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THE IMPACT OF FACIES ON RESERVOI R PERFORMANCE;

PEMBINA CARDI UM RESERVOI R, ALBERTA


E. W. BUTRENCHUK
1
, S. A. CORNISH
2
, S. M. LEGGITT
3
and M. M. MILLS
1
1
Amoco Canada Petroleum Company Ltd, 240 - 4 Ave. S.W., Calgary T2P 2H8
2
Mobil Oil Canada, 330 - 5th Avenue S.W., Calgary, Alberta T2P 2J 7
3
Petroleum Recovery Institute, 3512 - 33 St. N.W., Calgary, Alberta T2L 2A6
I) I NTRODUCTI ON
The objective of this study was to determine the impact of lithology and mineralogy
on reservoir performance and total reserves for the Pembina Cardium Field. In
order to accomplish this objective, the Cardium Sandstone in the Pembina Field
was examined from the regional architecture to the fine pore detail, using the large
volume of available core and core analysis data. Total reserves were recalculated
based on cutoffs related to pore throat size, and the exclusion of pay due to facies
analysis. Studies included integrating lithologic facies, Repeat Formation Tester
data and mineralogy with a regional depositional framework of offlapping
parasequences. Well No. 02-01-48-8W5 is highlighted to characterize the
reservoir quality and mineralogy of the sandstones present within the Pembina
Cardium Field.
II) GEOLOGI CAL FRAMEWORK
The Pembina Cardium Field is a giant oil pool located in west-central Alberta. The
field extends over an area of 800 square miles and contains an estimated 7.44
billion barrels OOIP (E.R.C.B., 1989), based on the E.R.C.B. cutoff of 0.1 md
permeability. The Cardium Reservoir consists of interbedded sandstone and
shale, capped by conglomerate, and attains a maximum thickness of fifty feet.
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(19) CSPG/CWLS 1995 Core Session: The Economic Integration oI Geology and Formation Evaluation
2010 by the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists
The reservoir is contained within a two thousand foot thick envelope of shale. The
Cardium Field forms one of the world's largest stratigraphic traps, formed as the
Cardium clastic wedge pinches out laterally into the shales. The reservoir limits
are controlled by a combination of depositional, erosional, and diagenetic
processes. The Cardium Reservoir dips at less than one degree from N.E. to
S.W. from a depth of 4000 feet K.B. in the N.E. to 6350 feet K.B. in the S.W. The
average depth for the pool is 5056 feet subsurface. There is no gas cap, and no
water leg within the field.
A) STRATI GRAPHY
i) GENERAL STRATIGRAPHY
The Pembina Cardium Reservoir is comprised of the coarser clastic sediments
deposited in the Turonian to Coniacian aged (Upper Cretaceous) Cardium
Formation. The Cardium Formation is underlain by the shales of the Blackstone
Formation and overlain by the shales of the Wapiabi Formation. Together, the
three formations form the Colorado (Alberta) Group (Figure 1). For the purposes
of this study, we have adopted the lithostratigraphic terminology developed by
Krause and Nelson (1984) which divides the Cardium Formation into the upper
Cardium Zone and the lower Pembina River Member (Figure 2). The Pembina
River Member consists of mudstones, sandstones, and conglomerates, and forms
the Pembina Cardium Field where the clastics are of reservoir quality. The
Cardium Zone contains only mudstones, with scattered pebbles.
ii) RESERVOIR ARCHITECTURE
In the past, studies involving the Pembina Cardium Reservoir have often described
upper and lower sandstone layers which occurred across the entire field (i.e.
Nielsen, 1957). More recent work by J oiner (1991) and Kreisa (1992) recognized
that the Pembina Cardium Field was comprised of a series of offlapping
2
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CAMPANIAN
84
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BELLY
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WAPIABI
CARDIUM
BLACKSTONE
CL
id
o
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BLAIRMORE GROUP
Figure 1. Stratigraphy of the Colorado Group in Central Alberta. Ages on left (in million
years) are from Palmer, 1983 (after Walker, 1984).
Cardium
Zone
h-
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O
u.
D
a
oc
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o
Pembina
River
Zone
Fi gure 2. Lithostratigraphic division of the Cardium Formation (after Krause and Nelson,
1984).
