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Critical Infrastructure Disasters 2012
News etc. digested by Alister William Macintyre This document (CI Boom 2012) lists info about a variety of critical infrastructure disasters, which were formerly included in a larger research document. I decided to split the disaster time line into smaller, digestible documents, keeping my notes on what more could be done to mitigate such disasters in the main related document.1 Last updated 2014 Feb 01
Version 1.42

Table of Contents, thru level 3 Indianapolis 2012 Nov 10 Explosion Summary ................................................................. 2 Damage Estimates....................................................................................................... 3 Mapping ...................................................................................................................... 3 Prosecutor Statement ...................................................................................................... 4 Indy Speculations and Investigations.............................................................................. 4 Shirley Home Suspicions............................................................................................ 5 Gas Explosion can do this much damage ....................................................................... 7 Aftermath, Immediate ..................................................................................................... 8 Pets.............................................................................................................................. 8 Al Mac Nov 25 tentative conclusions ............................................................................. 8 Great Local Indy Sources.................................................................................................. 10 News media in Indianapolis vicinity......................................................................... 10 Notable CI disasters 2012 ................................................................................................. 11 2012 March 22 GAO report on Pipeline safety ........................................................ 14 2012 April 20 DOT Secretary on pipeline modernization........................................ 14 2012 June – CO......................................................................................................... 15 2012 June 17 – 2010 San Bruno NTSB follow-up ................................................... 15 2012 July 10 – NTSB on 2010 Marshall Mi Enbridge Oil Spill .................................. 16 Safety issues with 2010 July Enbridge Oil Spill....................................................... 17 NTSB Recommendations re: Enbridge Oil Spill in Marshall Mi ............................. 18 New Recommendations ........................................................................................ 18 Reiterated Recommendation................................................................................. 20 2012 July 18 – 2010 San Bruno Organization Accident follow-up.............................. 20 2012 Aug 3 – Corning NY Do-it-yourself Gas Explosion ....................................... 21 2012 Aug 15 – Fort Lupton Co Gas Explosion ........................................................ 21 2012 Aug 23 – pipeline sabotaged............................................................................ 21 2012 Aug 25 – Lorain Oh ......................................................................................... 21 2012 Aug 27 – Los Angeles CA Gas Explosion....................................................... 22 2012 Oct 12 – Castle Rock Co Gas Explosion ......................................................... 22 2012 Oct-Nov – Super Storm Sandy Chaos ............................................................. 23 2012 Oct 20 White Van of Indy investigation .......................................................... 24 2012 Oct 27 – Saybrook IL Home Explodes ............................................................ 24 2012 Oct 30 – Columbus OH Home Explodes, Flat Top WV ................................. 24
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2012 Oct 31 – La Jolla CA Home Explodes............................................................. 24 2012 Nov – Boston MA study .................................................................................. 24 2012 Nov 10 Sat – Indianapolis Residential Gas explosion ......................................... 25 Nov 11 Sun ............................................................................................................... 25 Nov 12 Mon .............................................................................................................. 26 Nov 13 Tu ................................................................................................................. 26 Nov 15 Thu ............................................................................................................... 26 Nov 19 Mon – Indy explosion was no accident........................................................ 27 Nov 20 Tues – Indy + Ut + Id................................................................................... 27 Nov 21 Wed – In, NJ ................................................................................................ 28 Nov 22 Thu ............................................................................................................... 29 2012 Nov 23 Fri – Springfield MA Gas Explosion ...................................................... 29 Springfield vicinity News media .................................................................................. 31 Nov 24 Sat - MA....................................................................................................... 31 Nov 25 Sun – Springfield boom = mislabeling accident .......................................... 31 Nov 26 Mon - Indy ................................................................................................... 32 Nov 27 Tuesday – Indy + Va.................................................................................... 32 Nov 28 Wed – Ks + In .............................................................................................. 33 Nov 30 Fri – Ma + In ................................................................................................ 33 Dec 1 Sat - Ca ........................................................................................................... 33 Dec 3 Mon - Indy...................................................................................................... 34 Dec 05 Wed – DCP Tx ............................................................................................. 34 Dec 06 Thu - Tx........................................................................................................ 34 Dec 11 Tues - Sissonville WV...................................................................................... 34 Dec 13 Th - Indy ....................................................................................................... 37 Dec 20 - Indy ............................................................................................................ 37 Dec 21 – Indy Arrests ............................................................................................... 37 Dec 24 Mon In, Tx.................................................................................................... 39 Dec 27 Thursday Texas Propane .............................................................................. 39 Dec 29 NRDC ........................................................................................................... 39 Dec 31 Monday – Mn, Gulf of Mex ......................................................................... 39 Continued in more documents .......................................................................................... 40

Indianapolis 2012 Nov 10 Explosion Summary
Summary *Indianapolis* S SE side #indyboom now known to be a man made gas explosion but perpetrators not yet officially made public, with wild speculations by nonexperts. Blast felt for miles. There are many conflicting stories. I update my notes as I see clarifications. 2 dead (Southwest Elementary School (in Greenwood,) second grade teacher and her husband), 8+ injured, most minor. John Dion Longworth was the director of product development and technology for Indy Audio Labs, according to his LinkedIn profile. Dion Longworth graduated from Henderson Kentucky County High School and later moved to Indianapolis. 2 Critical Infrastructure disasters 2012

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All area residents now accounted for, according to some news stories, where other early stories list specific persons not yet located (e.g. boyfriend of some woman who was out of town at time of explosion). Many residents fled in pajamas. Massive evacuation via IndyGo buses. Red Cross served initial needs of the community; area churches added to relief effort; other NGOs arrived, such as the Salvation Army.

Damage Estimates
Thanks to #indyexplosion then 2 alarm fire 11.10 pm Sat Nov-10: 120+ homes affected; 3 houses -- 8343, 8349 and 8355 Fieldfare Way -- reduced to charred foundations; 5 homes obliterated beyond recovery; 36 homes, with critical damage, may need to be demolished; 12 homes both unfit for occupancy and unsafe for homeowners to collect personal belongings, until they are stabilized; 19 homes unfit for occupancy, but homeowners escorted inside to collect what they can; 29 homes uninhabitable until major repairs; 8 homes habitable but seriously damaged. See time line for constantly revised estimates of numbers of homes in various conditions. Devastation for blocks, around 8349-8415 Fieldfare Way, a Richmond Hill middle-class subdivision of one and two story, brick faced, homes off Sherman Avenue, south of Stop 11 Road Damage estimated $ 4.4 million, and counting.2

Mapping
I have seen articles describing the color codes, and I have seen maps with homes with colors, but no explanations. Homes color coded without explanation. http://www.wthr.com/category/251036/southeast-side-explosion-map Green, Yellow, Orange, Red. Before & After views http://www.indystar.com/interactive/article/99999999/NEWS/121112021/ • • 8343 Field Fare Way = Glenn and Gloria Olvey 8349 Field Fare Way = Mrs. Shirley and 12 year old daughter, not home at time of explosion. Mr. Shirley speculates an incorrectly repaired furnace could be the cause. Many professionals explain how the Shirley speculations could not possibly be true, but authorities finally trace the source of the explosion to the Shirley home. The true explanation may be other than their speculations.

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http://www.wthr.com/story/20118850/estimate-on-indianapolis-blast-damage-up-to-44m

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8355 Field Fare Way = Longworth residence – both killed.

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Prosecutor Statement
The full statement from Marion County Prosecutor Terry Curry at Nov 19 Monday evening's press conference:3 "We are here this evening to provide an update regarding the explosion which occurred in a residence on Fieldfare Way on Saturday evening, November 10th. As you are all aware, Jennifer and John Longworth died as a result of that explosion and their funeral was today. Our thoughts and prayers are with their family, those injured in the explosion, and the families who lost homes and property as a result of the explosion. While the fire investigation has been progressing, there has been a parallel investigation, not solely focusing on the cause of the explosion but focusing on individuals who may have been responsible once accidental causes were eliminated. That investigation has consisted of numerous interviews with various individuals as well as execution of a number of search warrants and is being conducted jointly by the IMPD4 and the MCPO.5 Based upon those interviews and results of those search warrants, that investigation is now considered an active criminal homicide investigation. We have been advised that Crime Stoppers is offering a $1,000 reward for information leading to an arrest in this case. Special Agent in Charge Robin Shoemaker of ATF 6 has authorized a reward of up to $10,000 for information leading to an arrest and conviction. While details of the homicide investigation cannot be released at this time we are asking that anyone with information about the explosion contact Crime Stoppers. Lastly, if anyone has information about a white van seen in the Richmond Hill subdivision the afternoon of November 10 and information about the occupants of that van, we ask that such information be communicated to Crime Stoppers as well."

Indy Speculations and Investigations
Some statements attributed to authorities, may in fact be bogus, or miscommunications. Speculations by residents, other people, may be by people who are ignorant of risks, evidence, science, and can include individuals who have a love affair with some theory,
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http://www.indystar.com/article/20121119/NEWS/121119044/Statement-from-Prosecutor-Terry-CurryRichmond-Hill-explosion http://www.indystar.com/article/20121119/NEWS/121119040/Authorities-call-Richmond-Hill-explosiona-homicide-case-seek-details-on-white-van?odyssey=tab|mostpopular|text|LIFE10 http://www.wthr.com/story/20140143/indianapolis-explosion-investigated-as-criminal-homicide 4 IMPD = Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Dept 5 MCPO = Marion County Prosecutor’s Office. 6 ATF = Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco Firearms and Explosives (federal government)

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which other people call a conspiracy theory, such as: methane from fracking; HAARP; the little green or grey men. Other wild speculations include: terrorism; arson, fire works, drone strike, meteorite explosion overhead; would-be terrorist trying to make a bomb, and messing it up. Power and other utilities cut off to entire sub-division, as a precaution. Sunday Nov-11, Indy Dept of Building Code Enforcement assessed safety of homes affected. Many built around 2001. ATF called in to help with the investigation. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and federal Department of Transportation, which have oversight over pipelines, are also sending investigators. People in the community have speculations, which authorities are working thru to prove or disprove. Mayor Greg Ballard said investigators have ruled out: a bomb; a methamphetamine lab; and an airplane crash. Citizens Gas and Energy not yet know if natural gas explosion. People usually smell gas when there is a leak, the utility had not received any calls from people smelling gas in that area. Utility workers have been inspecting gas mains in the neighborhood but so far have detected no leaks. Indianapolis Homeland Security Chief Gary Coons said that because the house where the explosion occurred was unoccupied all day, there would have been no one home to smell leaking gas, if in fact that was the cause. Public Safety Director Troy Riggs said the search for answers could take some time and investigators will treat the area as a crime scene until they rule out foul play. Meanwhile, he said officials are in the process of setting up an information center in the neighborhood where members of the media and affected residents can go get updates. Some initial dispatcher reports, and 911 callers, thought it was a gas explosion, plane crash, earthquake, or other guesses, but authorities now say investigation will figure out true cause. TV news said low # victims near center of explosion due to homes vacant thru foreclosure. We know from other stories, that tenants who can pay rent are often evicted when foreclosure, so the bank has lower costs for maintenance and insurance, then some empty homes become populated with criminal elements, so how about neighborhood liability?

