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Chapter 1 文法ノート

1.

V (plain past) ば か り something'

= 'have just done something; have just finished doing

• 日本へ行ったばかりのころは、日本語がわからなくて困りました。 When I was a newcomer to Japan, I had trouble understanding Japanese.

2.

の の and ! の can be used with the meaning 'that ~' when an item you are

Both

referring to is not in sight. の is used when both the speaker and the hearer are (or are assumed to be familiar with a person or thing in !uestion. When only the speaker or the hearer is familiar with an item, !の should be used.

3. V

(plain) "#$な%

"his pattern indicates a change which has taken place or will take place. Just as an &#ad$ecti%e changes to & く (e.g. 'くな% and な&ad$ecti%e to & $ (e.g., し(か$な% , when a %erb occurs with な%, "#$ is inserted. • 日本へ行ってから、日本$)*+,#-./0"#$な りました。 I came to ha%e an interest in Japan after I went to Japan • 1 2.34しな56ば、日本語の78し9:9が;<%"#$はな りま=9。 'nless you study kan$i, you won't become able to read Japanese newspapers.

4. >

"his is a sentence#final particle of e(clamation. Its use is generally restricted to men in informal con%ersation, but it is also used by women in monologues. In con%ersation, women would use ~(わ ?@. • しばらくAな It's been a long time since I last saw you. )Women would say しばらく?@.* • BCDEFGへ行って-た&な 。I wish I could go to +frica once, 。

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Women would say 行 っ て - た & H わ I ? @ if addressing someone in con%ersation. -owe%er, women will often use the abo%e form in e(pressing their own desires or feelings without addressing anyone in particular.

5. V

(plain) こJ$な% = 'It has been decided/arranged that ~'

. (plain ~'

こJ$なって&% / 'be e(pected0supposed to1 ~it is a rule0custom that

こ J $ な % indicates that a certain decision has been made for the speaker by outside forces. It is often used when a situation has been arranged or when one is scheduled to do something. こJ$なって&% , on the other hand, is used to describe a rule, regulation or social custom. • 日本KL語.M@%こJ$なって&まN。I am to teach 2nglish in Japan. • 日本のOPKQR.N%こJ$なりました。 )It has been arranged that* I will be working at a Japanese company. • 日本のS$Tが%Uは、く0.VWこJ$なって&まN。 When you enter a Japanese house, you are supposed to take off your shoes.

6. V

(stem) $く& = something is difficult to V. to V.

V (stem) XN& = something is eas

7. V

(plain) こJ$N% = 'decide to do ~'

3ompared with こ J $ な % , this pattern indicates acti%e decision making by the person in%ol%ed. Note4 to say 'decide not to do ~' use . (な& form こJ$な%

8. !"

たら !# = '$hen !"% !#'

When た ら clause is followed by a sentence (/56 in the past tense, it means 'when.' "he second sentence usually e(presses an e%ent or state you did not e(pect. • Y日Z[\へ行ったら、]^$ my teacher. &ました。 7esterday, when I went to the library, I saw

9. Jて_>な&

= 'can't possibl '

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"his phrase e(presses a %ery strong sense of impossibility. "he %erb is usually in potential form. )Note4 J て _ implies reluctance or hesitance whereas ` 9 ` 9 $ust cannot be done.* • たくa9 all. states it

って、Jて_ bcd6ま=9。 "here is so much that I can't possibly eat it

• efKはJ て_Sな9かg@ま=9。I can't possibly buy a house in "okyo.

10. V

(stem of まN form & h ) = ''a

of doing V'

• 1 2 は 、 B 0 の _ の $ _ ; - h が た く a 9 % の K 、 i j ( か し & 。 8an$i are difficult because [even] one kanji [often] has a number of readings.

11. >

らし& = 'evidentl ; it seems that'

>らし& e(presses one's con$ectures. It can be attached to nouns (e.g. 日本kらし & , stems of な #ad$ecti%es (e.g. し ( か ら し & , plain forms of & #ad$ecti%es (e.g. '&らし& and plain forms of %erbs (e.g. 行くらし& . It tends to be used when one's con$ecture is based on what one has heard. • 日本k は、l baths. 0&mnopろがq+らし&。 It seems that the Japanese people like hot

• efは、rs:っかが tくて、u-$く&らし&。 It seems that "okyo is a difficult place to li%e in because e%erything is e(pensi%e. • DvFGKは、w^が]^.Exーyトz{ー|K}":らし&。 2%idently, students call teachers by their first name in +merica.

12.V て~<ての (

= 'the first ( after V)ing'$hen a verb occurs instead of a noun%

this e*pression ta+es the form of V" て ~ < て V#% meaning '$hen V" happens% then for the first time V# happens.

• w•が€まって~<ての•‚ƒ„‚K、]^X…かのw^$mm`&Oった。 I met many teachers and

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ば&&の$ / '7ou should ~ (lit. and I also ha%e a slight fe%er. • 日本へ行っ て~<て、B日†日本語A5Kは9しました。 When I went to Japan. moreover' • efは、kが•&し、!6$rs:っか_ t&のK、u-$く&KN。 • +4‘’日は“”がなa!#A?。7ou don't look well today. and indicates a manner in which a certain action is carried out.students at the first picnic of the semester.* • !6$ = 'besides. )said to someone who is hesitant about asking the teach some !uestions. な&K . I met a Japanese person for the first time.' ! し て 'and1 and then1 and also. な&K often carries a connotation that one didn't do what one was e(pected to do. I ha%e a headache. +fter that I went to a party at a friend's house and came home about ten at night. instead of V)ing' ..' !6K ! し て is the most general con$unction ! 6 か ら emphasi:es that an e%ent follow emphasi:es 'causal' relation between two another e%ent in time. Chapter 2 文法ノート • V な&K = ''ithout V)ing. • Y日はg&r$行+まし た。œ!6からz!して•žŸのSの ー¡¢ーへ行って、£"%¤U¥ろS へ š っ て + ま し た 。 I went shopping yesterday.' ! 6 か ら 'after that. 13. it would be good if you did ~ ' "his e(pression is usually used to suggest the opposite of what the other person is doing or not doing. B4‘#9、• たまが–&たくて、 !6$l?0_—. • •からな&Jころは]^$85ば&&の$。 7ou should ask your teacher about things that you don't understand. I spent a whole day speaking only in Japanese.€<%のは‹ŒA。 • Z[\へ行かな&KSK34N%w^_&%。 . one of the negati%e て #forms of a %erb. • _っJ•くŽ?6 ば&&の$。7ou should go to bed earlier. is often followed by another %erb. • 日本Kは、‰_Šわな& KbR. you should go home early and rest. 9ther con$unctions which are often used include ! 6 K 'therefore1 so.っJ %9K。 7es. +4‘˜™、•くšって›9Ahが&&?。 In that case. for the first time in my life. • ‡w $ˆ って ~< て、 日本 k$ O& まし た。 When I entered college. 4 . and sentences. • .' meaning 'and.

• しか>な& = 'onl ' しか always occurs with a negati%e. means that something is not easily done or that it takes time for something to happen. !6 から Im Nし . . • ´•ー¼A&. • なかなか>な& なかなか . "he implied meaning is that the amount0item mentioned is not enough or less than e(pected. • 12がなかなか²m ³@ら6なくて、困こまって’N。 It's terrible because it takes a long time for me to memori:e kan$i. In some cases. when used with a negati%e. means that it is ungrammatical 7esterday I went to a Japanese restaurant and ate sushi. and so I couldn't fall asleep easily. "he copula A is optional.¶9AのK、なかなか·?j6ま=9Kした。 I had coffee. "he flight was delayed because of that. • Y日 は、 日本 ¦§ ¨へ 行っ た。 !し てH . • ¬が-mりました。!6K、®行¯° こ#+が±mく6た9KN。 It was snowing. !6K presents a reason or cause. -owe%er.b cた 。 (.#してから‰. !6からI«U¥ろšった。 <y friend came to my home about si(. • ´ーµー . • žŸは©U¥ろ&@へªた。!してH . both !6から and !して are fine. !6から and !して are not interchangeable.½はらっ たか»#か²m³@て&ま=9。 I don't remember whether I paid the copying charge or not. • . and left about eight. therefore. Be sure to keep the !uestion particle か at the end of the clause.In the sample sentence abo%e.N%かまA•かりま=9。 I don't know yet what I will be doing after graduation. !6から emphasi:es the fact that it was after the shopping that the speaker went to the party.uestion 'ord & >か•からな& =or embedding a wh#!uestion in another sentence. +lso note that a yes#no !uestion can be embedded in another sentence by putting the predicate into the plain form and by adding か»#か. simply change the ending of the embedded !uestion into the plain form. • ¸¹!0º.

' etc. • 0まり / 'in other words1 that is1 namely1 in short' • Àj かしはBÁÂÃÄŤÆAったこJ_ %が、’はBÁÂÄŤÆWら&A。0まり、ÁÂ. It often gi%es a summary or a restatement of pre%ious statements. な#ad$ecti%e4 TÇなわ5KNÈTÇAったわ5KN &#ad$ecti%e4 '&わ5KNÈ'かったわ5KN >oun4 >oun D J&#0Aった D わ5 . B4‘"くK+%わ5KN?。 >o wonder he is good. like the particle _ . nowadays. replaces the particles は . • !entence & わ5KN = '-hat is to sa .まな&¾¿ が•&のは、困%。 It's too bad that there are so many children who read only comic books./っ て&% J、日本KはÀ のÕのBWら&のg&rしかK+な&のA。 In the old days.' )5entence D わ 5 K N * states a logical conclusion which can be drawn from pre%ious statements. with dollars in Japan you can buy only a third of what you used to be able to. but other particles are retained as in w•Kしか 'only at school. ! ..erb4 行くわ5KNÈ行かな&わ5KNÈ行ったわ5KN • +4 ‘yÉya9は日本$¤Ê_u9K&た9KN"。 <iss 5mith has li%ed in Japan for as long as ten years B4 ‘Aから、日本語がËÌËÌなわ5KN?。 "hat's why she speaks fluent Japanese. In other words. -hat means. が . and . but now it is worth about BAC yen. rightE • +4 ‘ のkはÍへ_Îか5な&K34ばかりして&まN。 -e studies all the time without e%en going out. . • >$"って = 'depending on' • &a0ŠÏこJばは!の日のД$"って&ろ&ろŠ @ば"&。 What greeting you may use may %ary depending on the weather of the day.' žŸ$しか 'only to my friend. >ote that しか . It follo's that. there was a time when a dollar was worth ?@A yen..• ま9がしか.

F • BÁÂは、‰Æ$ÑたりまNか。-ow many yen is a dollarE • >の"#な ( = '(% li+e ~.F 14.• >$Ñ た% / 'correspond to ~' た%。Japanese FkonnichiwaF corresponds to • 日本語のÒこ9$—はÓは、L語の-ello$ 2nglish Fhello. • w^が•56ば•&…»、é@らば6%のがij(かし &。"he more students there are )who apply*. K 6 ば is used.#か。 Would you please let me take the e(am one day earlyE • >ば>…» = '-he more/less ~% the more/less ~' "he first part of this construction is a occur. ( such as ~' • Ò»#_Óの"#なÔÕc9りな EÖー×は、L語$はな&Aろ#。 I don't think 2nglish has a phrase like the con%enient Fdoomo. 6ば %…»&&。5impler e(planations are better. the more difficult it is to be selected. • &&ÖyトÌêK 6ば %…»t&。Better restaurants are more e(pensi%e. 98E • V(causative)て&たA5な&Kし. ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ • V な&K ß 文法ノート In casual con%ersation.#か Hiterally it means '3ould I not recei%e a fa%or of your letting me do ~E' It is a %ery polite re!uest for permission to do something. ば #conditional form. な&K.å#5 a=て&たA5な&Kし. な&KくAa& is often contracted to . • âの日$ãäし59. • ëà=0<&はか9た9K " . and the second part is a plain form of %erbs and & #ad$ecti%es.á6な&K?。Glease don't forget to bring )it* tomorrow. • à日/ってく%の. When noun # A or な #ad$ecti%es • 日本語は、34N6ば34N%…»æçm_しろくな% Jè&まN。I think that the more you study Japanese the more interesting you will find it. .

