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Acid-base titration

1. Define acid-base according to Arrhenius concept and Lewis-Bronsted concept Arrhenius concept Acid An acid is a chemical substance that can donate a proton Base A base is a chemical substance that can accept a proton Lewis-Bronsted theory An acid is an electron pair acceptor Base A base is an electron pair donor 2. Define acid-base conjugate pair Acid base conjugate pair In acid-base ionization reaction the acid (HA) gives up a proton (H+) and produces a new base HA H+ + AThe new base that is related to the original acid is called con ugate base! "imilarl#$ the original base (B-) a%ter accepting the proton (H+) gives a new acid which is called a con ugate acid HA + B- H&' + (l3. Define Law of Mass Action Law of mass action The rate o% a chemical reaction is directl# proportional to the active masses o% the reactants Active mass is the molar concentration o% a substance that is$ number o% moles dissolved per liter o% a solvent! At e)uilibrium$

*ate o% %orward reaction+ rate o% bac,ward reaction ,-.,/ +0(1 021 . 0A1 0B1 3c +0(1 021 . 0A1 0B1 3c + 4)uilibrium constant . !h" is the p# of pure water $% p# of pure water 5e ,now that pure water contains - 6 -7-8 gm ions per liter at /9:( and at this temperature$ 0H+1 + 0'H-1 + - 6 -7-8 "o at e)uilibrium condition$ 0H+1 + 0'H-1 + - 6 -7-8$ Then$ 0H+1 + - 6 -7-8 'r ;log 0H+1 + -log (- 6 -7-8) 'r pH + - (-8) log-7 -7 "o pH +8 &. Define amphoteric compound'acid Amphoteric compound A con ugate base that is obtained %rom an acid in the %irst step and will act as an acid in the ne<t step$ is regarded as amphoteric H/A- ++ H+ + HA(on ugate base HA- ++ H+ + Ae!g! (arbonic acid$ "ul%uric acid (. Define strong acid and wea) acid "trong acid "trong acid is one that is completel# dissociated in a)ueous solution 5ea, acid A wea, acid is one that is slightl# ionized in a)ueous solution $. Define indicator *ndicator Indicators are compounds which show a well de%ined change in color visuall# over a de%inite pH range! (olor indicators are mainl# wea, organic acids$ although a %ew are wea, bases

Indicators are substances which indicate the e)uivalent point (end point) o% a titration process$ generall# b# their color change! +nd point 4)uivalence point is the point (pH value) at which the reaction is completed and the pH at which the indicator ust changes their color! ,. -tate the t"pes of indicators and the reactions the" are used for. a/ong with p# range and co/or change. 0"pes of indicators =eth#l orange pH range> /!? -9 *ed to #ellow =eth#l red pH range > 9!9 ; @ *ed to #ellow Aitmus pH range > 9!B ; C!& *ed ; blue Dhenolphthalein pH range > C!& ; -7 (olorless to red 1. -tate the indiactors and p# range for -trong acid-strong base reaction !ea) acid and strong base reaction -trong acid and wea) base reaction

"trong acid ; strong base reaction Indicators used are phenolphthalein and meth#l orange pH range is & to 8

5ea, acid- strong base reaction Indicators used are phenolphthalein pH range is @ to --

"trong acid ;wea, base reaction Indicators used are meth#l red and meth#l orange pH range is & to C!