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Original Title: Math Challenge 2009 Hs

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Team Oral Competition 15-SECOND QUESTIONS 1. If 361x = 6x , nd x. 2. The larger angles of a rhombus are double the smaller angles. The length of the shorter diagonal is 10 cm. What is the perimeter of the rhombus? 3. If the price of a diamond varies as the square of its weight, and a diamond weighing 2 grams is worth P10,000, what is the value of a 10-gram diamond? 4. A bottle of Refreshing Monster Crush (RMC) makes enough drink to ll sixty glasses when it is diluted in the ratio 1 part RMC to 4 parts water. How many glasses of drink would a bottle of RMC make if they are diluted in the ratio 1 part RMC to 6 parts water? 5. If |x 2| = a and x < 2, what is x a? 6. Two circles lying in the same plane have the same center. The radius of the larger circle is twice the radius of the smaller. The area of the region between the circles is 7 cm2 . What is the area of the larger circle? 7. The angles of a triangle are in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 3. The shortest side is 6 cm long. Find the area (in terms of ) of the circle that circumscribes this triangle. 8. What is the sum of the digits of the decimal expansion of the product 22009 52013 ? 9. A boys club decides to build a cabin. The job can be done by 3 skilled workmen in 4 days or by 5 of the boys in 6 days. How long will it take if all work together? 10. The sides of one triangle have lengths 3, 8, and x, while the sides of a second triangle have lengths 3, 8, and y . What is the smallest positive number that can not be a value of |x y |? 30-SECOND QUESTIONS 1. Dene an operation as follows: a b =

ab+2a+b+2 . 2a

What is 29 288?

2. In ABC , with AB = AC , let D be a point on side BC such that AD = BD. If DAC = 90 , what is BAD? 3. If x = 3, what is the average of 2x2 11x, 12x, and 2x3 2x2 ? 4. After working for the required number of hours, Mary Lou works 4 hours overtime, each at 150% of her regular hourly pay. Her total pay that day is equivalent to 12 hours at her regular hourly salary. What is her required number of working hours each day? 5. Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral with AB = AD = 25 cm, CB = CD = 10 13 cm, and DB = 40 cm. How long is AC ? 60-SECOND QUESTIONS 1. The parabola whose equation is 8y = x2 meets the parabola whose equation is x = y 2 at two points. What is the distance between these two points? 2. If f (x) = (x + 3)x+2 (x + 1)x , then what is f (0) + f (1) + f (2)? 3. Let ABCD be a parallelogram, and P be a point on segment AB such that AP : P B = 2 : 3. Let DP cut AC at point Q. If AQ = 6 cm, what is AC ? 4. A fair die is tossed three times. Given that the sum of the rst two tosses equals the third, what is the probability that at least one 1 is tossed? 5. The area of a rhombus is 300 in2 , and the lengths of its diagonals are in the ratio of 2 : 3. Compute the length of a side of the rhombus.

Individual Oral Competition 15-SECOND QUESTIONS 1. Mr. Lee borrowed P25,000 on March 10, 2008, and paid it back with interest at 5% on March 10, 2009. Find the amount he paid.

1 2. If 322a = 2 , what is a? 2 3. If sin = 3 , what is | cot |?

4. For |x| 2, what is the maximum value of y in y = 3x x2 ? 5. Melanie eats x bars of chocolate every y days. Maintaining this rate, how many bars does she get through in xy weeks? 6. The ratio of the areas of two similar right triangles is 4 : 5. If the legs of the smaller triangle are 3 cm and 4 cm long, how long is the hypotenuse of the larger triangle?

7. Bill and Chris have the same favorite barbershop. Bill goes to this barbershop after every 8 days, while Chris after every 6 days. If they met one Tuesday afternoon, on what day will they possibly meet again? 8. On the clocks face, what is the smaller angle between the segments joining the center to the 2 oclock and to the 7 oclock marks? 9. If 4 x 6 and 2 y 3, what is the minimum value of (x y )(x + y )? 10. Ricky was told to add 4 to a certain number, and then divide the sum by 5. Instead, he rst added 5, and then divided the sum by 4. He came up with the wrong answer of 9. What should the correct answer be? 30-SECOND QUESTIONS 1. Aling Rosa bought 12 dozen oranges at P45 per dozen. She found 18 bad oranges, and she sold the rest of them at 6 oranges for P25. Did she lose or gain? By how much? 2. Two times the fathers age is 8 more than six times his sons age. Ten years ago, the sum of their ages was 44. How old is his son now? 3. In ABC , AB = 18 cm, AC = 20 cm, and BC = 9 cm. Let D be a point on side BC such that AD bisects A. Find DC . 4. Two negative numbers dier by 3 and their squares dier by 63. Find the larger number. 5. Let E and F be points on sides AB and AC , respectively, of ABC such that EF is parallel to BC . If EF = 4 in, BC = 6 in, and the area of AEF is 10 in2 , what is the area of the quadrilateral BEF C ? 60-SECOND QUESTIONS 1. Find all real numbers a such that a4 15a2 16 = 0 and a3 + 4a2 25a 100 = 0.