Shirley Home Suspicions
In addition to gas delivery pipelines being checked for leaks, homes where the explosion occurred, are having their meter records checked to see if they got unusual amounts of gas.7 DPS (Indianapolis Dept of Public Safety)8 said there were higher gas usage readings
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http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-201_162-57548984/deadly-indianapolis-explosion-may-not-be-tied-tofaulty-furnace-expert-cautions/ 8 http://www.indy.gov/eGov/City/dps/Pages/home.aspx

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for the house at the center of the explosion, compared to other homes in recent days, although Citizens Energy Group said they are not confirming that.9 It was unclear to me if this story was about the Shirley home, or one nearby. But later news made it clear that authorities believe the explosion began at the Shirley home, that it was not an accident, but it was not caused by the occupants of that home.10 Mr. John Shirley, co-owner of one house that exploded, next door to the home of secondgrade teacher Jennifer Longworth, said Monday that a problem furnace could be at fault. It had supposedly been fixed, shortly before the explosion, under the supervision of Mrs. Montserrate Shirley, and her jack-of-all-trades boyfriend, Mark Leonard. We do not yet know for sure what outfit allegedly did that maintenance. However, Mrs. Shirley, who lived in the house, with their child, had a protective order against Mr. Shirley, so take divorce hostility into consideration when considering the validity of Mr. Shirley speculating that Mrs. Shirley may have not got it fixed properly. Mr. Leonard later said nothing happened with the furnace, that the problem was with the thermostat, which he replaced. Mr. Shirley had got the story wrong, because the 12 year old daughter had called Dad to say they were now staying in a hotel, until the furnace could get fixed. Then there were the stories of the child smelling gas, which could have led Dad to suspect improper diagnosing of the problems, and incomplete fixing. Some people in the Furnace business claim Mr. Shirley’s speculations to be highly unlikely, while others point at the rise of do-it-yourself people who lack the credentials to do it safely.11 Professional investigators found Mr. Shirley story to be highly unlikely, 12 but it seems to have captured the attention of news media world wide. Mrs Monseratte Shirley has denied that she did anything wrong. The reason her 12 year old daughter Brooke, and boyfriend Mark Leonard had to go stay at a hotel when the furnace would not turn on, was because the thermostat was broken and had to be replaced, she says. 13 The couple was away at a Lawrenceburg casino at the time of the blast. The daughter was staying with a friend, and the family's cat was being boarded. 14 News media was told a member of one family had smelled gas in the house, but Citizens Gas says no one reported this. If you smell gas, and don’t report it, does that open you up
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http://www.wthr.com/story/20067901/source-of-indianapolis-explosion-still-unknown http://www.wthr.com/story/20121922/couple-not-considered-suspects-in-south-side-explosion 11 http://www.bucyrustelegraphforum.com/article/20121120/NEWS01/311200007/Explosion-Indy-sparkssafety-here?odyssey=tab|topnews|text|FRONTPAGE&nclick_check=1 12 http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-201_162-57548984/deadly-indianapolis-explosion-may-not-be-tied-tofaulty-furnace-expert-cautions/ 13 http://www.thestarpress.com/article/20121114/NEWS06/121114002 14 http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/breaking/chi-officials-fatal-indianapolis-explosion-fire-nowhomicide-investigation-20121119,0,5051932.story http://www.indystar.com/article/20121120/NEWS/121120036/Officials-suspect-gas-intentionally-releasedinto-home-center-Richmond-Hill-explosion?odyssey=mod|breaking|text|IndyStar.com
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to liability in a law suit, assuming you live long enough after being so stupid? If you smell gas, get out of the house, and phone the gas company from outside of the home, stay outside until the gas company says it is safe to go back in.15 Brooke Shirley, the 12 year old girl, had told her mother for several weeks, that she was smelling gas, but the mother, and mother’s boyfriend, could not smell it. 16 Do children have better sense of smell, and more imagination? I know that people who smoke, and have colds, cannot smell as well as when they have healthy noses. Randall Cable, attorney for the girl's mother, said: "It was the kid saying, 'Mom, I smell something funny. It kind of smelled like gas.' " Cable said the daughter smelled gas in and around the garage and the home's laundry room. If it turns out that a gas leak at this house did in fact cause the explosion, will this alter legal liabilities? Your kid claims to smell gas, but rest of family does not, so instead of keeping this a secret within the family, you are obligated to inform higher authorities, the gas company or 911, who can then use instruments more sensitive than the family’s adult noses, to find out the truth, before 100+ homes in the neighborhood are placed at risk. Here’s what Mrs. Montserrate Shirley has been telling the news media: "Everybody asked me everything. I am just so, I have been taking medications. I went to the doctor. I am taking anti-depressant medication, taking Xanax...I am a nurse. I cannot sleep. I don't eat. Everybody has been asking me questions, you know, and it is just like, the people lost their lives, I lost my house, everybody lost their house. It's devastating and people keep asking me questions like I know something. I don't know nothing. I just left my house like we always do," said Shirley.17

Gas Explosion can do this much damage
I have seen comments in the news media, and social media, by people who cannot believe that a gas explosion could cause so much damage, so they say something else must be responsible. These comments are speculations, not scientific evidence. Indianapolis Star spoke with experts, regarding what circumstances could cause a gas explosion.18 It would take: • a significant gas leak, like 12 year old Brooke Shirley had been telling her mother for weeks, that she was smelling; • a lack of ventilation, like in the garage and laundry room, where she was smelling the apparent leak;

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http://www.bucyrustelegraphforum.com/article/20121120/NEWS01/311200007/Explosion-Indy-sparkssafety-here?odyssey=tab|topnews|text|FRONTPAGE&nclick_check=1 16 http://www.indystar.com/article/20121114/NEWS/211140338/Attorney-12-year-old-daughterIndianapolis-homeowner-smelled-gas-like-odor-before-fatal-explosion http://www.indystar.com/article/20121114/NEWS/211140338/Attorney-Girl-smelled-gas-like-odor-longbefore-fatal-blast 17 http://www.wthr.com/story/20121922/couple-not-considered-suspects-in-south-side-explosion 18 http://www.indystar.com/article/20121112/NEWS/121112004

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and something to ignite the explosion, which John Shirley speculates was the allegedly malfunctioning furnace, not properly repaired.

Gas explosions have leveled neighborhoods before, including a 2011 explosion that killed five in Allentown, Pa., and a blast in 2010 in San Bruno, California, which killed eight people and destroyed 38 homes. Both of those cases were tied to gas pipelines.19 Authorities now believe the explosion was caused by something done at the Shirley house, but by perpetrators other than the occupants of that house. We must wait for more info to come out of the investigation, before all of this can be made clear.

Aftermath, Immediate
Residents allowed to return to homes with least structural damage, there is a curfew. Between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. residents are asked to be inside their homes for safety and incident scene preservation (easier to prevent looting, and discourage gawkers). Many residents no longer have homes to be inside of. Richmond Hill residents, wanting to get back in their homes as quickly as possible, could meet Indy Dept of Code Enforcement representatives at Southport Presbyterian Church, 7525 McFarland Blvd., 11 a.m. and 6 p.m. Monday Nov-12. Range of topics were to include walkthroughs of damaged structures to short- and long-term solutions for occupancy; insurance; demolition procedures. Media advisory about this: http://www.indy.gov/eGov/City/DCE/Documents/2012%20docs/2012%20PRESS%20RE LEASES/MA%2011%2011%2012Department%20of%20Code%20Enforcement%20to%20Hold%20Informational%20Meet ings%20for%20Displaced%20Residents%20on%20Citys%20South%20Side.pdf

Pets
After 200+ residents of the community were evacuated, some pets were found wandering the neighborhood, police tried to reunite them with their families, but now they are at animal shelters. Here’s links to where they are waiting for their families to pick them up.20 If they are not picked up within 10 days, they may be euthanized.

Al Mac Nov 25 tentative conclusions
In social media, I posted:21 See http://www.scribd.com/doc/114094060 It is also in my Linked In Box Net collection, for people who are linked to me (Disasters and Scandals folder) and in my

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http://www.hazardexonthenet.net/article/54397/Initial-findings-point-to-gas-leak-as-likely-cause-ofIndianapolis-blast.aspx?AreaID=2 20 http://www.wishtv.com/dpp/news/local/marion_county/pets-wait-for-owners-after-south-side-explosion 21 https://plus.google.com/u/0/108007903544513887227/posts/RNM5pKtdRmA here and other places.

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“Disaster Avoidance” collection on Google Drive Documents. 22 I have uploaded a revised edition of my notes on the recent gas explosion in Indianapolis, which is now a criminal investigation (someone caused it to happen), but there is also the issue of a child smelling it for weeks, telling her mother, then adults in the household choosing to not believe her, instead of reporting it to authorities. I added info about the explosion downtown Springfield Ma, which is an accident, due to gas company error, but there is also the issue of people smelling the gas for months, and instead of reporting it, using deodorizer to cover up the smell. Several stories in news media and social media quoted people claiming that the Indy explosion was too powerful to be caused by a gas explosion, so I added info about the San Bruno California pipe line explosion, which many sources claim was the worst in the USA. I no longer believe this, considering the New London Texas school explosion to be the worst I have read about so far, in the USA, where 425 children and teachers died. Worst should not be most people dead, or most buildings demolished, rather it should be the most human errors, because we are not applying lessons learned. The same kind of stupidity again and again is getting a lot of people injured, and a lot of buildings demolished. Look at how often there is a disaster in a weather front, which authorities claim was a freak event, and weather forecast people say was entirely normal. Look how often the police raid the wrong address (thousands of times in America), seriously maiming totally innocent persons, then authorities say it was a freak one in a million error. I saw my school teacher sister over Thanksgiving. I asked her about the state-of-art of driver education, because of the epidemic of drivers not stopping for school buses, hitting the children, then claiming they did not know that school buses are rolling traffic lights. Driver education is no longer taught in US secondary schools, because of budget cuts. There is a common theme that most every disaster is said to be the worst ever, or the worst in 100 years. We are now getting 100 year events every 3 to 5 years. People wrote that the Aurora theater shooting was the worst massacre in US history, but it is easy to search for massacres of American Indians in US history and find several far worse, let alone events labeled as war crimes. Ken Webster observed:23
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Disaster Avoidance collection: https://docs.google.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4bZMTA0YTM0YzktNTI0YS00NjVhLTg5NTItY2RiZjhiM2MzODkw/edit Some people might also be interested in my Drone Info collections: http://www.scribd.com/my_document_collections/3807680 and https://docs.google.com/folder/d/0B9euafJH4b-ZLWR0bmZLS3d5OVk/edit 23 https://plus.google.com/u/0/108609031221581881497/about He has worked in Oil & Gas Companies Mainly in R&D, Engineering & Marketing, mainly as a Mechanical Engineer, Engineering Manager & Marketing Specialist

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Usually natural gas explosions don't cause large scale ensuing flames because the fuel is combusted in such a short duration of time. A short duration combustion of that magnitude also creates an oxygen void in the region which is somewhat prohibitive for most other combustibles to ignite. That is an interesting observation, especially given that in Indianapolis, fire fighters had to deal with several homes afire.

