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Definition of power and type of compensation

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Definition of power and type of compensation

Sizing rules

Network characteristics
Network voltage and frequency are the basic factors required to size a LV correction cubicle. Reactive power Q varies according to voltage square and frequency.

Q = U2 x C x
where : Q = reactive power U = network voltage C = capacitance = 2f f = network frequency
s s Qc Pa Q Q

Calculating the reactive power to be installed


This is calculated: c either from the electricity bills to avoid paying reactive energy c or from the tg and a target tg . These calculation methods are described in detail in the Rectiphase LV reactive power compensation guide.

Compensation schematic diagram Qc = Pa (tg - tg ')


Calculation table for kvar to be installed before capacitor power in kvar to be installed per load kW, to reach the power factor compensation (cos ) or the tg at a given value tg 0.75 0.59 0.48 0.46 0.43 0.40 0.36 0.33 0.29 0.25 tg cos cos 0.80 0.86 0.90 0.91 0.92 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.96 0.97 1.33 0.60 0.584 0.733 0.849 0.878 0.905 0.939 0.971 1.005 1.043 1.083 1.30 0.61 0.549 0.699 0.815 0.843 0.870 0.904 0.936 0.970 1.008 1.048 1.27 0.62 0.515 0.665 0.781 0.809 0.836 0.870 0.902 0.936 0.974 1.014 1,23 0.63 0.483 0.633 0.749 0.777 0.804 0.838 0.870 0.904 0.942 0.982 1.20 0.64 0.450 0.601 0.716 0.744 0.771 0.805 0.837 0.871 0.909 0.949 1.17 0.65 0.419 0.569 0.685 0.713 0.740 0.774 0.806 0.840 0.878 0.918 1.14 0.66 0.388 0.538 0.654 0.682 0.709 0.743 0.775 0.809 0.847 0.887 1.11 0.67 0.358 0.508 0.624 0.652 0.679 0.713 0.745 0.779 0.817 0.857 1.08 0.68 0.329 0.478 0.595 0.623 0.650 0.684 0.716 0.750 0.788 0.828 1.05 0.69 0.299 0.449 0.565 0.593 0.620 0.654 0.686 0.720 0.758 0.798 1.02 0.70 0.270 0.420 0.536 0.536 0.563 0.597 0.629 0.663 0.701 0.741 0.96 0.72 0.213 0.364 0.479 0.507 0.534 0.568 0.600 0.634 0.672 0.712 0.94 0.73 0.186 0.336 0.452 0.480 0.507 0.541 0.573 0.607 0.645 0.685 0.91 0.74 0.159 0.309 0.425 0.453 0.480 0.514 0.546 0.580 0.618 0.658 0.88 0.75 0.132 0.282 0.398 0.426 0.453 0.487 0.519 0.553 0.591 0.631 0.86 0.76 0.105 0.255 0.371 0.399 0.426 0.460 0.492 0.526 0.564 0.604 0.83 0.77 0.079 0.229 0.345 0.373 0.400 0.434 0.466 0.500 0.538 0.578 0.80 0.78 0.053 0.202 0.319 0.347 0.374 0.408 0.440 0.474 0.512 0.552 0.78 0.79 0.026 0.176 0.292 0.320 0.347 0.381 0.413 0.447 0.485 0.525 0.75 0.80 0.150 0.266 0.294 0.321 0.355 0.387 0.421 0.459 0.499 0.72 0.81 0.124 0.240 0.268 0.295 0.329 0.361 0.395 0.433 0.473 0.70 0.82 0.098 0.214 0.242 0.269 0.303 0.335 0.369 0.407 0.447 0.67 0.83 0.072 0.188 0.216 0.243 0.277 0.309 0.343 0.381 0.421 0.65 0.84 0.046 0.162 0.190 0.217 0.251 0.283 0.317 0.355 0.395 0.62 0.85 0.020 0.136 0.164 0.191 0.225 0.257 0.291 0.329 0.369 0.59 0.86 0.109 0.140 0.167 0.198 0.230 0.264 0.301 0.343 0.57 0.87 0.083 0.114 0.141 0.172 0.204 0.238 0.275 0.317 0.54 0.88 0.054 0.085 0.112 0.143 0.175 0.209 0.246 0.288 0.51 0.89 0.028 0.059 0.086 0.117 0.149 0.183 0.230 0.262 0.48 0.90 0.031 0.058 0.089 0.121 0.155 0.192 0.234

0.20 0.98 1.131 1.096 1.062 1.030 0.997 0.966 0.935 0.905 0.876 0.840 0.783 0.754 0.727 0.700 0.673 0.652 0.620 0.594 0.567 0.541 0.515 0.489 0.463 0.437 0.417 0.390 0.364 0.335 0.309 0.281

