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TOPIC: COBOL Q: What are S0C1, S0C4, S0C5, S0C7 ABENDs?

A: S0C1 (Operation Exception Error) - May be due to Missing or misspelled name !ead"#rite to unopened dataset !eading a dataset opened output mode #riting into a dataset opened input mode Called subprogram not $ound S0C% may be due to Missing Select statement (during compile) &ad Subscript"index 'rotection Exception Missing parameters on called subprogram !ead"#rite to unopened $ile Mo(e data $rom"to unopened $ile) S0C* May be due to &ad Subscript"index Close an unopened dataset &ad exit $rom a per$orm Access to +"O area (, ) be$ore read) S0C- may be due to .umeric operation on non-numeric data /n-initiali0ed 1or2ing storage Coding past t3e maximum allo1ed subscript S0C& mig3t be due to 14 i(ision by 5ero Q: What will happen if you code GOBACK instead of STOPRU in a stand!alone COBO" p#o$#a% &i'e' a p#o$#a% which is not callin$ any othe# p#o$#a%( A: Both give the same results when a program is not calling any other program. GOBACK will give the control to the system even though it is a single program. Q: What is the difference between E !E"NA# and $#%BA# &ariab'es? A: 67O&A7 (ariables are accessible only to t3e batc3 program 13ereas E89E!.A7 (ariables can be re$erenced $rom any batc3 program residing in t3e same system library4 Q: ()* are writin+ "e,)rt -r)+ra. with 4 'e&e's )f t)ta's: Cit/, State, "e+i)n and C)*ntr/0 !he c)des bein+ *sed can be the sa.e )&er the different 'e&e's, .eanin+ a cit/ c)de )f 01 can be in an/ n*.ber )f states, and the sa.e a,,'ies t) state and re+i)n c)de0 1)w d) /)* d) /)*r chec2in+ f)r brea2s and h)w d) /)* d) add t) each 'e&e'?

A: Al1ays compare on t3e 3ig3est le(el $irst: because i$ you 3a(e a brea2 at a 3ig3est le(el: eac3 le(el beneat3 it must also brea24 Add to t3e lo1est le(el $or eac3 record but add to t3e 3ig3er le(el only on a brea24 Q: What is difference between C%B%# and 3S C%B%# 44? A: +n using CO&O7 on 'C: 1e 3a(e only $lat $iles and t3e programs can access only limited storage: 13ereas in ;S CO&O7 ++ on Main$rames t3e programs can access upto 1<M& or =6& depending on t3e addressing and can use ;SAM $iles to ma2e +"O operations $aster4 Q: Wh/ %CC5"S C'a*se cann)t be *sed in 01 'e&e'? A: OCC/!S clause cannot be used in 01 7e(el because: it is t3ere to repeat $ields 1it3 same $ormat: not t3e records4 Q: What is "e,)rt64te.? A: A !eport-+tem is a $ield to be printed t3at contains Edit symbols4 Q: What are -SB 7 ACB? A: 'S& ('rogram speci$ication bloc2): 'ro(ides in$ormation about 3o1 a speci$ic program is to be accessed on +MS &4 +t consists o$ 'C& ('rogram Communication &loc2): 13ic3 gi(es in$ormation to 13ic3 segment in & can be accessed: 13at t3e program is allo1ed to do 1it3 t3ose segments and 3o1 t3e & is to be accessed4 AC& (Access Control &loc2): 93ey are generated by +MS as an expansion o$ in$ormation contained in t3e 'S& in order to speed up t3e access to t3e applicable & s4 Q: What is a #DS 8#inear Data Set9 and what is it *sed f)r? A: 7 S is a ;SAM dataset in name only4 +t 3as unstructured %> (%0?< bytes) $ixed si0e C+s 13ic3 do not contain control $ields and t3ere$ore $rom ;SAM@s standpoint t3ey do not contain any logical records4 93ere is no $reespace: and no access $rom Cobol4 93ey can be accessed by &= and +MS $ast pat3 datasets4 7 S is essentially a table o$ data maintained on dis24 93e @table entries@ must be created (ia a user program and can only be logically accessed (ia a user program4 #3en passed: t3e entire 7 S must be mapped into storage: t3en data is accessed (ia base and displacement type processing4 Q: What is the difference between NE ! and C%N!4N5E c'a*se? A: 93e CO.9+./E (erb is used in a situation 13ere t3ere is no EO, condition i4e4: t3e records are to be accessed again and again in a $ile: 13ereas in t3e .E89 (erb t3e indexed $ile is accessed seAuentially: 3ence 13en index clause is accessed seAuentially read next record command is used

Q: What is the i.,)rtance )f $#%BA# c'a*se acc)rdin+ t) new standards )f C%B%#? A: #3en any data name: $ile-name: record-name: condition name or +ndex de$ined in an including program can be re$erenced by a directly or indirectly in an included program: pro(ided t3e said name 3as been declared to be a global name by 67O&A74 ,ormat o$ 6lobal Clause is: 01 A9A-1 '+C ?(*) +S 67O&A74 Q: What is the ,*r,)se )f -%4N!E" -hrase in S!"4N$ c)..and? A: 93e 'urpose o$ 'O+.9E! p3rase is to speci$y t3e le$tmost position 1it3in recei(ing $ield 13ere t3e $irst trans$erred c3aracter 1ill be stored Q: 1)w d) we +et C5""EN!DA!E fr). s/ste. with cent*r/? A: &y using t3e intrinsic $unction: ,/.C9+O. C/!!E.9- A9E Q: What is the difference between SEA"C1 and SEA"C1 A## in the tab'e hand'in+? A: SEA!CB is a linear searc3 and SEA!CB A77 is a binary searc34 Q: What is the .a:i.*. 'en+th )f a fie'd /)* can define *sin+ C%;-6 <? A: 10 &ytes (S?(1C) COM'-D)4 Q: What wi'' ha,,en if /)* c)de $%BAC= instead )f S!%-"5N in a stand a')ne C%B%# ,r)+ra. i0e0 a ,r)+ra. which is n)t ca''in+ an/ )ther ,r)+ra.0 A: 93e program 1ill go in an in$inite loop4 Q: 1)w .an/ secti)ns are there in Data Di&isi)n? A: Six sections :E ,ile section E #or2ing-storage section E 7ocal-storage section E Screen section E !eport section E 7in2age section Q: 1)w can 4 te'' if a .)d*'e is bein+ ca''ed D(NA;4CA##( )r S!A!4CA##(? A: 93e only 1ay is to loo2 at t3e output o$ t3e lin2age editor (+E#7) or t3e load module itsel$4 +$ t3e module is being called F.AM+CA77F t3en it 1ill not exist in t3e main module: i$ it is being called S9A9+CA77F t3en it 1ill be seen in t3e load module4