• >ìÍ&が&の /ìÍ$ = 'other than ~; besides ~'

• wíがっ+の~<は、Mî[+, #かし,ìÍ$&ろ&ろg#_のが %。 +t the beginning of the semester, there are so many things to buy besides te(tbooks. • 文ïð_9:し,#ìÍのñwòし,#がく+9_ than that from the <inistry of 2ducation. りまN。 "here are other scholarships

• óかなら(し_>J&#わ5Kはな& / 'It does not necessarily mean that...' ó(し_ is often followed by an e(pression such as >J&#わ5Kはな& . "his is a way of e(pressing that a certain e(pectation does not always hold. • ó(し_日本へ行5ば日本語がTÇ$な%J&#わ5Kは りま=9。It is not necessarily the case that one's Japanese impro%es once one goes to Japan. • ó ( し _ t & _ の が & & J & # わ 5 K は な & 。 It is not necessarily the case that e(pensi%e things are good. • ó(し_日本kが-9なôõなっJ#がq+ )A*J&#わ5Kは necessarily the case that all Japanese like natto. り ま = 9 。 It is not

• ばかり = 'nothing but ~'

)I ばかりA * e(presses the idea that there are so much I that it appears as if only I e(ists.

• 日 本 へ 行 っ て ~ < の こ ろ は 、 æ ç & こ J ば か り A っ た 。 When I went to Japan, in the beginning I had nothing but interesting e(periences. ばかり can also be used in combination with the て#form of a %erb. • ¡ Ö ö . ÷ て ば か り & % J 3 4 K + ま = 9 。 If you watch ". all the time, you can't study. • な%cく / 'as ~ as possible'

• øùしúくA&は、 な%cくûの日$ÎしてくAa&。If possible, please hand in homework the ne(t day.

• V (plain) c+ = 'should; ought to'

#

"his is a form deri%ed from the classical au(iliary %erb c し . It follows the plain non#past form of %erbs and carries the meaning 'one should do ~.' When the %erb is N%, both Nc+ and N%c+ are used. "he negati%e form of c+ is . (plain c+Kは な& rather than ;な&c+A. • 日本語の78し9:9が;-たかった ら、12.34N ) % * c+A。 If one wants to read Japanese newspapers, one should study kan$i. • …かのkのü÷&59_8くc+A。9ne should listen to the opinion of others.

1 . ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ

ý 文 法ノート

• þc0$H>な&I = 'not particularl ' þ $ is an ad%erb which is usually followed by a negati%e form and indicates that something is not particularly the case. • ]^ 4 ‘ÿÌ ウ ê 君 、’日は“”が りま=9?。 »#かした9KNか。 <r. Brown, you don't look %ery well today. Is something wrongE ÿÌウê4‘&&@、þ$‰K_ りま=9。 >o, there is nothing particularly wrong. • +4‘日本語の‚Ìyは、»#?iし&?-ow is your Japanese classE JifficultE B4 ‘##9、þ$。 >ot particularly. In speech, the phrase which follows þ$ is often omitted.

• >かな "his is a collo!uial form of >Kし,#か meaning 'I wonder.' >かな is used only by male speakers in %ery informal situations. Women would use >かしら.

• ’日は 晩御 飯 ば9¥は9$‰がÎてく%かな 0 かしら。 I wonder what will b Ý s ÝÞ v Ý d for dinner today.

> かな can be used by women in monologues and also when it is followed by such e(pressions as Jè#.

• たしか = 'If I remember correctl ; if I am not mista+en'

When た し か is used, the speaker is somewhat uncertain about the truth of his statement.

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• DvFGKB番k口の•&州しú#は、たしかGFEォ ƒDAJè&まN。If I am recall correctly, the most populous state in the '.5. is 3alifornia.

Jo not confuse た し か with た し か $ 'certainly.' 例 (3ertainly, I'm the one who was wrong.

たしか$私が悪かったKN。

• .は /K 有名ゆ #<&A = '. is famous for /'

7 can be a noun or a noun phrase (i.e., a sentence D の0こJ . • f都は、古&m寺K有名な町KN。8yoto is famous for its old temples. • 日本 kは 、" く 働 はた らく のK 有名 KN 。 "he Japanese people are famous for working hard. • $N% / 'to decide on >1 to ha%e0take >' • •‚ƒ„‚は、’Cの土曜日$しまし,#。Het's make it )the picnic* this 5aturday.

• >"#A (の"#$ = 'it seems that; it loo+s li+e ~'

> " # A e(presses one's con$ectures. It is attached to nouns, plain forms of &#ad$ecti%es and %erbs. 日本kA ⇒ 日本kの"#A し(かA ⇒ し(かな"#A æç&⇒ æç&"#A 行く⇒ &く"#A • +4‘このç&のは‰Kし,#か。What's this white thingE B4 ‘a 、"く•かりま=9が、mJ#pの"#KN?@。 Well, I don't know for sure, but it looks like tofu.

な #ad$ecti%es,

• 日本kはç&車がq+な"#KN。Japanese people seem to like white cars. • ]^は毎日m忙&!がし&"#KN。&0_研 !59+ú#し0$ &らっし™&まN。9ur teacher seems to be busy e%ery day. )-e0she* is always in )his0her* office.

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it's e%en as hot as summer. 11 . on the other hand. which is an ad%erbial form. e(presses the idea that someone0something acts0is like someone0something else. • %†a9は、&の"#な kKN。<r. etc. らし&. feminine. "anaka looks like a woman.e. らし& . • 日本の + は . indicates that % †a9 is a typical woman & i. • J+» ++の"#$.っJX=た"#KN。â$+0かった"#"#pくが$+ら 6%"#$なりました。It seems I'%e lost some weight. by a teacher who has gi%en an e(am and obser%ed that the students were ha%ing difficulty finishing or were looking grim. )>B の"#な >6* specifically e(presses the idea that >B looks0beha%es like >6. I am able to wear clothes which were too tight before. for e(ample. bases its con$ectures more on what one heard. 5mith speaks Japanese like a nati%e speaker. くて、·?j6な&こJa@ りまN。 It's so hot in the summer in Japan that ther are e%en times you can't sleep. # 。 "here probably are %ery few people who can't e%en write their own names. > の " # $ . • ãäはiしかったらし&。 It seems that the e(am was difficult (suggests that the speaker has heard one of the students saying that the e(am was difficult. • %†a9は、&らし&KN。<s. 0&日a@ りまN。5ome days. on the other hand. • ' • の 名 â a @ [ 5 な & k は ( な & K し . • a@ = 'even' a @ most normally follows a noun (or a sentence D こJ . focusing on the most unusual or least e(pected case. In the following e(amples. With " # .• こ の¥ろ—. 5imilarly. • yÉya9は、日本kの"#$日本語がTÇKN。 <r. • ãäはiしかった"#A It seems that the e(am was difficult (said. • í ) +ま0ãäし59のâは、w^は 忙 しくて、Ž?% U * a@ りま=9。 5tudents are so busy before final e(ams that they don't e%en ha%e time to sleep. Both ら し & and " # gi%e con$ectures. "#な indicates that % †a9 is really not a woman but looks0acts like a woman. there is a sense that the con$ecture is based on the speaker's first#hand information such as one's direct obser%ation. "anaka is %ery feminine.

they indicate how a certain change relates to the speaker in time. >てく% indicates that a certain change has been taking place up to now. • >わ5Kはな& = 'It does not mean that. 12 ..は、»9»9 3 わって&くKし.. etc.' >わ5Kはな & negates what one would generally conclude from pre%ious statements or situations. there are many people who are not used to using honorifics. before one reali0es' • mòは&0のま$かなく なってしま&ました。<oney is gone before you know it. • Vな&K 4 Nj . • 日本kK_ . process. transition. but that does not mean that )I* can't speak it. な & K (negati%e て #form without doing . and so I did not ha%e to wait too long... • >$な6% / 'be used to1 be accustomed to' "his phrase follows a noun directly or a sentence followed by の.. • 日本語がA&:0 =%"#$なって+ました。 I ha%e come to be able to speak Japanese Ú 12 Ü b ÝÜÜÝÞ . it does not follo' that.. followed by 4 j means that one manages or gets by • 5 yがNWªたのK、 まり 6たな&K4 -ました。"he bus came right away. / #の$な6て&な&kがmm`&&まN。 2%en among the Japanese. • 日本の^-$な6て+ました。I ha%e become used to the Japanese way of life. and > て & く indicates that a change will continue to take place from now on. • 私 た—の^ . • まりL語. 語5&¥.• &0のま$か = 'before one +no's it. • > てく% When ª% and 行く are used with %erbs which e(press change.#。 9ur life style will continue to change rapidly. 0 しま=9が、L語がK+な&わ5 Kは りま=9。 )I* don't speak 2nglish much.

do something too much' bc% ⇒ bcNº%1 N% ⇒ しNº%1 t& ⇒ tNº%1 し(かな ⇒ し(かNº% • b c N º % J 、 m な か が – & た く な り ま N " 。 If you eat too much. • >わ5$は&かな& 13 .bcな&のは‹Œし06&A。It's impolite not to eat food which someone has taken the trouble of preparing for you. ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ .• 毎 日 飯 . 1!. • >ìT&˜. • kが=っかく7ってく6た¦§. 7 らな&K 4 jJ&&KN?。 It will be nice if we don't ha%e to cook e%ery day.# = 'more than ~' • Bwí$¤Å89た9&ìT:J% J‡3た&へ9AJè&まN。I think it will be hard to carry more than fifteen credits a semester. • =っ かく = な らっ た1 2は á6 な& "# $し まし . 文 法ノート • >$”が0く = 'to notice ~' "his e(pression can be used either with a noun or a phrase (sentence D の or こ J . don't you thinkE • V/1djective (stem) Nº% = 'too ~.á6たこJ$”が0& たのは、‚Ìyが€まってからAった。It was after the class started that I noticed that I had forgotten my homework. • *<ま—が&$”が0+ま=9Kした。I wasn't aware of my mistake. which you ha%e spent considerable time and energy to learn. you will get a stomachache. • =っかく = っ か く indicates that something has been done with a great deal of trouble. that someone has spent a great deal of time to reach a certain state.# 。 Glease try not to forget kan$i. • øùしúくA&.

I cannot help but study tonight. When the negati%e form is used with わ5$は&かな& . I can't %ery well lend it to you. • !#かJŠって "his phrase is used to !ualify the preceding statement. but we still ha%e to eat.). >わ5Kはな&.. it has the sense of 'can't help but do ~. after V)ing' • !のm 0 は、 BC り.0Nわ5$は&+ま=9。We can't %ery well speak Japanese at a normal +merican party. • V (past) TK = 'upon V)ing. (plain. non#past • この¥ろはI are た<$* indicates a purpose for one's action. B4 ‘#9、K_、!#かJŠってbcな&わ5$_&かな&し。 7es.N%w^_•&!#A。 I hear that these days there 14 . so. # 。 7ou should decide important matters after considering them carefully. (plain. • ‡ d た & = 0 な こ J は 、 " く G @ た T K H + < た h が & & K し .e. • た<$ = 'in order to' ). the meaning is affirmati%e & i. I will reply after I ha%e consulted with my parents. etc.' 9ne does not ha%e any other choice. !:た<$DÂ5Jト. • こ6は]^の本Aから、 なた$ @ かNわ5$は&+ま=9。 5ince this is my teacher's book.. non#past. • à日ãäし59が %から、’ 晩 こ9ば934c9+.#しな&わ5$は&+ま =9。 5ince I ha%e an e(am tomorrow. affirmati%e わ 5 $ は & か な & * means that one cannot do certain things for social0moral0situational reasons. It is often followed by >わ 5$は&かな&. • +4‘AのbRはま(&?@。Jormitory food is bad.#し9J D E !#A9したTKm F Rへ9˜しまN。 9n that matter.. • >?のDvFGの ー ¡¢ーK日本語.

erbs con$ugate with ( in the same manner as with な & (e. • KLM Âは、ãäの日. • Ž($34N%J S ”$ な%Kし. or in the form ($ with the sense of 'without doing such and such. When た< is followed by の.g.g. • 日本へ行くâ$日本文O$0&て34してm5ば、 日本へ行って_GÂPLーzQR„‚はå5な&K し.many students who work part#time so that they ha%e money for fun. you won't ha%e culture shock e%en when you go there. し(かK って_、w^ て_ . 8 く た < の ï ¨ へ X K N 。 + language lab is a room for listening to tapes. • 2ausative)passive3 gわa6% = 'be made to bu ' with 1 .' D _ * means that 'e%en when one does ~' or 'e%en if one does With the sense of 'e%en when0if.ま( . ( is used between clauses with the sense of なくて 0 な&K .. 3 か@て_ら#た<$]^の 研 ! 59+ú #し0へ行った。 3arol went to her teacher's office in order to ask him to change an e(am date. @N ⇒ @aな& ⇒ @a( . • >て_ ). • >( ( is a negati%e form in classical Japanese.まな& ⇒ . • HH は ¡ ー N .g.#。 If you study Japanese culture before you go to Japan.' the main sentence is usually in the non#past.#。 If you study without sleeping.0+d$ ( て #form ~. く% ⇒ こな& ⇒ こ( the e(ception of =( for N%.j ⇒ . but they are usually contracted to >K_ (e. し(かK_、w^K_ . >ouns and な#ad$ecti%es can take the form of >K K っ って_ (e. the phrase modifies a following noun. . "he form ( often appears in contemporary Japanese (especially in written style .' . you will get sick. "he modern e!ui%alent is な& .

