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Abstract

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This equipment present itself as nonlinear impedesdances to its supplying electrical systems and generates harmonics with wellknown adverse effects such as low power factor, electromagnetic interface, voltage distortion, etc. These disturbances have required researchers to present solution to minimize or eliminate them. This study has reviewed, the aim and techniques for reduction of harmonic distortion. Wide arrays of approaches have been discussed. INTRODUCTION A harmonic is a signal or wave whose frequency is an integral (whole-number) multiple of the frequency of some reference signal or wave. For a signal whose fundamental frequency is f, the 2nd harmonic has a frequency 2 f, the 3rd harmonic has frequency of 3 f and so on. Signal occurring at frequencies of 2, 4, 6 f, etc., are called even harmonics; the frequencies 3 and 7 f etc., are called odd harmonics. If all the energy in a signal is contained at the fundamental frequency then that signal is a perfect sine wave. If the signal is not a perfect sine wave then some energy is contained in the harmonics. Examples are square wave, saw tooth wave and triangular wave. As the harmonic spectrum becomes richer in harmonics the waveform takes on more complex appearance indicating more deviation from the ideal sinusoid. A rich harmonic spectrum may completely obscure the fundamental frequency sinusoid making a sine wave unrecognizable. It is well known that any periodic waveform such as that mentioned previously can be represented by Fourier series, an infinite sequence of sine and cosine waves at the fundamental frequency of the waveforms and its harmonics. These harmonics can cause trouble in several areas particularly in motors and sensitive application. The standard measure for distortion is Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). A single-phase square wave inverter has the least desirable output waveform type; a square wave is sort of a flattened-out version of a sine wave as shown in Fig. 1.

Generally, square wave output inverter available in market is simple in design and low cost. Such inverter has some disadvantages. For starters, the peak voltage of a square wave is substantially lower than the peak voltage of a sine wave. In addition, a square wave contains many higher frequencies as well called harmonics which can cause buzzing or other problems. Inverters are widely used in many applications such as in the UPS and ac motor drives. There are many types of inverters. The Pulse-width Modulated (PWM) inverter is the most favored one for industrial applications. The control schemes of PWM inverters are broadly classified as programmed PWM inverters and sinusoidal PWM inverters. The sinusoidal PWM method is very popular in many applications. However, this scheme is not suitable for microprocessor based implementation when various sinusoidal voltages and frequencies are required in the system. Linear algebraic equations are solved to obtain the switching angles resulting in eliminating the unwanted harmonics.

CONCLUSION In this review, Different methods discussed for reduction of Harmonic Distortion (THD) and all described scheme shows the result THD less than two percentages. But presently no method gives sinusoidal wave output waveform with zero percentage THD.

Introduction

General

This guide continues ABB's technical guide series, describing harmonic distortion, its sources and effects, and also distortion calculation and evaluation. Special attention has been given to the methods for reducing harmonics with AC drives.

Harmonic currents and voltages are created by non-linear loads connected on the power distribution system. Harmonic distortion is a form of pollution in the electric plant that can cause problems if the sum of the harmonic currents increases above certain limits. All power electronic converters used in different types of electronic systems can increase harmonic disturbances by injecting harmonic currents directly into the grid. Figure 2.1 shows how the current harmonics (ih) in the input current (is) of a power electronic converter affect the supply voltage (ut).

Figure 2.1 Plant with converter load, mains transformer and other loads. The line current of a 3-phase, 6-pulse rectifier can be calculated from the direct output current by using the following formula.

, where

the total RMS current and direct current output from the rectifier. (valid for ideal filtered DC current)

In a theoretical case where output current can be estimated as clean DC current, the harmonic current frequencies of a 6-pulse three phase rectifier are n times the fundamental frequency (50 or 60 Hz). The information given below is valid in the case when the line inductance is insignificant compared to the DC reactor inductance. The line current is then rectangular with 120 blocks. The order numbers n are calculated from the formula below: where The rms values of the harmonic components are:

Figure 2.2 The harmonic content in a theoretical rectangular current of a 6-pulse rectifier. The principle of how the harmonic components are added to the fundamental current is shown in Figure 2.3, where only the 5th harmonic is shown.

Figure 2.3 The total current as the sum of the fundamental and 5th harmonic.

Filtering is a method to reduce harmonics in an industrial plant when the harmonic distortion has been gradually increased or as a total solution in a new plant. There are two basic methods: passive and active filters.

Tuned single arm passive filter The principle of a tuned arm passive filter is shown in Figure 8.1. A tuned arm passive filter should be applied at the single lowest harmonic component where there is significant harmonic generation in the system. For systems that mostly supply an industrial load this would probably be the fifth harmonic. Above the tuned frequency the harmonics are absorbed but below that frequency they may be amplified.

Detuned - Single tuning frequency Above tuned frequency harmonics absorbed Below tuned frequency harmonics may be amplified Harmonic reduction limited by possible over compensation at the supply frequency and network itself Figure 8.1 Tuned single arm passive filter.

This kind of filter consists of an inductor in series with a capacitor bank and the best location for the passive filter is close to the harmonic generating loads. This solution is not normally used for new installations. Tuned multiple arm passive filter The principle of this filter is shown in Figure 8.2. This filter has several arms tuned to two or more of the harmonic components which should be the lowest significant harmonic frequencies in the system. The multiple filter has better harmonic absorption than the one arm system.

Capacitive below tuned frequency/Inductive above Better harmonic absorption Design consideration to amplification harmonics by filter Limited by KVAr and network

Figure 8.2 Tuned multiple arm passive filter. The multiple arm passive filters are often used for large DC drive installations where a dedicated transformer is supplying the whole installation. External active filter A passive tuned filter introduces new resonances that can cause additional harmonic problems. New power electronics technologies are resulting in products that can control harmonic distortion with active control. These active filters, see Figure 8.3, provide compensation for harmonic components on the utility system based on existing harmonic generation at any given moment in time.

Figure 8.3 External active filter principle diagram. The active filter compensates the harmonics generated by nonlinear loads by generating the same harmonic components in opposite phase as shown in Figure 8.4. External active filters are most suited to multiple small drives. They are relatively expensive compared to other methods.

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