Calling a 1or2ing storage (ariable: containing a program name: does not ma2e a F.AM+C call4 93is type o$ calling is 2no1n as +M'7+C+9E calling as t3e name o$ t3e module is implied by t3e contents o$ t3e 1or2ing storage (ariable4 Calling a program name literal (CA77) Q: What is the difference between a D(NA;4C and S!A!4C CA## in C%B%#? A: 9o correct an earlier ans1er: All called modules cannot run standalone i$ t3ey reAuire program (ariables passed to t3em (ia t3e 7+.>A6E section4 ynamically called modules are t3ose t3at are not bound 1it3 t3e calling program at lin2edit time (+E#7 $or +&M) and so are loaded $rom t3e program library (GO&7+& or S9E'7+&) associated 1it3 t3e Hob4 ,or F.AM+C calling o$ a module t3e F.AM compiler option must be c3osen: else t3e lin2age editor 1ill not generate an executable as it 1ill expect $ull address resolution o$ all called modules4 A Statically called module is one t3at is bound 1it3 t3e calling module at lin2 edit: and t3ere$ore becomes part o$ t3e executable load module4 Q: What is the difference between -4C >0>> and >3>>? A: '+C ?4?? is a ,O/!-'OS+9+O. $ield t3at actually contains a decimal point 13ere as '+C ?(?? is 9B!EE-'OS+9+O. numeric $ield 1it3 implied or assumed decimal position4 Q: What +*ide'ines sh)*'d be f)'')wed t) write a str*ct*red C%B%# ,r)+ra.? A: 93e $ollo1ing guidelines 1ill ma2e a CO&O7 program more structured: /se @E;A7/A9E@ statement $or constructing cases /se scope terminators $or nesting /se +n-7ine 'er$orm statement $or 1riting @ O @ constructions4 /se 9ES9 &E,O!E and 9ES9 A,9E! in t3e 'E!,O!M statement $or 1riting O-#B+7E constructions4 Q: "ead the f)'')win+ c)de0 01 WS6N5; -4C >8?9 3A#5E @E"%0 A6-A"A ;%3E 5 !% WS6N5;0 -E"A%"; B6-A"A WS6N5; !4;ES0 B6-A"A0 ;%3E 10 !% WS6N5;0 1)w .an/ ti.es wi'' B6-A"A be e:ec*ted? A: * times only4 +t 1ill not ta2e t3e (alue 10 t3at is initiali0ed in t3e loop4

Q: What is the difference between SEA"C1 and SEA"C1 A##? What is .)re efficient? A: SEA!CB is a seAuential searc3 $rom t3e beginning o$ t3e table4 SEA!CB A77 is a binary searc3: continually di(iding t3e table in t1o 3al(es until a matc3 is $ound4 SEA!CB A77 is more e$$icient $or tables larger t3an -0 items4 Q: What are s).e e:a.,'es )f c)..and ter.inat)rs? A: E. -+,: E. -E;A7/A9E Q: What care has t) be ta2en t) f)rce ,r)+ra. t) e:ec*te ab)&e 1B ;e+ 'ine? A: Ma2e sure t3at lin2 option is AMO EID1 and !MO EIA.F4 Compile option s3ould ne(er 3a(e S+5E(MA8)4 &/,S+5E can be =>: e$$icient enoug34 Q: $i&e s).e ad&anta+es )f "EDEA4NES c'a*se0 A: 93e ad(antages o$ !E E,+.ES clause are as $ollo1s: Fou can !E E,+.E a (ariable $rom one '+C9/!E clause to anot3er by using t3e same memory location4 &y !E E,+.ES 1e can +.+9+A7+5E t3e (ariable in #O!>+.6S9O!A6E Section itsel$4 #e can !E E,+.E a Single ;ariable into many sub(ariables4 (93is $acility is (ery use$ul in sol(ing F=000 'roblem4) Q: Wh/ d) we c)de S>849C%;- ins,ite )f 2n)win+ C%;-6< wi'' )cc*,/ 'ess s,ace? A: Bere S?(%)COM' is small integer: so t1o 1ords eAual to 1 byte4 So totally it 1ill occupy = bytes (% 1ords) &ut in S?(%) COM'-D one 1ord is eAual to 1"= byte4 % 1ords eAual to = bytes and sign 1ill occupy 1"= byte4 So totally it 1ill occupy D bytes4 Q: !he .a:i.*. n*.ber )f di.ensi)ns that an arra/ can ha&e in C%B%#6C5 is DDDDDDDD0 A: SE;E. in CO&O7 - C* and 9B!EE in CO&O7 - C% Q: What is the #4N=A$E SEC!4%N *sed f)r? A: 93e lin2age section is used to pass data $rom one program to anot3er program or to pass data $rom a '!OC to a program4 Q: Describe the difference between s*bscri,tin+ and inde:in+?

A: +ndexing uses binary displacement4 Subscripts use t3e (alue o$ t3e occurrence4

TOPIC: CL Q: Wh/ d) /)* *se a C%N!"%# CA"D? A: A CO.9!O7 CA! can be a member o$ a ' S or a seAuential dataset and is used $or storing t3e date $ields: de$initions o$ ;SAM $iles etc4: #e use CO.9!O7 CA! because 1e cannot use an in-stream procedure in a procedure4 6enerally you 1ill be calling a '!OC $rom your GC7 and you cannot code instream procedure in t3e '!OC and so you 1ill point to t3e dataset: 13ic3 is called controlcard4 Q: 1)w d) /)* s*b.it EC# &ia a C)b)' ,r)+ra.? A: +n your GC7 de$ine as: ""GO&A GO& 1111:GO&1 ""S9E'01 E8EC '6MI'!O61 ""ddname SFSO/9I(E:+.9! !)4444and your CO&O7 ('!O61) s3ould loo2 li2e t3is: SE7EC9 GC7-,+7E ASS+6. 9O ddname4 Open t3is $ile and 1rite t3e GC7 statements into t3is $ile4 Example:

MO;E @""9ES9GO& GO& 1111:;+S;E+SB@ 9O GC7-!EC4MO;E @""S9E'01 E8EC '6MI+E,&!1%@ 9O GC7-!EC4and close t3is $ile4 93en 9ES9GO& 1ill be submitted4 Q: 1)w d) /)* s*b.it a EC# *nder C4CS en&ir)n.ent? A: 'ass all t3e GC7 codes to a CO&O7 (ariable (s3ould be declared using OCC/!S clause) and t3en 1rite t3e line one by one to t3e spool using C+CS commands li2e S'OO7Close: S'OO7Open and S'OO7#rite4 ,or more 3elp re$er CEC+ o$ C+CS or C+CS manual4 Q: What is the ,ara.eter t) be ,assed in the F)b card f)r the *n'i.ited ti.e, irres,ecti&e )f the F)b c'ass? A: 9+MEI1%%0 Q: Define C%ND ,ara.eter in EC#? A: CO. is a condition parameter: consists o$ = subparameters: 1st return code $rom t3e pre(ious step: =nd - condition4 +$ CO. is true: t3e step on 13ic3 CO. is coded 1ill be &F'ASSE 4 +t is compared 1it3 system return code o$ pre(ious step ""S9E'1 E8EC '6MIA&C ""S9E'= E8EC '6MI8F5: condI(%:lt) S9E' = 1ill be executed 13en system return code o$ step1 is less t3an %4 Q: What is .eant b/ S0C607 s/ste. ABEND c)des? A: S0C- - ata exception error - you 1ill get it 13ene(er you are trying to mo(e t3e lo1 (alues or spaces into t3e numeric $ield: or compare t3e numeric $ields 1it3 lo1 (alues: or try to do some arit3metic operations on t3e lo1 (alues4 9o a(oid t3is you 3a(e to al1ays initiali0e t3e numeric $ields ot3er1ise t3ey 1ill contain t3e lo1 (alues4 Q: 1)w t) ,ass the te., dataset f)r. )ne E%B ste, t) an)ther? A: &y speci$ying t3e +S' as 'ASS $or t3e temp dataset