• た&て&ーwí$B0は T 文. • U & * 6 た a 6 % の は A 6 K _ & X A 。 >obody likes to be kept waiting for a long time. has both good and bad aspects.0aa6%.. situation. (plain !#A* indicating hearsay. X < % J 、 N W á 6 て し ま # K し . we are made to write at least one paper a semester. • ウ ¢y´ê Q êは、 [\ a j&¼わり、 + は ] N(し&。 Wisconsin is cold in winter but cool in summer • ƒ^ー_ー‚は、æç&¼わりmòがかか%。>ew 7ork is interesting but e(pensi%e. .. etc. • >$Jって = 'for ~. • Ð ” V W " … # $ " % J 、 ’ 日 は X Y ¥ ¥ Z が . to ~' • 日本k$Jっては>?p0#の こJK_、Í`k$Jっては3へ9$÷@%こJ_•&Aろ#。 "here are 1! . it will rain this afternoon. • ¼わり )5B (plain ¼ わ り 56* is used to state that a certain thing (or person. (e.' • 日本のOPは、&った9ˆ6ばX<a=ら6%こJはな&JŠわ6て&%。 It is said that once you are employed by a Japanese company.[かa6% In general. • >$"%J = 'according to ~' "his e(pressing is used to indicate a source of information and is generally followed by an e(pression such as ). ー=ら6% is often contracted to ーa6% . you will forget it !uickly. you won't be fired. It has the sense that one compensates for the other.. # 。 9nce you stop studying Japanese. • & っ た 9 日 本 語 の 3 4 .p % ! # A 。 +ccording to the weather forecast. &った9>J is preferred. unless the resulting form duplicates a . • &った9>ば / '9nce you do something. 0a=ら 6% is not contracted to ."his is a shortened %ariation of a causati%e#passi%e form gわ=ら6% . When the sentence e(presses a negati%e conse!uence.g.

0+d$ is put in the past tense.0+d$* is generally used to !ualify one's statement. • 日本のt•^は34N%こJはしまNが、ˆwãä$ú#がくし59のた<の34ばかり KNから、' • の ü ÷ & 5 9 .' If one is talking of a past fact. 1". of things which seem normal to Japanese but strange to a • 日本の‡w^$Jって、žkJの a 0+ b & がB 番cd ˜ú#"#なこJA。 =or Japanese college students. • >こJはH>がI ). it does not seem to contribute to forming their own opinions. ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ • >って e 文法ノート In Japanese.probably lots foreigner.っ JUNº%。 "he mo%ie called FKanF is interesting. but . with the meaning 'it is the case that . but it's a little too long.M@%DÂ 5J トならたくa9 %って8+ました。 I heard that there are lots of part#time $obs teaching 2nglish once you get to Japan.. 1" ..erb4 bc%こJはbcまN • Òfら9ÓJ&#ghはæç&こJはæç&が、—. but since all they do is study for entrance e(aminations. reporti%e e(pressions like って.. !#KN、JŠって&ました、らし&KN or • efの [ は まり \ くな &9Aって?@。 I hear winter in "okyo is not too cold )is that rightE* • 日 本へ行5ば、L語. it is %ery important to distinguish the information you obtain through secondary sources (what you ha%e heard or read from what you know firsthand.0+d$ こ J は .. When one does not ha%e firsthand knowledge of what one is saying. (plain form the like should be used. friendship is the most important thing. な#ad$ecti%e4 し(かなこJはし(かKN &#ad$ecti%e4 \&こJはaj&KN . 7 % た < $ は i X く $ j た っ て & な & " # K N 。 Japanese high school students do study a lot. the second ..

"he non#past tense form indicates that an embedded action will occur (or occurred either simultaneously with or after the main action. • >U‘ / ‘>â$‘ /‘> J = ''hen ~ / before ~ / after ~' "he %erb which precedes â$ is always in the non#past tense form. â $ . • この l [は、日本へ行くUg&ました。 I bought this dictionary when I went to Japan )before or on the way to Japan*. Japan has become !uite westerni:ed. 3ontrast this with ). ( 'ill suffice' • l[は、BmK&&Kし. • >O "his suffi( attaches mainly to kan$i compounds and e(presses the idea of >$な% or >$N%. etc. • > J は o か º ら な & / 'it is not necessarily the case that ~1 it does not mean that ~' • 日本語. (past D J * 'after ..• 7文aく:9.. when an action %erb occurs in clauses such as U . 1# . • gh @&が O a6た r ëし. J . • t&_のがó(し_-9な"&Jはoらな&。2(pensi%e things are not necessarily good. • pY =9¥日 本は(&:9 q"O =&"#かした。 5ince the war.#かWould one dictionary doE • mnK5っこ#KN。)Lreen* tea would be fine. while I was in Japan*.e. but I am sure there were lots of mistakes. • この l [は、日本へ行ったUg&ました。 I bought this dictionary when I went to Japan )i. the past tense form indicates that an embedded action will occur (or occurred before the main action. • K&&KN / (K5っこ#KN = '( 'ill do.34して&%w^が-9な日本へ行くJは o らな&。 It's not necessarily the case that students who are studying Japanese will all be going to Japan.. and I feel embarrassed. #=0は•&。 "here are many no%els which ha%e been made into mo%ies. [くこJは[&たが、*<ま—が&が•かったAろ#Jè#J、kは( かし&。 I did write a composition. "his e(pression is often used with an ad%erb ó(し_.' In general.

N%kは、 l [. • ‰ & counter _ = 'man ~' • 日本へは‰C_行ったこJが りまN。I ha%e been to Japan many times. のKはな&A ろ#か is used here because the speaker0writer does not want to put forth this opinion too strongly. 9_ り ま N 。 "here are many 3hinese • †s¦§¨—ú#かり. By saying _っJ }~ =9K9a6て_ & & のK は な &A ろ# か . のKはな& is "his e(pression generally follows a sentence in plain form (e.g. e%en once. >か>かJH wx し9 y &したI = ''orried 'hether ~ or ~' • P „ N . cf. contracted to 9˜™な&. 悪 &のKはな&Aろ#か . more indirect way of e(pressing one's opinion.• l [は、日本へ行ったUg&まN。 +s for a dictionary.#りXはな9t5 restaurants.¤ ー z êト$し"#か¤Å ー z êト$し"#かJ wx しなくて&&。 9ne does not ha%e to worry whether to lea%e a BAM tip or a BCM tip.. the speaker0writer thinks that it should be publici:ed more. ‰ ¤ m a 0 _ 'do:ens of %olumes (lit. 行くのKはな&A ろ#か . I will buy it when I get to Japan after I get to Japan*. • >のKはな&Aろ#か >のKはな&Kし. ó d °0"#な&のKはな&Aろ#か .#か >の Kはな&か ) 'I think it might be the case that ~' "his is a less asserti%e. tens of %olumes ' B D counter _ D negati%e 'not e%en one' • uv …9Xく. but nouns and な # 19 . In collo!uial speech. • mNし$し "#かÐ{ら$し"#かJ|ま"った。 I had trouble making up my mind whether to ha%e sushi or tempura..‰¤ m _/って&%! #KN。 I hear people who translate ha%e do:ens of dictionaries. • 日本へ 行ったこJは、BC_ りま=9。I ha%e not been to Japan.

so take care.語5&¥の / & h な» .½はらわ なくて_&&のKはな&Kし. • ƒ„ a &+9日本語のK+%Í ` k_ … p@て+て&%のKはな&かJè&まN。 I think the number of foreigners who can speak Japanese has increased recently. • +のか`は[のか`"りjしろ‰なmり $く&から、”. In such cases. • jしろ = 'rather' jしろ is used when. occur as =•しú#か9なのK はな&Aろ#か or €8 か9た9なの Kはな&Aろ#か. in their affirmati%e non#past#tense form. V (plain) "#$N% V (plain) "#$N% 20 . there is a certain general or conte(tual e(pectation that the opposite is true. > のKはな&Aろ#か can be followed by Jè#、 wx N% . one is more ~ than the other1 one is preferable to the other1 one fits the description better than the other. • ’の日本の† ‡わか_の"り、DvFGK日本語. are better able to use honorifics.ad$ecti%es. ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ Š 文法ノート 1. rather than the Japanese youth. when jしろ is used.して&かな&J、ˆ6な&のKはな&Aろ#か。 I fear we won't be able to get in unless we make a reser%ation in ad%ance." く ˆ って &% のK はな &A ろ# か。 I wonder if it might be the case that +mericans who study Japanese in +merica.34したDvFGkのhが、jしろ. etc.05てくAa&。+ summer cold is e%en harder to get rid of than a winter cold.#か。 I wonder if it's all right )I think it's all right* not to lea%e a tip when ser%ice is bad. 9ften. • • ーöyが 悪 &Uは、 P „ N . • V‚ "Xく. it takes a shortened form のKはな&か. of two alternati%es.

m. tabe. !" V(stem) !# "he stem of a . tsukuri.g. iki can be used in place of .' • 日本語は毎日34N%" #$してくAa&。Glease try to study Japanese e%ery day.-€<%J‹<ら6ま=9。7ou can't stop reading a mystery no%el once you start reading )it*.#(なéÇ=9しú.#ing.7り、DvFGzPー|Jãbし &. • •くのPー|が•¾‘こ#し@9$• 0まり、’“*のトー”vêト. [+Œわりました。 I finally finished writing a paper at ? a.し た。 "hey formed a team by gathering good baseball players and played games with the +merican team.. ).# て form to connect two sentences. V (stem) €<% = 'begin V)ing' • Éy¡Fーは、.' • XâÃU$XっJT文ろ9:9. 21 .• 0<てPー|. • • ŽX+ú#のTǘ. "his use is generally restricted to written style.# まN form (e. (stem Œmわ%* indicates 'finish . 3. 2.means 'to make an effort to do something' or 'to make a point of doing something. • I !: mò は、 D 5J トK か= W" #$ して &ま N。 I make a point of earning my spending money by working part time.N%。+ number of teams gather together at 8oshien for a two#week tournament.