T P A B

2. Tangent P T and secant P AB are drawn to a circle from an external point P . The tangent is 14 cm long, and the ratio of the lengths of the internal segment AB to the external segment P A is 3 : 1. Find P B . 3. Solve for x: log 6 + x log 4 = log 4 + log(32 + 4x ).

4. An arithmetic progression and a geometric progression have the same rst term, which is 4. Their third terms are also equal, but the second term of the arithmetic progression exceeds the second term of the geometric progression by 2. Find the second term of the geometric progression.

5. Ella has three-fourths as much money as Jake. If Jake gives one-half of his money to Ella, and Ella gives Jake one-fth of what she has then, then Jake will have P1 less than Ella. How much had each at rst?

Individual Written Competition PART I. Write your answer on the space before the corresponding number. Each correct answer earns 2 points. 1. Simplify:

2 3 1 +3 3 4 1 84 .

2. The word thirty has six letters, and 6 is a factor of 30. How many of the numbers from one up to twenty have this curious property?

1 1a 3. Solve for a: 41+a = ( 3 ) .

4. Marks average score on three tests was 84. His score on the rst test was 90. His score on the third test was 4 marks higher than his score on the second test. What was his score on the second test? 5. Solve the equation 3x3 + x2 15x 5 = 0. 6. A diameter of a circle is 24 cm long and is divided into parts that are in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 3. Through the points of division, chords are drawn perpendicular to the diameter. Find the lengths of the chords. 7. A line x = k intersect both the graphs of y = log5 x and y = log5 (x +4). If the distance 1 between these points of intersection is 2 , nd the value of k . 8. If log2 x = a, what is log4 2x + log8 x2 in terms of a? 9. A bag contains 3 white and 5 black balls. If two balls are drawn in succession without replacement, what is the probability that both balls are black? 10. The area of a right triangle and the length of its hypotenuse are both numerically equal to 5. What are the lengths of its legs? x 11. Solve for x: xx x = (x x) . 12. A cubic polynomial P is such that P (1) = 1, P (2) = 2, P (3) = 3, and P (4) = 5. Find the value of P (6). 13. In rectangle ABCD, AD = 1, P is on side AB , and DB and DP trisect ADC . Determine the perimeter of BDP . 14. A man calculates that if he continues at the present speed, to drive the remaining 100 km of his trip, he will arrive 30 minutes late. In order to arrive on time, he must travel at an average rate of 10 kph faster. What is his present speed?

15. Four children are arguing over a broken toy. Alex says Barbara broke it. Barbara says Claire broke it. Claire and David say they do not know who broke it. Only the guilty child was lying. Who broke the toy? PART II. Give a complete and neat solution. Each correct and complete solution earns 3 points. 1. Solve the equation 1 + 68x4 = 21x2 . 2. Let x and y be two 2-digit integers, where y is the number obtained by reversing the digits of x. If x2 y 2 = 495, nd x and y . 3. In rectangle ABCD, C is trisected by segments CF and CE , where E is on AB , F on AD, BE = 6, and AF = 2. Find the area of the rectangle. 4. The sum of the lengths of the three sides of a right triangle is 18. The sum of the squares of the lengths of the three sides is 128. Find the area of the triangle. 5. Let ABCD be a trapezoid with bases AB and CD, where CD > AB . The median M N cuts the diagonal AC at P and the diagonal BD at Q. Express P Q in terms of AB and CD. PART III. Give a complete and neat solution. Each correct and complete solution earns 5 points. 1. Determine the value(s) of k such that the system of equations x+y =1 x2 + y 2 = 2 3 x + y3 = k has at least one solution. For such k , determine the solutions. 2. Suppose that the roots of x3 + 3x2 + 4x 11 = 0 are a, b, and c, and that the roots of x3 + rx2 + sx + t = 0 are a + b, b + c, and c + a. Find the value of t. 3. In ABC , AB = 30, AC = 6, and BC = 15. Let D be a point such that the segment AD bisects side BC and that ADB is right. If E is the midpoint of BC , determine the ratio AE : AD.

Team Oral Competition 15-SECOND QUESTIONS 1.

2 3

3. P250,000 4. 84

5. 2 2a 6.

28 3

7. 36 cm2 8. 13

9.