Great Local Indy Sources
I add, update, share more as I see more,24 I live in SW Indiana. There’s conflicting stories, I expect to modify what I have extracted, as story gets clearer. Sometimes after major events, local authorities provide pages on their web sites with key info about those events. Thus we need to be periodically checking there, to see if that materializes. • Indianapolis Dept of Building Code Enforcement (DCE) http://www.indy.gov/eGov/City/DCE/Pages/home.aspx • Indianapolis Dept of Public Safety (DPS) • http://www.indy.gov/eGov/City/dps/Pages/home.aspx • Indianapolis Dept of Public Works (DPW) http://www.indy.gov/eGov/City/dpw/Pages/home.aspx • Indianapolis Fire Department (IFD) http://www.indy.gov/eGov/City/dps/ifd/Pages/home.aspx • Indianapolis Homeland Security (Emergency Management) http://www.indy.gov/egov/city/dps/dhs/Pages/home.aspx • Indianapolis Mayor Greg Ballard http://www.indy.gov/eGov/mayor/Pages/home.aspx • Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Dept (IMPD) http://www.indy.gov/eGov/City/dps/impd/Pages/home.aspx Indianapolis is in Marion County Indiana. 25

News media in Indianapolis vicinity
News media, in Indianapolis, likely to have most current detailed info about this. Indianapolis Star http://www.indystar.com/ Indianapolis TV Stations http://www.stationindex.com/tv/markets/Indianapolis • ABC affiliate RTV6 in Indianapolis,26 has web page focused on stories about the Indianapolis explosion.27 • CBS affiliate WISH in Indianapolis.28
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I can e-mail latest copy of my notes. http://www.wishtv.com/subindex/news/local/marion_county 26 http://www.theindychannel.com/news/local-news/36-homes-critically-damaged-in-explosion-in-southside-neighborhood 27 http://www.theindychannel.com/indianapolis-explosion 28 http://www.wishtv.com/dpp/news/local/marion_county/south-side-explosion-how-to-help

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• FOX affiliate Fox59 in Indianapolis.29 • PBS affiliate WFYI in Indianapolis. • 93.1 radio WIBC in Indianapolis.30 • WTHR in Indianapolis.31 News media in major cities nearest Indianapolis In, such as: Chicago Il; Cincinnati Oh; Columbus Oh; Dayton Oh; Detroit Mi;32 Evansville In; Fort Wayne In; Lexington Ky; Louisville Ky; Springfield Il; St Louis Mo; Toledo Oh. Google News Fort Wayne Indiana offers: Go to www.journalgazette.net/newsletter and pick the subjects you care most about. We'll deliver your customized daily news report at 3 a.m. Fort Wayne time, right to your email.

Notable CI disasters 2012
Here is an incident time line section of my notes on Critical Infrastructure (CI) disasters. I collect info about many disasters, see what they have in common, then consider what improvements could be made in efforts to mitigate risk of high damage in the next similar incident, or even reduce the frequency in which they occur. My overall analysis and mitigation evaluation is in a separate “parent” document, from these incident time-line chunks.33 Scribd loses statistics when we change document name, so I kept the original name “Indy Boom” because I first started looking into this topic on the occasion of a gas explosion which demolished a housing sub-division of Indianapolis. That incident turned out to be deliberate sabotage for insurance fraud, which is not the typical cause of these industrial disasters. There seem to be many causes, such as unintentional criminal negligence, a lack of public education to get witnesses to promptly report leak odors and a lack of enforcement of national safety standards for companies mis-managing these dangerous chemicals. The events, in this time line segment, occurred in: USA. Incidents listed here include: • Criminal activities can contribute to these disasters. o People steal copper and other commodities for resale. Sometimes they are being used so some critical infrastructure remains safe. • Critical Infrastructure personnel have awesome duties, whether they work air traffic control, operate nuclear power plants, or control pipelines. They can be
http://www.wishtv.com/dpp/news/local/marion_county/riggs-gives-update-on-explosion-investigation http://www.wishtv.com/dpp/news/local/marion_county/sandy-survivor-experiences-south-sideindianapolis-explosion 29 http://www.fox59.com/news/wxin-explosion-aftermath-20121112,0,5939645.photogallery 30 http://www.wibc.com/news/local.aspx http://www.wibc.com/news/story.aspx?ID=1815689 31 http://www.wthr.com/story/20068456/impd-imposes-voluntary-curfew-at-richmond-hills 32 http://www.freep.com/article/20121112/NEWS01/121112047/couple-rescued-from-rubble-afterindianapolis-explosion 33 http://www.scribd.com/doc/114094060/Indy-Boom

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overwhelmed with data and alarms. The companies need systems to wisely manage the data and alarms, such as color coding, and the personnel need good training in interpreting what the data and alarms are telling them. Many disasters occur for lack of such support.  Enbridge 2010 July Oil Spill •

Enbridge oil spill into the Kalamazoo river.
o 2010 July 25 the disaster began. Alarms went off for 17 hours, ignored by Enbridge employees, until local residents phoned to complain. Enbridge sent personnel to investigate, who lacked tools or training to do anything about it. Until the BP Gulf of Mexico oil spill, this became the most expensive oil pipeline disaster since the US government started keeping records in 1968. It has cost $ 1 billion and counting. o 2012 July 10 NTSB report came out, with numbers known so far, and a laundry list of the Enbridge company’s failings.. First Responder organizations need to have:  Info about what dangerous chemicals exist in various places, especially when those chemicals can be involved in a leak, fire, or other crisis;  Rapid communications with the institutions which are supposed to be managing those chemicals, are experts on that topic, and should know exactly what is there.  Training in how to deal with pipeline disasters.  This advance planning, then disaster response quality, has been lacking for multiple incidents, including: o 2010 July Enbridge Oil Spill Government Reports o DOT 2012 April 20 testimony about Pipeline modernization o GAO 2012 March-22 report on Pipeline safety o NGOs do various studies finding accidents waiting to happen, all over the place. Indianapolis housing explosion and fire 2012 Nov 10 eventually figured out to be deliberate for insurance fraud, but until figured out, there was humongous misinformation from the perpetrators. o 2 dead, 12 injured o 125 homes affected by the blast … numbers in various conditions get updated periodically in news reports and press conferences. o 33 homes either destroyed or so badly damaged they had to be demolished. o 26 homes unsafe to be inside, until they get major repairs. o 50 homes with minor damage New Albany Indiana (just across Ohio river from Louisville Kentucky) o 2011 Nov = natural gas explosion destroyed a home and injured 6 people. A subsidiary of Vectren had damaged the gas line, while doing construction work, and they did not tell anyone, until after the explosion.

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• •

• •

o 2012 Nov = Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC) fines Vectren $100,000.00 and demands safety improvements, so this not happen again. Organizational Incompetence – see Systemic failures Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) shows up in multiple serious incidents, with an associated record of warnings, which apparently were not heeded in time to avoid the incidents. o 2008 Dec 24 Rancho Cordova Ca Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) Explosion, Leak Release, and Ignition of Natural Gas. o 2010 Sep 9 San Bruno Ca gas pipeline explosion and fire.  Follow-up info on San Bruno disaster. o 2011 Aug 30 NTSB summary report. o 2012 June and July o 2012 Dec 1 Stockton Ca gas pipeline ruptures Pipeline maintenance without safety procedures can be fatal. o 2012 June near Durango Colorado, that happened. Sissonville WV natural gas explosion 2012 Dec 11 o 4 homes destroyed o I-77 had to be shut down for a while, thanks to an 800 foot section of the highway damaged, plus smoke with the fog sabotaging highway visibility. o It took the company over an hour to shut off the gas feeding into the fire. o NTSB found pipes dying of old age. Springfield gas explosion 2012 Nov 23 o It destroyed 2 buildings, damaged 62 buildings,, including 150 residential units, broke windows up to 3 blocks away. No one killed but 18+ injured. Some of the damaged buildings may have to be demolished. o Several corporate failures led to this disaster. o Witnesses smelled gas for weeks but no one reported this to authorities. Management, at one of the destroyed buildings, used deodorant to cover up the smell. o The utility company records were inaccurate. o Firefighters organized evacuation because of the reported gas smell leak, then later let people return, before the explosion. Systemic failures at companies mis-managing fuels, such as pipelines, as if the organization lacks the credentials to meet its heavy responsibilities  Examples:  Counterfeit and defective parts in inventory, and the company oblivious to this happening, or the risks involved. o See Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).  Crack defect detection and remediation o 2010 July Enbridge Oil Spill  Dispatching people, to deal with some crisis, who lacked the training and tools to do anything constructive about it. • 2010 July Enbridge oil poured into Kalamazoo river, • 2010 Sep PG&E’s San Bruno incident.  Inaccurate record keeping. o 2010 Sep PG&E’s San Bruno incident. Critical Infrastructure disasters 2012

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Mapping system needed so company workers and first responders know what pipes are where, their age, when last inspected, what they are carrying. This was lacking: o 2010 Sep PG&E’s San Bruno incident.  Pipeline leak is fueling a fire and explosions. Pipeline company seems to take forever to shut down the fuel for the fire. • 2010 Sep PG&E’s San Bruno incident. Witnesses smell the distinct odor of a leak. They fail to notify authorities. The leak ultimately leads to a disaster. o Multiple stories of gas smelled, and no action taken by the witnesses, except in one case a company used deodorant to cover up the odor.

2012 March 22 GAO report on Pipeline safety
Here is summary of the GAO report, on federally unregulated pipelines.34 Here is the 41 page detail GAO report.35 Approx 200,000 miles of pipelines, in the USA, do not come under federal regulation. While incidents involving pipelines subject to federal regulations have led to $ millions in property damage in recent years, statistics for federally unregulated gathering pipelines are unknown. The GAO looked into • (1) safety risks that exist, if any, with onshore hazardous liquid and natural gas gathering pipelines not currently under PHMSA regulation and • (2) practices states use to help ensure the safety of these pipelines. GAO surveyed state pipeline safety agencies in all 50 states and the District of Columbia; interviewed officials at PHMSA, state pipeline safety agencies, pipeline companies, and industry associations; and analyzed data and regulations. GAO recommended that DOT should • (1) collect data on federally unregulated hazardous liquid and gas gathering pipelines and • (2) establish an online clearinghouse or other resource for sharing information on pipeline safety practices. DOT provided technical corrections on a draft of this report.

2012 April 20 DOT Secretary on pipeline modernization.
See 2013 Jan 28 US Senate hearing testimony of Mr. Jimmy Staton Executive Vice President and Group CEO of NiSource Gas Transmission and Storage, which is the parent company of Columbia Gas Transmission.36 Appendix B of that download is US Department of Transportation (DOT) press release, where Secretary LaHood pledges support to expedite NiSource’s pipeline modernization project. The amount of money they plan to invest is mind-boggling.

34 35

http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-388 http://www.gao.gov/assets/590/589514.pdf 36 I downloaded, naming it: US Senate Pipeline NiSource 2013 Jan.

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2012 June – CO
There was an explosion at a natural gas compression station in southwestern Colorado, 15 miles east of Durango. Federal regulators found that a valve on the pipeline was left closed. That caused pressure to build up quickly, rupturing the pipeline. • 1 dead • 2 injured An Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) citation faults BP and the contractors for not having safety procedures in place before the maintenance work began. In 2013, BP, Halliburton and the other contractors were each fined $7,000 -- the maximum allowed under the law.37

2012 June 17 – 2010 San Bruno NTSB follow-up
• National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) released info related to their investigation of the 2010 San Bruno disaster. 38 o San Bruno is near San Francisco. o PG&E claimed the pipeline could withstand pressure greater than what was measured there, but their record keeping was a disaster. NTSB found pipe at the explosion site which was vastly inferior to the kind of pipe there in PG&E records. The pipeline was built in 1948, moved in 1956 to satisfy a developer, at a time when there was no government regulation requiring any quality control or testing which would have discovered the inferior pipe sections. Then as government regulations asked for such things, they grandfathered prior pipes as not needing to meet the new standards. The NTSB recommended that such grandfathering be ended. o The immediate cause was PG&E doing some maintenance, during which there was a malfunction. The stuff, it controlled, had not been shut down during the maintenance. o PG&E’s response capabilities were a disaster. They found out about the rupture thanks to news media reports, and sent an investigator, who lacked the qualifications needed, to stop the flow of gas into the fire. Two offduty employees responded, after they saw the news. NTSB recommended that pipelines have alarms to detect ruptures, and hardware to shut off gas where they occur, without having to wait for company employees to arrive on the scene. o NTSB made recommendations to PG&E, California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC),39 and to the federal PHMSA to address the many problems they found with PG&E organization, accountability, and government oversight. o In the USA there are over 300,000 miles of similar pipelines. Residents usually do not know when there are pipelines near where they live and

37 38

http://www.thedenverchannel.com/news/local-news/bp-halliburton-fined-in-fatal-pipeline-explosion http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1384 39 http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/puc/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_Public_Utilities_Commission

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work. In other links I have shared,40 there is evidence that the vast majority of US pipelines are dying of old age, with leaks all over the place. As I have stated elsewhere, I believe all community political leaders should be informed about pipelines running through their area, hazardous materials on railroads and other transportation through their area, and be copied on inspection oversight reports.

