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# Polynomial

Polynomial
1. Find all pairs of integers m > 2, n > 2 such that there are infinitely many positive integers k for which (kn + k2 - 1) divides (km + k - 1). 2. Let f(x) = xn + 5xn-1 + 3, where n > 1 is an integer. Prove that f(x) cannot be expressed as the product of two non-constant polynomials with integer coefficients 3. Find all polynomials P (x, y) in two variables such that: (1) P (tx, ty) = tn P(x, y) for some positive integer n and all real t, x, y; (2) for all real x, y, z: P(y + z, x) + P(z + x, y) + P(x + y, z) = 0; (3) P(1, 0) = 1. 4. Let P(x) be a polynomial with integer coefficients of degree d > 0. Let n be the number of distinct integer roots to P(x) = 1 or -1. Prove that n <= d + 2. 5. Let P1(x) = x2 - 2, and Pi+1 = P1(Pi(x)) for i = 1, 2, 3, ... . Show that the roots of Pn(x) = x are real and distinct for all n. 6. P(x) = a x3+ b x2 + cx + d is a polynomial with integer coefficients and a non-zero. We have x P(x) = y P(y) for infinitely many pairs (x, y) of unequal integers. Show that P(x) has an integer root 7. A polynomial p(x) of degree 2000 with distinct real coefficients satisfies condition n if (1) p(n) = 0 and (2) if q(x) is obtained from p(x) by permuting its coefficients, then either q(n) = 0, or we can obtain a polynomial r(x) by transposing two coefficients of q(x) such that r(n) = 0. Find all integers n for which there is a polynomial satisfying condition n. 8. Find all positive integers n such that if p(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients such that 0 <= p(k) <= n for k = 0, 1, 2, ... , n+1 then p(0) = p(1) = ... = p(n+1). 9. p(x) is a polynomial with real coefficients such that p(x) > 0 for x >= 0. Show that (1 + x)np(x) has non-negative coefficients for some positive integer n. 10. p is prime. q(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients such that q(k) = 0 or 1 mod p for every positive integer k, and q(0) = 0, q(1) = 1. Show that the degree of q(x) is at least p-1. 11. Show that the polynomial xn - a1xn-1 - ... - an = 0, where ai are non-negative reals, not all zero, has just one positive real root. Let this root be k. Put s = a1 + a2 + ... + an and s' = a1 + 2a2 + 3a3 + ... + nan. Show that ss <= ks'. 12. The real polynomial p(x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d is such that |p(x)| <= 1 for all x such that |x| <= 1. Show that |a| + |b| + |c| + |d| <= 7. 13. Show that there are polynomials p(x), q(x) with integer coefficients such that p(x) (x + 1)2n + q(x) (x2n + 1) = k, for some positive integer k. Find the smallest such k (for each n). 14. Let f(x) = (x2 + 1)/(2x) for x non-zero. Define f0(x) = x and fn+1(x) = f( fn(x) ). Show that for x not -1, 0 or 1 we have fn(x)/fn+1(x) = 1 + 1/f(y), where y = (x+1)N/(x-1)N and N = 2n. 15. p(x) is a polyonomial with rational coefficients such that k3 - k = 331992 = p(k)3 - p(k) for some real number k. Let pn(x) be p(p( ... p(x) ... )) (iterated n times). Show that pn(k)3 - pn(k) = 331992. 16. The polynomials f(x), g(x) and a(x, y) have real coefficients. They satisfy f(x) - f(y) = a(x, y) ( g(x) g(y) ) for all x, y. Show that there is a polynomial h(x) such that f(x) = h( g(x) ) for all x. 17. The polynomial p(x) = x1991 + a1990x1990 + ... + a0 has integer coefficients. Show that the equation p(x)2 = 9 has at most 1995 distinct integer solutions. 18. f(n) is an integer-valued function defined on the integers which satisfies f(m + f( f(n) ) ) = - f( f(m+1)) - n for all m, n. The polynomial g(n) has integer coefficients and g(n) = g( f(n) ) for all n. Find f(1991) and the most general form for g. Bi Hong Giang