0.14 0.99 1.192 1.157 1.123 1.091 1.058 1.007 0.996 0.966 0.937 0.907 0.850 0.821 0.794 0.767 0.740 0.713 0.687 0.661 0.634 0.608 0.582 0.556 0.530 0.504 0.478 0.450 0.424 0.395 0.369 0.341

0.08 1 1.334 1.299 1.265 1.233 1.200 1.169 1.138 1.108 1.079 1.049 0.992 0.963 0.936 0.909 0.882 0.855 0.829 0.803 0.776 0.750 0.724 0.698 0.672 0.645 0.620 0.593 0.567 0.538 0.512 0.484

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Choice of equipment type

Compensation equipment can be of three types (standard type, overrated type, detuned type) according to the level of network harmonic pollution. The following choice can be made: c either from the Gh/Gn ratio
Example 1 U = 400 V Sn = 800 kVA P = 450 kW Gh = 50 kVA Gh = 6.2 % Sn Example 2 U = 400 V Sn = 800 kVA P = 300 kW Gh = 150 kVA Gh = 18.75 % Sn Example 3 U = 400 V Sn = 800 kVA P = 100 kW Gh = 400 kVA Gh = 50 % Sn

Sn (kVA) U (V) M

Sn : transformer apparent power Gh : apparent power of loads generating harmonics (variable speed motors, static converters, power electronics, etc.) Qc : compensation equipment power U : network voltage

Standard type equipment

P (kW)

Gh (kVA)

Qc (kvar)

Gh / Sn
Overrated type equipment

< 15%
Detuned type equipment

15 25%

> 25% (*)

c either from the THD(I) current total harmonic distortion measured. Sn = transformer apparent power S = load in kVA at the transformer secondary at the time of measurement
THD(I) x S < 5 % Sn 5 % < THD(I) x S < 10 % Sn 10 % < THD(I) x S < 20 % Sn Standard type equipment Overrated type equipment Detuned type equipment

Compensation equipment standard type

Compensation equipment overrated type

Compensation equipment detuned type

(*) Beyond 60%, Rectiphase recommends carrying out an harmonic filtering study.

NB: Harmonics must be measured at the transformer secondary, at full load and without capacitors. Apparent power must be taken into account at the time of measurement.

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Choice of detuned reactor tuning frequency

The detuned reactor, 400 V, 50 Hz range offers a wide selection of tuning frequencies: 135, 190 or 215 Hz.

Reminder
The aim of a detuned reactor is to protect capacitors and prevent amplification of harmonics. However, use of detuned reactors can reduce pollution by absorbing part of the harmonic currents generated. Improvements are particularly noticeable when detuned reactor tuning frequency approaches the harmonic frequency domain. A reactor tuned at 215 Hz will absorb more 5th order harmonic current than a reactor at 190 Hz or 135 Hz. Tuning frequency must be chosen according to: c the harmonic frequencies present on the installation (tuning frequency must always be lower than the harmonic spectrum) c the remote control frequencies, if any, used by electrical utilities.

DR, 400 V, 50 Hz tuning frequency selection table


harmonic generators (Gh) three-phase: variable speed drives, rectifiers, UPS, starters remote control frequency (Ft) none tuning frequency 135 Hz 190 Hz 215 Hz * 165 < Ft i 250 Hz tuning frequency 135 Hz 250 < Ft i 350 Hz tuning frequency 190 Hz Ft > 350 Hz tuning frequency 215 Hz

single-phase (Gh 1Ph > 10 % Sn): tuning frequency discharge lamps, 135 Hz lamps with electronic ballast, fluorescent lamps, UPS, variable speed drives, welding machines

tuning frequency 135 Hz

tuning frequency 135 Hz

tuning frequency 135 Hz

* Recommended tuning frequency, allowing a greater reduction in 5th order harmonic pollution than the other tuning frequencies. Gh 1Ph: power of single-phase harmonic generators in kVA.

Concordance between tuning frequency, tuning order and relative impedance (400 V, 50 Hz network)
tuning frequency (fr) 135 Hz 190 Hz 215 Hz tuning order (n = fr/f) 2.7 3.8 4.3 relative impedance (P = 1/n2) 13.7 % 6.92 % 5.4 %

Schneider

Design using components

Varplus M capacitor

LC1-DK contactor

DR detuned reactors

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35

Design using components

Choice of capacitors

General
The Varplus M capacitors cover a wide range of : c voltage (from 230 V to 690 V) c power (from 5 to 100 kvar at 400 V 50 Hz), with a limited amount of references.