12 5

days

2. 40 cm

cm2

10. 6

3 5

15-SECOND QUESTIONS

1. P26,250

1 2. 10

3.

5 2

5. 7x2 6.

5 5 2

7. Friday cm 8. 150

9. 7 10. 7

4. 2

90 19

cm

4. 9 5. 12.5 in2

1 9

2. 3 3.

ln 4+ln 3 ln 3ln 4

6. 8 5 cm and 24 cm 7. 1 + 5 8. 9.

1 2

11.

9 4

and 1

4 3 3

12. 16 13. 2 +

+7 a 6

4. 79 1 5. 3 , 5, 5 PART II 1. x = 2, 17

5 14

10. 5 and 2 5

1 and 17 . Thus, since a = x2 , the roots of the original equation are which has roots 1 4 2, 2, 17, and 17.

2. x = 32 and y = 23 Let x = 10a + b and y = 10b + a, where a, b {1, 2, . . . , 9}. Then x2 y 2 = (x y )(x + y ) = 495 implies that 9(a b) 11(a + b) = 495 It follows that ab=1 a+b=5 = (a b)(a + b) = 5.

a = 3 and b = 2

Thus, we have x = 32 and y = 23. 3. 108 3 36 Since BCE = 30 , using right triangle BCE , we get BC = 6 cot 30 = 6 3. It follows that F D = 6 3 2. Since DCF = 30 , using right triangle DCF , we also get CD = 6 3 2 cot 30 = 6 3 2 3 = 18 2 3. Thus, the area of ABCD is BC CD = 6 3 18 2 3 = 108 3 36.

A 2 F

4. 9 square units Let a and b be the lengths of the legs and c the length of the hypotenuse of the right triangle. Then (1) a + b + c = 18 a2 + b2 + c2 = 128 (2) 2 2 2 a +b =c . (3) Equations (2) and (3) give c = 8. Thus, the above system of equations reduces to a + b = 10 (4) 2 2 a + b = 64, (5) which has two solutions: (a, b) = 5 7, 5 + 7) and ( a, b ) = (5 + 7 , 5 7). In 5 + 7 5 7 = 9 square units. both solutions, the area of the right triangle is 1 2 (CD AB ) 5. P Q = 1 2 By the Midsegment Theorem for Trapezoids, we know that M N = 1 (AB + CD). Moreover, since M N AB , P 2 and Q are the midpoints of AC and BD, respectively. It follows, by the Midsegment Theorem for Triangles, that 1 AB . Thus, we get MQ = NP = 2

A O M Q P N B

1 2

1 2

1 1 3, 2 + 2 3 and

1 2

1 2

1 1 3, 2 2 3

From the rst two equations, we have 1 = (x + y )2 = x2 + 2xy + y 2 = 2 + 2xy, which implies that xy = 1 . 2 On the other hand, in order that the system admits at least one solution, we must also have k = x3 + y 3 = (x + y )(x2 xy + y 2 ) = (1)(2 xy ), and so xy = 2 k .

1 Combining the two expressions for xy above, we have 2 k = 2 , which gives us 5 k = 2. 1 To solve for the solutions of the system, we use the rst equation and xy = 2 .

1 2

1 1 1 1 3 or x = + 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 , + 3 and ( x, y ) = + 3, 2 2 3 . 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 = x=

2. 23 By Factor Theorem, we know that x3 + 3x2 + 4x 11 = (x a)(x b)(x c) = x3 (a + b + c)x2 + (ab + bc + ac)x abc. It follows that a + b + c = 3, ab + bc + ac = 4, and abc = 11. On the other hand, we also have x3 + rx2 + sx + t = [x (a + b)][x (b + c)][x (a + c)]. It follows that t = = = = = 3. 19 : 27

C

(a + b)(b + c)(a + c) [ab2 + ac2 + ba2 + bc2 + ca2 + cb2 + 2abc] [(a + b + c)(ab + bc + ac) 3abc + 2abc] [(3)(4) 11] 23.

We rst note that A, E , and D are collinear. The main tool in the following argument is the Law of Cosines.

A

D B

ABC gives

AB 2 + BC 2 AC 2 30 + 15 6 13 2 cos ABC = = = . 2AB BC 20 2 15 30 Again, when the Law of Cosines is applied to ABE , we get

AE 2 = AB 2 + BE 2 2AB BE cos ABC 15 15 13 2 = 30 + 2 30 4 2 20 57 = , 4 which gives AE = 1 57, and so 2 57 + 30 15 AE 2 + AB 2 BE 2 27 190 4 4 cos BAE = = . = 57 2AE AB 380 2 2 30 It follows that AD = AB cos BAE = Thus, we obtain AE : AD = 19 : 27. 27 190 27 57 30 = . 380 38

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