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Module-21 Irrigation & Drainage Part-III

21.1 Definition of important terms

1. Gross Command Area (G.C.A) The whole area enclosed between an imaginary boundary line which can be included in an irrigation project for supplying water to agricultural land by the network of canals is known as Gross Command Area (G.C.A). It includes both culturable and unculturable areas. 2. Un ultura!le area The area where the agriculture cannot be done and crops cannot be grown is known as unculturable area. The marshy lands barren lands lakes ponds forests !illages etc. are considered as unculturable area. ". Cultura!le area The area where the agriculture can be done satisfactorily is known as culturable area. #. Cultura!le ommand area (C.C.A) The total area within an irrigation project where the culti!ation can be done and crops can be grown is known as Culturable Command Area. Again C.C.A. may be of two categories.
(a) Culturable Culti!ated area" It is the area within C.C.A. where the culti!ation has been

actually done at present.

(b) Culturable unculti!ated area" it is the area within the C.C.A. where culti!ation is possible

but it is not being culti!ated at present due to some reasons.

#igure $%.% Gross Command Area $. Intensit% of irrigation The total C.C.A. may not be culti!ated at the same time in a year due to !arious reasons. &ome area may remain !acant e!ery year. Again !arious crops may be culti!ated in the C.C.A. so the intensity of irrigation may be defined as a ratio of culti!ated land for a particular crop to the total culturable command area. It is e'pressed as a percentage of C.C.A. #or e'ample if total C.C.A is %((( hectares where wheat is culti!ated in $)( hectares then Intensity of irrigation for wheat *2501000x100=25%. &o Area to be irrigated * C.C.A. ' Intensity of irrigation

&. Crop 'atio It is defined as the ratio of the areas of the two main crop seasons e.g. +harif and ,abi. #or e'ample if the area under kharif crop is $)((hectares and the area under ,abi crop is )((( hectares then crop ratio of +harif to ,abi is %"$ (i.e. C.,* 25005000=1:2) The crop ratio should be selected that the discharge of the canal for supplying water to kharif and rabi may be nearly e-ual. (. Crop )eason The period during which some particular types of crops can be grown e!ery year on the same land is known as crop season. The following are the main crop seasons.
(a) +harif &eason" This season ranges from .une to /ctober. The crops are sown in the !ery

beginning of monsoon and har!ested at the end of the autumn. The major crops are ,ice 0illet .ute Groundnut etc.
(b) ,abi &eason" This season ranges from /ctober to 0arch. The crops are sown in the !ery

beginning of winter and har!ested at the end of spring. The major ,abi crops are 1heat Gram 0ustard ,apeseed 2inseed 3ulses /nion etc. Again there are se!eral crops which are not included in +harif and ,abi as they re-uire more time and they co!er both the main seasons. #or e'ample cotton re-uires eight months to mature and sugarcane re-uires about whole year to mature. 4ence they are designated as
(i) Cotton 5 eight month crop (ii) &ugarcane 5 3erennial crop

*. Cas+ Crop The crops which are culti!ated by the farmers to sell in the market to meet their current financial re-uirements are known as cash crops. The crops like !egetables fruits etc are considered as cash crops.

,. Crop 'otation The process of changing the type of crop for culti!ation on the same land is known as crop rotation. It is found that if the same crop is culti!ated on the same land e!ery year the fertility of the land gets reduced and the yield of crop also gradually reduces. This is so because the necessary salts re-uired for the growth of a particular crop gets e'hausted. It is found by e'periment that if the principle of crop rotation is practiced the fertility of the soil can be restored. #ew crop rotations possible are
(i) ,ice6Gram (ii) 1heat60illet6Gram (iii)


1-. Crop Period The crop period is defined as the total period from the time of sowing a crop to the time of har!esting it. That means it is the period in which the crop remains in the field. 11. .ase Period 7ase period for a crop refers to the whole period of culti!ation from the time when irrigation water is first issued for preparation of the ground for planting the crop to its last watering before har!esting. 12. /0erlap Allo1an e It may happen sometimes that the crop of some season may o!erlap some period of the ne't crop season. 1hen such o!erlapping takes place the crops of both the seasons re-uire water simultaneously. Thus the o!erlap allowance is the e'tra discharge for this purpose. 1". 2ime fa tor The ratio of the number of days the canal has actually been kept open to the number of days the canal was designed to remain open during the base period is known as time factor.