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parasequences, prograding to the east. Although two sandstone producing
intervals are present across much of the field, they are not the same two intervals
across the field. Production comes from the youngest parasequences in the
eastern portion of the field, and from older parasequences in the western part of
the field.
For this study, the regional stratigraphic architecture of the reservoir was
determined by constructing a grid of ten cross-sections, running east-west and
north-south across the entire field (Figure 3). The top of the Cardium Zone was
chosen as a datum. Every well along a line of section was used to make
correlations. We have adopted J oiner's (1991) basic stratigraphic framework,
building on it to define a total of seven offlapping parasequences in the Pembina
Cardium Field. Each parasequence is comprised of a sandier upwards
succession, grading from dark gray shale through to clean sandstone, and is
capped by a regional flooding surface. The sandstones of the Pembina River
Member are truncated by an erosional event which progressively truncates each
of the parasequences in a westerly direction. A transgressive lag of shaley
conglomerate, typically less than 0.5 m thick, forms a veneer over this sculpted
erosional surface across much of the Pembina area. Locally, particularly along the
northeastern margin of the field and over the erosional "highs" of the sandstone
over the rest of the field, the conglomerate may be much thicker and cleaner (up
to 20 metres in the Cyn Pem D Pool). Figure 4 highlights the approximate
relationships of the seven parasequences and the overlying conglomerates.
Figure 5 shows the outline for the porous portion (10% porosity cutoff) for each of
the parasequences defined in this study. The porous sandstone distribution is
controlled by the following three factors:
1) the erosional truncation of the sandstone sequence;
2) the updip porosity pinchout related to increased shale deposition
at the distal end of the parasequences; and
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3) diagenetic influences at the downdip, southwestern edge of the
field, particularly quartz overgrowths.
The distribution of Parasequence VI and most of Parasequence V is defined by
erosional truncation, which has also imparted a northwest to southeast "grain" to
the overall parasequence distribution, and similarly to the sandstone net pay, Oh
and kh distribution within the pool. The porosity pinchout, resulting from the
lithofacies transition at the distal end of the parasequence controls the eastern limit
of Parasequences 0 through IV, and parts of V. Each of these porosity pinchouts
has an approximate north-south strike; implying that the Cardium shoreline was
also oriented north-south. Parasequence III merges with Parasequence II in a
westerly direction. The western limit of Parasequence III, as shown in Figure 5,
is due to the merging of these two parasequences.
B) FACIES
i) FACIES DESCRIPTION
The facies definitions used for this study are originally described for the Pembina
area by Krause (1983). Some of the revisions to this scheme introduced by J oiner
(1991) have been incorporated for this study. Figure 6 identifies the key
lithological and sedimentary features for each facies.
Faci es 1 is dark gray to black mudstones greater than 5 cm thick. This facies is
commonly massive in appearance, but sedimentary structures may be highlighted
by thin laminae of silt or very fine grained sand. Sedimentary structures include
millimetre to centimetre bedded wavy and lenticular interbeds, ripple cross-
laminations, and parallel laminae. Burrow traces positively identified in Facies 1
by J oiner (1991) include Chondrites, Cylindrichnus, Planolites, Terebellina, and
Zoophycus. Pebble sized clasts may be found in Facies 1 within the Cardium
6
-vj
Figure 3. Regional cross-sections constructed across the Pembina Cardium Field.
Mobil oil Canada
PEMSJNA CARDIUM SANDSTONE
LINES OF REGI ONAL
CROSS-SECTI ON
0 0
FIGURE 4. Diagram Iflustratlng t he basto reservoi r arohl teoture within t he
Pembina Cardium Field.
SHALE H
CONGLOMERATE 03
SANDSTONE E3
WI OI CU ^
SHALE H
CONGLOMERATE 03
SANDSTONE E3
PEMBINA CARDIUM
PARASEQUENCES
t-COKMSH MA*CM19>
CD
Fi gure 5. Distribution of the porous portion of Parasequences 0 through VI in the
Pembina Cardium Field.
PARASEQUENCE DISTRIBUTION
Zone Member.
Faci es 2 is comprised of bioturbated muddy sandstones and sandy mudstones.
