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Problem Set

1. The ship at A has just started to drill for oil on the ocean floor at a depth of 5000 ft. Knowing that the top of the 8-in.-diameter steel drill pipe (G = 11.2 x 106 psi) rotates through two complete revolutions before the drill bit at B starts to operate, determine the maximum shearing stress caused in the pipe by torsion. [Ans:9.38 ksi]

2. The solid brass rod AB (G = 39 GPa) is bonded to the solid aluminum rod BC(G = 27 GPa). Determine the angle of twist (a) at B, (b) at A. [Ans:(a) 0.741 degree (b) 1.573 degree]

3. What torque should be applied to the end of the shaft of show in fig. to produce a twist of 2? Use the value G = 77 GPa for the modulus of rigidity of steel. [Ans: 1.829 kN.m]

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1. Two solid shafts are connected by gears as shown. Knowing that G = 77.2 GPa for each shaft, determine the angle through which end A rotates when TA= 1200N.m. [Ans:12.22 degree]

2. What angle of twist will create a shearing stress of 70 MPa on the inner surface of the hollow steel shaft show in fig. Use the value G=77 Gpa for the modulus of rigidity of steel. [Ans: 3.91 degree]

-in.-diameter cavity has been drilled from end B. The shaft is attached

to fixed supports at both ends, and a 90 lb. ft torque is applied at its mid-section

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given below fig. Determine the torque exerted on the shaft by each of the supports. [Ans: (a) TA=51.7 lb.ft (b) TB=38.3 lb.ft]

4. A shaft consisting of a steel tube of 50-mm outer diameter is to transmit 100 kW of power while rotating at a frequency of 20 Hz. Determine the tube thickness which should be used if the shearing stress is not to exceed 60 Mpa. [Ans: 4.4 mm]

Examples

1. The horizontal shaft AD is attached to a fixed base at D and is subjected to the torques shown. A 44-mm-diameter hole has been drilled into portion CD of the shaft. Knowing that the entire shaft is made of steel for which G = 77 GPa, determine the angle of twist at end A.

Solution: Since the shaft consists of three portions AB, BC, and CD, each of uniform cross section and each with a constant internal torque, Eq. (14) may be used. Statics. Passing a section through the shaft between A and B and using the

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free body shown, we find (250 N.m) TAB = 0 TAB = 250 N.m

Passing now a section between B and C, we have (250 N.m) + (2000 N.m) - TBC = 0 TBC = 250 N.m

Angle of Twist. Using Eq. (14) and recalling that G= 77 GPa for the entire shaft, we have

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2.

Two solid steel shafts are connected by the gears shown. Knowing that for each

shaft G = 11.2 X 106 psi and that the allowable shearing stress is 8 ksi, determine (a) the largest torque T0 that may be applied to end A of shaft AB, (b) the corresponding angle through which end A of shaft AB rotates.

Solution: Statics. Denoting by F the magnitude of the tangential force between gear teeth, we have Gear B.

Kinematics. Noting that the peripheral motions of the gears are equal, we write

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(2) a) Torque T 0 Shaft AB. With TAB = T0 and C = 0.375 in., together with a maximum permissible shearing stress of 8000 psi, we write

Shaft CD. From (1) we have T CD = 2.8T0 with C = 0.5 in. and

, we write

b) Angle of Rotation at End A. We first compute the angle of twist for each shaft. Shaft AB. For TAB = T0 = 561 lb.in., we have

Shaft CD.

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3. A steel shaft and an aluminum tube are connected to a fixed support and to rigid disk as shown in the cross section. Knowing that the initial stress are zero, determine the maximum torque T0 that can be applied to the disk if the allowable stress are 120 MPa in the steel shaft and 70 MPa in the aluminum tube. Use G=77 GPa for steel and G=27 GPa for aluminum.

Solution: Statics. Free Body of Disk. Denoting by T1 the torque exerted by the tube on the disk and by T2 the torque exerted by the shaft, we find T0 = T 1 + T 2 (1)

Deformations. Since both the tube and the shaft are connected to the rigid disk, we have

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T 2 = 0.874 T 1 Shearing Stress. We assume that the requirement the aluminum tube, we have

Using Eq. (2), we compute the corresponding value T2 and then find the maximum shearing stress in the steel shaft. T2 = 0.874T1 = 0.874(3690) = 3225 N.m

We note that the allowable steel stress of 120 MPa is exceeded; our assumption was wrong. Thus the maximum torque T0 will be obtained by making we first determine the torque T2.

