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You-Sheng Li ( From the website: http://taoism21cen com !
" thin# the best words to describe Mao Zedong (1$%&-1%'(!) the *ounder o* +ommunist +hina) are those he said when he was ,oung: -att.ing with hea/en) the 0o, is .imit.ess1 batt.ing with 2arth) the 0o, is .imit.ess1 batt.ing with peop.e) the 0o, is .imit.ess 3s *ar as his .i*e and his impact on the countr, he contro..ed *rom 1%4% to 1%'() Mao was as good as those words The 5est and the *ormer So/iet 6nion used to comp.ain about the be..icose coc# .i#e +hina under the +ommunist ru.e "t was rea.., the spirit o* Mao himse.*) and it represented neither +hinese peop.e nor a.. the part, members Mao turned his countr,) his go/ernment) and his *ami., upside down man, times o/er) and .e*t no stone unturned 7e certain., practiced those three phrases through his who.e .i*e "* we put what he said aside and stud, the wa, o* his thin#ing) it is not surprising to *ind some strong e.ements o* +hinese tradition) especia.., Taoism Mao was) o* course) not a sincere and conscious Taoist thin#er -ut we can) ne/erthe.ess) understand Mao and his +hina much better i* we adapt to a Taoist perspecti/e 8ar. Mar9 once said) " am not a Mar9ist m,se.* 5hat Mar9 meant is that he did not practice Mar9ism but he certain., be.ie/ed in the s,stem he
had de/e.oped and promoted Mao used to sa, he be.ie/ed in +on*ucianism in his ear., ,ears but changed to Mar9ism .ater 7owe/er) " thin# Mao:s thought is *ar awa, *rom Mar9ism or +on*ucianism but c.ose to Taoism Mar9ism is o*ten critici;ed *or its econom,-determinist /iew The in*.uence o* economic determinism on human thought and beha/iour became trace.ess in Mao:s +hina Mao stressed the importance o* po.itica. ideo.og, and carried out an e/er-.asting batt.e against those who had a tendenc, to econom,-determinism "n the <reat +u.tura. =e/o.ution) whoe/er had some connection with econom,) or agricu.tura./industria. production was sub0ected to Mao:s attac#s 3ccording to Mar9) >ro.etarian re/o.ution on., occurs a*ter the who.e wor.d has entered into high., de/e.oped capita.ist societ, Mao .abe..ed his re/o.ution o* peasants with Mar9ism "* we dismiss the part Lenin and Mao creati/e., added to Mar9ism) name.,) separate Mar9ism *rom Leninism and Maoism) there is nothing o* Mar9ism but o.d +hinese tradition in Mao:s thought 3s to the +hinese traditiona. ideo.og,) man, authors ha/e written on the in*.uence o* +on*ucianism on Mao -ut " thin# Mao is c.oser to Taoism but *arther awa, *rom +on*ucianism "n +hinese histor,) inte..ectua.s were +on*ucians in the go/ernment o**ice but Taoists at home The, re.ied on Taoist teachings to .i/e an id.e rura. .i*e) pursuing se.*-we..being -oth Lao T;u and
+huang T;u ?uoted the +hinese se.*-su**icient rura. econom, as their idea. societ, 3s the resu.t) the dominant ideo.og, was not +on*ucianism but Taoism in +hinese countr,side "* there was sti.. some trace o* +on*ucian in*.uence in the +hinese rura. areas) it was con*ined in the inte..ectua. househo.ds 5hat peasants were *ond o* were -uddhism and Taoism) and the, regarded +on*ucianism as something *or educated peop.e Mao:s *ami., was not an inte..ectua. one: his *ather was an ordinar, peasant who had been a so.dier and a merchant 7e was *ierce., opposite to Mao:s *urther education to become an inte..ectua. Mao:s mother was a be.ie/er in -uddhism Mao and his mother once discussed how to persuade Mao:s *ather to be.ie/e in -uddhism 3*ter running awa, *rom