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Global Outline: The Foundations of Christianity Society In Western Europe

I: The Quest for Political Order Germanic invaders crumpled western Europe The Franks were going to take over, but they fell to internal power struggles Many different groups attacked, and political authority devolved to local and regional jurisdictions Power became decentralized

A: Germanic Successor States Odoacer- Germanic general deposed last of the western Roman emperors Administrative apparatus of Roman empire didnt disappear immediately Cities lost population due to invasions, power struggles, trade disruption Visigoths established kingdoms in Spain Ostrogoths dominated Italy Lombards took Italy after Justinians Burgundians and Franks took Gaul Angles, Saxons, and others established kingdoms in Britain These people absorbed Roman influence Converted to Christianity and adapted Roman law None of the groups were strong enough to take over everyone else Franks had an empire that relied on agriculture, not trade Maintained alliance w/ western Christian church and helped Christianity stay strong

B: The Franks and the Temporary Revival of Empire Clovis- ruled Franks from 481-511 Clovis led Franks to become preeminent military and political power in western Europe Took over Gaul and other Germanic peoples Most Germanic peoples converted to Arian Christianity from Polytheism Clovis was married to Cllotilda- led husband to become ROMAN Christian By becoming RC, Franks attracted supporters from former Roman empire and church After Clovis death, aristocratic warriors took control Aristocratic clan of the Carolingians and took central government Founded by Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) Battle of Tours- turned back a Muslim army (never a Frankish kind, only deputy) Highpoint reached under Martels grandson Charlemagne (Charles the Great)(768-814) Temporarily reestablished centralized imperial rule He wasnt literate, but was very intelligent- spoke Latin, understood Greek Had diplomatic relations w/ Byzantine empire and Abbasid caliphate (got white elephant) Inherited a lot of land when he took throne, but expanded to Spain, Bavaria, Italy, Rome

Ruled the Saxons and suppressed their rebellions Established court and capital at Aachen Spent most of his reign traveling to maintain authority Didnt have financial resources to maintain bureaucracy, so he relied on aristocratic deputies known as counts- held political, military, and legal authority in local jurisdictions Counts were controlled by a group of imperial officials called missi dominici (envoys of the lord ruler) Didnt want to call himself emperor b/c Byzantine emperors would get angry Accepted title of emperor in year 800 Attended religious services conducted by Pope Leo III- he placed a crown on Cs head

C: Decline and Dissolution of the Carolingian Empire Louis the Pious (ruled 814-840), Charlemagnes son, kept empire together Lacked strong will and military skill, and lost control of the counts and other authorities The counts and other pursued their own political interests Louis three sons disputed the inheritance of the empire Eventually divided it into three equal portions Muslims invaded from south, Magyars came from east, and Vikings came from the north and invaded different parts of the empire Norse expansion, brought by the Viking invasions, raided Carolingian empire Norse expansion depended on shipbuilding and seafaring Established many settlements in island- also colonies in North America Most Norse seafarers were merchants seeking commercial opportunities Vikings, on other hand, wanted to raid and plunder and attack Viking came from people in Vik, however all Norse mariners who mounted invasions later became known as Vikings Had strategic boats and timed their attacks to take advantage of the tides First Viking invaders attacked monasteries in the 790s Later attacked France and other large cities- 800 vessels attacked Hamburg, 700 attacked Paris, 100 attacked London- later took more Islands in Mediteerranean

D: The Establishment of Regional Authorities Carolingians had no navy and means to protect against Vikings Relied in local forces to respond quickly Imperial authorities were unable to defend their territory, so they attacked Carolingia England- invasions led to small kingdoms being united under one larger realm Leader of that effort was King Alfred (871-899) Built navy to challenge the Vikings at sea and made fortresses on land to secure areas In Germany, invasion brought end of Carolingian rule and new dynasty King Otto I of Saxony (ruled 936-973) was a successful local lord that took over Faced a large Magyar arm at Lechfeld near Augsburg and ended the Magyar threat On venture to Italy, pope declared him emperor In France, end of Carolingian rule led to proliferation of local authorities

Counts withdrew from central government and ruled their territories in their own interests Collected taxes, organized armed forces, built castles, provided justice Vikings also established independent states in France at the same time DECENTRALIZED GOVERNMENT DUE TO LOCAL ARMIES AND POLITICAL POWERS By putting end to invasions, states laid foundation for social, economic, and cultural development

II: Early Medieval Society Feudalism- political and social order of medieval Europe During this time, local political and military elite worked out various ways to organize territories and maintain order in absence of effective central authorities