Polynomial
19. Let p(x) be a cubic polynomial with rational coefficients. q1, q2, q3, ... is a sequence of rationals such that qn = p(qn+1) for all positive n. Show that for some k, we have qn+k = qn for all positive n. 20. The polynomial xn + n xn-1 + a2xn-2 + ... + a0 has n roots whose 16th powers have sum n. Find the roots 21. Prove that for n > 1 the polynomial xn/n! + xn-1/(n-1)! + ... + x/1! + 1 has no rational roots 22. Find the number of odd coefficients of the polynomial (x2 + x + 1)n. 23. The polynomials p0(x, y, z), p1(x, y, z), p2(x, y, z), ... are defined by p0(x, y, z) = 1 and pn+1(x, y, z) = (x + z)(y + z) pn(x, y, z+1) - z2pn(x, y, z). Show that each polynomial is symmetric in x, y, z. 24. Let m be any integer and n any positive integer. Show that there is a polynomial p(x) with integral coefficients such that | p(x) - m/n | < 1/n2 for all x in some interval of length 1/n. 25. Let S be the set of polynomials anxn + an-1xn-1 + ... + a0 with non-negative real coefficients such that a0 = an <= a1 = an-1 <= a2 = an-2 <= ... . For example, x3 + 2.1 x2 + 2.1 x + 1 or 0.1 x2 + 15 x + 0.1. Show that the product of any two members of S belongs to S. 26. The polynomial a8x8 +a7x7 + ... + a0 has a8 = 1, a7 = -4, a6 = 7 and all its roots positive and real. Find the possible values for a0. 27. Find all real polynomials p(x) such that x is rational iff p(x) is rational. 28. p(x) = (x + a) q(x) is a real polynomial of degree n. The largest absolute value of the coefficients of p(x) is h and the largest absolute value of the coefficients of q(x) is k. Prove that k <= hn. 29. Find all polynomials p(x) with real coefficients such that for some n > 0, p(x+2) - p(x+3) + 2p(x+4) 2p(x+5) + ... - n p(x+2n) + n p(x+2n+1) = 0 holds for infinitely many real x. 30. The polynomials pn(x) are defined by p0(x) = 0, p1(x) = x, pn+2(x) = x pn+1(x) + (1 - x) pn(x). Find the real roots of each pn(x). 31. Show that there is no real polynomial of degree 998 such that p(x)2 - 1 = p(x2 + 1) for all x. 32. Find all polynomials p(x) with real coefficients such that I. p(x)2 - 1 = p(x2 + 1) II. p(x)2 + 1 = p(x2 + 1) III. p(x)2 - 1 = p(x2 - 1) IV. p(x)2 + 1 = p(x2 + 1) { This problem is very difficult } 33. Find all real polynomials p(x) such that p(x)2 + 2p(x)p(1/x) + p(1/x)2 = p(x2)p(1/x2) for all non-zero x. 34. Find all real polynomials p(x) such that there is a unique real polynomial q(x) with (1) q(0) = 0, (2) x + q(y + p(x) ) = y + q(x + p(y) ) for all x, y. 35. The cubic x3 + ax2 + bx + c has roots uv, uk, vk, where u and v are real and k is a positive integer. Show that if a, b, c are rational and k = 2, then uv is rational. Is the same true if k = 3? 36. The polynomial p(x) is non-negative for all 0 <= x <= 1. Show that there are polynomials q(x), r(x), s(x) which are non-negative for all x such that p(x) = q(x) + x r(x) + (1 - x) s(x). 37. p(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients. The sequence of integers a1, a2, ... , an (where n > 2) satisfies a2 = p(a1), a3 = p(a2), ... , an = p(an-1), a1 = p(an). Show that a1 = a3. 38. The monic polynomial p(x) has degree n > 1 and all its roots distinct negative reals. The coefficient of x is A and the constant term is B. Show that Ap(1) > 2n2B. (A monic polynomial has leading coefficient 1). 