#or e'ample a canal was designed to be kept open for %) days but it was practically kept open for %( days for supplying water to the culturable area. Then the time factor is %(8%). &o Time factor * No. of days the canal practically kept openNo. of days the canal was desi ned to keep open * act!al dischar edesi ned dischar e 1#. Capa it% fa tor Generally a canal is designed for a ma'imum discharge capacity. 7ut actually it is not re-uired that the canal runs to that ma'imum capacity all the time of the base period. &o the ratio of the a!erage discharge to the ma'imum discharge (designed discharge) is known as capacity factor. #or e'ample a canal was designed for the ma'imum discharge of )( cumec but the a!erage discharge is 9( cumec. &o Capacity factor * 9(8)( *(.: 1$. 3um!er of 1atering The total depth of water re-uired by a crop is not supplied at one time. 7ut it is supplied o!er the base period by stages depending upon the re-uirement. The initial watering which is done on the land to pro!ide moisture to the soil just before sowing any crop is known as paleo or pale!a. The first watering is done when the crop has grown about three centimeters. This watering is known as Kor watering and the period is known as Kor period. 1&. /utlet fa tor It is defined as the duty at the outlet. 1(. Cume Da% The -uantity of water flowing continuously for one day at the rate of one cumec is known as cumec6day.

* :.;9 hectare6metre.

21.2 .ase4 Delta. Dut%

.ase5 The base is defined as the period from the first to the last watering of the crop just before its maturity. It is also known as base period. It is denoted by <7= and e'pressed in number of days. The base period for some common crops is gi!en in table. Crop ,ice 1heat 0ai>e Cotton &ugarcane .ase in da%s %$( %$( %(( (( ?$(

Delta5 @ach crop re-uires certain amount of water per hectare for its maturity. If the total amount of water supplied to the crop (from first to last watering) is stored on land without any loss then there will be a thick layer of water standing on the land. This depth of water layer is known as Aelta for the crop. It is denoted by <B= and e'pressed in cm. Aelta for some common crops is gi!en in table. 6+arif Crop Delta in m ,ice %$) 0ai>e 9) Ground nut ?( 0illet ?(

'a!i rop Delta in m

3otato 9(

0ustard 9)

Gram ?(

potato C)

Dut%5 The duty of water is defined as number of hectares that can be irrigated by constant supply of water at the rate of one cumec throughout the base period. It is e'pressed in hectares8cumec and is denoted by <A=. The duty of water is not constant but it !aries with !arious factors like soil condition method of ploughing method of application of water etc. the duties of some crops are gi!en in table. Crop ,ice Auty in hectares D(( per cumec 1heat %:(( Cotton %9(( &ugarcane :((

21.". 7a tors affe ting dut%

The factors that affect duty are described below.
1. )oil +ara teristi s5 If the soil of the canal bed is porous and coarse grained it leads to

more seepage loss and conse-uently low duty. If the soil is compact and closed grained the seepage loss will be less and the duty will be high. If the agricultural land consists of sandy soil the percolation loss will be high causing the duty to be low. If it consists of allu!ial soil the percolation loss will be less and the soil retains the moisture for longer period and conse-uently the duty will be high.
2. Climati

ondition5 1hen the atmospheric temperature of the command area becomes

high the e!aporation loss is more and the duty becomes low and !ice !ersa.
". 'ainfall5 If the rainfall is sufficient during the crop period less -uantity of irrigation

water shall be re-uired and therefore the duty will be more and !ice !ersa.
#. .ase period" 1hen the base period is longer the water re-uirement will be more and the

duty will be low and !ice !ersa.