2012 July 10 – NTSB on 2010 Marshall Mi Enbridge Oil Spill
2010 07 25 was date of the Enbridge Incorporated Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Rupture and Release, located in Marshall Michigan wetlands. • As of NTSB July 2012 report: (later reports increased some numbers) • Total release estimated = 843,444 gallons of crude oil. • About 320 people reported symptoms consistent with crude oil exposure. • No fatalities were reported. 2012 07 10 is date of NTSB summary report.41 Quoting from it: The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) determined that the probable cause of the pipeline rupture was corrosion fatigue cracks which grew and coalesced from crack and corrosion defects under disbonded polyethylene tape coating, producing a substantial crude oil release that went undetected by the control center for over 17 hours. The rupture and prolonged release were made possible by pervasive organizational failures at Enbridge Incorporated (Enbridge) which included:
• • •

Deficient integrity management procedures, which allowed well-documented crack defects in corroded areas to propagate until the pipeline failed. Inadequate training of control center personnel, which allowed the rupture to remain undetected for 17 hours and through two startups of the pipeline. Insufficient public awareness and education, which allowed the release to continue for nearly 14 hours, after the first notification of an odor to local emergency response agencies. Contributing to the accident was the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration's (PHMSA) weak regulation for assessing and repairing crack indications, as well as PHMSA's ineffective oversight of pipeline integrity management programs, control center procedures, and public awareness. Contributing to the severity of the environmental consequences were: (1) Enbridge's failure to identify and ensure the availability of well-trained emergency responders with sufficient response resources,
40 41

https://projects.propublica.org/pipelines/ http://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/reports_pipeline.html http://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/summary/PAR1201.html

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(2) PHMSA's lack of regulatory guidance for pipeline facility response planning, and (3) PHMSA's limited oversight of pipeline emergency preparedness that led to the approval of a deficient facility response plan.

Safety issues with 2010 July Enbridge Oil Spill
Safety issues identified during this accident investigation include the following:

The inadequacy of Enbridge's integrity management program to accurately assess and remediate crack defects. Enbridge's crack management program relied on a single in-line inspection technology to identify and estimate crack sizes. Enbridge used the resulting inspection reports to perform engineering assessments without accounting for uncertainties associated with the data, tool, or interactions between cracks and corrosion. A 2005 Enbridge engineering assessment and the company's criteria for excavation and repair showed that six crack-like defects ranging in length from 9.3 to 51.6 inches were left in the pipeline, unrepaired, until the July 2010 rupture. The failure of Enbridge's control center staff to recognize abnormal conditions related to ruptures. Enbridge's leak detection and supervisory control and data acquisition systems generated alarms consistent with a ruptured pipeline on July 25 and July 26, 2010; however, the control center staff failed to recognize that the pipeline had ruptured until notified by an outside caller more than 17 hours later. During the July 25 shutdown, the control center staff attributed the alarms to the shutdown and interpreted them as indications of an incompletely filled pipeline (known as column separation). On July 26, the control center staff pumped additional oil into the rupture pipeline for about 1.5 hours during two startups. The control center staff received many more leak detection alarms and noted large differences between the amount of oil being pumped into the pipeline and the amount being delivered, but the staff continued to attribute these conditions to column separation. An Enbridge supervisor had granted the control center staff permission to start up the pipeline for a third time just before they were notified about the release. The inadequacy of Enbridge's facility response plan to ensure adequate training of the first responders and sufficient emergency response resources allocated to respond to a worst-case release. The first responders to the oil spill were four Enbridge employees from a local pipeline maintenance shop in Marshall, Michigan. Their efforts were focused downstream along the Talmadge Creek rather than near the immediate area of the rupture. The first responders neglected to use the culverts along the Talmadge Creek as underflow dams to minimize the spread of oil, and they deployed booms unsuitable for the fast-flowing waters. Further, the oil spill response contractors, identified in Enbridge's facility response plan, were unable to immediately deploy to the rupture site and were over 10 hours away. Inadequate regulatory requirements and oversight of crack defects in pipelines. Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 195.452(h) fails to provide clear requirements for performing an engineering assessment and remediation of crack-like defects on a pipeline. In the absence of prescriptive regulatory requirements, Enbridge applied its own methodology and margins of safety. Enbridge chose to use a lower 17 Critical Infrastructure disasters 2012

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margin of safety for cracks than for corrosion when assessing crack defects. PHMSA expects pipeline operators to excavate all crack features; however, PHMSA did not issue any findings about the methods used by Enbridge in previous inspections. Inadequate regulatory requirements for facility response plans under 49 CFR 194.115, which do not mandate the amount of resources or recovery capacity required for a worst-case discharge. In the absence of such requirements, Enbridge interpreted the level of oil response resources required under PHMSA's three-tier response time frame, resulting in a lack of adequate oil spill recovery equipment and resources in the early hours of the first response. By contrast, the U.S. Coast Guard (Coast Guard) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations specify effective daily response capability for each of the three tiers for oil spill response planning. PHMSA's inadequate review and approval of Enbridge's facility response plan that failed to verify that the plan content was accurate and timely for an estimated worst-case discharge of 1,111,152 gallons. PHMSA's facility response program oversaw 450 facility response plans with 1.5 full-time employees, which is a lower staffing commitment than comparable response plan review programs carried out by the EPA and the Coast Guard. PHMSA and other Federal agencies receive funding from the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund to cover operational, personnel, enforcement, and other related program costs. As a result of this investigation, the NTSB makes safety recommendations to the U.S. Secretary of Transportation, PHMSA, Enbridge, the American Petroleum Institute, the Pipeline Research Council International, the International Association of Fire Chiefs, and the National Emergency Number Association. The NTSB also reiterates a previous recommendation to PHMSA.

NTSB Recommendations re: Enbridge Oil Spill in Marshall Mi

New Recommendations
To the U.S. Secretary of Transportation: Audit the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration's onshore pipeline facility response plan program's business practices, including reviews of response plans and drill programs, and take appropriate action to correct deficiencies. (P-12-1) Allocate sufficient resources as necessary to ensure that the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration's onshore pipeline facility response plan program meets all of the requirements of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. (P-12-2) To the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration: (PHMSA) Revise Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations 195.452 to clearly state (1) when an engineering assessment of crack defects, including environmentally assisted cracks, must be performed; 18 Critical Infrastructure disasters 2012

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(2) the acceptable methods for performing these engineering assessments, including the assessment of cracks coinciding with corrosion with a safety factor that considers the uncertainties associated with sizing of crack defects; (3) criteria for determining when a probable crack defect in a pipeline segment must be excavated and time limits for completing those excavations; (4) pressure restriction limits for crack defects that are not excavated by the required date; and (5) acceptable methods for determining crack growth for any cracks allowed to remain in the pipe, including growth caused by fatigue, corrosion fatigue, or stress corrosion cracking as applicable. (P-12-3) Revise Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations 195.452(h)(2), the "discovery of condition," to require, in cases where a determination about pipeline threats has not been obtained within 180 days following the date of inspection, that pipeline operators notify the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration and provide an expected date when adequate information will become available. (P-12-4) Conduct a comprehensive inspection of Enbridge Incorporated's integrity management program after it is revised in accordance with Safety Recommendation P-12-11. (P-125) Issue an advisory bulletin to all hazardous liquid and natural gas pipeline operators describing the circumstances of the accident in Marshall, Michigan—including the deficiencies observed in Enbridge Incorporated's integrity management program —and ask them to take appropriate action to eliminate similar deficiencies. (P-12-6) Provide additional training to first responders to ensure that they (1) are aware of the best response practices and the potential consequences of oil releases and (2) receive practical training in the use of appropriate oil-containment and -recovery methods for all potential environmental conditions in the response zones. (P-12-14) Review and update your oil pipeline emergency response procedures and equipment resources to ensure that appropriate containment equipment and methods are available to respond to all environments and at all locations along the pipeline to minimize the spread of oil from a pipeline rupture. (P-12-15) Update your facility response plan to identify adequate resources to respond to and mitigate a worst-case discharge for all weather conditions and for all your pipeline locations before the required resubmittal in 2015. (P-12-16) To the American Petroleum Institute:

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Facilitate the development of a safety management system standard specific to the pipeline industry that is similar in scope to your Recommended Practice 750, Management of Process Hazards. The development should follow established American National Standards Institute requirements for standard development. (P-1217) To the Pipeline Research Council International: Conduct a review of various in-line inspection tools and technologies—including, but not limited to, tool tolerance, the probability of detection, and the probability of identification—and provide a model with detailed step-by-step procedures to pipeline operators for evaluating the effect of interacting corrosion and crack threats on the integrity of pipelines. (P-12-18) To the International Association of Fire Chiefs and the National Emergency Number Association: Inform your members about the circumstances of the Marshall, Michigan, pipeline accident and urge your members to aggressively and diligently gather from pipeline operators system-specific information about the pipeline systems in their communities and jurisdictions. (P-12-19)

Reiterated Recommendation
As a result of this accident investigation, the National Transportation Safety Board reiterates the following previously issued safety recommendation: Require operators of natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines and hazardous liquid pipelines to provide system-specific information about their pipeline systems to the emergency response agencies of the communities and jurisdictions in which those pipelines are located. This information should include pipe diameter, operating pressure, product transported, and potential impact radius. (P-11-8) UNQUOTE

2012 July 18 – 2010 San Bruno Organization Accident follow-up
• The San Francisco Chronicle continues to cover fallout from the 2010 San Bruno explosion.42 Van Derbeken reports on internal PG&E documents he obtained which detail how PG&E encouraged its managers to downgrade the status of nearly 2,300 natural gas leaks the company had identified throughout its natural gas pipeline network and defer the maintenance in order to save the company as much as $5 million.43

42 43

http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?cat=8 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1418 http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/PG-E-memo-Downgrading-leaks-would-cut-costs-3709090.php

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As usual, top management claim they did not know this was going on. But stopping this kind of mistake is one of the purposes of a regular audit.

2012 Aug 3 – Corning NY Do-it-yourself Gas Explosion
• A natural gas leak that occurred during a water heater project caused Friday’s home explosion on Wilson Street, fire officials have confirmed. o The blast totally demolished the home, and also damaged some nearby homes. Four nearby homes were ruled unsafe and closed off by city fire officials, and another three were classified as “enter at owner’s risk.” Another 15 to 20 homes had relatively minor damage. o “What happened is, the two occupants were replacing a hot water heater in the basement, and inadvertently caused a natural gas leak, and when they lit their propane torch to sweat some copper fittings, that was just enough ignition source to cause the explosion,” said Corning Fire Chief John Tighe.44 The two do-it-yourself occupants are lucky to be alive.

2012 Aug 15 – Fort Lupton Co Gas Explosion
• An Encana Corp’s natural gas drilling rig, near Fort Lupton, Colorado exploded, killing 1 man, injuring 3 others.45

2012 Aug 23 – pipeline sabotaged
• This was apparently the beginning of a crime spree directed towards sabotage of a pipeline construction effort.46 Many people have reasons to be politically opposed to what some companies are doing, and we have a right to freedom of speech in expressing those oppositions. But taking violent action to interfere, with legal corporate action, that is beyond acceptable behavior.