• DvFGKはE„ト—ーÂ.4.' etc. as in the following e(amples. including ~. > ¥ = '~t pe. followed by て#forms followed by _ indicate 'no matter what0when0who0where0how often. 6.€< = 'starting 'ith ~. not to mention Rashomon.uestion 'ord & >て_ Nuestion words (‰、&0、A6、»こ、‰C、 etc.€<、5y˜„ト、DJy™„˜ーな»のyšー›_œa か9KN。In +merica.#_9Ó. .bcて_ • pJら な&kが#らXまし&KN。 I en%y people who ne%er get fat no matter what they eat. >. ~ic. • ‰. • efの町は、»こへ行って_kK –こ9 K&まN。 "okyo is crowded with people no matter where you go. • •žàくろaわ +らは、ÒŸ^ ら し. not to mention football. are popular. sports such as basketball and ice hockey. not to mention ~' "his phrase introduces the most ob%ious e(ample. ~ical' 22 . 5.€<、Ò¡kし—$9の¢ajら&Ó Òfら9Ó な»、 •くの 名h <&がの £¤ か 9JくK %。 +kira 8urosawa is the director of many famous mo%ies such as Seven Samurai and Ran.

> ¥ is a suffi( which attaches to nouns (mostly kan$i compoundsA and forms な # ad$ecti%es. > ¥ $ is an ad%erbial form. 7.=& ¥ $8こ@%らし&。 It seems that speaking in the desu/masu style in casual situations sounds feminine. • ƒ„a&+9Kは、»の`K_©{ªー.X 5 J Š # J 、 $ r + _ の J か ¦ ¾ = 9 N な » A ろ # 。 + typical Japanese sou%enir might be a kimono or a fan. no doubt. • 日本が«4‡`5&¬&た&こ く$な6たのは、‰JŠって_DvFGのmか-Aろ#。 >o doubt it was thanks to +merica that Japan became and economic power. / #J、 &¨ ˜. Its meaning %aries depending on the words.«45&¬&¥ $/m#Jして&%。In recent years. ‰JŠって_ = 'undeniabl . b an account' • 日本のgh£¤@&がか9Jくの †Kƒ_っJ_有名ゆ#<&なのは、‰JŠって_• žàくろaわ +らA ろ#。 "he most famous mo%ie director in Japan by any account must be +kira 8urosawa. 8. æç&こJ$ 23 . • 日 § $—˜.#のO 0 か&わK ÒKNÓÒまNÓ. • 日 本 ¥ な m . e%ery country is making an attempt to use energy efficiently )economically*. but in )I は 7 ¥ * it often indicates that I has a characteristic !uality of 7 or I has something to do with 7.

Exーyトz{ー|K}"9K &%のA。 "o my surprise.=& K った。 Interestingly.) æç& D こJ$ * introduces the content of what is interesting in the remainder of the sentence. teachers call students by their first names at +merican uni%ersities.. • ®m »ろ&たこJ$、DvFGの‡wKは、]^がw^.' • 日本kがの9 ² りK+%のは、‡w^のUくら&か_し6な&。 3ollege years might be the only time when the Japanese can rela(.M@たくら&KN。+bout the only teaching e(perience )I ha%e* is teaching Japanese to children as a %olunteer. +ny ad$ecti%e or %erb which e(presses a speaker's emotional response can be similarly used. famous writers in tenth and ele%enth century Japan were all women.は /くら&KN ='/ is about the . • Mm し@た«ä5&59は、—Ìê¡¢DK¾¿$日本語. • æç&こJ$、¤¯°=&+から ¤B¯°$日本K有名ゆ#<&な7Saっかは、-9な& ¨˜. ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ ± 文法ノート • . 24 .

a %erb stem and the て #form of a %erb.#+$なりま=9。 If you don't want to get sick. but other particles are retained as in ‚Ìy$a@Î6ば..(て#form a@&6ば4 くNり. • ‚Ìy$Îてノート. 2 . . but )as might be e(pected* they take a long time to learn. • Ž?a @N6ば‰なmりまN。If you only sleep. you will do fine.Jってa@&6ば、A&˜. a @ can be attached to a noun. • 12はæç&KNが、Xっ y り²m ³¸ %の$U *がかかりまN。 8an$i are interesting. -is brothers also became politicians. again' Xっ y り is a con%ersational form of Xはり . • ¹º # 9»#a@N6ば S ” ² . は and _ are dropped when a@ is attached.(ば#form 4 くNりa@¶<ば . all you ha%e to do is e(ercise. It is an ad%erb which indicates that what is being said is what is e(pected from our general or specific knowledge. as in the following4 >a@. also. • >a@>ば = 'if onl ou ~' "his e(pression states a sufficient condition for attaining a desired result.¶-a@N6ば .• Xっ y り = 'as e*pected.¶9Ka@&6ば Garticles が. you will get better. ば is a conditional form.(stem a@N6ば4 くNり.#:KN。 If you only attend classes and take notes. • ³R êz ˜ { ´ ¢は µ‰ S=&˜かAった。 ¶ の · m J#Jた—_Xはり µ‰ S$なった。 John 8ennedy was a politician.

"he second e(ample. you would get better.た & is a collo!uial form of " # A . . on the other hand. Hike "#A . • 日本語のÃÊ$な6ば、日本語の78し9:9が.' e(presses one's con$ecture with some certainty. listening to music. 2! . and plain forms of %erbs and &#ad$ecti%es.た& . a @ N 6 ば as in the following e(amples4 • くNりa@¶<ば、‰なmりまN。 • く Nり. emphasi:es the action of taking medicine as opposed to other actions such as sleeping. • †古なら'&は(KN。If it's a used one.' 'e(pected to. '&-た&1 行く-た& . • 日本$uN9K&たから日本語がTÇなは(KN。 -is Japanese should be good since he li%ed in Japan.gわa6て、ばか-た&。 I feel stupid being forced into buying an e(pensi%e thing like this. -ence the first e(ample abo%e implies that one only has to take medicine and no other substance.g. • こ9なt&_の. which means 'supposed to. $ºXか-た& .た & follows bare nouns (e. it follows plainforms of &#ad$ecti%es and %erb (e.¶-a@N6ば、 ‰ りまN。 If only you would take your medicine.g. 'nlike " # A . it should be cheap.<%は(KN。 5tudents who are in "hird 7ear Japanese should be able to read newspapers in Japanese. a @ emphasi:es that noun.g. • ’日は日曜日Aから、» 行º9こ#は›-のは(KN。It's 5unday today. >. ば or . • >は( > は ( . etc. • なかなかQRがな&-た&A?。It seems difficult to find a $ob. there is a choice between > a @ . It follows noun D の . な #ad$ecti%e な . When a @ is attached to a noun. 日 本k-た& and な #ad$ecti%e stem (e.In some cases. and so banks are supposed to be closed.

• ‡¬m m ゆ +のた<EÌ J トが KL ê z Âa6た。 "he flight was cancelled because of hea%y snow. -owe%er. too. >た< is a formal e(pression.. 3 4 N % た < H $ I 、 日 本 へ 行 っ た 。 -e went to Japan in order to study Japanese.• ªÊ¼½5っこ9N%-た&"。It looks like )he* is going to get married ne(t year. >Jして = 'as ~' • L語のM¾+. • 日 本 語 . always indicate reasons. • 日 本 語 . 2" . and hence is used in writing or in formal situations. • PR |y K ーは、Š語w ‡ Jして"り_ µ‰ =&˜ ¹º K 有名 か_し6な&。 3homsky is perhaps more famous for his political acti%ities than as a linguist. it always indicates a Freason. K+% . な #ad$ecti%e な #form and plain forms of & # ad$ecti%es and %erbs. 3 4 し た た < H $ I 、 日 本 へ 行 っ た 。 -e went to Japan because he studied Japanese. Whether た < H $ I is interpreted as a FpurposeF or FreasonF partly depends on the conte(t. % .#しJして日本へ行くDvFGkは、Ê ¿…@て&%"#A。It seems that the number of +mericans who go to Japan as 2nglish teachers is increasing e%ery year. > た < H $ I also indicates a purpose for an action. • 12はÀÁpく¬0な、²@%の$U *がかか%。 8an$i take a long time to learn because of their comple(ity.F (Gast#tense forms. etc. It indicates the reason or cause for the following clause. if た<H$I follows an ad$ecti%e or a %erb which indicates a state such as •か % . • >た<H$I / 'because (of 1 due to' > た < H $ I follows a noun D の .

When is it scheduled to be publishedE • ] ^ が D v F G へ ª ら 6 た こ ろ は 、 ’ J ( & : 9 < っ て & た 9 K し . but it is widely used especially in men's speech.語! 95&¥ (honorific form .6%0ら6% form. as in the following e(amples. I hear you ha%e written a book. things were %ery different from what they are now. • ]^、本.. 2. etc. I ha%e no alternati%e but to go on foot.#か。 Grofessor. • mòがな&Uは、DÂ5Jト. may be used as Ä . • 車 が な & か ら 、 à & て 行 く " り Q h が な & 。 5ince I don't ha%e a car. weren't theyE "his form is not as polite as regular honorific forms such as m>$な%、&らっし ™%.ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ Â 文法ノート 1."りQhしかたがな& = 'to have no choice but to ~' "his e(pression means that I is not what one normally wants to do but one has no choice but to do it. 2# .N%"りQhがな&。 When you ha%e no money. you don't ha%e any choice but to work part#time. and other formal writings. . which is homophonous to the passi%e form. # ? 。 O"alking to a professorP When you came to +merica.[か6た!#KNが、&0¥Î Å しúっ y 9の VÆ "て&Kし. newspapers. "here is no >6%0ら6% forms for %erbs such as •か%K+%. V6% /ら 6% "he .

though.たくa9=&た&が、U*がな&のK、=<てM Ç12+. 4. =<てH>ばI = 'at least' • 12. happens' 29 . I would like to be able to read and write at least 8yoiku 8an$i.'. "he use of くら&0Wら& makes the statement less specific in the sense that the speaker gi%es an item or number $ust as an e(ample. but I don't ha%e much time.34して_ら&た&_のA。 I would like )them* to spend at least one hour e%ery night studying Japanese. "his e(pression is used only when there is an implication that more of something is desirable. • È mっJ$ =<てm Éʬ ら ら&Wら&して_ら&た&Jè# ËÌ しúpは •&Aろ#。 "here must be many wi%es who want their husbands to wash dishes. at least.#&くか9˜は.-[+K+%"# $なりた &。 I want to learn lots of kan$i.3. '4o / in such a 'a that . • 毎 晩=<てBU*Wら&は日本語. • =<てBCは日本へ行って-た&Jè#kが•&Aろ#。 "here must be lots of people who would like to %isit Japan at least once. "#$ / = '4o / so that . .

30 . appears. I often contains a potential %erb. < % " # $ 、 2 . • 日本の~×¥K9J#て+な 文O. please write characters neatly. 5た。 I ga%e )them* chocolate so that they • á 6な&"#$[&てm&てくAa&。Glease write it down so that you won't forget. it is most commonly used with potential %erb forms. samurai must seem strange.In this construction. • -9なが Îたのし<%" #$PR´Öート. can all en$oy it. +lthough I can be any plain non#past %erb. • 日 本へ行5%"#$mò. she looks young..た<て&まN。I am sa%ing money so that I can go to Japan. which normally can't be controlled by one's will.. • 私 が .. > く Ï > $ ÷ @ % H な ー Ð Ñ Ò 5 & " # し Ï & ー Ð Ñ Ò が adverbial form $ な % I = 'seems.ˆらな&Í`のØÙÚか9こ#+™く$はajら&がÛ”*:+$ -@%Aろ#。 =or foreign tourists that don't know about traditional Japanese culture. negati%e form or stati%e %erb. • &0_“”$÷@%。)-e* always seems to be in good health.. 5. + 6 & $ [ & て Í a & 。 5o that I can read it.. 7amada is QA years old.' • Ó% a9は ÔÕÖ なの$ † く÷@まN?。 2%en though <rs.

I am )now* able to watch +merican football. • B4 &&@、こ—らこ!。>o. • +4 »#_N-ま=9。I'm sorry.gった から、DvEトが÷ら6%。 Because I bought a ". 6.÷@% ? ‘÷ら6% ? With÷@ %someone or something is ÛÚ ssÜv Ý 1ÝÞs Û 2ß ÜÚ ß Ý 2às1Ý vÜsÜb1 Ý regardless of the %olition of the speaker. it is different from the regular potential form of ÷% (which is ÷ら6% . phrase. or clause. replaces 名ÒD (æÒ D こ!çin particular こ ! generally がÏ. 31 . • ¡Öö. "hus. etc.Ï_Ïは. as in >へこ!、>Kこ!. ÷ら6%indicates that the speaker Ø áâ s ÝÝ Ú ã Ü Üv Ý 1Ý . こ! こ ! is a particle which emphasi:es a word. but is attached to other particles. • !こから • ä こくば9が÷@まNか。 3an you see the blackboard from o%er there (can it be seen o%er there E • »こK!のghが÷ら6まNか。Where are you able to see that mo%ieE • žŸはåが÷@な&。<y friend is blind. it's <2 who should say sorry..