Technical data
c Standards : IEC 831-1 and 2, NF C 54-104, VDE 0560 Teil 41, CSA 22-2 no. 190 c Capacitance value tolerance : 0, + 10% c Losses : i 0.7 W/kvar, including discharge resistances c Insulation class : v withstand 50 Hz 1 min : 6 kV v impulse voltage withstand 1.2/50 s : - 25 kV if the rear panel is at least 15 mm away from all metal frames - 11 kV if the rear panel is up against a metal frame c Acceptable current overloads : v standard type : 30% v overrated type : 40% c Acceptable voltage overloads 8 hrs out of 24 hrs as in IEC 831-1 and 2 : v standard type : 10% v overrated type : 20% c Colour : v base : RAL 9002 v elements : RAL 9005 v covers : RAL 9002 c Approximate weights : v Varplus M1: 2.6 kg v Varplus M4: 10 kg
E20553

Dimensions

218

192

210

7 95,5

M8 116

Varplus M1
7 218 192 6,5x13 M8

210

83 95,5

325 350

Varplus M4

Operating temperature
Each temperature category is marked by a number followed by a letter. The number stands for the lowest temperature value for ambient air at which the capacitor can operate. The letter corresponds to a specification of standard IEC 831, as in the table opposite.

symbol

B C D

ambient air temperature (C) maximum highest average over 24 hrs 45 35 50 40 55 45

highest average over 1 year 25 30 35

NB : Ambient temperature : temperature around the actual capacitor, inside the bank, and not room temperature.

Temperature category according to the power of the assembled capacitors


voltage (V) 230/240 V 400/415 V 440/470 V 480/525 V 550/590 V 600/690 V temperature category -25 C/D -25 C/C -25 C/B 0 to 40 kvar 41 to 51 kvar 51 to 60 kvar 0 to 65 kvar 66 to 95 kvar 96 to 100 kvar 0 to 76 kvar 77 to 100 kvar 0 to 85 kvar 86 to 100 kvar 0 to 100 kvar 0 to 100 kvar

Operating altitude
The Varplus capacitors are designed to operate at a maximum altitude of 2000 m. Beyond this altitude, an equipment derating is necessary (consult us).

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Schneider

Assembling the capacitors


c Assembly is possible of : v several Varplus M1 capacitors v one Varplus M4 capacitor with one or more Varplus M1 capacitors c Assembly of two Varplus M4 capacitors is not possible.

+
Maximum assembly power
assembling several Varplus M1 voltage cabling front face (V) (kvar) 230/240 30 400/415 60 440/470 60 480/525 60 550/590 60 600/690 60 assembling one Varplus M4 and severalVarplus M1 voltage cabling front face (V) (kvar) 230/240 60 400/415 10 440/470 100 480/525 100 550/590 100 600/690 100

Varplus capacitor range


The Varplus capacitors cover a wide voltage range, from 230 V to 690 V, for 50 and 60 Hz networks. The capacitor type must be chosen according to the type of equipment to be produced (see chapter 1: sizing rules choice of equipment type) : c standard capacitor, for standard equipment c overrated type capacitor, for overrated type equipment.

Standard type 400 V/50 Hz


power (kvar) ref. 52417 52418 52419 52420 52421 52422 52423

Overrated type 400 V/50 Hz


power (kvar) ref. 52425 52426 52427 52428 52429 52430

Varplus M1
5 7.5 10 12.5 15

Varplus M1
5 7,5 10 11,5

Varplus M4
40 50

Varplus M4
50 60

Case of detuned reactor type equipment


In this case, one or more overrated type capacitors must be combined with a detuned reactor (DR). The reactive power restored to the network depends on DR characteristics.

DR type
capacitor + D Reeactor power restored to network 400 V - 50 Hz (kvar) 12.5 25 50 100 12.5 25 50 100 12,5 25 50 100

with 190 Hz DR
52428 2 x 52428 52430 2 x 52430 52428 2 x 52428 52430 2 x 52430 + + + + + + + + 52352 52353 52354 3631878

with 215 Hz DR
52404 52405 52406 52407

with 135 Hz DR
52427 + 3631875 52428 + 52427 + 3631874 2 x (52428 + 52427) + 3631873 4 x (52428 + 52427) + 3631872

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37

Design using components

Choice of contactors

General
Capacitor control is accompanied by transient operating conditions, the result of capacitor load. This load particularly generates a very high overcurrent, equivalent to a short-duration shortcircuit. The use of standard contactors can be dangerous for safety of persons and installations.

Ie
(peak closing current)

fe

Network voltage

(oscillation frequency)

Capacitor current

Capacitor voltage

Necessary technical data


c Standards: NF C 63-110, IEC 158, VDE 0660. c The devices must be tropicalised T1. c Protection against direct contacts. c Minimum number of operations : 100,000. c Peak current: 200 ln. c Ambient operating temperature : 50C. c Rating : according to the information supplied by the manufacturer. c Contactor marking: manufacturers must specify the acceptable values Q and U.