2012 Aug 25 – Lorain Oh
• In Lorain Ohio, Columbia Gas has an incident,47 which sent four people to the hospital with serious injuries.48

44

http://www.the-leader.com/news/x1225368400/Home-explosion-victims-in-guarded-conditioninvestigation-continues http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1496 http://www.stargazette.com/article/20121226/NEWS01/312260051/Looking-back-2012-Gas-explosionrocks-Corning-neighborhood 45 http://www.denverpost.com/news/ci_21332352/man-killed-natural-gas-well-explosion-near-fort http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1496 46 http://www.heraldstaronline.com/page/content.detail/id/581274/Man-charged-in-pipelineincidents.html?nav=5010
47

http://primis.phmsa.dot.gov/comm/reports/operator/OperatorIM_opid_2616.html?nocache=350#_Incidents _tab_4 48 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1696

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2012 Aug 27 – Los Angeles CA Gas Explosion
Gas from an appliance in a ground-floor unit migrated throughout the building, until it was ultimately ignited by a spark from the unit above. Two men inside the damaged unit told firefighters that after cooking, they had smelled natural gas in their kitchen - but were unable to identify the source. Minutes later, after one man left the room, a thunderous but fire-free explosion occurred behind the stove, fully toppling the appliance as well as a refrigerator nearby, and causing significant damage to walls shared by the kitchen and an adjacent room. 49 In this scenario it sounds like they did not have good enough noses, or enough time to sound an SOS to the Gas Company. Cause-Avoidance (see Labeling Causes chapter) practical via: o Alarms Better

2012 Oct 12 – Castle Rock Co Gas Explosion
o Residents in Castle Rock, Colorado reported smelling gas on and off for a few days before the blast that flattened their home on the 6900 block of Sulfur Lane. No one was killed in that blast but 5 were injured. 50 o One of the survivors is now pressuring the natural gas industry to do a better job of educating the public about the risks, and how to protect ourselves. It may be necessary to organize a class action law suit, to demand the industry do this, because there is a lot of misinformation out there, and some of it is

due to incorrect and misleading industry claims how the gas is supposed to smell.51
o When something unusual hits the news, and we start following updates, we find other similar events, which we might not have noticed, were we not following the other main event. Is the volume and frequency of these incidents unusual, state-of-art, suspicious?52 o As of Nov-24, It was evident from many news stories, that, without anyone calling the gas company, gas had been smelled in ample time in advance to avert disaster. o In the Indianapolis explosion, a 12 year old girl had smelled gas for weeks, and was not believed by adults in the same household, who chose not to call the gas company to be sure. o In the Springfield explosion, many workers smelled gas for months in advance, management used deodorant to cover up the odor, chose not to call the gas company, until someone called at the last minute. o So did anyone call the gas company in the Castle Rock incident? o Cause-Avoidance (see Labeling Causes chapter) practical via:
49

http://lafd.blogspot.com/2012/08/neighbors-gas-leak-leads-to-explosion.html http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1496 50 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1666 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1557 51 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1666 52 http://news.gather.com/viewArticle.action?articleId=281474981774136

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o Alarms Better. o Public Education Better.

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2012 Oct-Nov – Super Storm Sandy Chaos
• Hurricane Sandy revealed many neglected infrastructure problems. o Infrastructure has been neglected, and is not getting fixed, even with massive federal stimulus money specifically targeted at doing that. Obvious upgrades are not being made, because they are only needed for a once in a century disaster, but now we are having a once in a century disaster every 3-5 years, as politicians fail to learn statistics or history. o Sea levels have been rising, whether you deny Climate Change or not, so levees and storm surge protection needs to be raised. With Global Warming, the storms will get stronger and unload more water. Republican controlled legislatures have ordered weather forecasters not to factor in global warming or climate change in their forecast models, so if you believe, as I do, that this is really happening, then most storms will be worse than what is forecast. o Pipelines need power, and the electrical systems involved, can be placed at risk by flooding.53  See 1983 East Boston. How long does it take to upgrade the infrastructure to eliminate risk of repetition? o Fire Fighters need power and water pressure. Natural gas line breakage fuels a big fire in Queens,54 and s smaller one in New Jersey.55 It took the gas company a day to realize they needed to stop sending more gas to the Queens fire.56 A gas company spokesperson said they have to send a person to each home to shut off the gas. Wrong, if you have state-of-art pipelines, you can shut off gas to a neighborhood, a city, a region. But many gas companies do not have state-of-art, even after years of regulators asking for this. For a similar story, see 2010 San Bruno followup 2012 June NTSB, where:  PG&E found out about San Bruno fire from the news media.  Their response was inept.  NTSB recommended that PHMSA take action with public utility oversight in all US states, to make sure that other similar companies have response plans that are not inept.  It is obvious that the ball has been dropped multiple places in getting the word out.  Note that the 2010 Marshal MI oil spill response was also inept, and now has cost that company about $1b. o The subways fill with lots of water, which needs to be pumped out, which needs power. The electrical systems in the subways have not been protected from exposure to water.

53 54

http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1580 http://www.mcall.com/news/local/mc-sandy-ny-nj-20121029,0,3364049.story 55 http://www.wpix.com/news/wpix-natural-gas-explosion-103112,0,2864123.story 56 http://www.cnbc.com/id/49685498

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o Stairwells assume outside windows provide light, but that is not the reality when the power is out for a whole city. Internal corridors have emergency lighting for only 3 hours at most. o Some people do not evacuate for fear of looting, and they remember prior storms where they were told to evacuate, they don’t think those were that bad, then say “how bad could this get?” as if it is a rhetorical question.

2012 Oct 20 White Van of Indy investigation
• By my math, this is 3 weeks before the deadly Indianapolis explosion. This photo is of a white van which has figured prominently in the criminal case. 57 o The photos were taken at 8349 Fieldfare Way by a former customer, of Leonard's home improvement business, who's suing him. o The customer told WRTV it's the same vehicle Leonard drove to a court appearance.

2012 Oct 27 – Saybrook IL Home Explodes
• Initial stories don’t know what caused it, investigation continues. One of the 3 residents was killed.58

2012 Oct 30 – Columbus OH Home Explodes, Flat Top WV
• • • A ruptured gas line is believed to be the cause of a house blowing up, whose occupants miraculously survived.59 In Flat Top West Virginia, Columbia Gas has an equipment failure. 60

2012 Oct 31 – La Jolla CA Home Explodes
In La Jolla, near San Diego, a natural gas explosion, near a water heater, destroyed one home and triggered a fire which severely damaged two others.61

2012 Nov – Boston MA study
o A November 2012 study by researchers at Boston University and Duke University found more than 3,000 leaks in the City of Boston's aging natural-gas pipeline

57

http://www.newsnet5.com/dpp/news/national/indianapolis-explosion-photos-show-white-van-parked-athome-3-weeks-before-deadly-blast 58 http://www.pantagraph.com/news/local/crime-and-courts/woman-dies-in-house-explosion-insaybrook/article_6c75c7b0-20a6-11e2-a4c1-001a4bcf887a.html http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1603 59 http://www.10tv.com/content/stories/2012/10/30/columbus-fire-officials-believed-ruptured-gas-line-wasto-blame-for-house-explosion.html http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1603
60

http://primis.phmsa.dot.gov/comm/reports/operator/OperatorIM_opid_2616.html?nocache=350#_Incidents _tab_4 61 http://www.cbs8.com/story/19959383/massive-mount-soledad-house-fire-caused-by-natural-gasexplosion http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1603

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system. Six of these leaks exceeded the threshold above which explosions can occur, the researchers found.62

2012 Nov 10 Sat – Indianapolis Residential Gas explosion
• 11.10 pm the explosion occurred, according to earthquake sensors at Indiana University (IU).63 o Within the first hour, 911 had received over 600 calls from witnesses. 64 Those call recordings are being preserved, in case any needed in the criminal investigation. o Indianapolis Fire Department (IFD) responds to 911 calls about the blast; 27 vehicles and more than 100 firefighters are dispatched to 2 alarm fire. About 25 off-duty police officers and firefighters also responded to the scene. 12.08 pm Real earthquake detected in Indiana. 4.3 located 10 miles west of Whitesburg, Kentucky, near Virginia border. 12.30 pm IFD have fire under control, are going after hot spots, also going door to door to check on occupants of damaged homes. 200+ residents are evacuated via IndyGo buses. 7 people taken to hospitals by ambulances, 1 injured person drives self to hospital. In immediate aftermath of the explosion, and fire, there was arrival of full spectrum of First Responders, Homeland Security, Indianapolis Mayor Greg Ballard, Mental Health professionals, the Red Cross, and more.

• •

Nov 11 Sun
• • • 2.24 am IFD confirms 1 fatality. 3.24 am IFD confirms 2nd fatality. 11 am residents allowed back into 50 least damaged homes to collect belongings.65 Department of Public Works officials going from seriously damaged house to house. Investigators using a ladder truck with a cherry-picker bucket to survey the damage from up high. No one being allowed inside. 1 pm Relief Center moves from Mary Bryan Elementary School Gymnasium to Southport Presbyterian Church. 3 pm power had been restored on a case by case basis to habitable homes where the residents want to be home, and authorities verify that safe. Sunday afternoon, Indianapolis Department of (Building) Code Enforcement (DCE) told the media that inspectors have been through all 126 homes in the Richmond Hill neighborhood. Inspectors determined 5 homes were destroyed or suffered enough damage to require demolition. They say 26 more homes had

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http://www.csmonitor.com/Environment/Energy-Voices/2012/1127/Unnatural-disasters-What-can-bedone-about-natural-gas-pipeline-explosions 63 http://www.wthr.com/story/20113478/seismographs-show-explosion-timeline 64 http://www.wishtv.com/dpp/news/local/marion_county/911-dispatchers-played-critical-role-in-blast 65 http://www.wane.com/dpp/news/local/blast-victim-theres-more-anger-now-dbl

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damage major enough that they are unsafe for occupants. Another 50 homes had minor damage. These numbers evolved in multiple updates to the media. 66 7 pm Candlelight vigil at Southwest Elementary School in Greenwood for victim Jennifer Longworth, who taught second grade at the school. She and her husband, John Dion Longworth, were believed to have died in the blast. Hundreds of people attended this. 8.30 pm Arson investigators, ATF, and Citizen Gas utility crews, still working at scene. NTSB arrived too late Sunday, to participate meaningfully, that day.

Nov 12 Mon
• • Greenwood Indiana schools on a two-hour delay Monday to give staff members a chance to prepare for how they will break the news to students. 8 am Indy Police Dept confirmed deaths of Jennifer L. Longworth, 36, and her husband, John D. Longworth, 34, and said their remains were found in the basement of their wiped out home at 8355 Fieldfare. A report from the Marion County coroner is needed to officially establish their identities. Glenn and Gloria Olvey had been rescued from the rubble of 8343 Field Fare Way home also destroyed. Between 8343 and 8355 is 8349 occupied by Mrs. Shirley and 12 year old daughter, neither home at time of explosion, which also destroyed their home. They recently had to have work done on a furnace, and Mr. Shirley speculated that work was not done properly, and may have been the cause of the disaster. 9.20 am Citizen’s Gas Energy utility reports they have been checking all the gas lines, and not found any problems yet.