• ト êèこ!行くc+KN"。"onga is the place you shouldn't miss.• ªÊこ!日本へ行+まN。I will go to Japan ne(t year definitely. º Ò (te#form ìこ!çonly if0when • -9な K æ 5 b ってこ!、&& NM³í ‚トがK+%9Kし. • ¶ こ! 私 Ÿわ たした—がaがして&た éêë kA。 -e is the %ery éêë k we ha%e been looking for. e%eryone • 日本へ行ってこ!、日本語がTÇ$な%9Aろ#。 9nly if0when you go to will you become good at Japanese.#。 9nly if (when helps each other will a good pro$ect be possible. 2ause/reason clauseì こ! ç It is precisel because 'hen ou do it b • Í Ç Aからこ!、_っJ î= 69しú#しな56ば&5な&。 It is precisely because )I'm* good that I need to practice more. 32 . • の¾こ!__—™9A。 • K +な&からこ!、 ïのk"りたくa934しな56ばならな&9A。 It is precisely because I can't do it that I ha%e to study more than other people. • °JりK Xってこ !34$ な%9A 。 /ou can learn something onl ourself.

りま=9。 +lthough I said it's cold. +lthough it's con%enient. • +4 #たA°か%がC ñし9=+な9Aって?-ikaru 'tada is your relati%eE • 4 #9、K_ Cñ JŠって_、 ò Jm& Cñ な9A。 7es. 7 is gi%en to !ualify I. JŠって_ follows plain forms. isn't heE It is true that he is young.AAA. • \ &JŠって_、 ø -(#-が ù こm% こJは lakes ne%er free:e. . 名ÒÏなーÐÑÒìJŠって _ • 私のD ートは„くてÔÕKN。ÔÕJŠって_、5yKðÕ •_かかりまN5»?。 <y apartment is close and con%enient.7し& 車 $ óô こ#か9し た"。 óô したJŠって_、 õö ÁÂ_½った5»?。 I traded my used car for a new one. +lthough I said I traded it. it still takes as much as 6A minutes by bus. In this e(pression. she is a relati%e. 1lthough I said .7.% /' + phrase that is used to clarify a statement in the preceding discourse which might be misleading. but he is CA years old. • ÿ„Q^は†&KN?。†&JŠって_、÷Õ ¼KN5»?。Bush is young. 5lain forms of (ºÒ 、 ÐÑÒ 、 copula) J&って_ • š ê´ ›車 . the 33 .% but /. JŠって_ / = 'It is true that . but she is a distant relati%e. I did pay RBA. but a copula A is generally omitted.

34 . たA>A5 Ï しか = 1n adverb 'hich Ý ú ÛÙÚ sÜû Ý s the idea of 6just% onl . N%c+A。 >o matter what kind of chocolates you recei%e on . I like it . 9. っ J 8 & て . • 5Öêタ Jê ´J $_らったPR´が»9な PR ´K_、 ™ワ Jト ´J $はmF し. たAì%erbìA5HしかI • ¶Jは たABü$MO+. • 私は»9 な季節+=0K_q+A。 I like all seasons (no matter what season it is. »9な ì ‘ 名Ò ‘ Hw^Ï& ì H æÒ I ì K_ = 'no matter 'hat ('ho% 'here) it ma be '»9なk ¨Ïþ¨Ï¾¿IK_ »9なこJH_ のIK_ »9なÿH場ÿ、町IK_ »9な日K_ • »9な ÿK_、u<ば都-XこA。>o matter where it may be. there is no place like home.6 たA ì名Òì A5HしかI • たA 8 語た9¥A5²@て_、Í ` 語はT Ç$なりま=9。 If you only learn %ocabulary. you won't become good at a foreign language. 0 +ny place is home once you li%e there.#か&へ行ったA5KN。 ýkJ&#わ5˜™な&KN"。 I only went with him to church.8. • þ $ ‡ し た R K は な & 9 K N 。 た A — . I only want to try to hear it a little. you should gi%e a return gift on White Jay. • た A m ò の R し か G @ て & な & k は 困 り ま N 。 )Geople* who think only of money are annoying. "hat doesn't mean that he's my boyfriend.た か っ た A 5 K N 。 It isn't a particularly important thing.alentines Jay.

a denominator comes before a numerator.' 5B is generally in plain forms. 5B…»KN*. • J êÁGÖーは、な-AがÎ%…»から&こJが that it brings tears to your eyes.' or 'it is so 56 that 5B. 2. • efは、²っくりN%…»kが•&。"okyo has an ama:ingly large number of people. >otice that Japanese. • 数 :9N# (fraction) • 数 (fraction in is e(pressed in Japanese by )(number • の (number *.ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ 1 0 文法ノート 1. as below. "his construction can be paraphrased to )56(て#form . %。 5ometimes. • JêÁのGÖーはからく て、な-AがK%…»KN。 3 . as in Å•のB (/B0C . etc. Õの ’ (/60? . Indian curry is so hot • º#¥5な&…»mなかが&っy&KN。I am so full that I can't mo%e. !entence …» )5B … » 56* means '56 to the e(tent 5B.

な#ad$ecti%e な. (. I want a car more than anything. "his construction means '+s for I. ad$ecti%es and %erbs. • 古 & 都 .¶j$ o %。 Jrinking cold beer is the best thing to do on a hot day. 8yoto is the best place. It can be > の. 5たままŽ?%J、か`. 7 is the best thing to do1 +s for I. &#ad$ecti%e in plain non-past tense form and %erb in plain past tense form.は )/$ o かº% 7 in this construction can be either a noun or a %erb in non#past plain form. 5. • »#ぞ!のまま&らしてくA a&。Glease come as you are. 引 °く。 If you go to sleep with the window open. 0&日$は 冷 0<た &öーÂ. > まま まま is attached to nouns. • kからmò. 訪 ?た56ば、f 都 $かºりまN。 If you want to %isit an old city. there is nothing better than 7. • 日本酒しúは冷0<た&まま¶9K_m &し&。Japanese rice wine tastes good e%en cold. 4. 3! . • f 都 $は Àj かし のま まの m 寺 X 神 P ˜9 ˜™ が• &。 "here are many old temples and shrines in 8yoto. • ‰"り_健康59こ#がB番KN。-ealth is the most important thing in the world. ‰"り_ = 'more than an thing' • ’、‰"り_車が…し&KN?@。Kight now.' • . you will catch cold. • 窓 ま». and indicates that the condition0situation (described in the attached to ま ま #clause is unchanged.3.借かりたままFaな &のは、"くな&。 It's not good not to return the money one has borrowed from other people.

してmくJ&&。 7ou should do what you want to do while you are still young. • >#—$ "here are two kinds of >#—$. but where the conse!uence was una%oidable because of the reason he0she gi%es.#。 7ou should go home before it gets too late. • ]^ç»#した9KN か。(&:9±m!&KN?。What happenedE 7ou are late. • † &#—$ ' •のした&こJ. • w^H&Iç»#したの。ä•_6ったの"。 What happenedE I'%e been waiting for half an hourE w^HþIç¥<9、¥<9。車Kªたから、道-—が_のN¥く–こ9 K&た_9Aから。 5orry. • 日本$&%#—$、BC 富 士Óp˜a9$登の³りた&Jè&まN。I would like to climb <t.ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ 1 1 文法ノート • >_9KNから /_のKNから = 'because ~' "his pattern is used to present a reason for a situation. • 静し(かな#—$34. it e(presses the meaning of 'before something happens. 3" . w ^çN-ま=9。Îか5"#JしっJころ$Sから電0がかかった_のKNから。 I am sorry.' • まり±m!く ならな&#—$šったhが&&Kし. it e(presses the sense of 'while a certain situation holds'. When # — $ is preceded by a negati%e %erb form. I came by car but the traffic was incredibly hea%y )so I couldn't help being late*. したhが&&。9ne should tra%el while still a student.してmこ#。I will get my study done while it is still !uiet. • 0して&%#—$U*が«たっ てしまった。"ime flew by while we were talking.こ#. It is often used to gi%e a reason for a situation where the speaker feels sorry for what happened. When #—$ is preceded by nouns. It's because my parents called me $ust when I was about to lea%e the home. ad$ecti%es and %erbs (stati%e or in progressi%e form . • w^の#—$旅行り. =u$i while I am in Japan.

it has the sense of 'by all means'.• 母 $ 叱 し か ら 6 な & # — $ ø ù し ú く A & . no matter what.' In an affirmati%e sentence. I can be either a noun or a sentence nominali:ed by attaching の. • ™ー |y¡Jのw^のS族かぞくからÇ紙てが-がB ?&—0#_ªな&のが”$なりまN。I am bothered by the fact that my host student's family has not e%en written a single letter to me. • . In a negati%e sentence. • »#して_ "his phrase can be used with either a negati%e or affirmati%e predicate. please ask your teacher. • 0& / 'inad%ertently1 in%oluntarily' 3# . • »#して_•からな&Uは、]^$8&てくAa&。 When you don't understand no matter how hard you try. to be concerned about ~' In this construction.が”$な% = '~ 'eighs on one's mind. し ま N 。 I will do my homework before my mother scolds me. • »#して_BC日本へ行って-た&。I would like to go to Japan once. • 成績が”$なりまN。I am worried about my grade)s*. it means 'can't do )it* no matter how hard one tries. • #!は、» #して_Š@ま=9。I can't tell a lie no matter what.

%šyター$”が0+ま=9Kした。I didn't notice the poster • mò. "he following are some of the e(pressions containing ”. • +4‘˜™、à日Î B4‘#9。7es +4‘˜™、”.05てくAa&。 When you speak Japanese. please watch for pitch patterns. to feel li+e V)ing' • ò曜日の晩は34N%”$なりま=9。I don't feel like studying on =riday nights. %。5ometimes. 39 .して&て、0&U*. しúっy0?5o.05% = 'to pa attention to ~.• Šっては&5な&こJが0&口$K%こJが should not say. take care. to notice' • !"ä5&˜ば9$#はっ て on the bulletin board. 0 NUは、D‚ z êト$”. to be careful of ~' • 日本語. % & Û 1 Ú Üß ' ( ”$な% = 'to bring oneself to do V.$mJしたの$”が0&たのは、SへšってからKした。It was after I got home that I reali:ed that I had lost my money. ” is used in many idiomatic e(pressions in Japanese. • >$”. we accidentally say things we • 0.05て?。 Well.á6てしまった。I was talking and lost track of time. you are lea%ing tomorrowE >$”が0く = 'to reali0e.