Telemecanique contactors for capacitor control


The LC1-D.K contactors are specially designed for capacitor control. They are equipped with a through contact module on closing and with damping resistors limiting current on energisation. This technology, which is unique, is registered in a patent. Safety of persons Manual operation of contactors is impossible. The contactors are equipped with covers for protection against direct contacts. Safety of installations The damping resistors are disconnected after the capacitor current energising peak. Therefore a contactor faulty pole does not allow permanent current flow via the resistor, thus ensuring the resistor does not burn. Simplicity and durability The use of LC1-D.K contactors is a ready-to-use solution, avoiding installation of shock coils. Their durability is far greater than that of conventional solutions (300,000 operating cycles at 400 V). NB : If specific contactors cannot be used for capacitor control, then energising current limiting reactors must be used. Please consult the contactor manufacturer

References and maximum power ratings (1) power ratings instantaneous tightening 50/60 Hz auxiliary torque temp. i 55 C contacts on end 220 V 240 V kvar 6.5 6.5 10 15 20 25 40 400 V 440 V kvar 12.5 15 20 25 30 40 60 660 V 690 V kvar 18 24 30 36 48 58 92

basic catalogue number to be completed by the control voltage reference (2) LC1-DFK11 LC1-DFK02 LC1-DGK11 LC1-DGK02 LC1-DLK11 LC1-DLK02 LC1-DMK11 LC1-DMK02 LC1-DPK12 LC1-DTK12 LC1-DWK12

weight

"F" 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

"O" 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2

N.m 1.2 1.2 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.9 2.5 2.5 5 5 9

kg 0.430 0.430 0.450 0.450 0.600 0.600 0.630 0.630 1.300 1.300 1.650

(1) The powers in the above table are valid in the folowing conditions : prospective peak energising current LC1-DK maximum rate LC1-DKF/DKG/DLK/DMK/DPK LC1-DTK/DWK electrical durability at nominal load LC1-DKF/DKG/DLK/DMK/DPK 400 V LC1-DTK/DWK 690 V (2) control circuit voltage () volts 110 50/60 Hz F7 Other voltages : consul us.

200 In 240 operating cycles/hour 100 operating cycles/hour 300,000 operating cycles 300,000 operating cycles

220 M7

230 P7

240 U7

380 Q7

400 V7

415 N7

Standards : IEC 70, IEC 831, NF C 54-100, VDE 0560, UL, CSA 38
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Choice of DR detuned reactors

General
The detuned reactors (DR) are designed to protect capacitors by preventing amplification of the harmonics present on the network. They must be connected in series with the capacitors. Caution : the DR generate overvoltage at the capacitor terminals. Overrated type compensation capacitors must be used with the DR.

DR

capacitor

Technical data
Choice of tuning
The tuning frequency fr corresponds to the resonance frequency of the L-C assembly. fr = 1 2 LC
Z

network only

We also talk of tuning order n. For a 50 Hz network, we have : n = fr 50 Hz c The tuning order chosen must ensure that the harmonic current spectrum range is outside the resonance frequency. c Also ensure that any remote control frequencies are not disturbed. Rectiphase mainly uses DR with tuning orders of 3.8 or 4.3 (order 2.7 is used for 3rd order harmonics).

A
M load C

network + DR battery

far

fr

Curve : impedance module at point A

harmonic current spectrum range

f (Hz)

Electrical data
Electrical data must be specified : c tolerance on L per phase : c phase-to-phase tolerance : c rms current Ie c maximum permissible current c harmonic current spectrum Minimum values recommended by Rectiphase : 5% L max < 1,07 L min Ie = I12 + I32 + I52 + I72 + I112 + I132 Imp = (1,1 x I1)2 + I32 + I52 + I72 + I112 + I132 Example of harmonic current spectra chosen by Rectiphase
in % of current I1 current I3 currentt I5 current I7 current I11 DR tuning 2.7 6% 17 % 6% 2% DR tuning 3.8 3% 44 % 13 % 5% DR tuning 4.3 2% 69 % 9% 6%

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39

Design using components

Choice of DR detuned reactors


(continued)

Electrical data (continued)


c saturation

Minimum values recommended by Rectiphase : reduction of L < 10 % according to the harmonic spectrum to 1.5 In for 2.7 tuning to 1.9 In for 3.8 tuning to 2.3 In for 4.3 tuning Isc = 25 x Ie / 1 second 2.2 x Isc (peak value) 1.1 kV (as per standard IEC 76) 3 kV - 1 minute

c thermal withstand Isc c dynamic withstand c highest withstand for equipment c dielectric test 50 Hz between windings and windings/earth

Other data to be specified : c type c cooling c degree of protection c standard c use c operating temperature c storage temperature c relative humidity in operation c maximum altitude

Rectiphase recommendations three-phase, dry, with magnetic circuit air, natural IP 00 NF C 52-300 / IEC 289 indoor 0 to + 40 C - 40 to + 60 C 20 to 80 % 2000 m