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From Eq. (2), we have 2950 N.m = 0.874T1 Using Eq.(1), we obtain the maximum permissible torque T0 = T1 + T2 = 3375 N.m + 2950 N.m T1=3375 N.m

In designing members for strength, allowable shear stresses must be selected. These depend on the information available from experiments and on the intended application. Accurate information on the capacity of materials to resist shear stresses comes from tests on thin-walled tubes. Solid shafting is employed in routine tests. Moreover, as torsion members are so often used in power equipment, many fatigue experiments are done. Typically, the shear strength of ductile materials is only about half as large as their tensile strength. The ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) code of recommended practice for transmission shafting gives an allowable value in shear stress of 8000 psi for unspecified steel and 0.3 of yield, or 0.18 of ultimate, shear strength, whichever is smaller. In practical designs, suddenly applied and shock loads warrant special considerations. After the torque to be transmitted by a shaft is determined and the maximum allowable shear stress is selected, according to Eq.3 (Unit-7, module-1,Torsion-1), the proportions of a member are given as

(7)

Where J/C is the parameter on which the elastic strength of a shaft depends. For an axially loaded rod, such a parameter is the cross-sectional area of a member. For a solid shaft, J/c = C3/2, where c is the outside radius. By using this expression and Eq. 7, the required radius of a shaft can be determined. Any number of tubular shafts can be chosen to satisfy Eq. 7 by varying the ratio of the outer radius to the inner radius, c/b, to provide the required value of J/c. The reader should carefully note that large local stresses generally develop at changes in cross sections and at splines and key-ways, where the torque is actually transmitted. These questions, of critical importance in the design of rotating shafts, are briefly discussed in the next section.

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Members subjected to torque are very widely used as rotating shafts for transmitting power. For future reference, a formula is derived for the conversion of horsepower, the conventional unit used in the industry, into torque acting through the shaft. By definition, 1 hp does the work of 745.7 N.m/s. one N.m/s is conveniently referred to as a watt (W) in the SI units. Thus, 1 hp can be converted into 745.7 W. likewise, it will be recalled from dynamics that power is equal to torque multiplied by the angle, measured in radians, through which the shaft rotates per unit of time. For a shaft were transmitting a constant torque T measured in N.m, it would do 2fT N.m of work per second. Equating this to the horsepower supplied

or

(8) or

(9) Where f is the frequency in hertz of the shaft transmitting the horsepower, hp, or kilowatts, kW. These equations convert the applied power into applied torque. In the U.S. customary system of units, 1 hp does work of 550 ft-lb per second, or 550 X 12 X 60 in-lb per minute. If the shaft rotates at N rpm (revolutions per minute), an equation similar to those above can obtained:

(10)

5 Stress Concentrations

Equation 3, 4, and 7 apply only to solid and tubular circular shafts while the material behaves elastically. Moreover, the cross-sectional areas along the shaft should remain reasonably constant. If a gradual variation in the diameter takes place, the previous equations give satisfactory solutions. On the other hand, for stepped shafts where the diameters of the adjoining portions change abruptly, large perturbations of shear stresses takes place. High local shear stresses occur at points away from the center of the shaft. Methods of determining these local concentrations of stress are beyond the scope of this text. However, by forming a ratio of the true maximum shear stress to the maximum stress given by Eq.(7), a torsional stress-concentration factor can be obtained. An analogous method was used for obtaining the stress-concentration factors in axially loaded members we all ready studied it. These factors for various proportions of stepped round shafts are shown in Fig. 10.