• X%”$な6ば、‰K_K+まN。7ou can do anything if you put your mind to it.#.m. [く"#$m*&した。I asked my teacher to write a letter of recommendation. • わ¬わ¬ / 'to go out of one's way to do something' • わ ¬ わ ¬ Îか5%のは‡ 3 た&へ9Aから、 電 0 K 0 !#。 It's not easy to take the time to go. • ]^$. so I will talk on the phone. • m 母a9$QRート ê›. (plain.は&てw•へ行かな&"#$/ü—ú#&a6た。<y host mother ad%ised me not to go to school wearing shorts. 40 .#てくAa&JŠ#* or ). • >"#$m * ?が&N% = 'to as+ 7someone8 to do 7something8' >"# $Š# = 'to as+ 7someone8 to do 7something8' >"#$ + たのj = 'to as+ 7someone8 to do 7something8' "#$ in this construction indicates that it is an indirect !uote of a command or are!uest.#か。Jo you think I should rewrite this compositionE ]^çわ¬わ¬[+)aなくて_&&9˜™な& KNか。 I don't think you ha%e to take the trouble to rewrite it.N&=9˜.なa&JŠ#*. • £"%¤ BUまK$はšってく%"#$Šわ6た。I was told to come home by BB p. non#past "#$Š# * is e!ui%alent to a sentence with a direct !uote such as ). • w^çこの7文、[+)したh&&Kし. ).-.

as in )7 くら& I*. it began to rain. howe%er. is the same as )Iて、7くら&A*. –&た&くら&KN or a %erb (e.-hがたくa9 って、日本k$_iし&くら&KN。"here are so many ways of reading Japanese names that they are e%en difficult for Japanese.て、 )/くら&A = '. TÇなくら&KN . • DvFG$(っJu9K&%のK、L語のhが日本語"りTÇなくら&KN。 -e has li%ed in +merica so long that his 2nglish is almost better than his Japanese.. indicates the degree or e(tent of a situation. • 日本のk名˜ 9<&は.g.8&て、 0 !#Jしたら、 1 な-AがÎて+た。 When I heard his %oice and tried to talk. tears came to my eyes.-rは• たまが–&たく な%くら&ij(かし&KN。"his reading passage is so difficult that )to the e(tent that* I almost get a headache. • J+»+âが÷@ な&くら& Z が°»く-%こJが %。 "here are times when it rains so hard that you can hardly see anything in front of you.• V (volitional) Jしたら = ''hen I 'as about to V' • ´ ー ト へ 行 こ # J し た ら 、 Z が . 41 . "he くら& phrase can precede the situation it is describing. 7 can be a な #ad$ecti%e (e.% to the e*tent /' くら&.g. 行くくら&KN .g.. "he meaning. • 電 0 K ¶ の 0 . • (. like …».. • ¥—!#がたくa9 って、 2 ï`9:bcら6な&くら&Kした。 "here was so much food that we almost could not eat it all. which is often e(pressed in I て (or I K . • この.p っ て + た 。 When I was about to lea%e for the department store. an & # ad$ecti%e (e.

05てくAa&。Glease watch out for wet paint. not enough' "his e(pression is always followed by a negati%e form of a predicate.した_のA。 I used to fight with my brother a lot when I was a child. past _ の A * is used to e(press something one used to do in the past. . 42 . • 3X+たての êはm&し&。Bread fresh from the o%en is delicious. (stem たて and means !²"く34した_のA。I used to play hard and study hard in my + suffi( たて attached to a limited number of %erbs (stem of まN#form that something was just done. • ‡wU¼は、"くI college days. • ¾¿のころは、"く · mJ#JJ59か. to reminisce about the past.• V (plain past) _のA = 'used to V' ). • VりたてのËêK$”. (plain. • . ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ 1 4 文 法ノート • ろく$>な& = 'not much. • ろく$34_しな&の$文5_9くば かりŠ#のは困%。It's not good to complain without studying much. • S”のUは、 ろく$bcら6な&。When you are sick. you can hardly eat anything.

g. perhaps because the final e(am is near. な#ad$ecti%e な. 43 . • !6は ”の=&A"。It's $ust your imagination..な a & .K is used as below. I'm sure you will feel better. . meaning 'Gerhaps because 5B. て . mか . perhaps because he did badly on the e(am. When 56 represents a desirable situation.M@て &たA&たmか-K、$…9¥が0=%"#$なりました。"hanks to your teaching. it is preceded by >の. without か. 5ince > な a & is a form used by someone higher in status to gi%e a command to someone lower in status. • í)+ま0ã äが„&=&か、›-が•&。"here are many absences. て ¥ ら 9 (e. 56 holds. 56* gi%es a possible reason for some undesirable situation in 56. • w^が K+な&のは]^の=&Aろ#か。 Is it because of the teacher that students don't do wellE • '•の*<ま—が&. 5o.て¥ら9なa&. • ]^$日本語.ïkた$9の=& $N%のは困%。 It's not good to blame others for your own mistakes. • ( し›9K¥ら9なa&。+っJ Î らく$ なりまN"。 Lo and rest for a while. >¥ら9なa& cannot be used by a person lower in status. =& is a noun. I ha%e become able to speak Japanese. • Vて¥ら9なa& = 'tr V)ing' "his is a polite form of . )5B = & か . gi%es a reason or a cause.• >=か / 'perhaps because' = &. ÷ て ¥ ら 9 %ariant of is a more informal . by mothers in talking to children.' • ãäし 59が悪わ%かった=&か、“”がな&。 )-e* looks dispirited. for e(ample. or plain forms of &# ad$ecti%es and %erbs. and is used.

• >が— = 'to tend to ~. but I think you should first study properly )i.-[+は28`9`9K+な& J&#のは、Í`kの場bば & りが—なこ JA。 It is not unusual that a foreigner who can speak Japanese a little can't read or write it at all.g. etc. to be prone to ~' "his suffi( follows certain %erbs (stems of まN #forms and nouns. degree.. • mなかの–&た&U、yー N Wら&$したhが&&K し.e.. • >$6こしたこJはな& / 'nothing can be better than ~' "his e(pression is most fre!uently used with non#past plain forms of %erbs. indicates that > is the minimum le%el. • BÊK = ならった12Wら&[5な&J困り まN。 7ou should be able to write at least the kan$i you learned in the first year. the best thing is to go to Japan. etc. • è#"#$ / 'as one wishes' • QRはなかなかè#"#$ 7 はか»らな&_のA。 Work generally does not get done as !uickly as one wishes. 44 .• >Wら& >Wら&. in this case. • 日本語が(し0=て_. something is more likely to happen. It is negati%e in its implication. easiest. • 日本 語が0=%"#$なりたかったら、日本へ行く$ 6したこJはな&Jè#56»、ま(DvFGK —™9 J34してから行ったhが&&Jè#&まN。If you want to become proficient in Japanese. • +4‘T文ろ 9:9は»#KNか。7はか»って&まNか。-ow is the thesis coming alongE Is it progressing wellE B4‘なかなかè#"#$[5なくて困って&まN。 I'm really troubled because I can't write it to my satisfaction. sleeping is the best thing to do. the basics* in +merica. and e(presses the idea that one tends to do something. to be apt to ~. (e. etc. lightest. • S ”のUはŽ?% 6したこJはな&。 When you are sick. you should limit your diet to something light like soup. Wら& is often replaced by くら&.#。 When you ha%e a stomachache.

• #—の 母 ったら、文 5 _9くばかりŠ#の"。 <y mother complains all the time )and I feel frustrated*.が—$しな&hが&&。 It is better not to be too modest ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ 1 ß 文法ノート • たら /(ったら > た ら 0 っ た ら is often used in informal con%ersations to indicate the topic of a sentence. which indicates that something is of a degree considerably greater than usual. 3ompared with a は#marked topic. まり ò 9 @9り. disbelief. )3an you belie%e itE* • "っ :» / 'considerably1 really1 to a great e(tent' "っ:» is a collo!uial form of "…». or the like.• DvFGKは in +merica. • >? p 0#のDvFGkは‡wの]^"…» .#のbRは"っ : »ま(&らし&。 It seems that the dormitory food is really bad. • のkったら、こ9なこJ&#の"。-e said this. ~たら0ったら gi%es a sense of surprise. 4 . °まが %Jèって&%"#A。 <ost +mericans seem to think that uni%ersity professors ha%e a great deal of free time. • A り. reproach.

plain forms of & #ad$ecti%es • 9な‡+なS$u9K&%9Aから、"っ :»Îら くな^-=&か0. • = ` か9こくk$Jって日本語はXaし&$—が&な&。 Japanese must be easy for 8oreans to learn. he speaks e(cellent Japanese indeed. • aNがH$I = 'indeed. stem forms of and%erbs. It is preceded by )5entence D A5 って*. as may be e(pected of someone who teaches calligraphy. な #ad$ecti%es.• >$ < —が&な& = 'it must be ~' It follows nouns. • !こKml<˜º. he must be really well#off. as ma be e*pected' aNがH$I gi%es a connotation that the speaker is fa%orably impressed with the state.して&%のは日本k$<&な&。"he person who is bowing o%er there must be a Japanese. • m = 2 し ú # ˜ の ] ^ A 5 っ て 、 a N が $ N ば ら し & 2 A 。 -e is an e(cellent calligrapher. • 電”のな&^-は>Ôpc9$ —が&な&。It must be incon%enient to li%e without electricity. • 日本$¤Ê_u9K&たA5 って、aNが日本語がTÇA。5ince he has li%ed in Japan for ten years.して&%$<&な&。 5ince he li%es in a big house like that. 4! .

1 used to. • !" _のの、 !# = 'although !"% !#' _のの is a con$unction meaning Falthough. can follow a sentence.1 shouldF • 5GなR. I was worried..• な 9か /(な9て Both な9か and な9て can follow a noun. 4" . _のなの$ ⇒ _の@@@@@@@@@@@@@@の ~_のKN ⇒ "he speaker presents some situation as if it is a tangible ob$ect. It is similar to ÒがÓ and Ò56»_Ó.した_のAhow could you do such a foolish thing. Fbecause1 how could. • æÒ ˜.' 9nly な9て . • .語5&¥. howe%er..F and tends to be used in writing..しな 9かHな9てIij(かし&Jèった。 I thought things like particles were difficult.. • Ò 私 はÓJÒ 私 がÓが»# < —が#かな9て H ? な»J&#のはI、aっ y りわからなかった。 I didn't understand at all things like how watashi wa and watashi ga differ./わな&J‹Œし06&$ な%な9てH?な»JIŠわ6たから、wxし9y&し—™っ た。 5ince I was told that it would be impolite if I don't use keigo.. な9て is a contraction of many forms such as な»は、な»J、な»J&#のは or the like. with the meaning of 'things (or people like ~.

• 働は たらく&¨˜.#Japan relations. 名Ò ‘ ì ‘_ののな • w^K %_のの • w ^Kはな&_のの • w^Aった_のの • w^Kはなかった_のの なーÐÑÒ ‘ ì‘_のの • 有名な(or K % _のの • 有名Kはな &_のの • 有名Aった_のの • 有名Kはなかった_のの ~の$çpersonal in%ol%ement. • 日FGH$—c&か95&は、BhKはI*-9か9Ö JÂの文OóK:9かこ#りú#がœaか9A が、 ï h K は L M N O ³ # @ + ま a 0 が ‡ + な P ù _ 9 A & J な っ て & % 。 +s for '. one of the two. it is %ery e(pensi%e. but. on the other hand. emoti%e o%ertone • Bh : #K (は )= 'on one hand.J<ら6なかった。 +lthough I studied fi%e hours e%ery day. phrases is often omitted. on the other hand' It is often used in a phrase Bh : # Kは ~ 、 ï hた …# Kは ~.Glain form o f & # ÐÑÒ an d ºÒ ì_のの • なっJ#はA$&&_のの、A6_bcたがらな&。+lthough natto is good for you • このþBcっ!#は‡+くな&_のの、?A9はC+ わ<てt &。2%en though this summer cottage is not big. on the other hand. while. -owe%er. women who hold important posts are !uite few in number. cultural e(change in the pri%ate domain is !uite popular.=&の数か(はÊ ¿?9?9…@て&%が、BhK、cd˜ú#"#なšyト$0 & て&%& ¨は+わ<て(な&。"he number of working women is increasing e%ery year. 4# . I didn't notice any progress at all.5. trade friction is a big problem. on one hand. • 毎 日ÅU * _34した_のの、‰の D à し9 : _ E .

• 日本語の‚ÌyKは、 毎U*の"#$øùしúくA&が homework for almost e%ery class period. Q. R. we ha%e • =&`& = 'at most' It indicates a ma(imum limit. when they take %acations. • N4 B日$‰U*34しまNか。-ow many hours do you study each dayE +4 =&`&õU*34N6ば&&hKN。 It's pretty good if I study one hour at most (if any . which is still a small amount. 日 can be replaced by “.b cた!#A。I hear 8eene ate 3hinese food almost e%ery day. fi%e‘days.#り.• 毎 日の"#$ = 'almost ever da ' It means that it appears like e%eryday. U*. you will be called on at most once or twice.. on a good day.#。 Japanese white# collar workers. • 日本の • ÌFー S êは、›-. %。In Japanese class. etc. take at most four. Ê. 49 . although it is not actually e%ery day. • ‡+&‚ÌyKは、BU*$=&`&B、’CÑ た6 ば&&hが&&。In a large class. • Kー9は、毎日の"#$†s¦§—ú#かり. : ったJして_、=&`& T 、Å日Kし.

