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INTRODUCTION

Grading

•! Each week:

–! Video lectures –! PDF reading material –! Quizzes and peer-graded problems

•! There will be a final exam. •! Videos are stand-alone: you can do this class without the PDF material, but in this case you can only get 80% on your final score. •! Passing grade is 60%. This is what you need to get your certificate.

**What we will learn this week:
**

•! •! •! •! What is the purpose of functional analysis? What is a topology? What is an open set and a closed set? What is convergence?

Convergence? un = 1/n 1 u1 = 1 u2 = 1/2 u3 = 1/3 u4 = 1/4 u10 = 1/10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .

Convergence? ! .

Convergence? fn defined from R to R by fn(x) = sinn(x) .

a closed set? What is convergence? What is continuity? What is the final topology? Trick your calculus instructor: every function can be continuous! .What we will learn this week •! •! •! •! •! •! •! What is the point of functional analysis? What is a topology? What is an open set.

Week 1 Lecture 1.2 WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS? .

.

Week 1 Lecture 1.3 OPEN SETS & TOPOLOGY .

Elements of T are called open sets.! Any union of elements of T is in T iii.Definition: Topology Let X be a set and T be a family of subsets of X.T) is a topological space. T is called a topology on X if: i. .! The empty set Ø and X are elements of T ii.! Any finite intersection of elements of T is in T (X.

2} . 2 .4} } Is T a topology? . 4. {3. 5 } T = { {1.In-video Quiz X = { 1 . 3 .

{1. {1.3}. {1. X } .4}. {2}. {1. X } T = { Ø .2} . {2. {2. {1.4}.3.2} . 3 . {1.3} . X } T = { Ø . {1.2} .2. X } T = { Ø . {3. 2 . 5 } Which ones are topologies? T = { Ø . {2.2.2} . {2}.3} .In-video Quiz X = { 1. 4 .4} .3.3} .2.

Construction of a Topology Let us answer this more general question How do you turn a family of sets F into a topology? (while adding the fewest possible sets) ①! Add Ø and the whole space to F. Note: 2 and 3 cannot be permuted! . ②! Add to F all finite intersections of elements of F ③! Add to F all unions of elements of (new) F F is now stable by unions It can be proved F is stable by finite intersections.

X} The discrete topology: Td= {all subsets of X} Given two topologies on X: T1 and T2 with T1 ⊂ T2 .Definition: Topology A set X is always a topological space! The trivial topology: T t = {Ø. T1 is coarser (or weaker or smaller) than T2 T2 is finer (or stronger or larger) than T1 If T is a topology then Tt ⊂ T ⊂ Td .

{1. {1.2} . 3 .4} .3. X } Which one is true? T1 is coarser than T2 T2 is coarser than T1 None of the above . {1. 4.3. 5 } T1 = { Ø .2. {1.4}. 2 .2} .2.In-Video Quiz X = { 1 . {5} . X } T2 = { Ø .2. {1.5} .

2[ is not 1 x 2 x=1 2 .Definition: Usual Topology on R X=R T = { sets O s.t.2[ is open [1. for every x in O. there exists ">0. ]x-".x+"[ ⊂ O } Examples: ]1.

4.4.3} .2.2} .5} = X \ {1.Definition: Closed sets Complements of open sets are called closed sets. {1.3} .2} . {1. {2} . X } {1.2. Example: X={1.5} is a closed set because {3.2} is an open set {3.5} T = { Ø . {2.3.4.

Definition: Neighborhood Let X be a topological space Let x ! X. .! x ! V ii.! V ⊂ U The set of neighborhoods of x is noted V(x). i.t. The set U is called a neighborhood of x if There exists an open set V s.

one can find a finite number of these open sets such that their union contains K.Definition: Compactness Let X be a topological space. We say that K ⊂ X is compact if K is not empty and for any arbitrary open sets Ui ⊂ K (i ! I) whose union contains K. .

Week 1 Lecture 1.4 CONVERGENCE & CONTINUITY .

