# problem 2.

mcd Stuart A F Bruff
H1 u v , ( ) g u ( ) sin v ( ) ⋅ :=
H u v , ( ) f u ( ) sin v ( ) ⋅ :=
G1 u v , ( ) g u ( ) cos v ( ) ⋅ :=
G u v , ( ) f u ( ) cos v ( ) ⋅ :=
F1 u v , ( ) u :=
F u v , ( ) u :=
Parametric equations for the surface of revolution about
the x-axis:
Surface of Revolution About the X-Axis
mesh 30 := Enter mesh size for points:
d 3 := c 2 − := b 3 := a 3 − :=
Enter upper and lower limits of x interval:
f 2 − ( ) 0.745 =
g x ( )
3 − x
20
9
20
+ := f x ( ) 1
x
2
9
− := Enter a function f(x):
a. Create a 3-D graph that shows the cone inside the ellipsoid
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problem 2.mcd Stuart A F Bruff
Plot of f(x) over the interval:
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
0
0.5
1
Surface of revolution:
S CreateMesh F G , H , a , b , 0 , 2π , mesh ,
( )
:=
S1 CreateMesh F1 G1 , H1 , c , d , 0 , 2π , mesh ,
( )
:=
S S1 ,
b. Determine the dimensions of the cone that maximize it's volume inside of the ellipsoid
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problem 2.mcd Stuart A F Bruff
And plot the slopes to identify the corresonding sides of the cone for various values of L
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
0.5
1
f λ ( )
h λ λ , ( )
λ
We can also do a graphical comparison:
evaluate f f L ( ) 0.745 =
evaluate h h L L , ( ) 0.745 =
set a lower limit, L. L 2 − :=
As h is supposed to intersect the ellipsoid, e can check the validity of h by comparing it to f for any value of c
h x c , ( ) 1
1
b c −
x c − ( ) ⋅ −

¸
(
(
¸
f c ( ) ⋅ :=
The first thing to do is to redefine g to make it depend upon the lower limit,c. To allow comparison with the previous
version of g, I've renamed the function h.
----------------------------------------------------------- A Solution -----------------------------------------------------------
c 0.234 =
c
Vcone
Vellipsoid
:=
d. Find the constant c such that V
cone
= c V
ellipsoid
Vcone 2.945 =
Vcone Vcone :=
Vcone π
2 −
3
x g x ( )
2
(
(
]
d :=
Vellipsoid 12.566 =
Vellipsoid π
3 −
3
x f x ( )
2
(
(
]
d
|

\
|
|
|
.
:=
c. Determine the volume of the ellipsoid
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problem 2.mcd Stuart A F Bruff
DVcone Λ
( )
DVcone Λ
( )
π
1 −
3
2
9
Λ ⋅ −
1
9
Λ
2
⋅ +
|

\
|
|
.
⋅ → := DVcone L ( )
L
Vcone L ( )
d
d
:=
Find it's maximum value by differentiating
Vcone L ( ) π
L
3
x h x L , ( )
2
(
(
]
d :=
First, rewrite the expression for the volume of the cone as a function of the lower limit
Now we deal with the problem of the ellipsoid and cone, using the same technique
4 2 0 2 4
5
DATriangle Λ ( )
Λ
4 2 0 2 4
0
1
2
ATriangle Λ ( )
Λ
ATriangle maxL ( ) 1.949 =
Note the symbolic solution differ slightly from the numeric solution maxL
3 −
2
→ maxL 1.501 − =
maxL root DATriangle L ( ) L , ( ) :=
DATriangle L ( )
L
ATriangle L ( )
d
d
:=
Find it's maximum value by differentiating
ATriangle L ( )
1
2
h L L , ( ) ⋅ b L − ( ) ⋅ :=
Define a function to calculate the area of the triangle corresponding to a given L
Before tackling the problem of the ellipsoid and cone, we show the principal by
looking at the related problem of the ellipse and the triangle.
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
1
2
3
f λ ( )
h λ 1 , ( )
h λ 0 , ( )
h λ 1 − , ( )
h λ 2 − , ( )
2 − 1
λ
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problem 2.mcd Stuart A F Bruff
S2 CreateMesh F2 G2 , H2 , c , d , 0 , 2π , mesh ,
( )
:=
S CreateMesh F G , H , a , b , 0 , 2π , mesh ,
( )
:=
H2 u v , ( ) p u ( ) sin v ( ) ⋅ :=
G2 u v , ( ) p u ( ) cos v ( ) ⋅ :=
F2 u v , ( ) u :=
p x ( ) h x c , ( ) :=
Now we can plot the solution in 3D
examine it
c 1 − =
find the solution
c Minerr Λ
( )
:=
define the test condition
Vcone Λ
( )
Vellipsoid − 0 =
start the solve block
Given
initial guess for lower limit with maximum volume
Λ 2 − :=
Alternatively, we could have used a solve block to minimize the volumetric difference between the cone and ellipsoid
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
4
2
2
4
6
Vcone maxL ( )
Vcone λ ( )
DVcone λ ( )
D2Vcone λ ( )
1 −
λ
Inspection confirms that this is reasonable result
original value
Vcone 2.945 =
Vcone maxL ( ) 3.723 =
Now evaluate the volume and compare it to the original value
which confirms -1 is the desired answer
D2Vcone maxL ( )
4 −
9
π ⋅
4
9
π ⋅
|

\
|
|
.

D2Vcone Λ
( )
D2Vcone Λ
( )
π
2 −
9
2
9
Λ ⋅ +
|

\
|
|
.
⋅ → := D2Vcone L ( )
L
DVcone L ( )
d
d
:=
Note there are 2 symbolic solutions because the equation is quadratic, one is a minimum and the other is a
maximum. We're interested in the maximum value, so we take the second derivative to check which is which:
maxL 1 − 3 ( ) → maxL 1 − =
maxL root DVcone L ( ) L , ( ) :=
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problem 2.mcd Stuart A F Bruff
S S2 ,
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problem 2.mcd Stuart A F Bruff
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problem 2.mcd Stuart A F Bruff
NB: enable equation below to find symbolic root
in M13 - symbolic processor requires 4-parameter
version of root.
maxL root DATriangle L ( ) L , a 0.1 + , b 0.1 − , ( ) :=
symbolic solution for rate of change of area wrt L
DATriangle Λ
( )
1 −
18 1
1
9
Λ
2
⋅ −
|

\
|
|
.
1
2

3 Λ −
( )
Λ ⋅ ⋅
1
2
1
1
9
Λ
2
⋅ −
|

\
|
|
.
1
2
⋅ − →
NB: enable equation below to find symbolic root
in M13 - symbolic processor requires 4-parameter
version of root.
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problem 2.mcd Stuart A F Bruff
maxL root DVcone L ( ) L , a 0.1 + , b 0.1 − , ( ) :=
Only one solution M13, as the other root is
excluded by root bracketing
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