Q: Write a EC# t) e:ec*te a E)b b/ 7:00 A; )n Ean ?0,1>CB? A: 93e code is: ""EMA+. EA 7+.EI(0-00:&:01=0C<) Q: 1)w .an/ t/,es )f 'ibraries are there in EC#? A: 7ibraries are o$ t3ree types: System 7ibraries:- suc3 as SFS147+.>7+&

'ri(ate 7ibraries:Speci$ied in a GO&7+& or S9E'7+& S9A9EME.9S4 9emporary 7ibraries:- Created in a pre(ious step o$ t3e Gob4 Q: What d) /)* .ean b/ 4NC#5DE state.ent in EC#? A: An +.C7/ E statement identi$ies a member o$ a ' S t3at contains t3is set o$ GC7 statements is called an +.C7/ E group4 93e system replaces t3e +.C7/ E statement 1it3 t3e statements in t3e +.C7/ E group4 Q: What are the ;a:i.*. n*.ber )f 4n6strea. ,r)ced*res /)* can c)de in an/ EC#? A: 1*4 Q: What /)* .ean b/ s2e'et)n EC#? A: GC7: 13ic3 c3anges during run time:t3at is t3e (alues $or t3e GC7 suc3 as program name: dd name 1ill c3ange4 93e same GC7 can be used $or (arious Hobs: eAui(alent to dynamic SJ7) Q: What is EC#? A: +t is an inter$ace bet1een operating system (M;S) K t3e application program4 #3en t1o related programs are combined toget3er on control statements: it is called Hob control language Q: What is the .a:i.*. b')c2siGe f)r a !a,e fi'e? A: +t is D=:-<04 &ased on t3at 1e can calculate e$$icient number o$ !ecords in a &loc2 Submitted by: Aurobindo >4S4 (auro2sL3otmail4com) Q: What are the basic EC# State.ents f)r a E)b? A: 93e basic GC7 statements $or any Hob are: GO& : +denti$ies a Hob and supplies accounting in$o E8EC : +denti$ies a Hob step by indicating t3e name o$ t3e program to be executed4 : +denti$ies a data set to be allocated $or t3e Hob step elimiter ("E) : Mar2s t3e end o$ an in-stream dataset .ull ("") : Mar2s t3e end o$ a Hob Comments (""E) : 'ro(ides Comments '!OC : Mar2s t3e beginning o$ a procedure 'E. : Mar2s t3e end o$ a procedure O/9'/9 : Supplies options $or SFSO/9 processing4 Q: What d)es the state.ents: !(-"5NHSCAN and !(-"5NH1%#D d) in a EC# state.ent?

A 9F'!/.I SCA. c3ec2s t3e GC7 $or errors: 9F'!/.I BO7 Hob until $urt3er notice4 Q: What is QSA; err)r *s*a''/ when it )cc*rs? A: /sually it occurs at t3e time o$ Hob submission4

3olds t3e

Q: What is the ,*r,)se )f 4NC#5DE state.ent in a EC#? A: +t is used as an alternati(e $or S9E'7+&4 #3en 1e speci$y t3e dataset name in +.C7/ E : it 1ill searc3 in all t3e datasets speci$ied in t3e +.C7/ E dataset4 Q: 4s it ,)ssib'e t) 2n)w the re.ainin+ free s,ace in a C)ntr)' 4nter&a'IC)ntr)' Area )nce an inserti)n has been .ade? A: .o4 +t is not possible4 Q: What d)es S%C604 err)r .ean? A: 93is error is $aced 13en 1e execute t3e Cobol program4 93e main reason $or t3is error is t3at a (ariable is de$ined 1it3 $e1er c3aracters and 1e are trying to mo(e data: 13ic3 is larger t3an t3e actual storage space4 Q: 4n which tab'e -#AN is re+istered in? A: !C9 Q: What is a $D$? A: 6 6 - group o$ dataset t3at are logically or c3ronologically related: re$erred by name and a relati(e generation number - an integer 13ic3 identi$ies t3e generation o$ a dataset and is coded in parent3eses a$ter dataset name4 Absolute 6 6 name - 6xxxx;yy: 13ere xxxx-absolute generation number: yy-(ersion number4 6 6s can be seAuential: direct: partitioned4 (;SAM - no)4 93ey must al1ays be cataloged4 Ad(antages - all datasets 3a(e t3e same name and system 2eeps trac2 o$ adding ne1 and retaining pre(ious generations and deleting oldest successi(e generation4 9o create a 6 6 1e create a 6 6 index in t3e system catalog 1it3 + CAMS utility and t3en a model (prototype: SC&) on t3e same (olume to supply C& in$ormation4 Empty - 13en limit is reac3ed all members are remo(ed $rom t3e index: ot3er1ise only oldest4 Scratc3-remo(ed members are uncataloged K deleted: ot3er1ise - remo(ed K uncataloged: but remain in t3e system (not members o$ 6 6 any more)4 6 6 number is updated at t3e end o$ t3e Hob4 +$ number is not speci$ied all generations 1ill be processed $rom t3e beginning Q: What d) /)* .ean b/ s,))'in+?

