes-

Life span - 6 months in tissues

{Produced by Lymphatic tissue (spleen, nodes, thymus) 1. Lymphocytes- B and T lymphocytes B cells secrete, T cells directly attack. 2. Monocytes (macrophage) “Big eaters” Responsible for majority of phagocytosis. *Hematopoeisis- production of RBCs *Erythropoietin- comes from kidneys; stimulates Red bone marrow to produce RBCs Centrifuge is a machine that spins and seperates blood 3 sections of centrifuged blood: (T-B) Plasma, Buffy coat, and RBC * The “Buffy Coat” contains WBC and platelets. -cytosis means increase production. -penia means to decrease production. Example: Leukocytosis- increased production of WBC (more than 10,000) Leukopenia- decrease production of WBC (less than 5,000) Blood Clotting *Colon produces vitamin K which simulates liver to produce prothrombin All 13 Clotting factors come from the liver!!! Blood Clotting Diagram !!!!!!!Know this like the back of your hand!!!!! Colon >>> Vitamin K>>> Stimulates liver to produce prothrombin >>> Injury >>> damaged tissue and platelets release prothrombin activator >>> Ca++ and Prothrombin activator changes prothrombin to thrombin >>> Thrombin changes Fibrinogen to fibrin >>> Forms the clot along with the platelets. Thrombus- Stationary clot Embolus- moving blood clot or foreign matter in a blood vessel. Phlebitis- inflammation of a vein

Thrombophlebitis- inflammation of a vein with a formation of a clot. Blood Types: Antigen 1. Type A 2. Type B 3. Type AB 4. Type O Antibody (in plasma) B A none A&B

*Type O-: is used in medical emergencies. It is the Universal Donor. *Type AB+: is the Universal Recipient. Antibodies attack antigens; blood typing is determined by the antigen on a RBC’s surface. (antigens are proteins). Once they attack they Agglutinate the blood- causing cells to clump. Rh Factor- another antigen on RBC. If you have it your positive. Rh is also called the D antigen. *Never give whole blood ( plasma, platelets, or RBC) Rh factor- only develops when an Rh negative person receives Rh positive blood. The lymphatic tissue of Rh negative person produces Rh antibodies if exposed Rh positive blood. Negative can only receive negative, however persons with Rh positive can receive from both positive and negative EXCEPT when the blood has the Rh antigen. ****For a Rh negative mother to have a Rh positive baby, the father must be Rh Positive***