5. 2%pe of rop5 The water re-uirement of !arious crops is different. &o the duty !aries

from crop to crop.

$. 2opograp+% of agri ultural land5 If the agricultural land is une!en the water

re-uirement will be more and hence the duty will be low. If the land has slight slope the duty will be high as water re-uirement is optimum. As the ground slope increases the duty decreases because there is wastage of water.
%. Met+od of ploug+ing5 3roper deep ploughing which is done by tractors re-uires o!erall

less -uantity of water and hence the duty is high. 7ut shallow ploughing with bullocks re-uires o!erall more -uantity of water and hence the duty is low.
&. Met+ods of irrigation5 the duty of water is high in case of perennial irrigation system as

compared to that in inundation irrigation system. It is so because in perennial system head regulator is used whereas in inundation system there is no regulator.
'. 8ater ta95 If some ta' is imposed on the basis of !olume of water consumption the

farmer will use the water economically and thus the duty will be high.

21.# Met+ods of impro0ing Dut%

The following points should be remembered for impro!ing the duty of water.
1. Proper ploug+ing5 3loughing should be done properly and deeply so that the moisture

retaining capacity of the soil is increased.

2. Met+ods of suppl%ing 1ater5 The method of supplying water to the agricultural land

should be decided according to the field and soil conditions. #or e'ample #urrow method 5 for crops sown in rows Contour method 5 for hilly areas 7asin method 5 for orchards #looding method 5 for plains
". Canal :ining5 To reduce percolation loss the canals should be lined according to site


#. 2ransmission loss5 To reduce transmission loss the canals should be taken close to

irrigable lands as far as possible.

5. Crop 'otation5 the principle of crop rotation should bre adopted to increase the moisture

retaining capacity and fertility of the soil.

$. Implementation 2a95 The water ta' should be imposed on the basis of !olume of water


21.$ 'elation !et1een .ase4 Delta and Dut%5

2et A * Auty of water in hectares8cumec 7 * 7ase in days B * Aelta in m #rom the definition one cumec of water flowing continupusly for <7= days gi!en a depth of water B o!er an area=A= hectares. That is % cumec for 7 days gi!es B o!er A hectares /r % cumec for % day gi!es B o!er () hectares /r % cumec for % day * ()*+ hectare6metre &o % cumec6day * ()*+ hectare6metre Again % cumec6day * %E$9E;(E;( * :;9(( m? * :.;9 hectare6metre (% hectare * %( (((m$) 666666666666666666666($) #rom (%) and ($) ()*+ * :.;9 + * &.$#x)( * in m. ;9ample5 #ind the delta for a crop if the duty for a base period of %%( days is %9(( hectares8cumec. 66666666666666666666666666666666666666(%)

)olution5 Gi!en 7 * %%( days and A * %9(( hectares8cmec + * :.;9 )( * :.;9 1101#00 * (.;: m * ;: cm ;9ample5 an irrigation canal has GCA of :( ((( hectares out of which :)F is culturable irrigable. The intensity of irrigation for +harif season is ?(F and for ,abi season is ;(F. #ind the discharge re-uired at the head of the canal if the duty at its head is :(( hectares8cumecs for +harif season and %C(( hectares 8cumec for ,abi season. )olution5 Culturable irrigable area * :(((( ' (.:) * ;:((( hectares Area under +harif season * ;:((( ' (.?( * $(9(( hectares Area under ,abi season * ;:((( ' (.;( * 9(:(( hectares The ratio of area irrigated in ,abi season to that irrigation in +harif season is knoen as crop ratio. In this e'ample crop ratio is $. The crop ratio is so selected that the discharge in the canal during both the seasons may be uniform. 1ater re-uired at the head of the canal to irrigate the land under +harif season is * 20#00&00 * $).) cumecs 1ater re-uired at the head of the canal to irrigate the land under ,abi season is * #0&001%00 * $9 cumecs Thus the water re-uirement during +harif is more than that in ,abi. 4ence the canal must be designed to carry a discharge of $).) cumecs. Actually the canal must be designed to carry the peak discharge and not the a!erage discharge calculated based on the a!erage duty figure. The peak re-uirements may be taken to be e-ual to $(F to $)F higher than the a!erage re-uirement or calculated from kor period and kor depth of water if a!ailable.