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Schneider

DR range for 400 V - 50 Hz network


4.3 tuning range
power restored the assembly 6.25 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz 12.5 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz 25 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz 50 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz 100 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz DR data DR reference 52404 52405 52406 52407 L (mH) 2.37 1,.8 0.592 0.296 I (A) 17.9 35.8 71.6 143 maximum losses at 115 C (W) 150 200 320 480 fixing centre distance (mm) 205 x 110 205 x 110 205 x 110 205 x 110 dimensions maxi (mm) H W D 230 230 270 360 200 240 260 370 140 140 160 230 weight (kg) 8 14 22 52

3.8 tuning range


power restored by the assembly 6.25 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz 12.5 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz 25 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz 50 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz 100 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz DR data DR reference 52352 52353 52354 3 631 878 L (mH) 3 1.5 0.75 0.37 I (A) 18.2 36.4 72.8 145.6 maximum losses at 115 C (W) 150 200 300 450 fixing centre distance ( mm) 205 x 110 205 x 110 205 x 110 205 x 110 dimensions maxi (mm) H W D 230 230 270 360 200 240 260 370 140 140 160 230 weight (kg) 8 14 22 45

2.7 tuning range


power assembly by the assembly 6.25 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz 12.5 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz 25 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz 50 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz 100 kvar / 400 V-50 Hz DR data DR reference 3 631 875 3 631 874 3 631 873 3 631 872 L (mH) 6.63 3.14 1.57 0.78 I (A) 17.6 37.2 74.5 149 maximum losses at 115 C (W) 150 200 350 500 fixing centre distance (mm) 205 x 110 205 x 110 205 x 110 205 x 110 dimensions maxi (mm) H W D 230 230 270 360 200 240 260 370 140 140 160 230 weight (kg) 11 21 34 57

on request

NB: capacitor choice, see page 37.

205 L

110 P

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41

Design using components

Installation in the cubicle Capacitors

Fixing and installation


c The capacitors must be installed in properly ventilated rooms or enclosures, so as not to exceed the temperature category limits. c If the capacitors are not mounted in an enclosure, they will be floor or wall mounted. c If the capacitors are mounted in an enclosure, install components E horizontally, in order to optimise cooling. c For superimposed enclosure mounting, a minimum space of 25 mm must be respected between 2 capacitors. c For a lightning withstand of 25 kV, respect a distance of 15 mm between the rear panel and all metal frames.

air flow

Right

Wrong

25

Power connection
c Connection is on the front panel of the capacitor. c Cable and switchgear sizing current: when calculating the sizing current, take account of the capacitance value tolerance and the acceptable current overloads. c Equip the ends of the conductors with lugs and fix them to the connection pads. c Tightening torques : v Varplus M1 : 1.3 mdaN v Varplus M4 : 2 mdaN. c Protective covers (optional) : protection against direct contacts, front and rear face cabling, see accessories overleaf.

Front connection

Protection against direct contacts

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Installation in the cubicle Detuned reactors

Temperature rise stresses


Position the detuned reactors in the top part of the cubicle to avoid overheating all the switchgear installed. As regards a correction switchboard with detuned reactor (DR), you should provide a separate column reserved for the reactors. With the detuned reactors, ventilation must be forced (see page 44). NB: on no account must be DRs be mounted beneath the capacitors.

Example of capacitor banks with detuned reactor (DR)

Ergonomics
c To simplify operation of incoming circuitbreakers (if any), the control handles must be placed 0.8 m to 1.6 m from the ground. c The connection terminals must be at least 0.2 m from the ground. c The power factor controller must not be placed higher than 1.8 m from the ground.

R6 varlogic

esc.

+
ent.

Example of capacitor banks in a Prisma cubicle

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43

Design using components

Ventilation

General
The ventilation system must be defined according to: c ambient air temperature around the electrical cubicle which must comply with the folowing limits: v maximum temperature: 40 C v average temperature over 24 hours: 35 C v average temperature over 1 year: 25 C. c the temperature rises generated by the various components whose mean values are: v standard type : 2.5 W/kvar v overrated type : 2.5 W/kvar v detuned type : 7 W/kvar c the acceptable limits for their normal operation.

Ventilation rules
Openings must be compatible with the degree of protection (IP). Air must flow from the bottom to the top of the equipment. The cross-section of the top air outlet must be at least equal to 1.1 times the cross-section of the bottom air outlet.

Ventilation for standard or overrated type, IP i 3X


c height 2000, depth 400 mm c 400V / 50 Hz
reactive power (Q in kvar) width 600 mm width 800 mm 60 kvar 90 kvar 120 kvar 180 kvar 180 kvar 210 kvar > 180 kvar > 210 kvar type of ventilation natural natural natural forced air inlet/air flow 200 cm2 300 cm2 400 cm2 min. air flow : F = Q/2 in m3/hr

Ventilation for standard or overrated type, IP > 3X


For this equipment, forced ventilation is required. Minimum air flow must be F = Q/2 in m3/hr Note : the above rules apply for D class capacitors.