a tiger) his *ather did come to -uddhism and occasiona.., worshiped -uddha in the temp.es "n +hina most peop.e cou.d not te.. -uddhism *rom Taoism but *ew *ai.ed to notice the di**erence between +on*ucianism and Taoism/-uddhism @rdinar, peop.e .i#e Mao:s *ather ne/er went to a +on*ucian temp.e) which was apparent., not a proper p.ace *or them -uddhism is *ar awa, *rom po.itics but Taoism is ?uite di**erent There is a strong po.itica. e.ement in Taoism) which ad/ocates e?ua.it, Mao:s hometown was within the reach o* the Societ, o* -rothers) a peasant organi;ation in*.uenced b, Taoist ideo.og, There*ore) Mao:s *ami., was at the .e/e. where the
ideo.og, was Taoism Mao was soa#ed with the spirit o* Taoism through what he saw and heard during his ear., chi.dhood +hou 2n-.ai:s *ami., was di**erent) a traditiona. inte..ectua. househo.d 7is .i*est,.e) grace*u. and poised) was c.ose to the +on*ucius:s go.den mean) since he recei/ed a good +on*ucian education at home in his ear., ,ears Mao was a.so taught the *i/e c.assics and the *our boo#s but during a period o* cu.tura. transition *rom the o.d to the new) it *e.. short o* .etting him surpass his *ami.,:s in*.uence Mao:s man, biographies mentioned how s,mpath, to the poor Mao was as a chi.d: he wor#ed with Mother against his *ather:s wi..1 he ga/e rice to those who needed1 he e/en co..aborated with the .abourers against his *ather:s interest These are be.ie/ab.e but common in rura. +hina where the *ather strugg.ed to increase his *ortune whi.e chi.dren and women do.ed out a.ms Lao T;u sa,s) A7ea/en and earth coa.esce and it rains sweet dew The peop.e) no one ordering them) se.* ba.ance to e?ua.it, B AThe Tao o* nature is to pare bac# abundance and add to the insu**icient B(Tao Te +hing) +hapters &2) ''! Thus according to Taoist theor,) it is our nature to se.* ba.ance to e?ua.it, b, he.ping the poor) and wea.th-bui.ding comes *rom our cu.ture +hi.dren and women are .ess contaminated b, modern cu.ture in comparison to men
Modern societ, is secondar, societ,) which is di**erent *rom the ancient primar, societ, 5ith the si;e a/eraging around 1CD) peop.e interacted with each other b, *ace in primar, societ, such as tribes and bands >rimar, societ, was the natura. e9tension o* human genetic nature) and there was no *orce to mode. human nature in a *i9ed direction Thus it was peace*u. and ega.itarian The human instincts were enough to #eep the societ, in harmon, 3.. members were .in#ed ps,cho.ogica.., and emotiona.., into a who.e o* which e/er,bod, was on., a part 5e) as indi/idua.s) cannot ps,cho.ogica.., and emotiona.., .in# us to modern societ, The who.eness o* a secondar, societ, is the resu.t o* shared be.ie* and socia. structure (For *urther re*erence) p.ease /isit the web site: http://taoism21cen com! Taoism has the ega.itarian primar, societ, as its idea. "n comparison with cities) +hinese countr,side is c.oser to primar, societ, "n the main.and +hina) peasants are traditiona.., said to be be.ie/ers in u.tra-e?ua.itarianism) which is in *act the Taoist idea. Since such an idea. is not compatib.e with modern societ,) authorit, .abe..ed it as u.tra-e?ua.itarianism 3mong the +hinese +ommunist .eaders) Mao:s thought was much c.oser to Taoist ega.itarianism than the others That:s wh, he put most .eaders aside and was headstrong in pursuing some u.tra-.e*tist po.icies such as the <reat +u.tura. =e/o.ution