Bioturbation is normally greater than 30%. There is considerable variation possible
in the sandstone content, from only about 20% sandstone to as high as 90%
sandstone. Few non-biogenic sedimentary structures are preserved, due to the
bioturbated nature of the rocks. There is considerable diversity in the trace fossil
assemblage in this facies, with Asterosoma, Chondrites, Rhizocorallium,
Zoophycus, Planolites, Skolithos, Rosselia, Cylindrichnus, Terebellina,
Thalassinoides, Teichichnus, Muensteria, and Paleophycus all identified by J oiner
(1991).
Faci es 3 is thinly interbedded, wavy laminated mudstones and sandstones.
Individual interbeds are less than 10 cm thick. The interbeds are separated by
laminated mudstones up to 5 cm thick. Bioturbation affects less than 30% of the
rock. The bulk sandstone content of the facies varies from 20% up to 95%.
Sedimentary structures are primarily low-angle cross-stratification and ripple
laminae. Contacts between the mudstone laminae and sandstone interbeds are
normally sharp. Trace fossils identified by J oiner (1991) in Facies 3 include
Skolithos, Chondrites, Planolites, Thalassinoides, Paleophycus, Rosselia,
Ophiomorpha, and Asterosoma.
Faci es 4 is composed of medium to thick bedded sandstones. Individual beds are
greater than 10 cm thick, and bulk sandstone content is greater than 90%. Thin
mudstone laminae may occur infrequently in Facies 4. The most common
hydrodynamic sedimentary structures are low-angle inclined cross-stratification.
Climbing ripples, wavy lamination and scour structures may also occur. Mudstone
clasts, sideritized mudstone clasts, and coalified or pyritized wood fragments are
occasionally found. Ophiomorpha, Skolithos, Rosselia, and Paleophycus trace
fossils were observed in Facies 4. Facies 4 has been subdivided into two
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l l i l i i i l l l
MTHOIXJOY
STRUCTURES
TRACE F0i$$IL$
i -dark gray to black
mudstone
->5 cm thick
-traces of silt and very fine
grained sand
-primarily massive
-occ. mm to cm scale wavy
and lenticular interbeds,
ripple cross laminations and
parallel laminae
Chondrites, Cylindrichnus,
Planolites, TerebeBina, and
Zoophycus
2 -bioturbated muddy
sandstones and sandy
mudstones
-20 to 90% sandstone
-mostly destroyed by
burrowing
->30% bioturbation
-Asterosoma, Chondrites,
Rhizocorallium, Zoophycus,
Planolites, Skolithos,
Rosselia, Cylindrichnus,
Terebellina, Thalassinoides,
Teichichnus, Muensteria
and Paleophycus
3 -thinly interbedded
mudstones and sandstones
-sandstone interbeds <10cm
thick
-mudstones <5cm thick
-20 to 95% sandstone
-primarily ripple laminate
-normally sharp contacts
between sandstone and
mudstone
-Skolithos, Chondrites,
Planolites, Thalassinoides,
Paleophycus, Rosselia,
Ophiomorpha and
Asterosoma
4 -medium to thick bedded
sandstones
-beds >10cm thick
->90% sandstone
-primarily low-angle inclined
cross-stratification
-Ophiomorpha, Skolithos,
Rosselia and Paleophycus
5a -well rounded conglomerate
-clast suported
-matrix free or coarse
sandstone matrix
-erosive base
-bedding normally not
observed
-occasional low to high
angle inclined cross-
stratification
-not observed
5b -well rounded conglomerate
-mudstone matrix
-normally not visible -rare
FIGURE 6 - Key lithologic and sedimentary features of facies described in the Pembina
Cardium Field
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subfacies, based on the degree to which sedimentary structures have been
destroyed by biogenic or other sources (i.e. seismic shock, or waves breaking).
Subf aci es 4a comprises those Fades 4 sandstones in which the sedimentary
structures are preserved in greater than 50% of the rock. Subf aci es 4b is
composed of those thick bedded sandstones where the sedimentary structures
have been destroyed in more than 50% of the rock.
Faci es 5 is the conglomeratic rocks present in the Pembina Cardium. The
conglomerate clasts are well rounded, chert and quartz of granule to pebble size.