A: 93is is managed by GES4 93is is used $or Jueuing t3e Outputs t3at are intended $or 'rinting and are $irst stored in S'OO7 AS 4 Q: 1)w .an/ 4nstrea.6-r)ced*res 8-"%Cs9 can be c)ded in a sin+'e E)b? A: 1* Q: A)r h)w ')n+ a E)b can be e:ec*ted c)ntin*)*s'/ )n a ;ainfra.e? A: =%C AFS Q: 1)w .a/ di&isi)ns are there in EC#6C%B%#? A: S+8 Q: What is the ;a:i.*. n*.ber )f DD State.ents t) be c)ded in a sin+'e EC#? A: D=-D Q: 1)w .*ch s,ace %S a'')cates when /)* create a -S )r -DS? A: *< >& Q: What is the .ini.*. n*.ber )f Dataset na.es 8-DS9 in )ne Direct)r/ B')c2? A: S+8 Q: What is the .a:i.*. n*.ber )f ste,s in a E)b? A: =** Q: 1)w .*ch is .e.)r/ s,ace in&)'&ed, when we c)de B#%C=S4@E, !"= 7 C(# ? A: One bloc2 constitutes D=>& o$ $ormatted memory" %=>& o$ /n$ormatted memory) < bloc2s ma2es one 9rac2 K 1* 9rac2s ma2es one cylinder4 Q: What is DSNDB0B? A: 93is is t3e 'lace 13ere &= Catalog resides) &=

Q: What is the *se )f DSNDB07? A: 93is is t3e area 13ere sorting ta2es place in Q: What is DA!AC%; DB? A: +t is a atabase used 1it3 ;SE4

Q: What is a D*../ 5ti'it/ and what it d)es? A: +E,&!1% is a ummy utility and it is used $or t3e sa2eo$ E8EC '6MI 4444 statement in GC7 M13en used it 1ouldnNt per$orm any tas2O4 e4g4

#3ile Allocating a dataset you don@t 3a(e to run any utility Mt3is could be done by gi(ing dispIne1 in statmentO4 &ut $or a '6M name must be gi(en in E8EC statment: it is used4 Q: What < +*ide'ines d) we ha&e t) f)'')w when c)ncatenatin+ DD state.ents? A: 93e t3ree guidelines $or concatenating Statements are: atasets must be o$ t3e same type (dis2 or tape) All datasets must 3a(e t3e same logical record lengt3 (7!EC7) 93e dataset 1it3 t3e largest bloc2si0e must be listed $irst4 Q: %n a DD state.ent, what is the .ain difference between creatin+ a new seJ*entia' f'at fi'e and a ,artiti)ned dataset? A: S'ACEI (n:m) $or a seAuential $ile: S'ACEI (n:m:p) $or a ' S 13ere n: m: and p are numbers4 93e p designates 3o1 many directory bloc2s to allocate4 Q: What is the difference between 4EB$ENE", 4EBC%-( and "E-"% in 4DCA;S *ti'it/? A: 93ey are t3e utility programs used in GC7s: +E&6E.E! : 93is utility is used $or copying seAuential datasets 13ic3 produces a ' S or a member $rom a seAuential dataset4 +E&CO'F : 93is utility is used $or copying one ' S to anot3er or to merge ' Ss4 !E'!O : 93is is $or copying seAuential datasets4 More or less same as t3e +E&6E.E! Q: What is the difference between S!A!4C CA## 7 D(NA;4C CA##? A: +n t3e case o$ S9A9+C CA77: t3e called program is stand-alone and an executable4 uring run time 1e can call it in our called program4 +n a F.AM+C CA77: t3e called program is not an executable program and it can executed t3roug3 t3e called program Q: What is the difference between CA!A#%$ED -"%CED5"E and 4N6 S!"EA; -"%CED5"E? A: +.S9!EAM '!OCE /!ES are set o$ GC7 statements 1ritten bet1een GO& and E8EC statements: start 1it3 '!OC and end 1it3 'E. statement4 Mainly used to test cataloged procedures4 CA9A7O6E '!OCE /!ES are cataloged on t3e procedure library ('!OC7+&) and is called by speci$ying t3e procedure name on t3e E8EC statement4 Q: Can we br)wse )r edit the $D$ dataset if it is a ta,e entr/? A: .o

Q: What are the .a:i.*. and .ini.*. siGes )f an/ C%N!"%# A"EA 83SA; datasets9? A: Minimum Si0e : 1 trac2) Maximum si0e : 1 cylinder Q: 1)w .an/ ,ara.eters are there t) a D4S- state.ent and what are their *ses0 A: 93ere are t3ree (D) parameters: 'arameter 1: Current data set disposition (.E#: SB!:O7 :MO ) 'arameter =: .ormal close action $or data set (CA976: >EE': E7E9E) 'arameter D: Abend action $or data set (CA976: >EE': E7E9E) Q: What is C%;-? A: COM' - BA7, #O! &+.A!F

Q: What is a -"%CED5"E? A: A set o$ precoded GC7 t3at can be modi$ied t3roug3 t3e use o$ parameters or o(erride cards4 .ote: 'rocedures can be catalogued or instream4 Q: What is the difference between s,ecif/in+ D4S-H%#D and D4S-HS1" f)r a dataset? A: O7 speci$ies exclusi(e use o$ a dataset: SB! allo1s multiple Hobs to concurrently access t3e dataset4 M.ote: #3en updating a dataset: you 1ould normally use O7 O Q: What are the three basic t/,es )f state.ents in a F)bstrea.? A: 93e t3ree basic types o$ statements in a Hobstream are: GO& : #e can code one per Hobstream E8EC : +t can be one or more per Hob : one or more per Hobstep)) GO& P +t indicates start o$ Hobstream to t3e operating system and t3roug3 parms coded on it: it contains certain details about t3e Hob (li2e time: region: message le(el: Hob accounting data)4 E8EC P +t indicates t3e start o$ execution o$ a particular Hob step: be t3at step a program or a proc4 P +t is a data de$inition statement: 13ic3 is used to describe t3e attributes o$ a dataset (li2e name: unit: type: space: disposition etc4:)4 Q: What d)es S(S4N K indicate? A: +nstream data $ollo1s t3is card and is terminated 13en $ollo1ed by a card containing "" or "E in columns 1 and =4

TOPIC: CIC! Q: What is C4CS? A: C+CS is a &" C system4 +t acts as an inter$ace bet1een t3e operating system and t3e application program4 Q: What are the differences between DA1C%;;A"EA and !SQ? A: &ot3 are used to sa(e data among tas2s4 COMMA!EA is pri(ate to t3at transaction only li2e e(ery transaction 3as its o1n COMMA!EA created by C+CS as soon as t3e transaction is initiated4 Bo1e(er $or 9SJ: i$ J+ is 2no1n: t3ey can be accessed by ot3er transactions also4 93e lengt3 o$ COMMA!EA is S?(%) COM' i4e4: <*24 &ut 9SJ can 3a(e any lengt34 COMMA!EA is a(ailable only 13en t3e transaction is running4 9SJ: i$ created 1it3 auxiliary option: resides in auxiliary memory and is a(ailable e(en i$ main memory cras3es4 .ormally COMMA!EA is used to trans$er data $rom one tas2 to anot3er 13ile 9SJ is used 1idely 1it3in t3e tas2 as a scratc3 pad4 Q: 1)w t) +et C*rs)r -)siti)n fr). s/ste. in C4CS en&ir)n.ent? A: 6et it $rom E+&C/!'OS Q: What is C)..*nicati)n Area 8C%;;A"EA9? A: Communication Area is used to pass data bet1een t3e tas2s4 Q: A C4CS ,r)+ra. ABENDS with an AS"A ABEND c)de0 Ch))se its .eanin+ fr). the f)'')win+: A) A lin2 1as issued to a program 13ose name does not exist in t3e ''9 ('rogram 'rocessing 9able)4 &) A program attempted to use a map t3at is not de$ined in t3e 'C9 ('rogram Control 9able)4 C) A security (iolation 3as occurred4 93e operator is not de$ined 1it3 t3e proper aut3ority in t3e S.9 (Sign-on 9able) to use a particular $ile4 ) A program interrupt (0C0 or 0C1 or 0C= or 444) 3as occurred in a C+CS program4 E) An +"O error 3as occurred 13en attempting to use a ;SAM $ile $rom a C+CS program A: 93e correct meaning o$ t3e AS!A A&E. is: ( ) A program interrupt (0C0 or 0C1 or 0C= or 444) 3as occurred in a C+CS program4 Q: 1)w .an/ wa/s are there f)r initiatin+ a transacti)n? What are the/? A: 93ere are six 1ays in initiating a transaction4 93ey are as $ollo1s:

Embedding $our-c3aracter 9!A.S-+ on t3e top le$t most corner o$ t3e screen4 Ma2ing use o$ E8EC C+CS S9A!9 1it3 9!A.S+ Ma2ing use o$ E8EC C+CS !E9/!. 1it3 9!A.S+ &y de$ining t3e 9!A.S-+ in C9 ( estination Control 9able) to enable A9+ (Automatic 9as2 +nitiation) Ma2ing use o$ '79 (program list table) &y associating $our c3aracter transid in 'C9 (program control table) Q: Which t/,e )f !DQ is read destr*cti&e? A: +ntrapartition 9 J is read destructi(e4 Extrapartition 9 J is not read destructi(e4 Q: What is the err)r c)de AE43? A: 93is is t3e error code $or lengt3) +$ lengt3 o$ t3e source data is more t3an t3e recei(ing $ield: t3is error 1ill occur4 Q: What is the siGe )f C%;;A"EA? A: 93e de$ault COMMA!EA si0e is <*>4 Q: What is AS"A ABEND in C4CS? A: +t occurs 13en program interruption ta2es place4 ,or example P #3en alp3anumeric string mo(ed to numeric data item #3en arit3metic calculations per$ormed on nonnumeric data item #3en an attempt is made to read an occurrence o$ a table beyond t3e de$ined occurrences Q: What is a tw) -hase c)..it in C4CS? A: 93is occurs 13en a programmer issues an E8EC C+CS SF.C'O+.9 command4 93is is called t1o p3ase because C+CS 1ill $irst commit c3anges to t3e resources under its control li2e ;SAM $iles and t3e &= c3anges are also committed4 /sually C+CS signals &= to complete t3e next p3ase and release all t3e loc2s4 Q: What is the difference between !SQ 7 !DQ A: 93e di$$erences bet1een 9SJ and 9 J are: 9 J is read destructi(e: 9SJ is not4 9SJ can be created dynamically: 9 J cannot be created dynamically4 9SJ is temporary in nature (i:e it 1ill be deleted 13en t3e program $inis3es execution: unless it is made permanent by ma2ing an entry in t3e 9emporary Storage 9able): 9 J is not4 Q: What is ENQ in C4CS?

A: +$ any one 1ants to restrict 9!A.S-+ to single user: enter 9!A.S-+ 1it3 E.J4 +t 1on@t allo1 any one else to use t3e same 9!A.S-+ 4 Q: 4n S(;B%#4C C*rs)r -)siti)nin+, e&en after .)&in+ 61 t) the 'en+th fie'd a's), the c*rs)r is n)t ,)siti)ned in that ,artic*'ar fie'd0 $i&e reas)ns? A: Fou 3a(e to explicitly speci$y t3e 1ord C/!SO! bet1een your E8EC C+CS and E. -E8EC in t3e program4 Q: What d)es E4B .ean? A: 93e E+& is t3e E8EC/9+;E +.9E!,ACE &7OC>4 M+t is not E8EC/9E +.9E!,ACE &7OC>O All 9' monitors or transaction processors are 2no1n as E:ec*ti&es as t3ey carry out process on be3al$ o$ a program module4 C+CS and &= are excuti(es4 Q: 1)w .an/ e:ce,ti)na' c)nditi)ns can be +i&en in a 1AND#E C%ND4!4%N? A: Maximum o$ 1= exceptional conditions can be gi(en in a single BA. 7E CO. +9+O.4 Q: What c)..and d) /)* iss*e t) de'ete a rec)rd in a transient data J*e*e 8!DQ9? A: !EA J 9 : t3e read is destructi(e4 Fes it is correct but t3ere is a restriction4 Fou can delete t3e records seAuentially4 ,or example i$ one 1ant to delete 10t3 record directly it is not possible 1it3 t3is4 Q: 1)w d) /)* access the rec)rds rand).'/ in !SQ ? A: &y speci$ying t3e +9EM option

Q: What is the difference between #4N= and C!# ? A: 93e 8C97 command passes control to anot3er program: but t3e resources reAuested by t3e $irst program may still be allocated4 A tas2 does not end until a !E9/!. statement is executed4 #3ile in 7+.> command: program control resumes its instruction $ollo1ing t3e 7+.> parameter4 93e disad(antage o$ 7+.> command is t3at it reAuires t3at bot3 t3e calling program and t3e called program remain in main memory e(en t3oug3 bot3 are no longer needed4 Q: What is the difference between -r)+ra. C)ntr)' !ab'e 8-C!9 and -r)cessin+ -r)+ra. !ab'e 8--!9?

A: 'C9 contains a list o$ (alid 9!A.S-+ s4 Eac3 9!A.S-+ is paired 1it3 t3e name o$ t3e program: C+CS 1ill load and execute 13en t3e transaction is in(o2ed4 On t3e ot3er 3and: ''9 indicates eac3 program@s location 13ic3 pertains to a storage address i$ t3e program 3as already been loaded or a dis2 location i$ t3e program 3asn@t been loaded4 ''9 1ill also be used to determine 13et3er it 1ill load a ne1 copy o$ t3e program 13en t3e transaction is in(o2ed4 Q: What are the < c)..)n wa/s t) create .a,s? A: 93e $irst 1ay is to code a p3ysical map and t3en code a matc3ing symbolic map in your CO&O7 program4 93e second 1ay to create a p3ysical map along 1it3 a matc3ing symbolic map is to code only t3e p3ysical map using t3e KSFS'A!M option: C+CS 1ill automatically create a member in a CO'F library4 And t3e t3ird 1ay is to use a map generator suc3 as S , (Screen e$inition ,acility) Q: What is Q*asi6reentranc/? A: 93ere are times 13en many users are concurrently using t3e same program: t3is is 13at 1e call multit3reading4 ,or example: *0 users are using program A: C+CS 1ill pro(ide *0 #or2ing storage $or t3at program but one 'rocedure i(ision4 And t3is tec3niAue is 2no1n as Juasi-reentrancy Q: What is the difference between a ,h/sica' B;S .a,set and a ')+ica' B;S .a,set? A: 93e p3ysical mapset is a load module used to map t3e data to t3e screen at execution time4 93e symbolic map is t3e actual copyboo2 member used in t3e program to re$erence t3e input and output $ields on t3e screen4 Q: 1)w d) /)* ,ass data fr). )ne ,r)+ra. t) an)ther? A: ata is passed by using one o$ t3e $ollo1ing: ,BCOMMA!EA:9emporary Storage: 9ranisient ata: 9C9/A: 9#A: C#A: ;SAM ,iles Q: 1)w t) Set ;D! 8;)dified Data !a+9 thr)*+h A,,'icati)n -r)+ra.? 8D/na.ica''/90 A: Fou 3a(e to mo(e t3e macro ,B&M,SE to t3e Attribute $ield o$ t3at particular ;ariable4 Q: What C4CS faci'ities can /)* *se t) sa&e data between the transacti)ns? A: COMMO.A!EA: 9SJ K 9 J4 Q: 1)w w)*'d /)* re'ease c)ntr)' )f the rec)rd in a "EAD f)r 5-DA!E?