Some scho.ars sa, +hinese d,nasties a.. adapted to 7uang Lao (Ye..ow 2mperor and Lao T;u! at the core but dressed up as +on*ucianism 5e can a.so sa, Mao was 7uang Lao at the core but put on a *ace o* Mar9ism Mao .ed his countr, into an end.ess chaos) and peop.e ca.. it sarcastica.., running c,c.es o* ma.aria. *e/er 5hen one is su**ering *rom ma.aria) he has a *e/er e/er, two da,s but becomes norma. between Mao:s po.itica. mo/ements were a.. .i#e that) and achie/ing nothing e9cept *or e9haustion "n the end) it was consisted with the Taoist princip.e: non-action though not intentiona.., 3*ter Mao died) +hina has progressed rapid., in econom,) arts) ideo.og, and so on) and e/en the .andscape changes with each passing da, and passing month 6nder such a contrast) Mao:s +hina was rea.., chaotic non-action Mar9 saw capita.ism as the *ina. stage in the e/o.ution o* human societ,) .i#e a man o* ad/anced age su**ering *rom incurab.e cancer) and he prescribed communism as the remed, Mao mi9ed it up with his chi.dhood dream) which was a.so the +hinese poor peasants: dream) a simp.e) peace*u. .i*e *ree o* ine?ua.it, and e9p.oitation "t is ama;ing that Mao as the .eader o* the most popu.ous countr, in the modern wor.d did not en/ision an, necessar, changes in the new hori;ons brought up b, /arious re/o.utions in the 5estern wor.d since the =enaissance @n the
contrar,) Mao batt.ed *ierce., against those who had some new /ision 7e .itera.., su**ocated a.. progressi/e ideas 7a.* o* Mao:s bed was pi.ed up with ancient +hinese boo#s) *rom which one ma, specu.ate how his *ami., .i*e was Mao en/ied other +hinese .eaders: happ, *ami.ies and comp.aining his was an e9ception 7e spent his .ast birthda, with a group o* ,oung women) nurses and secretaries 7is wi*e) Eiang Fing) coo#ed his *a/ourite *ish soup as a birthda, present in order to as# *or a chance to see him 7e as#ed one o* those gir.s to de.i/er his message: ALea/e the soup and do not come inGB 5hen " was a student at >e#ing 6ni/ersit,) Mao:s daughter was there too "t was said that the daughter cou.d see him on., on specia. occasions Huring the <reat +u.tura. =e/o.ution) Eiang Fing was once comp.aining with tears in *ront o* an audience o* more than ten thousands that c.ass strugg.e had been carried out into her *ami., 7er unusua. remar#s *rightened Mao:s daughter-in-.aw so much that she ran awa, hidden immediate., 3ccording to his pri/ate ph,sician) Mao .i/ed a /er, simp.e .i*e: 7e o*ten wore pa0amas a.. da, and on., dressed up *or recei/ing guests 2/en then he wore on., shorts to show his scorn *or wor.d powers when he recei/ed 8hrushche/ at his swimming poo. 7e ne/er brushed his teeth) and ne/er too# a bath or shower Mao .i/ed in the "mperia. >ar# inside the Forbidden +it, where he
grew /egetab.es instead o* *.owers in his garden @nce he said) AYou ma, grow *.owers in pub.ic p.aces "t is no good to ha/e *.owers in pri/ate areas) where we shou.d grow more use*u. p.ants such as /egetab.es and *ruits B 3*ter these remar#s) thousands o* potted p.ants were remo/ed *rom pri/ate homes and .e*t a.ong the streets Iear., three decades ha/e passed since his death 7is chi.dren ha/e reached their .ater ,ears but a.. o* them .i/ed as ordinar, citi;ens) un.i#e .ater nationa. .eaders whose chi.dren either reached nationa.., prominent positions or became mi..ionaires o/ernight Mao:s daughter:s worn-out and patched c.othes in/ited comments: You are the only one who wears such shabby clothes in the capital. Land re*orm) or the e?ua. distribution o* .and ownership) was not /er, success*u. in other countries e9cept +hina The e?ua. distribution