Facies 5 is divided into two subfacies. Subf aci es 5a applies to erosively based,
clast supported conglomerates which are either matrix free or have a coarse
sandstone matrix. Bedding is difficult to observe due to the coarse grained nature
of the deposits, but low to high angle inclined cross-stratification may be visible.
Occasional lenses of pore filling calcite cement were described within Facies 5a.
Subf aci es 5b refers to conglomerates with a mudstone matrix (clast or matrix
supported), or pebbly mudstones. Subfacies 5b is normally less than 0.5 metres
thick. The mudstone matrix has become sideritized in some cases.
ii) VERTICAL FACIES ASSOCIATIONS
Within each parasequence, a number of facies are present, usually in a vertically
gradational order. Facies 1 is present primarily towards the base of the
parasequence, and Facies 3 or 4 normally cap the parasequence. This makes
each parasequence an overall coarsening upwards cycle, although they are often
composed of several smaller, normally incomplete (not all facies present) sandier
upwards cycles. Figure 7 illustrates vertical facies associations typical of the
Pembina Cardium Field.
The conglomerates of Subfacies 5a and 5b overlie an erosional surface which cuts
12
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7. Generalized lithological section illustrating vertical facies associations and
Fi gure
parasequences.
13
across all facies in the Pembina Field (Fi gure7). Therefore the conglomerates may
be found overlying any of the sandstone or shale facies. The transgressive shales
of the Cardium Zone overlie the conglomerates. Facies 5b is regionally extensive,
and is found capping the sandstones, shales, and permeable conglomerates of the
Pembina River Member across most of the field.
C) DEPOSI TI ONAL MODELS
i) SANDSTONE AND SHALES
Each parasequence is interpreted to be an overall shallowing upwards shoreface
succession, with regionally transgressive sediments, representative of offshore to
lower shoreface at the base of each parasequence, coarsening upwards into
middle shoreface sediments at the top. The most common bedform within the
sandstones is low-angle inclined cross-stratification, which is interpreted to be
hummocky cross-stratification (HCS) and swaley cross-stratification (SCS), by
analogy to outcrop. HCS and SCS are interpreted as being formed by high energy
wave motion above storm wave base during storm events (Duke et al., 1991,
Leckie and Walker, 1982, Southard et al., 1990). The interbedded shale deposits
represent sedimentation during periods of quiescence. Amalgamated beds of
HCS/SCS (Faci es 4) represent those sediments deposited highest in the
shoreface. The sands may have been originally deposited by fairweather
processes (i.e. above fairweather wave base), but have been reworked by storms.
With increasing water depth and distance from shore, alternating thin beds of HCS
sandstone and shale (Faci es 3) accumulate. The higher percentage of shale
suggests that deposition takes place below fairweather wave base. Faci es 2 is
highly bioturbated, with most hydrodynamic sedimentary structures destroyed by
burrowing. Deposition is interpreted to have occurred in the lower shoreface,
below fairweather wave base. The transition from Facies 2 to Facies 3 is quite
abrupt across most of the field, but in the northeastern area of the field (Lobstick,
14
Berrymoor, Lindale), an intermediate facies (Facies 3/2) is often present. This
zone is interpreted to represent deposition at water depths close to storm wave
base, preserving some sandstone beds, but with burrowing also present. Faci es
1 was deposited in an offshore environment. No sands were carried to this depth
on the shelf. Because the Western Canadian Seaway had a very gentle gradient,
even the most shoreward of the sandstone facies present were likely deposited
tens of kilometres from the shoreline.
ii) CONGLOMERATES
The depositional environment for the conglomerates is more uncertain.
Considerable controversy exists concerning how the clast supported
conglomerates were deposited, and how the underlying erosional surface was
formed. This study did not focus on trying to resolve the depositional model for
the conglomerates. Possible depositional models for the clast supported
conglomerates of Facies 5a include incised shorefaces, reworked lower shoreface
gravel bars and reworked tidal ridges (Bergman and Walker, 1984, Leggitt et al.,
1990, Kreisa, R.D., 1992). All of these models place deposition at the shoreface,
therefore, no mechanisms are required to carry the gravels into the offshore (i.e.
turbidites or storm currents), as are necessary for the formation of the
conglomerates if they are interpreted to have formed as offshore bars. The
conglomerates at Pembina may represent more than one depositional style. The
patchy distributed conglomeratic lobes overlying sandstone across the main portion
of the field may have been deposited in a different manner than the thick, linear
conglomerates found along the northern edge of the field.