• たばこがA$"くな&J•かって&ながら、X<ら6な&。 While I know that tobacco is bad for your body.' >otice that.• ~ながら = 'although' When. • このXへ9は>Ôpc9な がら、車_(なく、Y”く#+が+6&A。+lthough this area is incon%enient. contains an action %erb. • y´„トz•ーターUêは¼½5っこ9し て&ながら、ïの&のkJOって&た。+lthough 5cott Geterson was married. there are few cars and the air is clean. • この車は†古車—ú#こし™ながら、"くV%。+lthough this car is used. 7amada knew about the test tomorrow. itme(presses the idea of 'although 5B. he0she is !uite mature0reliable. 56*. it runs well. I became unable to go. 0 .ˆりながら、私$はMm し@てく6なかった。 +lthough <r. 56.w W ¥こ—が&&。 +lthough this room is narrow. It is a dis$uncti%e con$unctionnormally used in written Japanese. • Ó%a9はà日ãäが %こJ. it is comfortable. he didn't tell me. I cannot !uit. ad$ecti%e. he saw other women. • Z[¬9 ?9ながら、行か6なくなりました。'nfortunately. な が ら indicates two simultaneous actions. ÐÑÒ Hl[ÐI‘ì‘ながら • このï¨へXは=ま&ながら、uN. 名Ò ‘ì‘ながら • の¾ は õõÖながら、しっかりして&%。 +lthough that child is BB years old. or stati%e %erb. in )5B な が ら . when 5B. 5tati% e ºÒ (pre#masu form ‘ìながら • ¶は日本$&ながら、" ばかり cて&%。 +lthough he is in Japan. he eats only western food. 5B contains a noun.

• (Jしては = 'for. • ~ a 9 は 日 本 の B Ê ^ $ し て は 1 2 . !". isn't itE >ote the difference between Jしては and $しては.."くˆって&%。~ a9may or may not be a first year Japanese student. I was surprised how e(pensi%e e%erything was. as below4 • ~a9は日本 のBÊ^Jしては12. I don't think they should $ust goof around. 2%en so. considering' + compound particle which indicates a standard for comparisons. 9ven so% !#' • efはrs:っ かがt&Jèって&たが、!6$して_t&の$は®m»ろ&た。I had e(pected that prices in "okyo would be high. etc. • !" !6$して_ !# = '9ven if !" is true% !#. it is fairly difficult. but e%en so. " く ˆ っ て & % 。 ~ a 9 is actually a first year Japanese student. • DvFGのt•こ #こ#は、_Í-ºかが&か0»#な»¤•K+て"&Jè#が、!6$して__# ( し34a=て_&&のKはな&Aろ#か。I think it's great that +merican high school students can spend lots of time on e(tra#curricular acti%ities. but e%en so. • BÊ^のMî[Jしては、かなりiし&KN?。=or a first year te(tbook. 1 . wouldn't it be better if they made students study a little moreE • 日本の‡wは、PO$Î%âのの9²りK+%UAJŠわ6て&%。!6$して_、 I !9 Kばかり &% わ5$_&かな&Aろ#。 Japanese colleges are said to pro%ide time for students to rela( before they go out into the real world. • â%a9は、日本kJしてはL語がTÇKN。<aeda speaks good 2nglish for a Japanese. • efは、‡ 都 \ A&JしJ しては ]^ は9 ¬ &が ( な&。 "okyo has few crimes for a big city.

you cannot buy alcohol.. な ÐÑÒ ‘ì‘K % (o r Kな& Ïな‘ì‘oり • “”なoり、働+なa&。+s long as you are well. • ]^がªな&oり、¡yトが€まらな&。+s long as the teacher doesn't come. the test won't begin. you must study kan$i..e. and な # % #form or in な #form (i. 名Ò ‘ì‘K % (o r Kな& ‘ ì‘oり you are a % form (i. 2 ..• > o り = 'as far as ~. 静 し(かなかºり . ºÒ • 日本のw^K %oり、12. • ð õ Ö K な & o り 、 m 酒 は g @ な & 。 +s long as you are not 6B. please work. >ouns are in K ad$ecti%es are either in K (plain form ‘ì‘oり È ‘ &ÐÑÒ ‘ì‘oり • K+%oりが9ばりまN。I will try as much as possible.34しな&わ5$は&かな&。While (as long as student. • か@って = 'on the contrar ' "he ad%erb か@ってis used when one describes a situation0e%ent that occurs contrary to one's e(pectation.F It is used to set limits within which the following statement holds true.e. 日 本 k K % o り . long as ~' + con$unction which e(presses the idea Fas long as (a certain condition is met F or Fas long as (/ to the e(tent . It generally follows plain forms of %erbs and & # ad$ecti%es.

on the contrary. a b = 9 た く し た ら 、 か @ っ て + た な く な た 。 I washed a white sweater. and now it looks dirtier than before. I feel great.N%こJが %。 If you study too much the night before an e(am. sometimes you get more confused. you must be tired. B4 &&@、か@って“”$なった"。 • o.#。7ou swam for an hour. sometimes you end up making sill mistakes. • ¾¿こ»_$は¾¿のGか9が@が %9Aから、ま(8&てX%こJがód°0"#A。3hildren ha%e their own ways of thinking. so we can't say one is better than the other.• +4 BU*_`m "&K、0か6たKし. • +4‘_#—.っJ34したら?Why don't you study moreE B4‘こ6K_、私は私なり$が9ばって&%0_りKN5»。 I am doing my best in my own way. ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ 1 ý 文法ノート • ( $は (の>が • C$はCの^-が % = '( has its o'n ~' %。Garents ha%e their own li%es )to li%e*. %。When you read instructions • ãäし59のâの 晩ば9$34 しNº%J、か@って0まらな& *<ま—が&. 3 . • ç @@@@@@@@@@ & z ー タ ー .. • (" は ("なり$ V = '(" does things in its o'n 'a ' ("は ("なりの (# = '(" has its o'n (#' • DvFG$はDvFGなりの"aが り、日本$は日本なりの"aが %から、»—らが &&J_Š@ な&。 Both +merica and Japan ha%e their respecti%e good points. • ¯c+か&の/&h.j J、か@って•からなくな%こJが for a machine. so we should first listen to them.

• 日本Kは¼½5っこ9N%J&#§dKOP.' -owe%er. • mò_な&く=$t&_のばかりg#kは困こ まりまN。It's too bad that there are people who ha%e absolutely no money but keep buying e(pensi%e things. • ¾¿のく=$ÍKI !²たがらな&のは、困%。It's troublesome when a child does not want to play outside. • 日本Kは&¨は¼½5っこ9してX<%って&#§dKcd˜ú #"#なQRし¥Jはa=て_ら@な &の が >? p0#な 9KN。 In Japanese companies. "his phrase follows > の . • …かの´ーyの34が 忙 & !がし&J&#§ d KøùしúくA&.X<%&¨が•&。<any Japanese women !uit companies for the reason of marriage. and this phrase follows a sentence in a plain form. disgust or contempt. it is normal for women not to be gi%en important positions for the )ostensible* reason that they will soon !uit to get married.してこな&w^_&まN。 "here are students who don't do homework saying that they are too busy studying for other courses. な# ad$ecti%e な and plain form of &#ad$ecti%es and %erbs. • ˆ って&%く=$Mmし@てく6な&。 )-e* does not tell me although )he* knows about it. • >って&# /J&#§ d り ゆ #K = 'for such and such a reason' って&# is a collo!uial form of J&#.• >く=$ く=$ . く=$ e(presses the speaker's feeling of displeasure. like の$ e(presses the idea of 'although. 4 . • Í Çなく=$NWXりたが%kは&XA。 + person who is poor at doing something but lo%es doing it is a big pain.

• ç&zーターは"¥6っ:&。White sweaters get dirty easily. • ‰ga &$なって_¾¿っ:&kは困%。+ person who acts childish no matter how old )he* gets is a problem. etc. you fall behind the times.:%Já6っ:くな%。When you get old you become forgetful.#. • t&_のK_ e X ´ f J êが 悪 わ%& J、'XNっ : く-@%。 2%en e(pensi%e things look cheap if they ha%e distasteful colors and designs. • 日本の&¨ijか&…#¹ º#9»#$Gしてk¦しり.' • ここ¤Êの* &A$&¨$GN%研 5 9+ú#がœ9$なった。Kesearch concerning women has increased in the last ten years. • この¥ろは、´ê•^ータ$GN%ˆh—し+がな&JU¼±m く6$な%。"hese days. forgets. . • ($ G N % (/($ G して V = ''ith regard% concerning% about% on' >$GN%modifies a noun and >$Gして modifies a %erb1 both mean 'concerning. It generally carries a negati%e connotation. stems of ad$ecti%es and stems of the %erb ( まN#form . • Ê.• >っ : & "his suffi( is attached to a limited set of nouns.• 0< て&%9KN。I am collecting mat <I5 concerning the women's liberation mo%ement in Japan. if you don't ha%e knowledge about computers. It indicates that B something looks0appears like something else or 6 someone easily gets upset.

% 。 8yoto. • I . FLone (#) (J l $ /V (plain% non)past) J l $ "his indicates that 'as I happens. together with >ara. • ‡dなこJは、k$まか=な&hが&&。It's better not to lea%e important things to others. • f都はmnならJ¿$日本の古&町K Japanese city.:%J¿$ra&こ Jが”$な%"#$な%らし&。 It seems that as one grows older. • ´ê• ^ ー タ ーのこJAったら、 私 $まか=て Í a&。 If it's computer#related.÷たこJが With the WindEF りまNか。-a%e you seen the mo%ie. ! . I f (1) (J l $ = 'together 'ith'% 'along 'ith' i~#. so does changes proceed simultaneously. lea%e it to me.• .J l J_$ / I can be a noun or a %erb# (plain form . 7. • ŠÏこJばはU¼J¿$3Oへ9かN %。Hanguage changes with time. has two basic meanings.(は 7 $まか=% / 'to lea%e0entrust I to 7' • €8か9た9な こJは、¯c+か&$まか=て_&&Jè#。I think we can ha%e machines do simple tasks. is an old • Ònか `Jl$aりVÓJ&#gh.' It often indicates that two • Ê. one begins to worry more about tri%ial things.

my mother brings back sou%enirs0gifts.た ² $ / = '9ver time . It literally means 'it would be nice if ~. • ¡Öö. it would ha%e been great if my father0mother would ha%e let me dri%e a car. I wish he )she* would study more. • U ¼$bわ=てþが3わってく6たqJè&まN。I wish men would change with the times. I am disgusted by how many commercials there are.' • #—の¾¿は、I9Kばかり&%9KNが、_っJ34してく6たらJè&まN。<y child is $ust ha%ing a good time. " .てく6たら&&(の$ Jè#&まN and e(presses the speaker's (or writer's wish or hope. 名Ò‘のた²$ • 旅行り.• . It 'ould be great if someone does something for me' "his is e!ui%alent to .÷%た²$´SーQLÂの•&の$#9¬りN%。2%ery time I watch ". • O# た²$p˜0. o は . happens% / also happens' ºÒ (non)past plain ) ‘た ² $ • Ó % a 9 J 0 N た ² $ 、 ( Ó % a 9 は 私 .こ#のた²$、母はm-X-. • V て く 6 た ら J è # & ま N / > て く 6 た ら & & の K N が = 'I 'ish someone 'ould do something.¹s# 9て9a=てく6たらJèった。When I was a child.8かa6%のは&XA。I don't like to be told the same story e%ery time I see. she0he encourages me. 2ausative (permissive use) ì く6たら ç ‘ It 'ould be great if someone let me do !omething • ¾¿のU、rÏ母がH私$I車.ま し て く 6 % 。 2%ery time I talk with 7amadasan.gって+てく6 %。9n e%ery trip..