Nov 13 Tu
• Citizens Energy Spokesperson Sarah Holsapple confirms that Citizens Energy Group found no leaks in the gas main or individual gas lines that feed homes in the area where the blast occurred.67

Nov 15 Thu
• • Engineers or insurance adjusters have assessed most of the homes damaged late Saturday night, minus about a dozen that require structural bracing and another 11 near the core of the explosion, of which little remains.68 Coroner officially identifies the two people killed in the blast. Dental records confirmed that Jennifer L. Longworth and John “Dion” Longworth died in the explosion, according to a statement from Chief Deputy Coroner Alfie Ballew.69

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http://www.wthr.com/story/20065797/investigators-survey-damage-from-indianapolis-explosion http://widgets.wishtv.com/reportit/gallery/58/0/Explosion-on-south-side-destroys-homes/intro/ 67 http://www.wibc.com/news/story.aspx?ID=1817574 http://www.wishtv.com/dpp/video/video-citizens-comments-on-south-side-explosion 68 http://www.greenfieldreporter.com/view/story/dc02abfddf6f4ec4bcf8dc3919fe947f/US--IndianapolisHouse-Explosion 69 http://www.indystar.com/viewart/20121115/NEWS/121115033/Corner-officially-identifies-two-peoplekilled-Indianapolis-explosion

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Nov 19 Mon – Indy explosion was no accident
Marion County Prosecutor Terry Curry announces that this is now a criminal homicide investigation, because the explosion was no accident. 70 Authorities are seeking info from anyone about a white van seen in the Richmond Hills subdivision the afternoon of November 10 and info about the occupants of that van. Richmond Hill's Neighborhood Crime Watch captain says neighbors had seen a white van before at the first home that blew up, when the Shirley family was not home. It was a windowless work van, about 15 years old. Crime Stoppers is offering $1,000 and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms is offering up to $10,000 leading to an arrest and conviction. Anonymous tips can be called in to Central Indiana Crime Stoppers at 262-TIPS. Greenwood Elementary school closed for the day, so students could attend the funeral of Jennifer and Dion Longworth.71 Jennifer taught second grade at the school.

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Nov 20 Tues – Indy + Ut + Id
• • • If pets, which were separated from their human families in the Indy explosion and fire, are not picked up from animal shelters within 10 days, they may be euthanized.72 Indianapolis Public Safety Director Troy Riggs clarified the Richmond Hill subdivision explosion probe is not yet an "arson investigation." 73 Indianapolis Police officials confirmed that they had taken into possession and inspected the white van that prosecutors mentioned in Monday’s news conference announcing that the case is now a criminal homicide investigation. 74

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http://www.indystar.com/article/20121119/NEWS/121119044/Statement-from-Prosecutor-Terry-CurryRichmond-Hill-explosion http://www.indystar.com/article/20121119/NEWS/121119040/Authorities-call-Richmond-Hill-explosiona-homicide-case-seek-details-on-white-van?odyssey=tab|mostpopular|text|LIFE10 http://www.wthr.com/story/20140143/indianapolis-explosion-investigated-as-criminal-homicide http://www.wthr.com/story/20142800/neighbors-mad-over-richmond-hill-announcement http://www.wishtv.com/dpp/video/video-prosecutor-says-explosion-now-a-homicide-investigation http://www.wishtv.com/dpp/news/local/marion_county/residents-react-to-homicide-investigation http://www.hazardexonthenet.net/article/54595/Indianapolis-explosion-now-being-investigated-ashomicide.aspx?AreaID=2 http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/breaking/chi-officials-fatal-indianapolis-explosion-fire-nowhomicide-investigation-20121119,0,5051932.story http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/ind-home-explosion-now-homicide-investigation-17764126 http://www.theatlanticwire.com/national/2012/11/explosion-indianapolis-even-scarier-now-its-homicidecase/59160/ 71 http://www.wthr.com/story/20131497/greenwood-school-closed-for-south-side-explosion-victims 72 http://www.wishtv.com/dpp/news/local/marion_county/pets-wait-for-owners-after-south-side-explosion http://www.greenfieldreporter.com/view/story/ce98710da6794a42a9ce5120899283c4/US--IndianapolisExplosion-Cat http://www.indystar.com/article/20121127/OPINION03/211270332/5-Q-s-Daniel-T-Shackle 73 http://www.wibc.com/news/Story.aspx?ID=1823279 74 http://www.indystar.com/article/20121120/NEWS/121120036/Officials-suspect-gas-intentionallyreleased-into-home-center-Richmond-Hill-explosion?odyssey=mod|breaking|text|IndyStar.com

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Indy Authorities confirm that search warrants have been issued, many people questioned, no arrests yet. Officials have said they believe natural gas was involved in the explosion, they have ruled out an accident, and that they are focusing on appliances and humans, as the cause. They do not yet know how many people involved in the criminal conspiracy. 75 There are 15 heavily damaged homes, whose residents have limited return access, due to the unfinished investigation. With every major news event, there are people who use it to promote their business or charity, some legitimately, some in a crooked way. This Indy explosion is no exception to this rule. It's that time of year when having a working, running furnace is of the utmost importance. As usual, you need to do due diligence, before spending a lot of money on what may turn out to be a financial disaster for your pocket book, your home, and your compliance with government regulations.76 Meanwhile, a natural gas explosion around 10 am at the Dry Canyon natural gas processing facility near Price, Utah, damaged several buildings and sent two workers to the hospital with critical injuries.77 It was believed to be due to a rupture which began around 9 am.78 Also, a backhoe pierced a four-inch natural gas main, triggering a natural gas explosion in Lewiston, Idaho, which sent a tower of flame nearly 100 feet into the air, destroyed a nearby home and sent several people to the hospital to be treated for minor injuries.79 o Cause-Avoidance (see Labeling Causes chapter) practical via:  Utility Line Mapping  Corporate Training

Nov 21 Wed – In, NJ
• Marion County prosecutor refused to say if any of the people who have been questioned, are also suspects in the case. There have been no arrests yet in connection with the Indy explosion. He also could not confirm whether the blast involved a manipulated pipe or detonation from outside the home at 8349 Fieldfare Way where the blast is believed to have originated. 80

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http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/chi-indianapolis-explosion-blast-not-accidental-prosecutor-says20121120,0,1679248.story http://www.hazardexonthenet.net/article/54397/Initial-findings-point-to-gas-leak-as-likely-cause-ofIndianapolis-blast.aspx?AreaID=2 76 http://www.wlfi.com/dpp/news/local/local-companies-may-be-taking-advantage-of-indianapolisexplosion 77 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1658 http://www.businessweek.com/ap/2012-11-20/2-workers-hurt-in-natural-gas-explosion-near-price http://fox13now.com/2012/11/20/explosion-at-gas-compressor-in-carbon-county/ 78 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1658 http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/news/55330331-78/mills-gas-station-explosion.html.csp 79 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1658 http://www.firefighternation.com/article/news-2/flames-shoot-site-idaho-natural-gas-explosion http://www.oregonlive.com/pacific-northwest-news/index.ssf/2012/11/natural_gas_explosion_rattles.html 80 http://www.wibc.com/news/story.aspx?ID=1824187

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33 homes will need to be demolished, 29 soon, 4 delayed until the investigation has completed. This represents approx 25% of the 125 Indy homes impacted by the blast. Investigators believe it was intentionally set and caused by natural gas. 81 Meanwhile, An explosion in Newark, New Jersey, on Nov. 21 destroyed one home, while fire damaged a nearby house, leaving one family homeless. Natural Gas is suspected.82 o I am assuming this was the same incident as in Gloucester Township New Jersey, where occupants narrowly escaped after what investigators believe: a gas line ruptured; causing an explosion; then a massive fire.

Nov 22 Thu
• The parent-teacher organization started the Jennifer and Dion Longworth Memorial Award at Southwest Elementary School in Greenwood.83 Its first donation came from Indianapolis Colts owner Jim Irsay. Over its first 10 years, the $1,000 scholarship will be awarded to one of her former students once they graduate from Greenwood High School.84

2012 Nov 23 Fri – Springfield MA Gas Explosion
• There was, what is believed initially to be, natural gas explosion in Springfield Massachusetts, 90 miles west of Boston. Springfield, which has about 150,000 residents, is the largest city in western Massachusetts.85 Initial news stories had a chaos of conflicting info, so my time line will get corrected as more info gets clarified. o See Labeling Causes chapter. o Several Causes have been identified.  Customer Failure by the Strip Club Manager – just maybe he did not know what was causing the smell, so he masked it instead of the company hiring a contractor to identify and resolve it.  Criminal Negligence by the Strip Club Manager  Utility Line Map Inadequate or Absent o Cause-Avoidance practical via:  Alarms Better  Utility Line Map Quality Due to Thanksgiving holiday weekend, many businesses were closed, such as day care center heavily damaged. I think something is wrong with Springfield Zoning

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http://triblive.com/usworld/nation/3004540-74/homes-blast-investigators-indianapolis-explosion-believecase-curry-damaged-orders http://www.indystar.com/article/20121120/NEWS/121120036/Officials-suspect-gas-intentionally-releasedinto-home-center-Richmond-Hill-explosion?odyssey=mod|breaking|text|IndyStar.com 82 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1658 http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2012/11/21/explosion-rocks-vacant-newark-building-spreads-to-nearbyhouse/ 83 http://www.gws.k12.in.us/sw/longworth.pdf 84 http://www.greenfieldreporter.com/view/story/2399a34a540642f29cbe2fb4d5fa7c44/IN--IndianapolisExplosion-Scholarship 85 http://www.masslive.com/news/index.ssf/2012/12/top_ten_stories_of_the_year_ga.html

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• • • • •

to have a day care center, next door to a strip club ,86 unless it is for the kids of the strippers.87 The strip club was in the process of being evacuated, with Columbia Gas of Massachusetts investigating the source of the smell, when it blew, destroying two buildings, all windows in a three-block radius, and damaging others beyond repair, didn't kill anyone, but injured at least 18. Workers at the strip club had allegedly smelled gas for weeks, but this had not been promptly reported to authorities.88 Friday night, a dancer at the club told the Boston Globe that she had smelled gas in the building over the past four months. She said the club’s owner used deodorizers to mask the scent.89 o Although this would seem to indicate that the Strip Club’s negligence had major responsibility for the scale of the disaster, within a month later, Columbia Gas had paid out just over $1 million in cash advances and settlements.90 Maybe they will later sue the Strip Club to recover as much of this as the Strip Club and their insurance can pay for. o While state arson investigators later determined a Columbia employee responding to a report of a leak accidentally punctured a gas line which had been mismarked earlier, the leak had been in progress for months, until it became too strong to cover up any more, so Columbia Gas was notified, and their employee dispatched to the area. 4.20 pm, Firefighters responded to the scene because of a reported gas leak. 4.30 pm, authorities were beginning to let people return to buildings, evacuated during an investigation because of multiple calls reporting a smell of gas. 5.25 pm approx, the explosion, which damaged 62 buildings around the blast site, and 150 residential units. 7 pm approx, chaos at the area had quieted down. Three of the injured were gas workers, two were firefighters, and at least one was a police officer, according to hospital officials and the New England Gas Workers Association, a nonprofit that promotes gas safety. FOX says 11 of the injured were fire fighters.91

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http://www.bostonherald.com/news/regional/view.bg?articleid=1061177136 https://plus.google.com/u/0/108007903544513887227/posts/1nhY6NK2YLU 88 http://www.boston.com/news/nation/2012/11/23/gas-blast-levels-mass-buildings-leasthurt/wYQAHmn0nLp5JV1GgUpK8L/story.html http://www.boston.com/metrodesk/2012/11/23/springfield-explosion-injures-least-levels-stripclub/a7JbGz4S2QmmEcXPL1oPEO/story.html http://www.latimes.com/news/nation/nationnow/la-na-nn-gas-explosion-massachusetts20121123,0,5073752.story http://www.wral.com/gas-explosion-reported-in-downtown-springfield/11806499/ http://newsok.com/gas-blast-levels-mass.-buildings-at-least-18-hurt/article/feed/466628 89 http://www.boston.com/metrodesk/2012/11/25/officials-announce-cause-explosion-that-destroyedspringfield-strip-club/CQqqF2sXhO6kqoTia7irGO/story.html 90 http://www.masslive.com/news/index.ssf/2012/12/downtown_recovering_a_month_af.html 91 http://www.myfoxboston.com/story/20174918/2012/11/24/building-inspectors-at-site-of-gas-blast-inspringfield

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In other Springfield MA news, a man was caught leaving a toddler in a car, on black shopping Friday, while he went off to buy a TV set.92

Springfield vicinity News media
• • Boston dot com93

Nov 24 Sat - MA
Investigators are not yet ready to definitively say what is the cause of the Springfield blast.94 See Nov-25. Maybe it is a matter of timing of news articles not up to date with everything else which is going on, and articles not making clear what is the date of this or that info. CNN says 40+ buildings damaged, in a 4 block radius in Springfield MA. FOX says 3 of those buildings will have to be demolished, and that 150+ residential units (some of them apartments) were affected by the blast. 95 On the streets surrounding the blast site, buildings have been tagged with red, yellow, and green signs.96 o Red = building is now condemned = 3 non-residential buildings. o Yellow = restricted use, not safe for habitation now, but the city believes they can be repaired = 24 buildings, with about 71 residential units. o Green = building did get an inspection, and nothing serious found, yet.