o* .and and the .imiting o* .andho.ding had occurred in +hinese histor, as a persistent po.ic,) though Mao was the origina. promoter o* this po.ic, in a new era 5hen Mao .aunched his .and re*orm campaign) +hina was a countr, o* peasants with a *ew .and.ords and a *ew .and.ess peasants The ma0orit, o* peasants had a piece o* .and o* their own This was stri#ing., di**erent *rom the Midd.e 3ge 2urope where .andowners and ser*s were the ru.e The ma0or reason *or this di**erence was the in*.uence o* Taoist phi.osoph, which praised a simp.e rura. .i*e o* e?ua.it, 5ith
.and.ess peasants) 2urope e/entua.., commercia.i;ed its agricu.ture whi.e under MaoJs .eadership) the +hinese peasant sti.. abided b, the piece o* .and) which became sma..er and sma..er with time passing) contemp.ating the same dream handed down through thousands o* ,ears "n the *irst *i*t, ,ears o* the .ast centur,) there were numerous wars in +hina which e/entua.., stirred up the peace*u. peasants) *ar the ma0orit, o* +hinese popu.ation This .et their demands enter the main po.itica. stage) and Mao emerged among ri/a.s with their /oice Eust thin#) e/er, bod, stood up with a gun but did not ha/e an, bread) cou.d it be an,thing e.se other than +ommunismK Mao read Lao T;u and +huang T;u when he was ,oung) but his mind was acti/e with the gathering heroes o* the popu.ar +hinese no/e. The Three Kingdoms. Taoism) in MaoJs /iew) ad/ocates on., non-action in po.itics Some scho.ars ha/e pointed out that Mao he.d a negati/e /iew o/er Lao T;u unti. his .ate ,ears Those scho.ars drew their conc.usions *rom MaoJs words) speeches and artic.es >s,cho.ogica. studies ha/e c.ear., shown that we are sti.. .arge., re.,ing on our unconscious to ma#e decisions in our dai., .i*e @neJs unconscious is o*ten .in#ed to his chi.dhood memories MaoJs chi.dhood mind was no doubt dominated b, Taoist ideo.og, MaoJs se.*-su**icienc,) rura.
communes and so on are a.. re*.ections o* the Taoist utopia deep in his mind and ha/e nothing to do with Mar9ism Mao o*ten ?uoted *rom Lao T;u and +huang T;u but it was o*ten super*icia.., coherent in conte9t For e9amp.e) Mao wrote ALao T;u sa,s no mo/e is the *irst importanceB in his artic.e On Physical Education pub.ished in 1%1' but Lao T;u ne/er said such words Mao apparent., ?uoted on., *rom his /ague memories and impression since Lao T;u and +huang T;u were so deep., rooted in +hinese cu.ture and .anguage and no one can a/oid them 5hen Mao was o/ere9cited o/er his /ictor, in 1%4% a*ter mi..ions .ost their .i/es) Mao wrote in his artic.e Goodbye, John Leighton tuart : A Lao T;u sa,s >eop.e are not a*raid o* death) how can ,ou use death to ma#e them *earKB MaoJs mood and thought e9pressed in that artic.e were on., the opposite to Lao T;u who ad/ocates to ce.ebrate /ictor, with *unera. The +omments Mao wrote on !huang Lu"s #iography) howe/er) re/ea. the Taoist ideo.og, in the depth o* MaoJs mind From the *o..owing ?uotation) one can see c.ear., Mao had put Mar9ism aside and .in#ed himse.* to those peasant .eaders in +hinese histor,: The mass health care mo$ement described in !huang Lu%s #iography is li&e our People%s !ommune%s 'ree health care('ree meals at the roadside shops are most interesting(it was the pioneer o' our public canteens in the People%s !ommunes. That%s