A: &y issuing a !E#!+9E: t3e tas24

E7E9E or /.7OC> command or by ending

Q: What is the difference between a "E!5"N with !"ANS4D and C!#? LA)r e:a.,'e ,r)+ra. A is iss*in+ "E5!"N with !"ANS4D t) ,r)+ra. B0 -r)+ra. A is iss*in+ C!# t) ,r)+ra. BM0 A: +n !E9/!. 1it3 9!A.S+ t3e control goes to t3e C+CS region and t3e user 3as to trans$er t3e control to program & by pressing any o$ t3e A+ >EFS4 +n 8C97 t3e control is directly trans$erred to program &4 Q: What is the .a:i.*. n*.ber )f e:ce,ti)ns that can be s,ecified with a sin+'e 1AND#E C%ND4!4%N c)..and in C4CS? A: S+89EE. (1<) Q: What wi'' be the 'en+th )f the E4BCA#EN, if the transacti)n is *sed t) C4CS first ti.e? A: 93e lengt3 1ill be 0 (5E!O)4 Q: What is DA1E4B#=? A: ,BE+&7> is Execute +nter$ace &loc24 +t is placed in t3e lin2age section automatically by C+CS translator program4 +t must be t3e $irst entry in lin2age section4 C+CS places (alues prior to gi(ing control to t3e program and 1e can $ind almost any in$ormation about our transaction4 Q: What C4CS c)..and w)*'d /)* *se t) read a 3SA; =SDS seJ*entia''/ in ascendin+ )rder? A: ,irst issue a S9A!9&! (start bro1se): 13ic3 1ill position t3e bro1se at t3e desired record4 !etrie(e records by using subseAuent !EA .E89 commands4 +ndicate t3e end o$ seAuential processing 1it3 t3e E. &! command4 +$ t3e generic 2ey is speci$ied in t3e S9A!9&! command positioning in t3e $ile 1ill be be$ore t3e $irst record satis$ying t3e generic 2ey4 ,or reading in descending order use t3e !EA '!E; instead o$ !EA .E894 Q: What is the difference between ,se*d)6c)n&ersati)na' and c)n&ersati)na'? A: 'seudo-con(ersational 1ill start a ne1 tas2 $or eac3 input4 &y coding a C+CS !E9/!. command speci$ying 9!A.S+ (itsel$)4 Con(ersational 1ill 3a(e an acti(e tas2 during t3e duration o$ t3e data entry4 Q: What is the C%;;A"EA 8c)..*nicati)ns area9? A: An area used to trans$er data bet1een di$$erent programs or bet1een subseAuent executions o$ t3e same program4 93is needs to be de$ined in t3e 7in2age Section4

TOPIC: "B# Q: What is E%4N and what are the different t/,es )f E%4N0 A: 93e ability to Hoin ro1s and combine data $rom t1o or more tables is one o$ t3e most po1er$ul $eatures o$ relational system4 93ere are t3ree type o$ Hoins:14 EAui-Hoin) =4.on-eAuiHoin) D4sel$-Hoin Q: Which is the .)st wide'/ *sed batch ,erf)r.ance .)nit)r f)r DB?? A: &='M Q: Can 4 a'ter a tab'e 8'i2e addin+ a c)'*.n9 when )ther *ser is se'ectin+ s).e c)'*.ns )r *,datin+ s).e c)'*.ns fr). the sa.e tab'e? A: Fes4 +t is possible until t3e updating or selection is committed: &= table 1ill not be restructured4 .e1 column de$inition 1ill be t3ere but it 1ill not be included until all t3e tas2s on t3e table are committed4 Q: 1)w .an/ s*bJ*eries can /)* c).bine t)+ether ? A: 9otal 1< Aueries and subAueries are 1* Q: What are the different .eth)ds )f accessin+ DB? fr). !S%? 1)w is the c)nnecti)n estab'ished between !S% 7 DB?? A: 93ere are t3ree 1ays in establis3ing 9SO" &= connection 14 S'/,+ =4 JM, D4 CA9A7O6 ;+S+&+7+9F) A t3read bet1een 9SO K &= is establis3ed 13ile attempting to ma2e connection bet1een 9SO K &=4 Q: 1)w .an/ b*ffer b))'s are a&ai'ab'e in DB?? A: 9en D=> si0e bu$$erpools and $i$ty %> si0e bu$$er pools (&'0 to &'%?)4 e$ault bu$$er pools are &'0: &'1: &'= K &'D= Q: What is B<7 abend d*rin+ S-5A4? A: 93e &D- A&E. in t3e S'/,+ is because o$ space reAuirements4 93e Auery 3as resulted in so many ro1s t3at t3e S'/,+4O/9 $ile is not large enoug3 to 3andle it) One possible solution is to increase t3e space allocation o$ S'/,+4O/9 $ile4 Q: What is the c)..and *sed b/ !S% *sers t) in&)2e DB??