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Nov 25 Sun – Springfield boom = mislabeling accident
• We learn that one official cause, of the Springfield disaster, was a Columbia Gas Go utility worker accidentally puncturing a gas pipe, due to misinformation supplied to the worker.97 o I am amazed that the cause was found so fast. Normally utility companies are very efficient at getting people to believe they never make mistakes. Perhaps rate of Sandy recovery has weakened their PR. o The Columbia Gas of Massachusetts worker breached the high-pressure line with a probe as he checked for the source of a gas smell on Friday at a downtown Springfield strip club, said Tom Walsh, a spokesman for Mayor Domenic Sarno. Columbia Gas of Massachusetts, a unit of NiSource Inc, will open a claims office in Springfield on Monday, Walsh said. 98

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http://www.todaysthv.com/news/article/235561/288/Man-leaves-toddler-in-car-to-buy-television http://www.boston.com/ 94 http://www.bostonherald.com/news/regional/view.bg?articleid=1061177136 http://www.boston.com/metrodesk/2012/11/24/officials-and-crews-continue-investigation-and-cleanupafter-explosion-downtown-springfield/a7fmO3ylwTd6jpdmnIKOSK/story.html http://abclocal.go.com/wpvi/story?section=news/local&id=8927844 95 http://www.myfoxboston.com/story/20174918/2012/11/24/building-inspectors-at-site-of-gas-blast-inspringfield 96 http://www.boston.com/metrodesk/2012/11/24/officials-and-crews-continue-investigation-and-cleanupafter-explosion-downtown-springfield/a7fmO3ylwTd6jpdmnIKOSK/story.html 97 http://www.bostonherald.com/news/regional/view.bg?articleid=1061177197&pos=breaking http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/11/25/us-usa-explosion-springfield-idUSBRE8AO0BA20121125 98 http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/11/25/us-usa-explosion-springfield-idUSBRE8AO0BA20121125

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o State Fire Marshal Stephen Coan’s office said the blast at Scores Gentleman’s Club occurred when a worker, from Columbia Gas of Massachusetts who was investigating a gas odor, accidentally punctured a high-pressure gas line at the foundation of the building. “His examination appears to have been an appropriate distance from where older markings on the sidewalk indicated where the gas line was,” the statement said. "However, the markings were incorrect and his metal probe inadvertently punctured” the line. Coan’s office said the state Department of Public Utilities is now taking over the investigation.99 The count is now up to 42 buildings housing 115 residential units, damaged in the Springfield blast. Three buildings were immediately condemned, and 24 others require additional inspections by structural engineers to determine whether they are safe.100

Nov 26 Mon - Indy
• "Monday Nov 26, we're going to be issuing six demo orders for properties out in Richmond Hill," said Code Enforcement spokesman Al Ensler. 101 The demolitions are performed by private contractors paid by insurance providers. There are four properties to be demolished, but whose timing is on hold until the investigation is completed.

Nov 27 Tuesday – Indy + Va
• The first of the Indy homes to be demolished, that is now happening, for the Cocherell home. Phillips ranch-style home about 75 yards from Cocherells’ home, awaits an engineer to conduct a second inspection. The first inspection found that it did not need to be demolished, but Phillips said he’s worried because his neighbors’ homes were ordered razed. He wants to make sure there are no surprises, when it comes time to try to sell the home.102 There continue to be conflicting news stories regarding how many homes must be demolished. 103 My count is 33. Meanwhile, a natural gas leak necessitated evacuation of dozens of South Richmond, Virginia residents.104

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http://www.boston.com/metrodesk/2012/11/25/officials-announce-cause-explosion-that-destroyedspringfield-strip-club/CQqqF2sXhO6kqoTia7irGO/story.html 100 http://www.bostonherald.com/news/regional/view.bg?articleid=1061177197&pos=breaking 101 http://www.wibc.com/news/Story.aspx?ID=1824440 102 http://www.journalgazette.net/article/20121127/NEWS07/121129555
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http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324851704578137380509386760.html?mod=googlenews _wsj 104 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1658 http://www.nbc12.com/story/20199834/gas-leak-forces-evacuation-in-richmond http://www.timesdispatch.com/news/latest-news/update-families-allowed-home-south-richmond-after-gasleak/article_fbf4550e-38e9-11e2-9d2b-0019bb30f31a.html

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Nov 28 Wed – Ks + In
A natural gas leak in rural Cowley County, Kansas, meant a five hour road closure, until it was safe to travel there again.105 The Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC) ordered Evansville In based Vectren to pay a $100,000.00 fine, and make safety improvements, due to a natural gas explosion Nov 2011 in New Albany In, which is just across the Ohio river from Louisville Ky. The blast destroyed a home and injured six people. The investigation found that crews for a subsidiary of Vectren damaged the gas line while doing drilling work and didn't alert emergency officials before the explosion over an hour later. Vectren provides natural gas service to about 700,000 customers across much of southern and central Indiana. Vectren says it has taken action to try to prevent something like this happening again. 106

Nov 30 Fri – Ma + In
• Natural Gas Watch reports on a study by the Conservation Law Foundation,107 regarding natural gas leaks in Massachusetts.108 o Aging infrastructure, leaky gas line pipes, means: o risk of explosion, wiping out homes and businesses; o massive waste, meaning higher prices for what's left; o environmental contamination. A natural gas distribution pipeline operated by Vectren109 had a leak, in Crawfordsville, Indiana, forcing a family from their home. The locals smelled gas around 8 pm, called Vectren, who told them to get out immediately, while Vectren investigates. Vectren called the local Fire Dept for help about 10 pm. By midnite the leak had been fixed, but the house needed to be cleared. The Red Cross arrived, and found a place for people to stay, while their house being cleared, then they were able to return home 10 am next day. Vectren also supplies the Evansville Indiana area, where I reside.110

Dec 1 Sat - Ca
• A natural gas transmission pipeline owned and operated by Pacific Gas & Electric ruptured Saturday morning, Dec. 1, with a big noise, near Stockton, California, forcing the residents of a six-block area to evacuate their homes.111 They were allowed to return home around 11 am.

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http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1658 http://www.newscow.net/story.php?StoryID=8113 106 http://www.whiotv.com/ap/ap/indiana/vectren-fined-100000-over-s-ind-gas-explosion/nTJGJ/ http://www.wdrb.com/story/20219326/company-ordered-to-pay-100000-over-natural-gas-explosion 107 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/CSF_fugitive_emissions_report.pdf 108 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1644 109 https://www.vectren.com/web/index.jsp 110 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1658 http://www.journalreview.com/news/article_c714d708-3cd8-11e2-b05b-001a4bcf887a.html 111 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1658 http://www.kcra.com/news/local-news/news-stockton/Gas-leak-forces-evacuations-near-Stockton//12969936/17620468/-/item/1/-/hckwm5z/-/index.html

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Dec 3 Mon - Indy
“Monday, Dec 3rd, we will be issuing another six demo orders,” said Indianapolis Code Enforcement spokesman Al Ensler.112 Demolition in fact began on three more homes on Monday.113 Marion County prosecutor Terry Curry tells Associated Press, that this is a “painstaking” investigation, where they don’t know yet, how long it is going to take.114 o Explosion and arson cases can take years to close. Curry has been working in law for 3 decades, and this is the biggest case in his career so far. o Police in 1989 spent more than a year investigating a pipe bomb which exploded in an Indianapolis Kmart store, injuring a 5-year-old girl, before linking it to a knife and screwdriver found in the trunk of a Noblesville teenager’s car. o The FBI says less than 20% of 43,412 arsons in the USA ended in arrests in 2011.

Dec 05 Wed – DCP Tx
• There was an explosion in Goldsmith Texas around 6 pm, near the DCP Midstream natural gas plant, which is now believed to have been a pipeline explosion.115 The pipeline is operated by West Texas Gas.

Dec 06 Thu - Tx
• The DCP explosion in Goldsmith Tx, and its aftermath, is now being investigated by:116 o The Texas Railroad Commission’s Pipeline Safety Division. o West Texas Gas. o It is expected that the investigation will take 90 days, after which a report will be made public. Odessa Fire & Rescue says no injuries, no deaths. A welding shop burned down. Power was restored Thursday after noon, gas is expected to be restored before Friday.

• •

Dec 11 Tues - Sissonville WV
• A natural gas explosion has erupted in Sissonville West Virginia, about 20 miles north of Charleston. As usual, initial reports are about the scale of the disaster,

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http://www.wibc.com/news/Story.aspx?ID=1824440 http://www.wishtv.com/dpp/news/local/marion_county/curry-explosion-probe-will-take-time http://www.indianasnewscenter.com/news/top-news/Crews-Contiue-Demolition-on-Indianapolis-Homes-181996911.html 114 http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/prosecutor-indianapolis-blast-investigation-a-painstakingprocess-no-timetable-for-arrests/2012/12/03/69e5d75c-3d8d-11e2-8a5c-473797be602c_story.html http://www.wishtv.com/dpp/news/local/marion_county/curry-explosion-probe-will-take-time 115 http://www.newswest9.com/story/20283376/goldsmith-residents-react-after-gas-line-explosion 116 http://www.newswest9.com/story/20283376/goldsmith-residents-react-after-gas-line-explosion

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always too early to know precise causes.117 However, see: preliminary NTSB info Jan 16; and Senate hearing Jan 28. o See Labeling Causes chapter. • We do not yet know what caused the explosion. • We do know that a delay in shutting off gas made disaster worse. • Why can’t fire depts have people trained in shutting off these gas lines? They would shut it down, and notify the company that they have done so, and why. • Why can’t personnel with the hardware and training to shut off these gas lines be delivered by fast helicopter to the disaster scenes? o Federal investigators said it took Columbia Gas Transmission more than an hour to manually shut off the gas that fueled Tuesday’s inferno near Sissonville, about 15 miles from Charleston.118 • We have been hearing this kind of story again and again, over many years, where the public utilities have failed to install equipment which would identify leaks, and remotely shut off gas flowing into the areas where a leak or fire has been identified as occurring. This should happen automatically when sensors detect a problem, and also should be doable from company offices. Instead, in these crises, we have to wait for the company to be notified, then send personnel to the scene to manually shut it down. • Industry officials complain this safety feature is too expensive to install on the more than 2.6 million miles of pipeline already crisscrossing the U.S. o I-77 at Route 21 closed temporarily because of this disaster, by DOH.119 Drivers were cautioned about smoke mixed with fog in the area. The explosion severely damaged highways, including an 800 foot section of I77, near mile marker 113.5.. The flames were so hot that guard rails melted. o Fire was too fierce for fire dept to cope, reminiscent of San Bruno. o Four homes were utterly destroyed. o At least five structures were fire with flames shooting 50 to 90 feet into the sky.120 No deaths. o Meteorologists with WOWK 13 say a smoke plume from the fire stretches from Sissonville to Elkview and Clendenin.
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http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1691 http://www.wtrf.com/story/20316402/explosion-in-sissonville-7441-teresa-lane-cedar-ridge-center-nursinghome-homes-fire http://www.journal-news.net/page/content.detail/id/588276/Gas-line-explodes-in-Kanawha-County-structures-burning.html http://wvgazette.com/News/201212130022 118 http://www.theithacajournal.com/viewart/20121215/NEWS11/312150028/WV-gas-explosion-comesamid-line-shut-off-debate 119 DOH = Division of Highways. 120 Estimates, how high fire into sky, vary widely between different witnesses quoted.