þの¾はab. to have the impression that. • Í`kt働‡ろ#»#し™の…uぞ# かJ¿$、日本_3わって+た"#な”がしまN。With an increase in foreign laborers. • Iは7JGHか95&が % "his e(pression means that I has something to do with 7 or that I is related to 7. "hus. ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ 1 . &Xが% comes from &XA. and indicates that someone shows a sign of feeling in a certain way. & X が % generally describes someone else's feeling of dislike. 文 法ノート • > " # な ” が N % = 'to have a feeling that. which the speaker0writer can obser%e. 5o.• rÏ母がH私$I私のq+ なこJ. • &¨が¼½5っこ9してから_QR. • 日本JDvFGのLMNO³#@+まa0は、« 45&¬&TのPù_9A&A5Kなく、文O:9か の< @@@@@@@@@@ — が&J_ GH が %のKはな&Kし.It would be great if my father0mother would make my fa%orite foods.v0w5 %か»#かはþ¨の§iりか&JGHが %。Whether women continue working after getting married has something to do whether men are sympathetic to the situation or not... while &XA generally e(presses the speaker0writer's own feeling of dislike. it seems to me that' • 日本語が ( しTŸ˜. and Japan is not only an economic issue but is also related to the cultural differences.a=てく6たら&&のKNが. • ab=9たくが&XA。I hate doing the wash. • >が% が% attaches to a な#ad$ecti%e or &#ad$ecti%e. # .&Xが%。 Boys hate doing the wash. Japanese makes a distinction between the speaker's e(pression of his or her own feeling and the speaker's e(pression of someone else's feeling.#か。 It seems to me that trade friction between the '.5.#た0した"#な”がしまN。 I feel my Japanese has impro%ed a little. I feel Japan has started to change.

yNわ な&K…し&9A5»。I don't want you to smoke in the classroom. it is interchangeable with .して…し&Jè&まN。I do want my husband to cook sometimes.k(かしが%w^が•&。 In Japan. • >$ z _J w く = 'to be based on ~' 9 . ¾¿が…しが%_の. • ]^はw^$毎日34して…し&Jè#。"eachers want students to study e%ery day. • Vて…し& )Iは7$. • GÌx˜はæç&。8araoke is fun.. • 私 は、…し&_のは、'•Kg#。I buy things I want with my own money.• kâK0Nのは、 k(かし&。I feel embarrassed when I talk in front of people. • M!+. • J+»+はËkしú˜9$¦§.て_ら&た&.#し0Kはタ5´.て…し&* means that I wants 7 to do . >ote that when you want to e(press your own desire to do something. kの*<ま—が& . there are many students who feel embarrassed about talking in front of others.# た & form (as in 日本へ行+た& . you use . 日本Kは、kâ K0Nの. ‰K_gってX%のは、"くな&。 I don't think it's good )for parents* to buy their children e%erything they want.æçが%のは、"くな&。 It's not good to make fun of other people's mistakes. Basically.

. !0 .5. it would be different. • kがŠ#こJ. • DvFG Kは、Í`kAからŠってL語. +s for the %erb e(ist.r $ z w & て & ま N 。 3ontent#related !uestions are based on reading passages we read in class. • ra&*<ま—が& . • I .}" ² ~ Nて $N%日本kが&%。 "here are Japanese who call +mericans by their first names only $ust because they are +mericans )i. • 日本kAからŠって日本語がM@ら6%わ5Kは りま=9。 It's not necessarily the case that one can teach Japanese $ust because one is a Japanese.”$して&たら、Í`語は0=ま=9。If you are worried about minor mistakes.. まり”$しな&hが&&KN"。7ou should not let what other people say • >ならþc0A = 'if ~% it's different' • DvFGならþKNが、日本KT •˜. it is always り¸#% 0 り¸@な&. . • >からJŠって / '$ust because ~' • DvFGkAからJŠって 名 â.• kJkJの P ù_9A&は {i ¥ か&$ zw くこJが•&。 Groblems between people are often based on misunderstandings. #し"り•くSへš%こJはK+ま=9。 It's different in the '. bother you. in class. • >¸#% 0 ¸@な& ). ゆっくり0してはく6な&。 In +merica people would not slow down in talking to you $ust because you are a foreigner. • ‚ Ì y の Í K な ら þ K N が 、 ‚ Ì y の † K は 日 本 語 .”$N% / 'to lot I bother one' I can be a noun or a sentence followed by の or こJ.e.(stem D ¸% 0 ¸な& is a classical (formal e(pression e!ui%alent to >こJがK %. but in Japan. you cannot go home earlier than your boss. try to speak in Japanese. • ]^が*<ま—が@ %J&#こJ_ り¸%。It's possible that teachers make mistakes. you won't be able to speak any foreign language. not Japanese*. • | Ñ } P な & " # し 0 _ 9 は ‚ Ì y K . 9 A . But. 0 N " # $ し て く A a & 。 If it were outside of class. >ote4 this e(pression is used for e(pressing possibility >9" ability. since %こJがK+% (K+な& does not + % 0 >こJがK+な&.

!1 .• この¯ €=か&からp•=9!#がなくな%J&#こJは unlikely that wars will disappear from this world. り ¸ な & J è # 。 I think it's • 日本kの= •しú#か9KDvFGk$§iりか&し¸な&こJのB0$Ò™ê{ÓJ Òタ¡S©Óが % 。 9ne of the Japanese customs that is hard for +mericans to understand is the idea of honne %s. tatemae.

meaning Fin a !uick fashion. health. Baseball players. practice all year round. "heir practice sessions are often 5partan. because Japanese professors are generally far from demanding. etc. ˆ 5&W . "hese %arsity players engage in their sports throughout the year. in the concluding portion. "here are also all kinds of non#sports clubs ranging from 255 (2nglish 5peaking 5ociety to •Ž•pqO (8abuki club . which literally means Fpreliminaries deleted. $ust write so#and#so $ "ろしく . a group of people sharing the same interest. you may lea%e out all these formal salutations.g. +nother difference between Japan and +merica is that the caller must identify !2 . whose members play against teams from other colleges0uni%ersities. which most +mericans find hard to understand. "hen proceed to the main body of the letter.5. etc. 5ome people skip _し_し and identify themsel%es as soon as they pick up the recei%er. write Kは»# ぞ "ろしくm * &しまN if it is a letter of re!uest. for e(ample..• Ø à1 Ü à ÞÝ â2 ÜÝ s ‚ ÝÜÜÝÞ ƒ„ Þ Ü Ü Üß … Begin your letter with †‡は&5&. "here are many students who seem to spend more hours on e(tra#curricular acti%ities than on course work. without saying _し_し. "his situation. »# ぞ m“”K .F If you are writing to a close friend. "he most common complimentary close is . When you are in a big hurry..F + letter that starts with ≠usually ends with Š ¿!#!#.e. e. and touch upon your own health. Hastly. and those who miss them for no apparent reason are likely to be se%erely critici:ed. write about the recent0current weather. saying. 5ome are sports clubs. "he language used within these sports clubs is often %ery restricti%e in that koohai (younger members must use keigo toward senpai (older members . howe%er. by writing â‰`9り™く. normally Ó % K ¥ ¬ & ま N . • Ý 1 ÝÛÙ 2ß Ý Ø 2ßv ÝÞ s ÚÜ Ü2ßs & ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ ± ' In Japan. Business establishments identify themsel%es immediately. for e(ample.. i. is possible. 9therwise. of course. >e(t. the party that answers the phone speaks first by saying _し_し . • ŽïX+ú#:、¡ƒyï. you can skip the beginning part about the weather. ‹Œ ÜÞÚ ƒ Ø à ÞÞ Üãà1 ÚÞ áã Ü ÜvÜ Ü Ü Ý s Japanese colleges0uni%ersities ha%e all kinds of clubs for e(tra#curricular acti%ities. as in the '. etc. in!uire about the addressee's health. 5tudent who hate this regimentation yet lo%e a particular sport often belong to a less restricti%e group usually referred to as p qO»#こ#か& .

#か.っJÎか5てmりまNが。 ³íJUêç‘ 、!#KNか。‰U¥ろmšりKし.EF Hikewise. -e05he would then ask for the person he0she wishes to talk to. feelings. too. drip & :た:た • ound cows make4 moo & _ー • -ea%y ob$ect falling4 thud & »し9、»aっ ž 語 are words that e(press states. e..#か。 富%母ç‘‘‘!#KN?。«U¥ろ$は›_ »%Jè&まN5»。 ³íJUêç‘!#KNか。˜™、またœU¥ろm電0しまN。 富%母ç‘‘‘»#_“しわ 5 りま=9。 If you wish to leave a message ³íJUêç‘!#KNか。!6˜™、mšり$なったら、こ—らへm電0くAa%"#m~0 た@くA a& ま=9か。 富%母ç‘‘‘わかりました。 nding ³í JUê瑘™、‹ŒしまN。 富%母ç‘‘‘¥<9くAa&。 • Ü2ß … 2 Ú ßd • Ü ÜÚ Ü … 2 & ØÙÚÛÜÝÞ 14' Japanese has a rich system of sound symbolism.himself0herself before being asked. impressionistically. F"his is so#and#soF or FIs this so#and#soEF instead of FI am. lea%ing on ‹ŒKNが intact. they can be subdi%ided into two categories4 žŸ語ºm9¥ (phonomimes... "he latest trend seems to be to lea%e out the latter half of this sentence.g. in !3 . žŸ語 represents words that imitate actual sounds. こ—らは–%KNが ("his is Ikeda0the Ikedas and !—らはuêか J#a 9 のm—たくKNか (Is that the 8ato's homeE . If you forget to identify yourself. In 2nglish. the person answering would ask ‹ŒKNが»—ら • aま Kし.#か. psychomimes . such as sounds that animals make.#か。 富%母ç‘‘‘は&、!#KNが。 ³íJUêç‘こ—らは‘q‡wのトêNUêKNが、˜™ま -a9&らっし™&まNか。 富%母ç‘‘‘は&、(¿m6—くAa&。 If the person you wish to talk to is out 富%母ç‘‘‘ の、šjN<は ’—. one would say. in Japanese. manners of actions. etc. 2nglish has some of those. ‘q‡wの’ÌêトJ“しまNが、”Ó]^&らっし™%Kし.F or F+re you. such as rolypoly and shilly-shally. too. =irst. onomatopoeia and ž 語ºた& ¥ (phenomimes. "here are three important differences between 2nglish and Japanese here.. Golite "elephone 3on%ersation =ormulas Opening ³íJUêç‘_し_し、富%J-たa 9のm—Kし. for identification on the phone. 3ompare the following4 • ound dogs make4 bowwow & わ9わ9 • ound of a gunshot4 bang & »9、(»9 • ound cats make4 meow & $™ーm • Water dripping4 drip. Koughly.. one would say. 2nglish has somež 語#like words.

on the other hand.. there are %ery often cases where in 2nglish. In Japanese. there is no fear of this unless one uses onomatopoeia specifically used in baby#talk. one may run the risk of sounding childish..g. • 5ら5ら£わ ら# & to guffaw • くNくN£# & to giggle • $XっJ£# & to grin • $こ$こ£# & to smile@@ !4 . e.. if one speaks with too many žŸ語 or ž 語. manyžŸ語 and ž ad%erbially.g.g. e. completely different %erbs are used for related actions while. often with the addition of J. i. In Japanese...g. in machine gun fashion • ³!³!HJI0N & to talk in a subdued tone • のらりくらりHJI0N & to talk noncommittally0e%asi%ely "hird (and this is related to the second point abo%e .2nglish. in Japanese. 2nglish わ9わ9 for ¡ .e. slam! wha"k! Rash! sli"k! smooth! plump! glisten. etc. 語 are used • : 9 :¢ HJI }P N% & to ask !uestions in rapid succession. stomach or teeth persistent way hurts in a dull. • +り+りHJI–j & to ha%e a piercing pain • しくしくHJI–j & something (usually. on and the same %erb will do with the addition of different ž Ÿ 語 and ž 語. 5econd. 語 is actually filled with %erbs and ad$ecti%es that originated as ž Ÿ 語 or ž but are no longer regarded as such. e. e.

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