about )*++ years ago (but it remains the same through those years that massi$e poor peasants dream o' e,uality, 'reedom, out o' po$erty, enough 'ood and clothes(they showed the trend o' primiti$e socialism without 'ull awareness...our People%s !ommunes are rooted 'ar in !hinese history( 3mong the so-ca..ed hundred schoo.s o* thought) Lao T;u and +huang T;u are the on., ones who ignored a.. authorities *rom both hea/en and earth) and who acted independent., on what the, deem proper +huang T;u is noted b, his bo.d and unconstrained remar#s: A") hea/en) and earth were born together) and " share the same bod, with the uni/erse B Modern scho.ars c.assi*, +huang T;u as one o* those rec.uses and hermits) whose words) how heroic and bound.ess the, ma, be) on., a**ect their own .i/es Mao once used the post-pause e9pression) popu.ar in Iorthern +hinese rura. areas) te..ing the 3merican reporter 2dgar > Snow (1%DC-1%'2!) A" am a mon# ho.ding an umbre..a B The .itera. trans.ation o* those words caused serious misunderstanding: Mao was .one.,) ho.ding an umbre..a in a g.oom, rain, da, "n *act) Mao meant through those words) A" respect neither <od nor .aw B This <od.ess/.aw.ess *igure Mao was un*ortunate., a .i/ing <od o/er his .and and his peop.e The tragic resu.ts ha/e been #nown to a.. Mao rebe..ed against his *ather when he was +hi.d 7e *irst rose to the top in the part, in the 1%&Ds when he acted against
orders *rom the +ommunist "nternationa. 7e .ater re*used a peace proposa. b, Sta.in and attac#ed the So/iet .eaders pub.ic., soon a*ter Sta.inJs death "n spite o* strong resistance inside the part,) Mao pushed *orward the agricu.tura. co..ecti/i;ation) and e/entua.., .ed to the disastrous <reat Leap Forward campaign Mi..ions died o* star/ation) and Mao was .e*t iso.ated in *ront o* the popu.ar opposition *orce inside the go/ernment Mao had mastered the 7uang Lao arts o* po.itica. tric#er, hiding his intentions and biding the time Se/era. ,ears .ater) he sing.ehanded., .aunched the <reat +u.tura. =e/o.ution to condemn a.. go/ernment o**icia.s in the name o* a new re/o.ution To MaoJs disma,) the re/o.utionar, cadres became bureaucrats once the, were in the go/ernment o**ice Thus there was a need *or another re/o.ution to remo/e them The re/o.ution became continuous since one re?uired another Io matter how man, re/o.utions were there) Mao himse.* was the on., e9ception) and no re/o.ution cou.d touch him "n modern societ,) we a.. ha/e se/era. ro.es to p.a,: we are husband and wi*e) parent and chi.d at home) emp.o,ees or wor#ers in the compan,) and citi;ens in a countr, Societ, uses those ro.es to organi;e a.. peop.e into a socia. networ# Huring the +u.tura. =e/o.ution) Mao once said gang-u mu.hang) once ,ou pu.. up the head rope o* a networ# such as a *ishing net) a.. its meshes open "n
his /iew among the comp.e9 networ# o* mi..ions o* +hinese peop.e there is a head rope which he pu..s wi.. mo/e a.. +hinese peop.e This seeming., simp.e mechanism shows how our societ, wor#s "n contrast to the mone,-based 5estern societ,) +hinese societ, was said to be o**icia.-ran#-based "* this was the case) the o**icia. ran#ing s,stem shou.d be high., de/e.oped with noticeab.e di**erences between di**erent ran#s -ut this was contradicting to MaoJs ega.itarian ideo.og, 3s a resu.t Mao .aunched the Four +.ean-up Mo/ement *o..owed b, the +u.tura. =e/o.ution) which smashed the new., set up bureaucratic s,stem Thus the ran#ing s,stem was no .onger enough to moti/ate the o**icia.s) .et a.one the ordinar, peop.e "t was ine/itab.e to *a.. bac# on /io.ence and terror which Mao and his co..eagues were *ond o* through their e9perience in the warring era Since the rebe..ion o* the citi;ens in the capita. during the rein o* 8ing Zhou.ie ($41 -+!) +hinese peasant uprisings were particu.ar., common The d,nasties o* 7an and Ming were estab.ished b, massi/e uprising with upper c.asses changing their p.aces with the .ower ones) .i#e tossing o/er a panca#e) which was ne/er seen in the 5est "n modern +hinese histor,) the Iationa.ists o/erthrew the +hing d,nast, and had not stabi.i;ed their ru.ing ,et whi.e +ommunist uprising succeeded in dri/ing the Iationa.ists out o* the main.and +hina @n., ten ,ears a*ter the >eop.e:s