39. A prime p has decimal digits pnpn-1...p0 with pn > 1. Show that the polynomial pnxn + pn-1xn-1 + ... + p1x + p0 has no factors which are polynomials with integer coefficients and degree strictly between 0 and n. 40. Find all real polynomials p(x, y) such that p(x, y) p(u, v) = p(xu + yv, xv + yu) for all x, y, u, v. 41. k is the positive root of the equation x2 - 1998x - 1 = 0. Define the sequence x0, x1, x2, ... by x0 = 1, xn+1 = [k xn]. Find the remainder when x1998 is divided by 1998. 42. f(x) is a polynomial of degree 3 with rational coefficients. If its graph touches the x-axis, show that it has three rational roots. 43. If you have an algorithm for finding all the real zeros of any cubic polynomial, how do you find the real solutions to x = p(y), y = p(x), where p is a cubic polynomial? Bi Hong Giang

Polynomial
44. The sequence of integers an is given by a0 = 0, an = p(an-1), where p(x) is a polynomial whose coefficients are all positive integers. Show that for any two positive integers m, k with greatest common divisor d, the greatest common divisor of am and ak is ad. 45. Do there exist polynomials p(x), q(x), r(x) such that p(x-y+z)3 + q(y-z-1)3 + r(z-2x+1)3 = 1 for all x, y, z? Do there exist polynomials p(x), q(x), r(x) such that p(x-y+z)3 + q(y-z-1)3 + r(z-x+1)3 = 1 for all x, y, z? 46. Let p(x) = x2 + x + 1. Show that for every positive integer n, the numbers n, p(n), p(p(n)), p(p(p(n))), ... are relatively prime 47. Given a polynomial x10 + a9x9 + ... + a1x + 1. Two players alternately choose one of the coefficients a1 to a9 (which has not been chosen before) and assign a real value to it. The first player wins iff the resulting polynomial has no real roots. Who wins? 48. A polynomial is monic if its leading coefficient is 1. Two polynomials p(x) and q(x) commute if p(q(x)) = q(p(x)). (1) Find all monic polynomials of degree 3 or less which commute with x2 - k. (2) Given a monic polynomial p(x), show that there is at most one monic polynomial of degree n which commutes with p(x)2. (3) Find the polynomials described in (2) for n = 4 and n = 8. (4) If q(x) and r(x) are monic polynomials which both commute with p(x)2, show that q(x) and r(x) commute. (5) Show that there is a sequence of polynomials p2(x), p3(x), ... such that p2(x) = x2 - 2, pn(x) has degree n and all polynomials in the sequence commute. 49. p(x) is a polynomial with integral coefficients. f(n) = the sum of the (decimal) digits in the value p(n). Show that f(n) some value m infinitely many times. 50. p(x) is a monic polynomial of degree 2003 with integer coefficients. Show that the polynomial p(x)2 25 cannot have more than 2003 distinct integer roots 51. Show that there are infinitely many n for which the polynomial (1 + x + x2)n has exactly three odd coefficients 52. p(x) is a polynomial of degree n with real coefficients and leading coefficient 1. Show that we can find two polynomials q(x) and r(x) which both have degree n, all roots real and leading coefficient 1, such that p(x) = q(x)/2 + r(x)/2. 53. A complex polynomial has degree 1992 and distinct zeros. Show that we can find complex numbers zn, such that if p1(z) = z - z1 and pn(z) = pn-1(z)2 - zn, then the polynomial divides p1992(z). 54. A monic polynomial with real coefficients has modulus less than 1 at the complex number i. Show that there is a root z = u + iv (with u and v real) such that (u2 + v2 + 1)2 < 4v2 + 1. 