A: Organizing a Decentralized Society Nobles and counts who took over their territories often were under control of 1 king Still, they acted independently Attracted soldiers into private armies by offering grants of land or money These beneficial relations became stronger- political leaders were close w/ military leaders Leaders merged into a hereditary noble class that lived off surplus of food from retainers Lords and their retainers (workers) had confusing network of relationships-instability Sometimes restrainers went off and did their own thing Some Lords prevented their retainers from becoming too independent

B: Serfs and Manors Land was cultivated by peasants and they delivered production to their superiors Slaves and free peasants frequently intermarried Peasants sought protection from a lord and pledged their labor in exchange for security and land to cultivate Serfs- semi-free individuals worked lands as long as they observed obligations to landlords (labor, payments of rents- portion of harvest, chicken, eggs) Males worked in fields three days a week, more during harvesting season Women churned butter, made cheese, brewed beer, spun thread, wove cloth, sewed clothes, kept sheep and cattle, etc. Serfs had little opportunity to move to different lands Had to pay to marry a serf who worked for a different lord Serfdom allowed the manor to be the principal form of agricultural organization Manor was a large estate that had fields, meadows, forests, agricultural tools, domestic animals, lakes or rivers, serfs, etc. Lord and deputies provided govt, admin, police, and justicecould execute serfs Manors were self sufficient- had mills, bakeries, breweries, wineries, etc. Small local markets provided materials that manor couldnt produce

C: The Economy of Early Medieval Europe Economic activity in western Europe was slower than in Chinda, India, Mediterranean, etc

Agricultural production suffered from repeated invasions by Germanic peoples and more Decay of urban centers led to little industrial production and trade Political stability served as foundation for economic recovery Mediterranean agricultural tools such as plows werent god for Europeans in France Plow w/ heavy iron tip was used in Carolingian era-pulled by oxen or horses Water mills = renewable source of energy Special horse collar = rely on faster horses and not slow oxen Rotated crops differently Agricultural surplus wasnt enough to support cities w/ large populations Cities in medieval Europe was rural and had little commerce Local markets had opportunities for small scale trade, but not much Maritime trade flourished in Mediterraneanlinked Europe w/ Islamic world Eventually, food from Islamic world like wheat, rice, spinach, etc, made their way to Italy Norse merchants traded furs and fish via the sea Population began to recover to 36 million in 1000political stability and agricultural innovation led to this increase

III: The Formation of Christian Europe Roman Christianity didnt spread until Clovis and the Franks Franks, the popes, and the monasteries played important roles in bringing about that conversions Adoption of RC ensured inheritance of Latin and Roman church

A: The Politics of Conversion Clovis and Franks were supported by the church and formed Roman empire when they converted to Roman Christianity Had access to educated and literate individuals to provide important political services Scribes, secretaries, and record keepers came from church-men Clovis and Franks viewed themselves as protectors of the papacy In return for their protection, pope offered supported and crowned Charlemagne emperor Charlemagne had school at court in Aachen- tried to persuade institution of free education Resulted in an explosion of writing Promoted spread of Christianity by military force Fought the Saxons and insisted they converteventually converted Paganisms still survived after Christianity- Scandinavians resisted Christianity until 1000

B: The Papacy Pope Gregory 1 (590-604), AKA Gregory the Great, was important for providing Roman church w/ direction Overcame Lombard invasions Reasserted papal primacy to combat bishops becoming independent- PP= the claim that the bishop of Rome was the ultimate authority in the Christian church

Also was a theologian- emphasized the sacrament of penance- reqd individuals to confess sins to priests, then do good to atone them Attracted new converts Major effort was to convert England kingswas successful France and Germany offered opportunities to win converts Pope Gregory was a monk- many good missionaries were monks

C: Monasticism Origins in Egypt Extremely austere lifestyles in some communities- others had no rules St. Benedict of Nursia (480-547) strengthened monastic movement by providing it w/ regulations known as the Benedicts Rule- applied to his community in Monte Cassino Didnt permit extreme asceticism- reqd monks to take vows to lead communal, celibate lives Poverty, chastity, and obedience became the prime virtues for Benedictine monks Rule called for monks to spend time in prayer, meditation, and work The nun St. Scholastica (482-543) adapted the Rule to provide guidance for religious life of women living in convents Most European monasteries and convents observed the Benedictine Rule Monasteries helped to provide order in the countryside and expand agricultural production Had large landholdings and authority over serfs Organized much of the labor that brought about the expansion of agricultural production in early medieval Europe Monasteries provided social services- served as inns, places of refuge, orphanages, schools Maintained libraries and scriptoria Effected agents in the spread of Christianity Monks served needs of rural populations and instilled Christian values in European peasants