The mudstone matrix conglomerates of Facies 5b are interpreted to have formed
as part of an regionally extensive transgressive lag. The mudstone matrix may be
a result of muds percolating down from the overlying transgressive shales, or as
a result of reworking of the gravel pebbles into the overlying mudstones by
burrowing.
15
D) RESERVOI R CHARACTERI STI CS
i) SANDSTONES
The bulk of the Pembina Cardium oil reserves are located within the sandstones.
These sandstones are oil wet to mixed wet. Connate water saturation ranges from
30% at 10% porosity to less than 5% at porosities greater than 20%. The best
quality sandstone is found in the northeastern portion of the field, where maximum
porosities range from 20% to 25%, and maximum permeabilities to air range from
100 md to over 300 md. In general, reservoir quality decreases to the south and
west. Near the southwestern edge of the field, maximum porosities range from
13% to 18%, and maximum permeabilities range from 10 md to 20 md.
High lateral continuity would be expected in the sandstones and shales with the
proposed depositional model of a prograding shoreline stepping out into the basin.
The continuity of the layers is supported by infill drilling, by Repeat Formation
Tester (RFT) data and, most recently, by horizontal wells. Infill wells on 40 acre
spacing normally come on production with water cuts similar to the adjacent
producing wells. RFT pressure data from the infill wells shows that virgin reservoir
pressures are absent, indicating that all of the tested sands are being drained by
the offsetting producing wells at 80 acre spacing. The horizontal wells completed
in the 1990's have also encountered continuous sandstones in most cases.
Vertical reservoir continuity is limited primarily by the shales deposited on the
regional flooding surfaces which lie at the base of each parasequence. These
shales and shaley sandstones of Facies 1 and 2 are regionally extensive, and flow
across them is negligible. Burrows do not promote vertical continuity across these
shales, because the shales are too thick. Fracture stimulation may breach these
barriers in the near wellbore area. Core examination indicates that natural
16
fracturing is uncommon, and is restricted to thin lenses of sideritized mudstone and
siderite and/or calcite cemented sandstone and conglomerate. Due west of the
Pembina Cardium Field, at the Bighorn Dam outcrop of the Cardium Formation,
the fractured siderite lenses are observed to be thin and laterally discontinuous.
Production logging in two Pembina Cardium horizontal wells has shown the
absence of fluid production from naturally fractured, sideritized intervals. These
observations taken together suggest that within the Pembina Cardium Field natural
fracturing does not have a significant effect on production, and that natural
fractures do not act as thief zones under waterflood conditions (i.e. fluid movement
within the reservoir is via the pore system).
Within each parasequence, vertical continuity is reduced by thin shale laminae,
particularly in Facies 3. These shales are not as regionally extensive as the
shales separating parasequences, but will act as baffles to vertical flow within the
reservoir.
The best reservoir quality in terms of porosity, permeability, bed thickness, and
sand/shale ratio, is present towards the top of each parasequence, where Facies
4 dominates. Within the lower portions of each parasequence the sandstones are
more thinly bedded, and the bioturbated shale and sandstone facies (Facies 2)
becomes more common. In addition, porosity and permeability decrease slightly,
with a corresponding subtle decrease in overall grain size. Figure 8 is an example
of a typical sandstone core analysis, showing the increase in porosity and
permeability towards the top of each parasequence.
ii) CONGLOMERATES
The Cardium conglomerate is also oil wet to mixed wet, and contains less than
10% of the OOIP. The mud matrix conglomerates of Subfacies 5b have no
effective permeability, so all the OOIP is found within Subfacies 5a. These
permeable conglomerates occur both as discrete lobes overlying sandstone across
06-21-49-08W5M
5 " = 1 0 0 '
( F t)
POROSITY (J O
0 . 3 8 0.00
KMAX (md)
0. 01 10000.0
4 9 6 0
4 9 8 0
00
5 0 0 0
P ARASEQUENCE II
Figure 8. Core analysis from "typical" sandstone only well
the cental portion of the field, and as long, linear lobes along the northern edge of
the field. Porosity up to 15% and permeability of several Darcies occur in the
thick, linear conglomerates along the northeastern edge of the pool (i.e., Cyn-Pem
D). Figure 9 shows an example of the very high permeabilities found in these
areas. Lower reservoir quality is found in the conglomerate lobes capping the
sandstones and shales in the rest of the reservoir, where porosities reach a
maximum of 10%, and permeabilities are rarely higher than 1 Darcy.