=epub.ic was *ounded) Mao directed his spearhead o* attac# at his part, o**icia.s) cu.minating in the +u.tura. =e/o.ution:s sei;ing o/er the power and setting up the Shanghai +ommune This was apparent., a cop, o* the >aris +ommune in the 1'$% French =e/o.ution The societ, then sp.it into two *actions in a .i*e-anddeath strugg.e -orn in a *ami., o* o.d go/ernment o**icia.s) +hou 2n-Lai was *ami.iar with such games 7e ca..ed the two-*ractionstrugg.e tossing o/er the panca#e 5hen this *raction was in power) the other *raction was the downside being ba#ed b, the hot pan) either tortured in prison or .oc#ed inside a cowshed @nce the other *raction was out o* prison and in power) it started to ba#e this *raction with the hot pan The *ina. goa. o* such tossing-o/er-thepanca#e re/o.ution is to achie/e an ega.itarian secondar, societ,) which was apparent., impossib.e in +hinese histor, Mao:s sense.ess tossing about was on., a miniature o* such a +hinese histor, "n the boo# / 0ew 1nterpretation o' !hinese Taoist Philosophy, " compared the 39ia. +hina with modern 2urope and *ound ama;ing simi.arit, between the two -ut the French =e/o.ution was the main dri/ing *orce behind socia. re*orm in modern 2urope whi.e +hinese socia. re*orm was carried out b, #ings and their ministers "n *act +hinese peasant uprisings ne/er aimed c.ear., at an, socia. re*orm but on., tossing-o/er-panca#e
.i#e d,nastic changes Such changes o* d,nasties were aiming to a *ina. ega.itarian societ, "n the ear., 1%CDs) +hinese peasants ca..ed themse./es the se.* e9istence #ing) which means the, were .eisure., and care*ree but content with onese.* .i#e a #ing happ, in their own wor.d 29cept when there was war or disaster) +hinese rura. .i*e was peace*u. and stab.e .i#e Lao T;u sa,s: En-oy the tastiness o' your 'ood, admire the beauty o' your clothing, delight yoursel' with your home and its en$ironment, and be happy with your culture. There was p.ent, o* spare time and at .east nothing to do in the who.e winter There were numerous *esti/a.s each ,ear with a.. entertaining acti/ities between) .et a.one the grand ceremonies at weddings and *unera.s when o*ten than not *arming wor# was put aside and a.. /i..agers 0oined in "n compared to modern urban .i*e) +hinese rura. .i*e is much c.oser to Taoist idea. .i*est,.e To organi;e the spare time o* those peasants into new de/e.opments) either economic or artistic) at high .e/e.s) a socia. structure o* secondar, societ, is essentia. 5ithout such a socia. structure readi., a/ai.ab.e) peasants ha/e to spend their spare time in their traditiona. wa, 6nder the in*.uence o* Taoism) +hinese histor, was one to wipe out the midd.e c.ass o* /assa.s and .ords and put peasants direct., under the emperor and his court 3ccording to some scho.ars) the c.ass o* /assa.s and .ords *ina..,