55. Let p(x) be the polynomial (1 - x)a (1 - x2)b (1 - x3)c ... (1 - x32)k, where a, b, ..., k are integers. When expanded in powers of x, the coefficient of x1 is -2 and the coefficients of x2, x3, ... , x32 are all zero. Find k. 56. X is the smallest set of polynomials p(x) such that: (1) p(x) = x belongs to X; and (2) if r(x) belongs to X, then x r(x) and (x + (1 - x) r(x) ) both belong to X. Show that if r(x) and s(x) are distinct elements of X, then r(x) s(x) for any 0 < x < 1. 57. Define p(x) = 4x3 - 2x2 - 15x + 9, q(x) = 12x3 + 6x2 - 7x + 1. Show that each polynomial has just three distinct real roots. Let A be the largest root of p(x) and B the largest root of q(x). Show that A2 + 3 B2 = 4. 58. If all the roots of the polynomial x3 + a x2 + bx + c are real, show that 12ab + 27c <= 6a3 + 10(a2 2b)3/2. When does equality hold? 59. Let p(x) = x3 + 153x2 - 111x + 38. Show that p(n) is divisible by 32000 for at least nine positive integers n less than 32000. For how many such n is it divisible? 60. p(x) is a polynomial with real coefficients such that p(x2 - 1) = p(x) p(-x). What is the largest number of real roots that p(x) can have? Bi Hong Giang

Polynomial
61. Given an angle such that 0 < < , show that there is a unique real monic quadratic x2 + ax + b which is a factor of pn(x) = sin xn - sin(n) x + sin(n-) for all n > 2. Show that there is no linear polynomial x + c which divides pn(x) for all n > 2. 62. Find all positive integers n for which there is a polynomial p(x) with real coefficients such that p(x1998 - x-1998) = (xn - x-n) for all x. 63. Let k = 31/3. Find a polynomial p(x) with rational coefficients and degree as small as possible such that p(k + k2) = 3 + k. Does there exist a polynomial q(x) with integer coefficients such that q(k + k2) = 3 + k? 64. Find all real polynomials p(x) such that p(x) = a has more than 1995 real roots, all greater than 1995, for any a > 1995. Multiple roots are counted according to their multiplicities 65. Do there exist polynomials p(x), q(x), r(x) whose coefficients are positive integers such that p(x) = (x2 - 3x + 3) q(x) and q(x) = (x2/20 - x/15 + 1/12) r(x)? 66. Let p(x) be a polynomial with constant term 1 and every coefficient 0 or 1. Show that p(x) does not have any real roots > (1 - 5)/2. 67. The polynomial p(x) with degree at least 1 satisfies p(x) p(2x2) = p(3x3 + x). Show that it does not have any real roots 68. Define the sequence of polynomials p0(x), p1(x), p2(x), ... by p0(x) = 0, pn+1(x) = pn(x) + (x - pn(x)2)/2. Show that for any 0 <= x <= 1, 0 < x - pn(x) <= 2/(n+1). 69. The real polynomial p(x) = xn - nxn-1 + (n2-n)/2 xn-2 + an-3xn-3 + ... + a1x + a0 (where n > 2) has n real roots. Find the values of a0, a1, ... , an-3. 70. The polynomial p(x) has degree n and p(1) = 2, p(2) = 4, p(3) = 8, ... , p(n+1) = 2n+1. Find p(n+2). 71. a, b are unequal reals. Find all polynomials p(x) which satisfy x p(x - a) = (x - b) p(x) for all x. 72. The real polynomials p(x), q(x), r(x) have degree 2, 3, 3 respectively and satisfy p(x)2 + q(x)2 = r(x)2. Show that either q(x) or r(x) has all its roots real. 73. x3 + ax2 + bx + c has three distinct real roots, but (x2 + x + 2001)3 + a(x2 + x + 2001)2 + b(x2 + x + 2001) + c has no real roots. Show that 20013 + a 20012 + b 2001 + c > 1/64. 