Ventilation for capacitor banks with detuned reactor


This equipment must be systematically fitted with a forced ventilation system. The DR must be installed: c either in a separate enclosure c or in the same enclosure as the capacitors, but in a separate compartment. The capacitor part enclosure must be ventilated according to the standard bank rules given opposite. The DR part enclosure must be ventilated according to power dissipated. Minimum air flow must be : F = 0.3 x Ps (Ps = power dissipated by the DR). Example 100 kvar DR bank in 1 x 50 kvar + 2 x 25 kvar: c DR compartment: forced ventilation Ps = 300 + 2 x 160 = 620 W F = 0.3 x 620 = 186 m3/hr c 120 kvar capacitor compartment (600 x 400 x 2000 cubicle) : natural ventilation, air inlet = 300 cm2 air outlet = 1.1 x 300 = 330 cm2

44

Schneider

Environmental conditions

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45

Environmental conditions

The technical characteristics for the LV compensation cubicles, designed from the Varplus capacitors or Rectiphase compensation modules, are valid in specific operating conditions. Beyond these conditions, equipment derating is required (consult us).

Operating temperature
c Maximum temperature: 40C. c Average temperature over 24 hrs: 35C. c Average annual temperature: 25C. c Minimum temperature: -5C.

Operating altitude
Equipment can be installed at a maximum altitude of 2000 m.

Ventilation of power factor banks


See pages 25, 32 and 44.

46

Schneider

Control and monitoring system

Mg
varlo gic R 6

esc.

+
ent.

Varlogic, R6 type
5 6 3 4 1 2

11 12 9 10 7 8

Mg
varlo hase rectip 2 gic R1

Varlogic, R12 type

5 6 3 4 1 2

11 12 9 10 7 8

Mg
varlo hase rectip 12 gic RC

Varlogic, RC12 type

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47

Control and monitoring system

Power factor controllers

General
power factor controllers are used in automatic capacitor banks to monitor energising and tripping of capacitor steps according to reactive power requirements. Schneider has developed its own range of power factor controllers known as Varlogic, that can be used in most applications. This range consists of three models : c the Varlogic R6, used to monitor up to 6 physical capacitor steps (6 contactors). c the Varlogic R12, used to monitor up to 12 physical capacitor steps (12 contactors) c the Varlogic RC12, used to satisfy complex application requirements, in particular : v operation on generator sets v compensation with fixed step v compensation forbidden v need to take a minimum power factor into account.

Mg
varlog ic R6

5 6 3 4 1 2

5 6 3 4 1 2

11 12 9 10 7 8

Mg
se rectipha R12 varlogic

11 12 9 10 7 8

Mg
se rectipha RC12 varlogic

esc.

+
ent.

Varlogic, R6 type

Varlogic, R12 type

Varlogic, RC12 type

These steps must be combined with a step combination and programmed in the controller according to the table opposite. Possible control programmes :
c normal programme (n) Suitable for all step types. Commonly used steps: 1.2.4.4.4.4 or 1.1.2.2.2.2 Linear sequence as from the 3rd step, the 1st two steps are used as adjustment steps (the controller always begins by energising or tripping the 1st step, then the 2nd step). c circular programme A (CA) Steps : 1.1.1.1.1.1., circular sequence. c circular programme B (Cb) Steps : 1.2.2.2.2.2., circular sequence as from the 2nd step, the 1st step is used as an adjustment step. c linear programme (S) Steps: 1.1.1.1.1.1., linear sequence Application: harmonic filtering.

steps 1.1.1.1.1.1 1.1.2.2.2.2 1.1.2.3.3.3 1.2.2.2.2.2 1.2.3.3.3.3 1.2.3.4.4.4 1.2.4.4.4.4

possible programmes CA/n/S n n Cb/n n n n

N.B. Circular programme : the 1st step energised will be the 1st step tripped Linear programme : the last step energised is the 1st step tripped. Varlogic R6 dimensions Varlogic R12 and RC12 dimensions

L P

L P

ref. 52400 52401 52403

type R6 R12 RC12

dimensions (mm) H L 144 144 144 144 144 144

weight (kg) P 80 90 90 0.65 1 1

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Schneider

R6 power factor controller


ABCDEFGHIdisplay keys door opening of door current/voltage connection inputs step outputs alarm outputs specification label mounting bracket for panel mounting installation J- DIN rail mounting installation area K- fixing spring for DIN rail mounting installation L- screw driver guide

F G

Mg
varlo gic R6

A
J

esc.

+
ent.

Connection
The controller is unaffected by phase rotation direction and connection direction of the current transformer (CT). It can be connected in two ways, namely: c LL connection type Voltage is measured between two phases. Current is measured on a phase other than the two phases previously used. c LN connection type Voltage is measured between a phase and the neutral. Current is measured from the same phase. Caution: the type of connection used must be consistent with the controller configuration. On a network with voltage other than 220/240 V or 380/415 V, use a transformer to supply the controller voltage inputs. Caution: the transformer used must only induce minimum phase shift.