A:

S. !/.

Q: What is the err)r c)de 6C0< ? A: /niAue +ndex (iolation Q: 1)w d) /)* fi'ter )*t the r)ws retrie&ed fr). a DB? tab'e? A: One 1ay is to use t3e SJ7 #BE!E clause4 Q: What is a c)''ecti)n? A: A collection is somet3ing t3at e(ery programmer s3ould assign"speci$y $or e(ery pac2age4 93is is about 1-1C c3aracters long4 Q: What is S2e'et)n C*rs)r !ab'e 8S=C!9? A: 93e Executable $orm o$ a 'lan4 93is is stored in SFS+&M4SC90= table4

Q: What is the eJ*i&a'ent C)b)' Data t/,e f)r Deci.a' 8:,/9 in DB?? What d)es the c*rrent SQ#4D re+ister c)ntain? A: '+C S?(8-F);?(F) COM'-D) 93e current SJ7+ contains t3e current aut3ori0ation + 4 Q: Can we dec'are DB? 1%S! &ariab'e in C%B%# C%-( b))2? A: .O4 +$ 1e declare &= 3ost (ariable in CO&O7 CO'F boo2: at t3e time o$ 're-compilation 1e get t3e 3ost (ariable not de$ined: because pre-compiler 1ill not expand CO&O7 CO'F boo24 So 1e declare it eit3er in C76E. 1it3 E8EC SJ7 +.C7/ E C76E. .AME E. -E8EC or 1e directly 3ardcode it in t3e 1or2ing storage section4 Q: What sh)*'d be s,ecified a')n+ with a c*rs)r in )rder t) c)ntin*e *,datin+ ,r)cess after C%;;4!? A: #it3 Bold option4 Q: What is the na.e )f the defa*'t DB? cata')+ database? A: S. &0< Q: When can /)* be s*re that a J*er/ wi'' ret*rn )n'/ )ne r)w? A: #3en you use t3e primary 2ey and only t3e primary 2ey in t3e #BE!E clause4 Q: What is the difference between E%4N and 5N4%N?

A: GO+. is used to retrie(e data $rom di$$erent tables using a single SJ7 statement4 /.+O. is used to combine t3e results o$ t1o or more SJ7 Aueries4 Q: What is a c)rre'ated s*bJ*err/? A: +n a subAuerry: i$ t3e outer Auery re$ers bac2 to t3e outcome o$ inner Auery it is called correlated subAuerry4 93at@s 13y t3e outer Auery is e(aluated $irst unli2e an ordinary subAuerry Q: What are the f*ncti)ns )f Bind? A: &+. mainly per$orms t1o t3ings: Syntax c3ec2ing and Aut3ori0ation c3ec2ing4 +t binds toget3er all pac2ages into an application plan 3ence t3e name &+. 4 Apart $rom t3is bind 3as optimi0er as a subcomponent4 +ts $unction is to determine t3e optimum access strategy4 Q: What is the .a:i.*. n*.ber )f r)ws retrie&ed ,er ,a+e? A: 1=Q: What is the )n'/ ,'ace )f 3SA; =SDS in DB?? A: &S S is a ;SAM >S S4 Q: Can a'' *sers ha&e the ,ri&i'e+e t) *se the SQ# state.ent SE#EC! K 8D;#9? A: .o4 93e users s3ould be granted pri(ilege to use it4 Q: What is the siGe )f a data ,a+e? A: %> to C> Q: WhatNs the best ')c2siGe that /)* c)*'d *se when /)* create a tab'es,ace? A: 93e ans1er is 7OC>S+5E I A.F4 /nless you are sure 13at@s t3e 'urpose o$ tablespace ie4:!ead-only or !ead"#rite4 +$ you use 7OC>S+5E I A.F: &= 1ould automatically determine 13at type o$ loc2s it s3ould use4 Q: Can /)* define an 4nde: if the tab'e siGe is 'ess than 10 -A$ES? A: .O Q: WhatNs the .a:i.*. #en+th )f SQ#CA and whatNs the c)ntent )f SQ#CABC? A: 93e maximum lengt3 is 1D< and t3e SJ7CA&C 3as t3e ;alue o$ SJ7CA4

Q: WhatNs the .a:i.*. n*.ber )f &)'*.es that can be added t) a S!%$"%5-? A: 93e ans1er is 1DD4 /sually it 1ill be di$$icult to monitor more t3an D or % (olumes to a Stogroup4 Q: WhatNs the .a:i.*. n*.ber )f characters that a tab'ena.e can ha&e? A: 93e ans1er is 1C c3aracters4 Q: What is the .eanin+ )f 6C05 SQ# ret*rn c)de? A: 'rogram name not in plan4 &ind t3e plan and include t3e t3e program named as part o$ t3e plan4 &!M $or

Q: When d)es the SQ# state.ent +ets e:ec*ted when /)* *se c*rs)r in the a,,'icati)n ,r)+ra..in+? A: SJ7 statement gets executed 13en 1e open cursor Q: What d)es C5""EN!DA!A ),ti)n in bind indicate A: C/!!E.9 A9A option ensures bloc2 $etc3 13ile selecting ro1s $rom a table4 +n &=;% t3e de$ault 3as been c3anged to .O4 93ere$ore it is necessary to c3ange all t3e bind cards 1it3 C/!!E.9 A9A(FES) 13ic3 is de$ault in &=;D K earlier to C/!!E.9 A9A (.O)4 Q: What is the difference between !(-E 1 inde: 7 !(-E ? inde: A: 9F'E 1 K 9F'E = are speci$ied 13en an index is created on t3e table4 9F'E = index is t3e option: 13ic3 comes 1it3 &=;%4 #it3 9F'E = index data can be retrie(ed $aster as only t3e data pages are loc2ed and not t3e index pages4 Bence 9F'E = index is recommended4 Q: What are the 'e&e's )f is)'ati)n a&ai'ab'e with DB?34? A: CS !! /! (added ne1 $or &=;% 13ic3 stands $or uncommitted read 13ic3 allo1s to retrie(e records $rom t3e space 13ic3 3as exclusi(e loc2s also but data integrity 1ill be a$$ected i$ t3is option is used )4 93e best a(ailable option $or data integrity and data concurrency is CS4 Q: 1)w d) /)* achie&e rec)rd ')c2in+ in DB? in the &ersi)ns which d) n)t s*,,)rt rec)rd 'e&e' ')c2in+? A: &y 3a(ing t3e record lengt3 more t3an 3al$ o$ t3e page si0e Q: 4n a DB?6C4CS ,r)+ra. which acts as c)6)rdinat)r and which is the ,artici,ant? A: &= acts as t3e participant and C+CS acts as a co-ordinator Q: What d)es D;# stand f)r and what are s).e e:a.,'es )f it?