21.& Irrigation ;ffi ien ies

The amount of irrigation water supplied to the land is not fully utili>ed for the growth of the crops. This is due to !arious losses. Gow the ratio of the amount of water a!ailable (output) to the amount of water supplied (input) is known as Irrigation @fficiency. It is e'pressed in percentage. The following are the !arious types of irrigation efficiencies.
(a) 8ater on0e%an e effi ien % (< )

It is the ratio of the amount of water applied to the land to the amount of water supplied from the reser!oir. It is obtained by the e'pression

1here Hc * water con!eyance efficiencyI * Amount of water applied to land * Amount of water supplied from the reser!oir.
(b) 8ater Appli ation effi ien % (<a)

It is the ratio of the water stored in root >one of plants to the water applied to the land. It is obtained by the e'pression 1here Ha * water application efficiencyI * Amount of water stored in root >one * Amount of water supplied applied to land.
(c) 8ater use effi ien % (<u)

It is the ratio of amount of water used to the amount of water applied. It is obtained from the relation 1here Hu * water use efficiencyI * water used

* water applied
(d) Consumpti0e use effi ien % (< u)

It is the ratio of the consumpti!e use of water to the amount of water depleted from the root >one. It is obtained from the e'pression 1here Hcu * Consumpti!e use efficiencyI * Consumpti!e use of water * Amount of water depleted from the root >one.
(e) 8ater storage effi ien %

The concept of water storage efficiency gi!es an insight to how completely the re-uired water has been stored in the root >one during irrigation. It is determined from the following e'pression.

1here Hs * water storage efficiencyI * water stored in the root >one during irrigation * water needed in the root >one prior to irrigation. * (#ield capacity 5 A!ailable moisture)
(f) 8ater distri!ution effi ien % (<d)

1ater distribution efficiency e!aluates the degree to which water is uniformly distributed throughout the root >one. Jne!en distribution has many undesirable results. The more uniformly the water is distributed the better will be the crop response. It is determined by 1here Hd * water distribution efficiencyI y * a!erage numerical deri!ation in depth of water stored from a!erage depth stored for irrigation

d * a!erage depth of water stored during irrigation.

21.( Determination of irrigation re=uirements of rops

In order to determine the irrigation re-uirements of certain crop during its base period the following terms are re-uired.
(i) ;ffe ti0e rainfall('e)5 @ffecti!e rainfall is that part of the precipitation falling during the

growing period of a crop that is a!ailable to meet the e!apotranspiration needs of the crop.
(ii) Consumpti0e irrigation re=uirement (CI')5 Consumpti!e irrigation re-uirement is

defined as the amount of irrigation water that is re-uired to meet the e!apo6 transpiration needs of the crop during its full growth. Therefore CI, * Cu 6 ,e


3et Irrigation 'e=uirement (3I')5 Get irrigation re-uirement is defined as the amount of irrigation water re-uired at the plot to meet the e!apo6transpiration needs of water as well as other needs such as leaching etc. thus GI, * Cu 5 ,e K water lost in deep percolation for the purpose of leaching etc.


7ield Irrigation 'e=uirement (7I')5 #ield irrigation re-uirement is the amount of water re-uired to meet <net irrigation re-uirements= plus the water lost in percolation in the field water courses field channels and the field applications of water. If H a is the water application efficiency we ha!e

(,) Gross Irrigation 'e=uirement (GI')5 GI, is the sum of water re-uired to satisfy the

field irrigation re-uirement and the water lost as con!eyance losses in distributaries upto the field. If Hc is the water con!eyance efficiency we ha!e