74. The quadratics x2 + ax + b and x2 + cx + d have real coefficients and take negative values on disjoint intervals. Show that there are real numbers h, k such that h(x2 + ax + b) + k(x2 + cx + d) > 0 for all x. 75. a1, a2, ... , am are non-zero integers such that a1 + a22k + a33k + ... + ammk = 0 for k = 0, 1, 2, ... , n (where n < m - 1). Show that the sequence ai has at least n+1 pairs of consecutive terms with opposite signs. 76. The polynomials pn are defined by p1(x) = x2 - 1, p2(x) = 2x3 - 2x, pn+1(x) pn-1(x) = pn(x)2 - (x2 - 1)2. Find the highest power of 2 dividing the sum of the absolute values of the coefficients of pn. 77. The real polynomials pn(x) are defined as follows. p0(x) = 1. pn+1(x) = x pn(x) + pn(ax), where a is a fixed real. Prove that pn(x) = xnpn(1/x) and give an explicit formula for pn(x). 78. What is the largest possible k such that p(x) >= k(x - a)3 for all non-negative x and all real polynomials p(x) = x3 + ax2 + bx + c which have real coefficients and real, non-negative roots. For which polynomials is equality achieved? 79. p(z) = zn + an-1zn-1 + ... + a0 is a polynomial with complex coefficients. Show that we can find a point z with | z | <= 1 such that | p(z) | >= 1 + | a0 |. 80. The coefficients of the real polynomial p(x) = xn + an-1xn-1 + ... + a0 satisfy, 1 >= an-1 >= ... >= a0 > 0. The polynomial has a root with | | >= 1. Show that n+1 = 1. 81. Find the number of polynomials of degree 5 with distinct coefficients from the set {1, 2, ... , 9} which are divisible by x2 - x + 1. 82. The quadratic functions f(x) and g(x) are with real coefficients and have the following property: if the number g(x) is integer for a positive x, then the number f(x) is integer too. Prove that there are such integers m and n, that f(x) = mg(x) + n for all real x 83. Let P Z[X] be a monic irreducible (over Z[X]) polynomial so that |P(0)| is not a perfect square. Prove that P(x2) is irreducible over Z[X]. Bi Hong Giang

Polynomial
84. Find all integers a; b; m; n such that m > n > 0 and the polynomial f(x) = xn +ax +b divides the polynomial g(x) = xm + ax + b. 85. Let P,Q Z[X] of degree p, q respectively, with coefficients in the set {1, 2002}.Prove that if P | Q then p + 1 | q + 1. 86. Let n be a positive integer and , m greater than 1 so that : f = a0x +a1x2 + ...........amxm [X] 1. ai is divisible by all the prime divisors of n for i = 2, 3, ...,m. 2. ai and n are coprime. Prove that for any positive integer k there is a positive integer c so that nk divides f(c). 87. Let P and Q be monic (the first term has coefficient 1) complex polynomials so that P(P(x))=Q(Q(x)). Prove that P=Q. 88. Let a; n N, p be a prime number such that p > |a| + 1. Prove that the polynomial f(x) = xn+ ax + p is irreducible over Z[x]. 89. Show that for any n N the polynomial f(x) = +1 is irreducible over Z[X]. 90. If K is a finite field and f is an irreducible polynomial in K[X] of degree n then the polynomial g - 1 is divisible by f where g is the product of all non-constant polynomials in K[X] of degree at most n-1. 91. Let a be a non-zero integer, and n = 3 another integer. Prove that the following polynomial is irreducible in the ring of integer polynomials (i.e. it cannot be written as a product of two nonconstant integer polynomials): f(x) = ax +ax2 + ..........+ axn-1 + xn -1 92. Let f be a polynomial with real coefficients such that for each positive integer n the equation f(x) = n has at least one rational solution. Find f. 93. Find all polynomials p(x) with real coefficients such that

Bi Hong Giang