The nature of the erosional contact between the conglomerate and sandstone
varies within the field. In some areas, the erosive surface is relatively flat, and the
conglomerate sits as a lobe on top of the surrounding sandstones. In other areas,
the conglomerates fill a deeply eroded scour within the sandstones.
Within the conglomerate, cemented lenses and thin shale laminae act as barriers
to flow. Shales within the conglomerate lobes along the northern edge of the field
dip to the northeast at a 10 to 20 degree angle. Production data indicates that
these laminae act as baffles to flow in this area. Shale laminae within the porous
conglomerates throughout the rest of the field are normally approximately flat-lying.
The continuity of these laminae is difficult to determine, but they are unlikely to be
highly continuous, because it is difficult to preserve thin shales in an environment
energetic enough to deposit conglomerates.
Il l ) ANALYSIS AND DI SCUSSI ON
A) MI NERALOGY AND RESERVOI R QUALITY
Thin section analyses were performed on numerous core samples from
representative wells across the Pembina Field to help understand the factors
governing reservoir quality. Most of the samples were selected from Facies 4 in
Parasequence IV as this unit is the most uniformly productive sand throughout the
19
06-31-51-10W5M
5 " = 1 0 0 '
Figure 9. Core analysis from "typical" high quality conglomerate well.
central portion of the field.
The samples are broadly classified as very fine grained (100pm) litharenites and
lithic wackes. Samples from Facies 4 in Parasequences II, IV, and VI showed
extreme uniformity in grain size and composition, indicating few changes in
provenance or depositional energy. The main framework grains included
subangular to well rounded monocrystalline quartz, alkali and plagioclase
feldspars, microcrystalline chert, and rock fragments and mudclasts. The main
cementing minerals included secondary quartz overgrowths, detrital and authigenic
clays, and iron-rich carbonates (dolomite and siderite). Framboidal pyrite and
heavy minerals were present as accessory minerals.
Porosity within the Cardium sandstones in the Pembina Field ranges from
negligible (<5%) to very good (>20%) but appears to be generally good (10-20%)
in the better quality sands that were sampled. The porosity types fall into two main
categories: 1) secondary moldic, after rock fragment and mudclast dissolution, and
2) reduced intergranular, after quartz or carbonate cementation. Most of the
primary porosity reduction in the Cardium sandstone is attributed to
compaction and deformation of rock fragments, and cementation by syntaxial
quartz or ferroan calcite, dolomite, and siderite.
The greatest control on reservoir quality appears to be cementation by either
quartz, clay, or carbonate. This is related to both depositional facies (SRF's and
clay), and diagenesis (quartz and carbonate). In the downdip southwestern region
of the field the porosity of the sandstones is mainly reduced due to development
of secondary quartz overgrowths. In the northeastern region of the field, where the
sands begin to shale out, the sandstones are often cemented by detrital clay or
deformed sedimentary rock fragments. Although carbonate cemented sandstones
are more prevalent in samples from the south central portion of the field, thin
carbonate cemented sands are distributed throughout the field. The best quality
21
sandstones appear to be confined to the central region of the field where the
sandstones are cleaner and quartz cementation is minimal.
Thi n Sect i on Anal ysi s - Wel l No. 2-1-48-8W5
Parasequences IV, V, and VI are represented in the drill core from well 2-1-48-
8W5. Figure 10 shows the litholog, resistivity log, and the corresponding porosity
and permeability profiles. Five samples were chosen from this core, three from
Facies 4 in Parasequence IV and two samples from Facies 3 and 4 in the
overlying Parasequence VI.