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To obtain the actual stress at a geometrical discontinuity of a stepped shaft, a curve for a particular D/d is selected in Fig. 10. Then, corresponding to the given r/ (d/2) ration, the stress-concentration factor K is read from the curve. Lastly, from the definition of K, the actual maximum shear stress is obtained from the modified Eq. (7)

(11) where the shear stress Tc/J is determined for the smaller shaft. A study of stress-concentration factors shown in Fig. 10 emphasizes the need for a generous fillet radius r at all sections where a transition in the shaft diameter is made. Considerable stress increases also occur in shafts at oil hole and at key-ways for attaching pulleys and gears to the shaft. A shaft prepared for a key, Fig. 11, is no longer a circular member. However, according to the procedures suggested by the ASME, in ordinary design, computations for shafts with key ways may be made using Eq.(7) but the allowable shear stress must be reduced by 25%. This presumably compensates for the stress concentration and reduction in cross-sectional area. Because of some inelastic or nonlinear response in real materials, the theoretical stress concentrations based on the behavior of linearly elastic material tend to be somewhat high.

In this section, attention will be directed to a method for determining the angle-of-twist for

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solid and tubular circular elastic shafts subjected to torsional loading. The interest in this problem is at least threefold. First, it is important to predict the twist of a shaft per sec since at times it is not sufficient to design it only to be strong enough: it also must not deform excessively. Then, magnitudes of angular rotations of shafts are needed in the torsional vibration analysis of machinery. Finally, the angular twist of members is needed in dealing with statically indeterminate torsional problems. According to assumption 1 stated in Section 1, planes perpendicular to the axis of a circular rod do not warp. The elements of a shaft undergo deformation of the type shown in Fig. 12(b). The shaded element is shown in its undistorted form in Fig. 12(a). From such a shaft, a typical element of length dx is shown isolated in Fig. 13 similar to Fig. 1. In the element shown, a line on its surface such as CD is initially parallel to the axis of the shaft. After the torque is applied, it assumes a new position CD. At the same time, by virtue of assumption 2, Section 1, radius OD remains straight and rotates through a small angle d to a new position OD. Denoting the small angle DCD by max, from geometry, one has two alternative expressions for the arc DD: arc DD = max dx or arc DD = d c

where both angles are small and are measured in radians. Hence, max dx = d c (12) max applies only in the zone of an infinitesimal tube of constant maximum shear stress max. Limiting attention to linearly elastic response makes Hookes law applicable. Therefore, the angle max is proportional to max, i.e, max/G. Moreover, by Eq. 7, max = Tc/J. Hence, max = Tc/(JG). By substituting the latter expression into Eq. 12 and simplifying, the governing differential equation for the angle-of-twist is obtained.

(13) This gives the relative angle-of-twist of two adjoining sections an infinitesimal distance dx apart. To find the total angle-of-twist between any two section A and B on a shaft a finite distance apart, the rotations of all elements A and B on a shaft a finite distance apart, the rotations of all elements must be summed. Hence, a general expression for the angle-of-twist between any two section of a shaft of a linearly elastic material is

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(14)

where B and A are, respectively, the global shaft rotations at ends B and A. The rotation at A may not necessarily be zero. In this equation, the internal torque Tx and the polar moment of inertia Jx may vary along the length of a shaft. The direction of the angle of twist coincides with the direction of the applied torque T. Equation 14 is valid for both solid and hollow circular shafts, which follows from the assumptions used in the derivation. The angle is measured in radians.

The analysis of statically indeterminate members subjected to twist parallels the procedures discussed earlier in connection with axially loaded bars. In considering linearly elastic problems with one degree of external indeterminacy, i.e., cases where there are two reactions, the force (flexibility) method is particularly advantageous. Such problems are reduced to statical determinacy by removing one of the redundant reactions and calculating the rotation 0 at the released support. The required boundary conditions are then restored by twisting the member at the released end through an angle 1 such that 0 + 1 = 0 (15) Such problems remain simple to analyze regardless of the number and kinds of applied torque or variations in the shaft size or material. Torsion problems also occur with internal statical indeterminacy in composite shafts built up from two or more tubes or materials, such as shown in Fig. 4 (Unit-7, module-1,Torsion-1). In such cases, the angle-of-twist is the same for each constituent part of the member. Therefore, the displacement (stiffness) method is particularly simple to apply to linearly elastic problems. In such problems the torque Ti for each ith part of the shafts is Ti = (kt)i. The total applied torque T is then the sum of its parts, i.e., T = i(kt )i (16) For complex externally statically indeterminate elastic problems with several kinematic degrees of freedom, the general displacement method similar to that given in Section 2-18 can be used. Here, however, the discussion is limited to the case of one d.of.