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o Early suspicions centered on a Columbia Gas natural gas pipeline, owned by NiSource Inc., parent of Columbia Gas. o A command center was been set up at Sissonville High School. o The state fire marshal’s office says “It’s one of thos e rare events that happens.” • Al Mac observations: • “It won’t be rare for much longer, if our public utility infrastructure continues to die of old age.” • “It might be rare for an individual city or region of a state, but over the entire USA, we have one of these events 4 times every 3 days.” o NTSB joins investigation.121 • The pipeline, which exploded, had corrosion which thinned the pipe in places to about a third of the thickness it ought to have been. A mitigation to identify such pipes, so that they can be repaired or replaced, which the NTSB has recommended in the past, is something called "smart pigs," which are metal tools that travel through a pipeline to check the pipe for irregularities, including cracks and corrosion.122 • Columbia Gas Transmission representatives say this solution was not practical for the section of pipeline, which exploded, because it did not have valves on it that would accept the pig. So why is that? Is it another example of the industry saying that safety is too expensive to implement? • According to a recent NTSB report, 61% of US pipelines cannot physically accommodate pigs and it could cost companies about $12 billion to retrofit the nation's pipes to make them do so. 123 Should that be prioritized where pipelines intersect major human population centers? o The natural gas company had reimbursed more than $231k, by a month after the disaster, to first responders, and highway repair efforts. 124 o PHMSA has issued a corrective order.125 • The pipeline, which ruptured, was decades old, installed in 1951, expanded in 1955, then over time various pieces added, replaced, most recently in 1992. The piece which exploded, is now believed to have been made in 1967.

121 122

NTSB = National Transportation Safety Board. http://www.dailymail.com/News/201212170174 123 http://www.dailymail.com/News/201212170174 124 http://woub.org/2013/01/15/agencies-getting-reimbursed-cost-gas-pipeline-explosion-response 125 PHMSA = Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration http://www.statejournal.com/story/20404252/failed-pipeline-in-sissonville-decades-old-corrective-orderissued http://www.therepublic.com/view/story/d56b3c0f08054209a904a4f2bbb0b302/VA--Pipeline-Explosion http://58wchs.com/common/more.php?m=15&r=1&item_id=181

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The corrective order requires Columbia to create a plan returning to restricted operation. It will also require ongoing special attention directed toward the pipeline to encourage future safety. o The U.S. Senate Commerce Committee will examine pipeline safety during a field hearing January 2013 in West Virginia.126

Dec 13 Th - Indy
• According to The Republic of Columbus Indiana,127 and other news media:128 o The Indianapolis Department of Public Safety says it has spent more than $300,000 on manpower and other expenses investigating the Nov 10 explosion which killed a couple, and decimated their neighborhood. o The public safety department estimates that police officers, fire fighters and personnel from homeland security and animal care and control have worked 7,742 hours since the explosion, just on matters related to it. o 5,204 regular-time hours and 1,626 overtime hours.

Dec 20 - Indy
• • “Dec 20th, we will be issuing 17 demo orders," said Indianapolis Code Enforcement spokesman Al Ensler.129 Indianapolis Explosion victims fund receives $10,500.00 from Burmese Churches.130 o A community of Chin refugees from Burma live on Indianapolis's south side mobilized for a response. 19 Chin churches contributed to help the victims. This was a pleasant surprise for Southport Presbyterian, the church coordinating the victim's fund, since they were not expecting any such wonderful donation. o Some 7,000 Chin refugees from Burma had resettled on the south side of Indianapolis in recent years, having escaped brutal persecution in their homeland. As ethnic minorities in Burma, many were once victims of forced labor, and some saw their homes burned down by the country's ruling military junta. Today, they have constructed new lives in a new country, and found a way to feel at home in Indianapolis.

Dec 21 – Indy Arrests
• Monserrate Shirley and Mark Leonard, who lived in the Indianapolis home that exploded at the center of the chaos, and Leonard's brother, Bob Leonard Jr., were charged (not precisely identical list on all) with 2 counts of felony murder, 45

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http://www.wdtv.com/wdtv.cfm?func=view&section=5-News&item=Senators-to-Hold-Pipeline-SafetyHearing-Following-Explosion-in-Sissonville7473 http://www.statejournal.com/story/20521238/sissonville-explosion-prompts-federal-hearing 127 http://www.therepublic.com/view/story/6ce8195ab5584335919d85c264df4418/IN--Indianapolis-HouseExplosion 128 http://www.wishtv.com/dpp/news/local/marion_county/costs-pile-up-as-blast-investigation-continues 129 http://www.wibc.com/news/Story.aspx?ID=1824440 130 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kristin-wright/indianapolis-explosion_b_2301707.html

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counts of arson, conspiracy to commit arson, and attempted arson, on Thursday Dec-20 and arrested on Friday Dec-21.131 o Personal property insurance on the home had been raised recently to $304,000 and photographs and personal financial records removed before the explosion, prosecutors allege. o Investigators believe a programmable microwave which exploded from the inside out was the source of ignition, and valves that regulate natural gas into the home and to a fireplace were removed, allowing gas to build up over hours, DA Curry said. o The home was filled with natural gas for six to eight hours prior to the explosion. o Investigators allege that there was a nearly identical, but failed, attempt to blow up the house a week earlier. The cat was boarded, the daughter sent to the same babysitter and Leonard and Shirley took off for the same casino. o The daughter reported smell of gas in the house, but the adults in the household took no action, and in earlier news analysis we drew different conclusions from that, since it fits a pattern of adults not taking warnings seriously in past disasters. No word yet on whether the daughter gets to live with her Dad, whose suspicions have now been vindicated. o The motive may have been to defraud the insurance company. Mark Leonard has a past criminal record which included fraud. 132 o Authorities are still working to determine whether others were involved. o The three suspects will probably appear in court Monday morning Dec-24. o The case qualifies for the death penalty. o The white van belonged to Mark Leonard, who is the caretaker at a shuttered Southwestside hotel and convention center. o The blast had  Killed 2 people;  Injured 12 people;  So severely damaged the neighborhood that 33 homes have to be demolished. Authorities are still searching for a fourth suspect. 133

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http://www.indystar.com/usatoday/article/1784831 http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/chi-charges-filed-in-deadly-indianapolis-explosion20121221,0,4047116.story http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2012/12/three-charged-with-murder-and-arson-in-indianapolishome-explosion/ http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887323277504578193443874657164.html http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/12/21/16069816-three-charged-with-murder-arson-inindianapolis-house-blast?lite 132 http://www.wthitv.com/dpp/news/local/southern_indiana/one-suspect-in-blast-has-lengthy-criminalhistory1356208451099 133 https://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/04/us/inquiry-into-indianapolis-blast-shows-scheme-gonewrong.html?_r=0

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Dec 24 Mon In, Tx
Three suspects, in the Indy Explosion, plead not guilty. The judge ordered all to be held without bond.134 o At some point in the investigation, the son, of one of the suspects, told investigators that his father blew up the house on purpose to collect on the insurance. o The courtroom was packed with witnesses, from the community they blew up.135 Six children were injured, two critically, in McKinney Texas, about 30 miles north of Dallas.136 o The ages 4 to 11 children were believed to have been left unsupervised in the back yard, where a fire was burning. Their ignorance, or perhaps childish behavior, led to them making the situation far worse.

Dec 27 Thursday Texas Propane
• A natural gas explosion damaged a home, near Manor Road, and left hundreds without heat, in NE Travis County, Texas. A home owner called Texas Community Propane to report a leak. Two workers for the company were on site when the explosion occurred, and they were among the injured. 137 o This story sounds so familiar. Do I have another post around here with the wrong date, or is history repeating with similar names? See Jan-04.

Dec 29 NRDC
Land owners who lease their territory to oil & gas companies for mineral rights, are taking risks. They may get good income, they might not. There can be environmental contamination for them, and their neighbors, for which they might be held accountable. Dec 29, environmental group National Resources Defense Council writes about another risk. Some oil & gas companies fail to pay their bills, so their creditors can then put a lien on land owners who leased them mineral rights, and keep that a secret from them. 138

Dec 31 Monday – Mn, Gulf of Mex
A house on North Maple Street, in the small town of Balaton, Minnesota, exploded after a propane gas leak, killing the homeowner.139
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http://www.nola.com/traffic/index.ssf/2012/12/3_plead_not_guilty_to_murder_i.html http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/chi-indianapolis-house-explosion-pleas-20121224,0,1802983.story http://www.wdrb.com/story/20411931/murder-suspects-in-indianapolis-explosion-could-face-death-penalty http://www.wdrb.com/story/20420428/suspects-in-indianapolis-home-explosion-case-to-be-held-withoutbond http://www.abc57.com/news/state-and-regional/New-details-in-deadly-Indy-house-explosion184563361.html 135 http://www.southbendtribune.com/news/sbt-court-packed-for-hearing-on-indianapolis-explosion20121225,0,6310422.story 136 http://www.chron.com/news/article/6-children-hurt-in-suburban-Dallas-gas-explosion-4144065.php 137 http://www.kvue.com/news/Repairs-continue-after-gas-explosion-damages-home-185174462.html 138 http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/amall/another_risk_when_leasing_prop.html 139 http://www.keloland.com/News/newsdetail6371.cfm/investigators-believe-gas-leak-causedexplosion/?id=141945

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BP estimates the Gulf of Mexico oil spill has cost $8.5 billion and counting. 140

Continued in more documents
Time Line of these disasters to be continued in related documents to be named: • CI Boom 0 thru 1999141 • CI Boom 2000 to 2006142 • CI Boom 2007 • CI Boom 2008 to 2009 • CI Boom 2010 to 2011 • CI Boom 2012 • CI Boom 2013 Jan-Mar • CI Boom 2013 Apr • CI Boom 2013 May-Dec • CI Boom 2014 Jan W Va Water143 These other time line history segments shall be uploaded to the same SCRIBD Critical Infrastructure collection.144 Revision history will be maintained in the main parent document.

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http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/01/patrick-juneau-bp-spill-settlement_n_2994406.html http://www.scribd.com/doc/203317455/CI-Boom-0-thru-1999 142 http://www.scribd.com/doc/203688481/CI-Boom-2000-to-2006 143 http://www.scribd.com/doc/203973261/CI-Boom-2014-Jan-9-W-Va-Water 144 http://www.scribd.com/collections/4108500/Critical-Infrastructure

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