The sandstones are classified as very fine grained litharenites (samples 2, 3, and
4) and lithic wackes (samples 1 and 5). The porosity and permeability profiles
indicate that the higher reservoir quality sandstones occur at the top of each
parasequence. Thin section analysis of these samples indicates that the loss in
reservoir quality is related to a higher percentage of cementing minerals. These
cements include: detrital and authigenic clay (27% in sample 1), pyrite (24% in
sample 2), and siderite (16% in sample 5). Although reservoir quality is related to
secondary cementation, the distribution of cements is also important. A sandstone
unit that has a high cement percentage can display good reservoir quality if the
cements are confined to laminations or layers. An example is sample 5 which is
classified as a lithic wacke because of its high clay content (20%), but has fairly
good reservoir quality (13% ) because the clay is confined to laminations.
B) ROCK TYPES AND CORE CUTOFFS:
Fluid flow in a reservoir is ultimately controlled by the pore structure, and
specifically the size and distribution of the pore throat sizes. In this study a
method determined by William T. MacKenzie (1976), for assessing reservoir quality
from routine core analysis data was applied. Using mercury injection capillary
pressure data, MacKenzie found that distinct groupings (defined as rock types
22
(Figure 11)), based on curve shape, were evident in the Cardium Sandstone. He
estimated that the effective pore throat radius, calculated from the injection
pressure, occurred at the twentieth percentile of mercury saturation. A plot, for
each capillary pressure curve, of the effective pore throat radius versus the
permeability/porosity (k/O) for the sample, resulted in a log-log relationship (Figure
12). Based on this plot and the capillary pressure curves, Rock Types I, II and III
were established, with k/d> boundaries as shown on Figure 12. The boundary
between Rock Type III and Rock Type II (k/O =0.05) was defined as the boundary
between reservoir and non-reservoir rock in the Pembina Cardium Field. This ratio
was the first cutoff applied to the raw core analysis data across the field. With
the availability of a large core data base (-2500 wells), and a means of categorizing
rock quality, using k/ct>, field wide reservoir evaluation could be done quickly with
computer applications.
C) SUMMARY OF THE REPEAT FORMATI ON TESTER DATA
RFT pressure data and core from the Cardium Formation is available from eight,
40 acre DSU infill wells drilled between 1986 and 1989, in Township 48, Range
7W5; Township 49, Ranges 6,7 and 8W5; and Township 50, Range 6W5. For
these eight wells, the RFT data was correlated with the core lithology and the core
analysis data using the respective gamma-ray correlation curves. The major
findings from the RFT study are as follows:
In the conglomerate, the RFT recorded formation pressures down to a minimum
porosity value of 3%, and down to a minimum air permeability value of 0.25 md.
In sandstone, the RFT recorded formation pressures down to a minimum porosity
value of 12.7%, and a minimum air permeability value of 1.01 md, (k /O = 0.08
md/%), which approximates the sandstone net pay cutoff of k / O >0.05 md / %.
Bioturbated sandstone/shale (Facies 2), shows no indication of permeability from
the RFT and should therefore not be included as net pay.
24
(NO
Ul
K U K t C 3E U M E T K Y - G - L E A SE
P OR E A P E R TU R E R A DI U S vs K / 0
CO
z
o
en
C_3
CO
ZD
O
<t
or
UJ
cc
ZD
I
ct:
LxJ
Q-
<1
Q:
o
Q_
O
U J
10
1.0
0. 1
r
0 G - 70
A G - 10
G - 2
. i .
0 G - 70
A G - 10
G - 2
0 G - 70
A G - 10
G - 2
TYPE III
-t-
(20
TYPE II
PER CEf IT L
7
C
iP F
1'A)
sf
i i
. 001
Fi gur e 12.