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Such cases can be analyzed using the procedure described in Section 2-16. Applying this approach to the shaft in Fig. 14, one can write the following two basic equations: For global equilibrium: T1 + T2 + T = 0 (17) For geometric compatibility: AB = BC (18) where AB and BC are, respectively, the twists at B of the bar segments AB and BC, assuming that ends A and C are fixed. For linearly elastic behavior, Eq. 18 becomes

(19)

where the shear moduli are given as G1 and G2 to provide for the possibility of different materials in the two parts of the shaft. An example of an application of the force method for a statically indeterminate elastic problem follows.

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For constant JG, Eq. 13 can be recast into a second-order differential equation. Preliminary to this step, consider an element, shown in .Fig. 15, subjected to the end torques T and T + dT and to an applied distributed torque tx , having the units of in-lb/in or N.m/m. By using the right-hand screw rule for the torques, all these quantities are shown in the figure as having a positive sense. For equilibrium of this infinitesimal element.

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(21) The constants appearing in the solution of this differential equation are determined from the boundary conditions at the ends of a shaft, and either the rotation 4 or the torque T must be specified. The rotation boundary conditions for 4 should be evident from the problem, whereas those for the torque T follow from Eq. 13 since T = JG d4/dx. Eq.21 can be used for solution of statically determinate and indeterminate problems. By making use of singularity functions,this equation can be employed for problems with concentrated moments.

9. DEFINITION OF A BEAM

A beam is a bar subject to forces or couple that lie in a plane containing the longitudinal of the bar. According to determinacy, a beam may be determinate or indeterminate.

Statically determinate beams are those beams in which the reactions of the supports may be determinate by the use of the equations of static equilibrium. The beams shown below are examples of statically determinate beams.

Type of the Beam in statically determinate beams: 1) Cantilever Beam : one end of beam is fixed and one end free is called cantilever beam, EX: Chajja 2) Simple support beam : one end of beam is hinge support and other end is roller support is called simple support beam. EX: Bridge slab 3) over hanging beam : one end of beam is hinge support and intermediate of beam roller support is there and its other end free is called over hanging beam Ex: chajja+slab combined action

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ac

If the number of reactions exerted upon a beam exceeds the number of equations in static equilibrium, the beam is said to be statically indeterminate. In order to solve the reactions of the beam, the static equations must be supplemented by equations based upon the elastic deformations of the beam. The degree of indeterminacy is taken as the difference between the number of reactions to the number of equations in static equilibrium that can be applied. In the case of the propped beam shown, there are three reactions R1, R2 and M and only two equations (FH=0 and sum; Fv = 0) can be applied, thus beam is indeterminate t the first degree (3-2 = 1).

Type of the Beam in statically indeterminate beams: 1) Propped Beam : one end of beam is fixed and one end roller support is called propped beam. EX: Balcony support over column 2) Fixed / Restrained beam : Both support are fixed is called Fixed / Restrained beam. EX: Slab 3) Continuous beam : Through out beam there is lots of hing support will be there. Ex: Bridge slab

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TYPES OF LOADING

Loads applied to the beam may consist of a concentrated load (load applied at a point), uniform distributed load, uniformly varying load, or an applied couple or moment. These loads are shown in the following figures.

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Professor Note:

Example 1: 1) Tensile Test:

Q--> What is the Poisson's ration of the material given fs = 40.71 N/mm2

Example 2: A solid shaft transmits P = 120 kw power at speed N = 160 RPM. C = 8 X 104 N/mm2 i) Find max shear stress induced in shaft, fs. ii) Angle of twist, , in a length , I =7500mm.

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Example 3 Find P, power transmitted by a diameter 75 mm at speed N = 140 rpm, at maximum stress 60 N/mn 2 = fs.

Example 4 A steel shaft transmits 105 kw at 160 rpm shaft is 10mm in diameter (i) find the torque on shaft T, (ii) Maximum shear stress induced and (iii) Find twist of the shaft in a length of 6m; C = 8 X 104 N/mm2

=

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Example 6 A hollow shaft D1 = 450 mm, D2 = 250 mm subjected to torque of T = 400 Knm 1) fs at D1 and D2 2) find in I = 2.5 m take C= 8 X 104 N/mm2

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Copy right@ rgukt in. Queries, Comments and Complements can be mailed on : sunil.raiyani@rgukt.in

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