Front view

Rear view

View from below

TR

TR

QF P1 S1 S2 /5 A class 1 P2 L1 L2 L3 50/60 Hz 380/415 V

QF P1 S1 /5 A class 1 S2 P2 50/60 Hz 380/415 V

L1 L2 L3 N

QF (1)
M 3a M 3a

QF (1)
M 3a M 3a

L1 L2 L3 FU1 A1
KM1

L1 L2 L3 N
FU6 A1 A2
KM6

FU1 A1 A2

FU6 A1
KM6

A2

KM1

A2

c o

2A

C1

C6

c o
6 5 4 3 21 C
0 C 1 2 3 4 5 6 B A

2A

C1

C6

S2 S1

400 230

S2 S1

400 230

C 1 2 3 4 5 6 B A

Wiring diagram (LL) e.g.380/415 V network

Wiring diagram (LN) e.g.380/415 V network

6 5 4 3 21 C

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Control and monitoring system

Power factor controllers

R12 and RC12 power factor controllers


A- display B- LED : connection about to occur C- LED : disconnection about to occur D- alarm signalling LED E- door F- opening of door G- keys H- alarm codes I- current/voltage connection inputs J- step outputs (1 to 6) K*-step outputs (7 to 12) L- alarm output M- specification label N- mounting bracket for panel mounting installation O- DIN rail mounting installation area P- fixing spring for DIN rail mounting installation Q- screw driver guide

12 10 11

12 10 11

Mg
hase rectip 2 gic R1 varlo

Mg
hase rectip 2 gic R1 varlo

esc.

ent.

G H
N F E

Front view

Front view, door opened

J L

* The last output (12th), if free, is programmed as a fan output.

Connection
Normal configuration ensures that the controller is not affected by phase rotation direction and connection direction of the current transformer (CT). The controller can be connected in two ways, namely : c LL connection type Voltage is measured between two phases. Current is measured on a phase other than the two phases previously used. c LN connection type Voltage is measured between a phase and the neutral. Current is measured from the same phase. Caution : the type of connection used must be consistent with the controller configuration. On a network with voltage less than 110 V or greater than 415 V, use a transformer to supply the controller measurement voltage inputs. Caution : the transformer used must only induce minimum phase shift. Caution: in operation, 4 quadrants (generator application, RC12 type only), automatic detection of phase rotation direction must be de-activated. (to be performed in the configuration mode). In this particular case, CT connection direction and phase rotation direction must therefore be respected.

O M

P
I Q K

Rear view

View from below

TR QF P1 S1 /5 A class 1 S2 P2 L1 L2 L3 N (1) L1 L2 L3 FU1 A1


KM1

TR

QF P1 S1 S2 /5 A class 1 P2 L1 L2 L3 N 50/60 Hz

50/60 Hz

QF
M 3a M 3a

(1) L1 L2 L3 N FU1 A1 A2
KM1

QF
M 3a M 3a

FU12 A1 A2
KM12

FU12 A1
KM12

A2

A2

c o

C1

C12

c o

C1

C12

6 5 4 3 2 1 C

S2 S1

U1 U2

0V

C 12 1 10 9 8 7 1

C 1 2 3 4 5 6 B A

S2 S1

U1 U2

0V

C 12 1 10 9 8 7 1

C 1 2 3 4 5 6 B A

Wiring diagram (LL) e.g.380/415 V network

Wiring diagram (LN) e.g.380/415 V network

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6 5 4 3 2 1 C

Schneider

Installation recommendations
c The CT current transformer must be installed upstream of the installation requiring compensation. c We recommend that you place the controller voltage information between L2 and L3, to oblige the contractor to position the CT on phase L1. c Design the capacitor bank wiring diagram so that the time required for capacitor discharging (50 sec minimum) is respected, in particular in event of contactor auxiliary voltage loss. c Case of an installation equipped with two or more supply transformers: a summing CT must then be provided which will take all installation consumption into account. c Case of an installation equipped with a generator set : a contact will be used to disconnect the bank in event of operation on the generator set. The best means is to use it to cut the power supply to the power factor controller.
CT

CT OK L1 L2 L3 controller

CT

to controller

controller

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Control and monitoring system

Auxiliary circuits

Standard diagram
busbar
L3 L2
L2 L3

L1

FU1 XC1 A1 A2 1L1 3L2 5L3

FUn XCn A1 A2 1L1 3L2 5L3

A1

A1

KM1
2T1 4T2 6T3 A2 2T1 4T2 6T3

KMn
A2

1L2

1L3

0 C

FU 21

FU 22

PE

C 1

n L2 L3 L

L A B

EV C1 Cn

step

step

auxil. U 230 v 50 / 60 Hz

FU1/n FU21 KM1/n FU22 A X C1/n XC1/n EV

: : : : : : : : :

HBC fuse (High Breaking Capacity) size 00gl 2 A fuse contactor fuse 400 V, 50/60 Hz controller, 6 and 12 steps 6 mm auxiliary connection terminal block capacitor module control terminal block fan

load

CT /5 A min. 5 VA Cl. 1

S1 P1

S2 P2

PE L1

network

L2 L3

Choice of auxiliary transformer


The auxiliary transformer must be sized to supply the contactor coils, the controller and forced ventilation. We recommend use of an auxiliary transformer of at least: c 250 VA up to 6 steps c 400 VA up to 12 steps.