co..apsed in Song d,nast, (%(D-12'%! 3s not much room .e*t *or inte..ectua.s to actua.i;e their ambitions) the, turned into their inner wor.d to de/e.op the Iew +on*ucianism headed b, +heng and +hu MaoJs words) #attling with hea$en, the -oy is limitless2 battling with Earth, the -oy is limitless2 battling with people, the -oy is limitless) sound as i* he was /er, ambitious but sti.. within the boundar, o* his chi.dhood dream 7is .i*e strugg.e ma, become the .ast batt.e against the midd.e c.ass in +hinese histor, "n the Taoist traditions) there is no p.ace *or democrac, Taoism ad/ocates e?ua.it,) *ruga.it,) #indness) and modest, which ma, ha/e simi.ar socia. *unctions in creating a *ee.ing o* *airness The water course wa, o* thin#ing in Taoism) howe/er) de/e.oped into the so-ca..ed art o* po.itica. tric#er,) and the god.ess /iew de/e.oped into ruth.essness in power strugg.es in the hands o* ancient +hinese po.iticians Mao showed those characteristics once he was in the .eadership position o* the part, a*ter 1%&C 5hen Mao 0oined the +hinese +ommunist >art,) ideas o* socia. re*orm) *reedom) and democrac, had spread to +hina The +ommunist >art, had its con/entiona. ru.es *or e.ecting its .eaders Mao put a.. those con/entions aside to bui.d his persona. web o* power Iobod, cou.d cha..enge him whether he was right or wrong -e*ore him) .eaders had changed e/er, *ew ,ears but Mao he.d that position *or *ort, one ,ears unti. he died without
appointing a successor 7is Taoist st,.e o* po.itica. tric#er, and manipu.ation became apparent in his .ast *i*teen ,ears or so "n a wa, he p.a,ed hide and see# with his high ran#ing o**icia.s 7e re.ied on his secretar,) ser/ice peop.e) guards) and e/en his dance partners *or in*ormation This a.so re*.ected his .ac#ing o* abi.it, to dea. with other peop.e in e?ua. terms but showing *u.., patriarcha. beha/iour 3s a resu.t) +hinese dip.omatic re.ations with other countries once *e.. into embarrassing iso.ation !huang T.u was one o* MaoJs *a/ourite boo#s and Li >o) a Taoist) was his *a/orite poet +huang T;uJs care*ree bound.ess st,.e was a.so seen in MaoJs speeches and writings Li >oJs romantic unconstrained st,.e was a.so seen in MaoJs poetr, Yin and Yang are important concepts o* Taoism) seeing the opposite comp.ementar, *orces inside a.. things and entities which .ead e/er,thing to change toward its opposite: The wea# becomes strong) and the strong becomes wea# ThatJs what it means in +hapter 4D) Tao Te !hing3 That which is con$erse is the action o' Tao2 That which is wea& is the use o' Tao. Tao Te !hing is short but e.aborates this Yin/Yang princip.e repeated., in di**erent /erses -, di**erent names such as two point or two side methods or dia.ectics) this Taoist princip.e became MaoJs *a/ourite topic and appears e/er,where in his
wor#s and speeches This princip.e o* course a.so app.ies to Mao himse.*: Such a g.orious re/o.utionar, .i*e and such a super power*u. *igure ended his da,s in his iso.ated bedroom obser/ing the #een., impatient desire o* his co..eagues to see his death 7is /oice was so a wea# and tin, whisper when he begged) would you please li't your lordly hands and let them go a'ter my deathG The +hinese o**icia. interpretation sa,s the word AthemB in those MaoJs words re*ers to the rebe.s who reached high positions through the +u.tura. =e/o.ution From the conte9t and circumstances) it is cr,sta. c.ear that Mao worried about his wi*e and her *riends) the <ang o* Four Hid the, .et them goK Io) and the, didnJt Fi*teen ,ears a*ter MaoJs death) peop.e ce.ebrated again o/er the death o* MaoJs wi*e who committed suicide in prison
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