01 0. 1 10
m
(after Mackenzie & Russum 1976)
P OR E G E OM E T R Y - G - L E A SE R OCK TY P E
0. 1 1. 0 10
EFFECTIVE PORE APERTURE RADIUS (MICRONS)
(after MacKenzie & Russum 1976)
A total of 71 formation pressures were obtained by the RFT. No virgin formation
pressures were present, i.e., on 80 acre spacing we can conclude that any
permeable conglomerate and permeable (k /O >0.05 md / %) bedded sandstone
(Facies 3 and 4) is being drained by producing wells. Very thin beds of sandstone
(< 2" thick), have similar formation pressures to thicker beds (> 4" thick) of
sandstone, and should therefore be included with the thicker beds as net pay. In
any given well, the maximum pressure differential within a parasequence is 1,365
kPa, and the maximum pressure differential between adjacent parasequences is
1,300 kPa. The maximum pressure differential between parasequences in any
given well is 2,200 kPa. The similar pressures exhibited by all of the flow units in
each of the wells suggests that all the flow units are seeing pressure support from
the waterflood.
On 80 acre spacing, both the interbedded Cardium sandstone and shale thus
appear to have excellent areal continuity, supporting the geological interpretation
of sand deposition by storm events in a middle shoreface to offshore depositional
environment.
D) FIELD WI DE REVI EW OF OOIP FROM FACIES ANALYSIS
Approximately one third of the wells in the pool are cored, and these core analyses
form the basis for our most accurate quantification of "net pay". However, there are
some limitations to be considered when using these 1950's vintage, core analyses.
Full diameter core analysis measurements were typically made on the
conglomerate intervals. For the sandstone intervals however, chip samples, or
more rarely, plug analysis measurements, are the norm. The chip or plug samples
were typically taken from each approximately one foot interval. Thin shale lenses
within the one foot intervals may be noted on the core analysis lithology
descriptors, for example " sandstone, fine, sh ". These thin shale lenses are
included within the measured "net pay". Both Facies 3 and 4 contain thin shale
27
lenses, although they are more common in Facies 3.
Repeat Formation Tester (RFT) data from the five wells having RFT data in Twp
48, Rge 7W5 and Twp 49, Rge 7 & 8W5 indicates that Facies 2 (bioturbated
sandstone and shale) shows no indication of effective permeability, and should
therefore not be included as pay even when its core analysis meets or exceeds
our net pay cutoff of k/O >0.05 md/ %.
In an attempt to quantify the impact of the shale lenses and the bioturbated rock
on net pay, and thus the OOIP for the pool, the cores for twenty four wells
distributed throughout the pool, were described in detail. These core lithology
descriptions and the original core analyses were then correlated by rock type and
facies on a spreadsheet to determine the effect of the included "non pay" on the
OOIP. In addition, maps of HCPV by rock type, "net of shale and Facies 2" were
generated, to illustrate these pool wide variations, and to allow for calculation of
a more realistic OOIP.
Table 1 on the following page shows the results of this analysis.
28
PEMBINA CARDIUM FIELD OOIP
ROCK TYPE
OOIP (billion bbl)
(k/40.05)
OOIP (billion bbl)
(k/<J 0.05, net of shale
and Facies 2
CONGLOMERATE 0.312 0.312
I A 0.558 0.501
I 2.655 2.212
II 2.390 2.136
TOTAL
5.915 5.161
Tabl e 1. OOIP based on a k/O cutoff of 0.05 (5.915 billion bbl) decreases by
12.75% when facies analysis is considered (5.161 billion bbl).
IV) CONCLUSI ONS
Several conclusions can be drawn from the above analysis of the Pembina
Cardium Field. These include:
1) it is important to determine the reservoir architecture to evaluate flow
pathways within the reservoir;
2) the highest quality sandstone is located in the central region of the field,
where the sands are cleaner, and quartz cementation is minimal;
3) RFT pressure data can be correlated with facies to determine reservoir
vs non reservoir, and continuity of flow units;
4) k/O ratio is a valuable tool for evaluating reservoir quality; and
5) it is important to compare core to core analysis to determine the true
reservoir volume, and therefore OOIP.
29
As a result of this analysis, the reserves calculated for the Pembina Cardium Field
have dropped from 7.44 billion barrels using a 0.1 md cutoff down to 5.915 when
a more scientific approach is used and consequently a cutoff of k/0>0.05 is
applied. The total reserves drop further to 5.161 billion barrels when facies
analysis is applied to the net pay. A recalculation of reserves based on the
techniques described above results in improved recovery factors for the reservoir,
indicating that the reservoir is performing better than previously believed.
30
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31
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32