Control cable cross-section


c The control circuit cables (auxiliary transformer secondary) must have a cross-section of at least 1.5 mm2 in 230 V AC. c For the CT secondary, a cable of cross-section u 2.5 mm2 is recommended.

Protection of auxiliary circuits


The control circuit and controller supply must be protected by means of fuses (e.g. FU21 and FU22 in the standard diagram above) or circuit-breakers.

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Equipment protection and connection rules

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Equipment protection and connection rules

Choice of protective devices

General
The equipment placed upstream of the correction cubicles is determined from installation rules and the currents absorbed by the devices. Knowledge of the current to be considered is thus necessary to size this equipment. A current, depending on voltage applied, capacitance and voltage harmonic components, flows through the capacitors in operation.

Variations in fundamental voltage value and harmonic components may result in current amplification. The standard accepts that 30% is a permissible maximum value. The variations due to tolerances on the capacitors must be added to this.

The circuit-breakers
To allow setting of the thermal protection, circuitbreaker rating must be chosen as: c 1.36 x ln (1) for standard equipment c 1.5 x ln for overrated type equipment c 1.19 x ln for detuned type equipment: 3.8 tuning c 1.31 x ln for detuned type equipment: 4.3 tuning c 1.12 x ln for detuned type equipment: 2.7 tuning. The short-circuit (magnetic) protection setting thresholds must enable passage of the energising transients: 10 x ln for standard, overrated and detuned type equipment.
(1) In=

Example 1 50 kvar / 400 V - 50 Hz - standard In = 50000 = 72 A 400 e Thermal protection: 1.36 x 72 = 98 A Magnetic protection > 10 In = 720 A

Example 2 50 kvar / 400 V - 50 Hz - SAH (tuning 4.3) In = 72 A Thermal protection: 1,31 x 72 = 94 A Magnetic protection > 10 In = 720 A

Qc = nominal current at network voltage Un. 3 x Un

The fuses
HBC fuses of the Gg type must be used with the following ratings : c 1.6 x ln for standard equipment c 1.6 x ln for overrated type equipment c for detuned type equipment, see below. NB : when two steps are protected by the same set of fuses, the coefficient becomes 1.4 x In for standard and H type cubicles. (In: sum of the currents of 2 steps). 400 V/50 Hz tuning tuning frequency order 135 Hz 190 Hz 215 Hz 2.7 3.8 4.3 impedance fuse relative rated current 13.7 % 1.23 In 6.9 % 1.3 In 5.4 % 1.44 In

Example 1 50 kvar / 400 V - 50 Hz - standard In = 72 A Fuse rating u 1,6 x 72 u 115 A Choice : 125 A Gg

Example 2 50 kvar / 400 V - 50 Hz - DR (tuning 4.3) In = 72 A Fuse rating u 1,44 x 72 u 104 A Choice : 125 A Gg Fuse rating is that immediately above the calculated value.

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The power cables


Sizing current
Power cables must be sized for a current 1.5 x In minimum.

Example 50 kvar / 400 V - 50 Hz - DR (tuning 3.8) In = 72 A sizing I = 108 A NB : some cable manufacturers mark directly in their catalogue the values to be considered for capacitor banks.

Cross-section
It must be compatible with : c ambient temperature around the conductors c installation method (trunking, duct, etc.). Refer to the cable manufacturers recommendations.

Recommended cable cross-sections (cbles U1000 R02V) for capacitor connection with an ambient temperature of 35 C power (kvar) cross-section (mm2) 230 V 400 V Cu Alu 15 25 6 16 20 30 10 16 25 45 16 25 30 60 25 35 40 75 35 50 50 90 50 70 60 110 70 95 80 135 95 2 x 50 90 150 120 2 x 70 100 180 2 x 50 2 x 70 120 200 2 x 70 2 x 95 135 240 2 x 70 2 x 150 165 275 2 x 95 2 x 150 180 300 2 x 120 2 x 185 200 360 2 x 150 2 x 240 240 400 2 x 185 2 x 300

The control-cables
Cross-section
c The control circuit cables (auxiliary transformer secondary) must have a cross-section of at least 1.5 mm2 in 230 V AC. c For the CT secondary, a cable of cross-section u 2.5 mm2 is recommended.

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