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Unit No. '


Po er !esources

1. Formation and presence Natural vegetation, especially equatorial swamps, buried under the surface of earth, changes into coal under high temperature and extreme pressure of overlying rocks. It is found in the form of seams or bed of coal at different depths depending upon its type. Usually coal consists of carbon , nitrogen, sulphur and hydrogen. 2. Types i. Anthracite Best quality with highest hydrocarbon content. Burns quickly, gives more heat and very less ash and smoke. ii. Bituminous uperior quality coal with less hydrocarbon content than !nthracite. iii. Lignite "ound near the surface and is mined easily #ower quality coal with high content of moisture and ash. $ives less heat. iv. Peat hows initial state of formation of coal. %egetative matter is very high. $ives lots of smoke and ash. &eat producing quality is very low.

3. Uses i. Sectoral consumption Divisional Public School and College Lesson notes for quick revision of Geography for CIA and CIB

Sectors Brick manufacturing *istribution loss &ousehold , -hermal .ower tation 0thers

Percentage use '( ) +) /) /1 )

ii. Steel industry In teel Industry" coal is converted into coke by heating it and then 2oke 3pure carbon4 is mixed with iron ore and limestone, then the mixture is heated to extract iron from iron ore. iii. #oal gas 2oal is heated in the presence of steam and oxygen to produce coal gas which a mixture of carbon mono oxide, hydrogen and methane. It is directly used as fuel or sometimes refined into cleaner burning gas to make it more environment friendly. It is used in fertili5er, pharmaceutical and pesticides industry. 3. Supply to the end user 8xtraction #oading onto -rolleys9 donkeys $rading

"inal *estination 3Brick :iln or teel industry4

#oaded into trucks9freight trains

old to 6iddleman

$%& Limitations o' supplying coal to end user i. low and time consuming transportation of coal with the help of animals through the tunnel of mine to the outside. ii. Non availability of rail track in most of the mines. iii. #ong distances between mines and final destination iv. &igh transportation cost. (. )istri*ution

+atural ,as
1. Formation and Presence Natural gas is the combination of many gases .6a7or gases present in it are methane, ethane, propane and butane. It is present in the non porous rocks hundreds of meters deep underground. -hese rocks absorb gas in their pours and act like sponge.

Divisional Public School and College Lesson notes for quick revision of Geography for CIA and CIB

2. !eserves !ccording to $eological urvey of .akistan .akistan has +; trillion cubic feet of gas. 3. Supply to end user Natural gas is transported and supplied to the end user in three ways< i. LP, $li-ue'ied petroleum gas& Natural gas is cooled to very low temperature it turns into liquid. It can be transferred from place to place. .eople in northern areas use it because installation of pipeline is not easy because of terrain. ii. #+, $#ompressed natural gas& iii. ,as pipeline %. Limitations i. -ransportation of #.$ among public vehicles is dangerous ii. #.$ ha5ards during bigger cylinders to smaller cylinders. iii. !bundance of non qualified labor. iv. #.$ transfer in commercial areas iv. &igh transportation cost in mountainous areas. (. )istri*ution

Presence and Formation 6ineral oil is derived from buried vegetative matter and marine animals over several million years. It is found socked into the pores of underground rocks. .il drilling and re'ining 0nce oil reserves are found, a derrick is set up. *errick is a framework or tower over a deep drill hole for supporting Boring tackle or for hoisting and lowering. 6ineral oil is not used in its crude form. It is refined using modern equipment. 0il refineries are located near oilfields e.g. !ttock 0il =efinery on .otwar .lateau is located at 6orga. -hey can be located near sea ports e.g. .akistan =efinery and National refinery are located in :arachi. Transportation o' Petroleum i. ea transportation -ransported through sea by using special ships called -ankers. Divisional Public School and College Lesson notes for quick revision of Geography for CIA and CIB

ii. #and -ransportation 0n land, it is transported in three ways $a& By oil pipeline $*& By road $c& By =ail track $%& Limitations i. -ransportation of oil is very costly ii. It is time taking both by sea and by land iii. -here is a great risk of accidental ha5ards both on sea and land. /v. -ransportation of mineral oil by road damages roads because it is a bulky product. .ipeline is safest and cheapest method of transportation of oil. Its installation cost is very high $(& )istri*ution

Hydro-electric power
$1&Basic principle &ydro electric power station uses the power of water to generate electricity. >ater from a reservoir flows at a high speed through a tunnel which makes the turbine rotate .It is connected to generated through shaft. $enerator rotates to produce electricity. -he electric current is regulated through transformer and sent through transmission lines to required voltage.

Advantages Divisional Public School and College Lesson notes for quick revision of Geography for CIA and CIB

5 It is environment friendly method of generating electricity. No harmful gases are emitted during power generation. ii. 2ost hydro power is lowest in .akistan as compared other sources of power generation. iii. 6aintenance cost of a hydro power station is low. iv. =unning cost of this power station is also low as running water is used raw material which available naturally. v. &ydro power station is accompanied by a *am which is usually multipurpose and serves many other purposes. )isadvantages vi. *ams require a large area which can?t be used for any other purpose. vii. *am building result in evacuation of people at large scale. viii. #arge area covered by hydro power pro7ects becomes a sensitive target during war time. ix. !ny abrupt climatic change resulting in shortage of rainfall can decrease production of electricity e.g. these are more exposed to nature. x. &ydro power pro7ects require special physiographical, geological and climatic conditions. -hey can?t be built any where. xi. iltation in dams reduces their capacity of power generation with the passage of time. i.