A: ata Manipulation 7anguage4 Some examples are SE7EC9: +.SE!9: E7E9E: !E'7ACE4 Q: 1)w t) define the data ite.s t) recei&e the fetch ite.s f)r the SQ#? A: /sing t3e SEC9: $ollo1ed by lines o$ - @dataitems S datatype@4 Q: What is the difference between W1E"E and 1A34N$ C'a*se? A: #BE!E is $or !o1s and BA;+.6 is $or 6roups Q: 1)w t) see the str*ct*re )f DB? tab'e? A: /sing JM,4 Q: What is the .a:i.*. n*.ber )f tab'es that can be st)red )n a -artiti)ned !ab'e S,ace? A: O.E Q: Na.e the different t/,es )f !ab'e s,aces0 A: 14 Simple 9able Space) =4 Segmented 9able Space and 'artitioned 9able Space D4

Q: What is the .a:i.*. and .ini.*. n*.ber )f ,artiti)ns a'')wed in a ,artiti)ned tab'es,ace? A: Minimum is % and Maximum is <%4 Q: What is the .a:i.*. n*.ber )f tab'es that can be F)ined? A: ,i$teen Q: What techniJ*e is *sed t) retrie&e data fr). .)re than )ne tab'e in a sin+'e SQ# state.ent? A: 93e GO+. statement combines data $rom more t3at t1o tables Q: What is a f)rei+n 2e/? A: +t identi$ies a related ro1 in anot3er table and establis3es a logical relations3ip bet1een ro1s in t1o tables4 Q: E:,'ain the *se )f the W1E"E c'a*se0 A: +t directs &= to extract data $rom ro1s 13ere t3e (alue o$ t3e column is t3e same as t3e current (alue o$ t3e 3ost (ariable4 Q: What is E -#A4N in DB? A: E8'7A+. is used to detail t3e access pat3s c3osen by &= optimi0er $or SJ7 statement4 93is command is used to monitor t3e per$ormance o$ SJ7 statement used in a program4

TOPIC: I$! Q: 4s it necessar/ that a'' the se+.ents in a D#I4 database ha&e 2e/ fie'ds? A: +t is not necessary t3at all t3e segments in t3e database s3ould 3a(e a 2ey $ield: except $or t3e database4 Q: 1)w .an/ 2e/ fie'ds and search fie'ds can a se+.ent ha&e? A: One 2ey $ield and as many searc3 $ields in t3e segment can be declared4 Q: 4s it necessar/ that the 2e/ fie'd in a D#I4 database be *niJ*e? A: .o: it is not necessary4 Q: What is a 2e/ fie'd in an 4;S Database? A: A ,ield t3at 7"+ uses to maintain t3e segments in t3e ascending order is called t3e 2ey $ield Q: What is a database rec)rd? A: A single occurrence o$ t3e root along 1it3 all its dependents is called t3e database record4 Q: What is a hierarch/ ,ath? A: A line t3at starts at t3e root and passes t3roug3 t3e intermediate le(els in t3e 3ierarc3y and ends at a segment at t3e bottom o$ t3e 3ierarc3y is called t3e Bierarc3y pat34 Q: What is a "))t? A: 93e segment at t3e top o$ t3e Bierarc3y: 13ic3 is not a c3ild to a segment: is called t3e !oot4 Q: What are !wins? A: Occurrences o$ all t3e segment types under a single parent segment occurrence is called a 91in4

Q: Define the ter.s -arent 7 Chi'd? A: 'arent - Any segment t3at 3as one or more segments directly belo1 it C3ild - Any segment t3at 3as segment directly abo(e it Q: What is the 'i.itati)n )n the n*.ber )f 'e&e's and se+.ent t/,es in a D#I4 Database? A: Fou can 3a(e 1* le(els and =** Segment 9ypes in a 7"+ database Q: What is a se+.ent t/,e? A: 7oosely spea2ing: a segment type is a segment in a c3art4 Q: What is a Se+.ent? A: A segment is t3e smallest unit o$ in$ormation t3at 1or2ing 1it3 in$ormation in t3e database 7"+ 3ierarc3y

7"+ uses 13en

Q: What is 1ierarch/ Chart? A: A Bierarc3y c3art is a pictorial representation o$ t3e total o$ a 7"+ database starting $rom t3e root: gi(ing all t3e parent c3ild relations3ips t3at exist 1it3in t3e database Q: What are the OC)ntr)' B')c2sP in 4;S? A: 93ere are t1o control bloc2s: (1) & ( atabase 'S& ('rogram Speci$ication &loc2) escriptor) and (=)

Q: Which is the first state.ent in a C)b)'64;S ,r)+ra.? A: Entry statement is t3e $irst statement a$ter procedure di(ision i4e4 E.9!F @ 7+C&7@ /S+.6444 Q: What is the ret*rn c)de /)* +et after a s*ccessf*' 4;S ca''? A: Spaces4 Q: Define DBD? A: & : atabase escriptor4 +MS controls t3e structure o$ database and access to t3e database (ia & 4 93e & contains in$ormation li2e: segment types: t3eir location in 3ierarc3y and seAuence 2eys4 Q: 1)w can we distin+*ish between an )n'ine and a batch ,r)+ra. in an 4;S en&ir)n.ent? A: &y seeing t3e +O-'C& in t3e application program4 Q: Which is the D#I4 f*ncti)n *sed in C4CS64;S ,r)+ra.? A: 'C& ('!O6!AM COMM/.+CA9+O. &7OC>)

Q: 1)w d)es )ne re)r+aniGe an 1DA; 4;S Database when chan+in+ "A-S 8"))t Anch)r -)ints9? A: &y t3e $ollo1ing 1ays: 14 /nload data using current & 4 =4 elete"de$ine t3e underlying ;SAM dataset(s)4 D4 !e-load data using ne1ly-de$ined & 1it3 ne1 !A's4 %4 !e-build any secondary indexes4

$I!C%LLA&%O'! Q: What d)es S-%%# stand f)r? A: S'OO7 - Simultaneous 'erip3eral Output Online Q: !he c)nstant data defined in a ,h/sica' .a, is t) be sent t) a screen W4!1%5! an/ &ariab'e inf)r.ati)n fr). the .a, c),/ .e.ber defined in the ,r)+ra.0 Which is the .)st efficient wa/ t) send the .a,? A: E8EC C+CS SE. MA'(@MA'1@) MA'SE9(@MA'SE91@) MA'O.7F E!ASE E. -E8EC4 Q: Wh/ sh)*'d we c)de 3%# ,ara.eter in EC#? A: System de$ault c3ec2 $or apace is * (olume: to c3ec2 in remaining (olumes 1e do 3a(e to code (olume parameter: ex (olI(:::DD): suppose i$ you get error SCD- code t3e (olume parameter or increase it i$ exists4 Q: What is the difference between =SDS and ESDS?

A: >S S is Entry seAuenced and ES S is 2ey (alue4 Q: What are the .aF)r c).,)nents )f ;3S? A: 93e maHor components o$ M;S are: 14Gob management =49as2 management D4 ata management %4Storage management *4!esource management <4!eco(ery termination management -4System application arc3itecture4 Q: 4 as2 this J*esti)n e&er/ )ne that 4 inter&iew0 What d) /)* .ean b/ an ADD"ESS S-ACE? A: An A !ESS S'ACE is t3e amount o$ ;irtual Storage Seen by t3e Gob4 = 6& $or M;S"8A and M;S"ESA49SO $or on-line /sers4 &atc3 Gobs execute in an +nitiator Address Space Q: What are the .a:i.*. n*.ber )f e:tents that are a'')wed in sec)ndar/ s,ace a'')cati)n? A: Only once Q: What is the direct)r/ b')c2 siGe in ),ti)n <0?? A: +t decides 3o1 many members you 1ant to 3a(e under one pds4 One directory bloc2 can contain * members