We say that (xn) converges to l if !V " V (l). n $ N % x n " V (xn) may converge to several elements of X . #N " N.Definition: Converging Sequences Let X be a topological space and (xn) be a sequence of elements of X.

the limit of a sequence is unique.Hausdorff Spaces A topological space X is a Hausdorff space (or a T2 space or a separated space) if: Given two distinct points in X one can find two open disjoints sets. . each containing a point In a Hausdorff space.

only sequences that become constant converge. n $ N % x n " V (xn) may converge to several elements of X If the topology on X is stronger (larger/finer).Definition: Converging Sequences Let X be topological a space and (xn) be a sequence of elements of X. it is “harder” for (xn) to converge. If X is equipped with the discrete topology. . We say that (xn) converges to l if !V " V (l). #N " N.

it is “easier” for f to be continuous. any mapping is continuous. If X is equipped with the discrete topology. .Definition: Continuous Mappings Let X and Y be topological spaces A mapping f : X#Y is continuous if the inverse image of an open set is an open set. If the topology on X is finer (larger/stronger).

Continuous Mappings and Sequences The chosen definitions “work well”: Proposition Let X and Y be two topological spaces Let f : X#Y is be a continuous mapping Let (xn) be a sequence in X converging to l Define yn = f(xn) Then (yn) converges to f(l) in Y .

we have l ! f-1(U) We always have f-1(U) ⊂ f-1(W) . f-1(U) is open (thanks to the definition of continuity) Since f(l) ! U. Then there exists an open set U such that f(l) ! U and U ⊂ W Since f is continuous.Continuous Mappings and Sequences f-1(W) is a neighborhood of l Proof Let W be any neighborhood of f(l).

there exists N ! N s. QED . Since (xn) converges to l: %V !V (l). n # N " yn ! W So (yn) converges to f(l).t.Continuous Mappings and Sequences Proof Let W be any neighborhood of f(l). $N ! N. n $ N implies xn! f-1(W) n $ N implies yn = f(xn) ! W. $N ! N. n # N " x n ! V V = f-1(W) is a neighborhood of l Thus. Hence: %W !V (f(l)).

Week 1 Lecture 1.5 FINAL TOPOLOGY .

We can equip X with a topology that makes every fi continuous. We note it "(X. {fi. If everything else fails. . the discrete topology will work! We call final topology the coarsest one that works. i ! I}).Definition: Final Topology Let X and Yi be topological spaces (i ! I) Let fi : X#Yi be given mappings.

{f}} = { Ø . ]-$. +$[ . What is the final topology on X for f? "(X.+$[ } .0] . ]-$. Y=R and f be defined by f(x) = 0 if x#0 f(x) = 1 if x>0 Equip Y with the usual topology. ]0.Example Let X=R.

finite or not). Let Yi be topological spaces (i ! I. (xn) converges to x if and only if for all i ! I. {fi. Let (xn) be a sequence of X. i ! I}). Let fi : X#Yi be given mappings. In the topology "(X.Final Topology and Sequences Proposition Let X be a set. fi(xn) converges to fi (x) in Yi .

.i!I}) We proved earlier that if (xn) converges to l then fi(xn) converges to fi(x).{fi.Final Topology and Sequences Proof Direct statement: Mappings fi are continuous for topology "(X.

n $ Ni implies fi(xn) ! Vi. We can suppose U is a finite intersection of inverse images of Vi where Vi is a neighborhood of fi(x) in Yi. QED .t.Final Topology and Sequences Proof Converse: Let U be a neighborhood of x. Let N be the largest Ni (there is a finite number of Ni) Then n $ N implies xn ! U. There exist Ni ! N s.

6 WHAT A TOPOLOGY “SEES” AND DOES NOT “SEE” .Week 1 Lecture 1.

4.The “eyes” of a Topology X = { 1 . 2 . {5} . X } 1 2 3 4 5 The topology does not distinguish between 1 and 2 nor between 3 and 4. 5 } T = { Ø . .5} .2. {1.4} . 3 . {1.2} . {1.3.2.

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