Thermal power
Basic Principle *iagram above shows that high temperature in boiler changes water into steam which is used to rotate turbine connected to generator producing electricity.2ondeser changes steam into water again to give continuity to the system.

Divisional Public School and College Lesson notes for quick revision of Geography for CIA and CIB

Advantages i. 2an be installed any where because doesn?t require certain physiographic and climatic conditions. ii. Needs less space as compared to hydel power station. iii. #ow installation cost. iv. It saves cost of long transmission lines because it can be constructed near area which needs electricity. v. #ow line losses because of small transmission lines. vi. !re not concentrated in some areas. !re uniformly distributed. vii. !re less dependent on climatic conditions as compared to hydropower stations. )isadvantages i. Burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide which causes global warming. ii. 8xcavation of fossil fuels damages landscape. iii. .rices of fossil fuels change with changing political and economic conditions of the world hence there is a fluctuation in prices of hydro power also. iv. =unning cost is high because of costly raw material v. 6aintenance cost is high because it involves the processes at high pressure and temperature. vi. =uthless use of fossil fuels will exhaust them forever as they are non renewable.

Solar Power
0ethods o' producing Solar po er -here are three important methods of producing solar power. Photocell ! solar cell converts sunlight into electricity.

Solar 'urnace olar furnace uses giant mirrors to focus light on boiler which heats up and changes water inside it into steam.

Divisional Public School and College Lesson notes for quick revision of Geography for CIA and CIB

! Solar panel -ype / It collects heat from sun and uses it to heat the water in aluminum tubes to produce steam which is used to generate electricity. -ype + ! solar panel is a packaged interconnected assembly of solar cells, also known as photovoltaic cells. -he solar panel is used as a component in a larger photovoltaic system to offer electricity for commercial and residential applications.

Advantages and disadvantages olar power is a valuable power resource. It uses sunlight which is a continuous renewable resource, safe and pollution free. Its supply is free in nature. .akistan has enough sunny days to produce enough solar power. olar panels can be used at small scale even in rural areas with small investment. It adds no harmful gases or waste products to the environment. It is a high@tech 7ob and requires "oreign experts and equipment which is very costly. Installation cost of solar power pro7ects is very high. Nuclear power Processes i. +uclear 'ission atom breaks up to produce tremendous energy. It is most widely used method of nuclear power generations ii. Fusion In this method atoms fuse together and energy releases. It is more expensive method.

Advantages i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. )isadvantages

.akistan is a nuclear power so we have developed infrastructure. 2an be a cheapest source of power if developed fully. It is safest method. -here are very few precedents of nuclear accidents. It is highly efficient and produces power at sustainable level. Its contribution to greenhouse gases is less than conventional method. It can support the growing industry of .akistan by providing cheap power. "ossil fuels are depleting but there is no danger of depletion of Uranium.

Divisional Public School and College Lesson notes for quick revision of Geography for CIA and CIB

" i. ii. iii. iv. v. 6ore is the nuclear development more is the international opposition which may result economic sanction and can be damaging to economy. &armful rays emitting out during nuclear operation can cause skin cancer and genetic problems. *isposal of nuclear waste is a serious problem. .akistan has limited financial resources. It is not easy to have more Nuclear reactors. 6edical facilities are not well developed to deal with nuclear ha5ards. Biogas "ermentation of animal dung and plant waste result in release of methane gas which can be used for heating and cooking purposes. Its cost is low. Its small units can be installed in rural areas with low cost. Its use large scale can cause deficiency of animal manure for crops which would make our land barren. 6ethane is a greenhouse gas, leakage is dangerous.

Factors 'or the development o' 0ultipurpose hydel schemes in Pa4istan

.akistan has great potential for the development of &ydro power pro7ects. 8specially northern areas of country have $eological and physiographic conditions which are suitable for these pro7ects. i. 0ountainous areas !vailability of mountainous areas make the flow of rivers fast. ii. Availa*ility o' river systems *ense network of rivers is required for developing small and multipurpose hydel schemes. >e have Indus basin river system. iii. ,laciers $laciers melt to increase the flow of water through the rivers. iv. !ain'all &eavy rainfall is required for the high river discharge. v. +arro gorges Narrow gorges are more suitable for construction of reservoirs. vi. Steep sided valleys -hese are required for the construction of dams. 1ii. ,eological conditions &ard and impervious rocks are required for durable base of dam. viii. Less density o' population It is easy to start construction of dams if areas suitable for dam sites are less populated. #ess density of population means less evacuation of people e.g. North and western mountains of .akistan are less populated. i2. #heap la*or 2heap labor is needed for extensive work. 2. 0echani3ation &eavy machinery and construction material is also needed.

Divisional Public School and College Lesson notes for quick revision of Geography for CIA and CIB

Divisional Public School and College Lesson notes for quick revision of Geography for CIA and CIB