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Indianized Kingdoms

WhaL does lndlanlzaLlon mean?

PlsLorlans have long
debaLed Lhe lssue of
!"#$%"$&%'$(" vs.
$"#$)*"$&%'$(" aLLempLlng
Lo deLermlne Lhe exLenL of
lndlan lnfluence on
SouLheasL Aslan pollLles.

ln our conLexL, !"#$%"$&%'$(" refers Lo Lhe common
use of
1) lndlan rellglous symbols
2) courL ldeology (l.e. Lheory of klngshlp)
3) Lhe presence of 8rahmlns, wheLher lndlan or
naLlve, as an lnLellecLual and prlesLly occupaLlon.
Brahmans introduced Indian court customs and
rituals and ensured their proper observance.
They emphasized the divine nature of monarchy
through a variety of rituals, thus enhancing the
power and prestige of monarchs in the eyes of their
Brahmans promoted state organization on an
Indian model and introduced law codes based on
the Laws of Manu and other Indian Dharma- and
Brahmins helped to introduce Indian-based
alphabets for local scripts, the Ramayana,
Mahabharata, and a variety of works on
mathematics, astrology, medicine, and the arts.
lndlanlzaLlon: 1wo Wheels of uharma
A wise man, soothsayer, Brahmin, rishi
(translations vary) named Asita or
Kaladevin (depending on the text) make
the prediction that the infant Siddhattha
would become either a world-ruling
monarch (cakkavattin) or a Buddha.
Buddha lokkuttara transworldly teacher of
gods and men
Cakkavattin lokiya rules over the four quarters
(of the mandala of the world)
1wo Wheels.
Nandiyamiga Jataka (385) duties of a monarch
almsgiving (daana)
morality (siila)
liberality (pariccaaga)
uprightness (ajjava)
gentleness (maddava)
austerity (tapo)
non-anger (akkodha)
non-hurtfulness (avihim.saa)
forbearance (khanti)
10) meekness (avirodhana)
1wo Wheels.
Asoka (c. 304-232 BCE; reigned
268-232 BCE)
Classical model of a Dhammaraja;
his legend is significant for Southeast
Asian and Sri Lankan polities, though
he was virtually forgotten in India until
the 19
uvaravaLl ln Lhe mlsLs of hlsLory
Speclflc klngdoms
First mentioned in a Tang dynasty
More likely a collection of kingdoms
rather than a single kingdom (see centers
on map)
Flourished between 6
and 11
Spoke a language related to Khmer called
Predominantly Buddhist though Hindu
deities worshipped as well
uharmacakra: Wheel of uharma
The Dharmacakra, Wheel of
Dharma, is the most
widespread symbol of the
Dvaravati kingdom(s). Initially
referring to the first teaching of
the Buddha, it came to
symbolize as well the
sovereignty of a Buddhist
monarch, the Dharmaraja, and
the reciprocity of the two
wheels of Dharma, the worldly
under the rule of a king and the
supra-worldly under the rule of
a Buddha.
uvaravaLl perlod sLupas ln orlgln
Wat Kukut, Lamphun
Phra Pathom Chedi
uvaravaLl seaLed 8uddhas
National Museum, Bangkok Wat Na Phra Men, Ayutthaya
rachlnburl varlaLlons of 8odhgaya
Under the Bodhi tree Under Mucalindas protection
Local lnLerpreLaLlon of 8uddhlsL
legends, lndlgenous and lndlan
Bhanaspati Buddha Twin miracle at Sravasti
Srl vl[aya 7
- 13 c.CL
Much of our current knowledge of Sri Vijaya
comes from the account of Yijings travels
to India and back in the 7
An artist's impression of Yi Jing !" (635
713), Tang dynasty Buddhist monk.
Chalya AvaloklLesvara
In the 8
c. CE, the kingdom
extended northward to the Kra
Isthmus just north of present-day
Chaiya. An inscription (775 CE
records the marriage between the
royal house of Chaiya and the
royal house of Sailendra in Java.
Both areas abound in Mahayana
Buddhist sculpture. This upper
torso of Avalokitesvara was found
in Chaiya by Prince Damrong in
an-Aslan 8odhlsaLLva
Avalokitesvara is the
Bodhisattva of
Compassion, and forms
exist wherever Mahayana
Buddhism has spread. In
China, the male image
transformed into the
female form Guanyin and
returned to modern
Thailand in that guise.
8uddha of Crahl, Chalya
Grahi is the ancient name for the
present site of Chaiya. This
statue, dating from 1291,
combines strong Khmer features
with Sri Vijayan characteristics,
especially in the modeling of the
face and body. The blending of
features, like in the previous
images of Avalokitesvara,
indicates the continuous
meeting and inter- action of
various cultures and kingdoms
in the regions history.
WaL 8oromaLhaL, Chalya
This stupa, frequently
restored, dates from the 7

c. CE. The term Boromathat
is a Thai pronunciation of
the Sanskrit parama
(highest) and dhatu
(element), in this context
referring to a relic of the
Buddha. Such stupas were
erected in cities of political