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of the elements except one. Carbon is the domain of the organic chemist. It seems a little unfair that the split is 108 for Inorganic and 1 for Organic. However the chemistry of carbon is so rich and varied it deserves a whole discipline to itself. Besides as we've seen, organic chemists do sometimes include H, S, N and O in their compounds! This leaves us with an awful lot of possible chemistry in Inorganic Chemistry. Thousands of new compounds are made every year. It’s actually impossible to keep up with the number of new compounds, even for a practicing chemist. So what chance do you have of understanding inorganic chemistry? Well, believe it or not, you have a very good chance. If we use the periodic table to its full potential then we can predict the chemistry of obscure elements such as antimony (Sb, atomic number 51) or thallium (Tl, atomic number 81) without knowing too much about them. The Groups The main group elements are Groups 1, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18. Groups 1 and 2 are the s-block elements and Groups 13 – 18 are the p-block elements. Groups 1 and 2 Group 1 elements are known as the alkali metals. This is due to their ability to produce alkaline solutions (basic solutions) when added to water. For instance sodium and water react thus: + 2 Na(s) + 2 H2O(l) → 2 Na (aq) + 2 OH (aq) + H2(g) Question 5.1 The reaction above is a redox reaction. Write down the balanced ½-reactions for the reduction and the oxidation taking place. How many electrons are being transferred from Na to water? The Group 2 elements are known as the alkaline earth metals. All the elements in groups 1 and 2 are metals and all are potential reducing agents due to their capacity to form stable cations. Group 1 elements form mono-cations and Group 2 elements form di-cations. We can therefore predict that these elements will form ionic compounds with non-metals. The exception is beryllium which forms covalent compounds due to the undesirable charge density on Be2+ (charge density is the charge per unit volume and the volume of the Be2+ ion is very small). Group 13 Group 13 contains one non-metal, namely boron, and the other elements are metals. Boron is also the only element which does not form a stable trication (B3+ again will have too high a charge density to be stable). Q. Why do the other elements form trications? A. Because they have the valence electronic configuration ns2np1 and when three electrons are lost they have a full valence shell. The metals however can also form covalent compounds with non-metals depending on the difference in electronegativity. AlF3 for instance is ionic (ΔEN = 2.5) but AlCl3 is covalent (ΔEN = 1.5). Group 14 Group 14 contains one non-metal, carbon, two metalloids, silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge), and two metals, tin (Sn) and lead (Pb). However they do have in common the fact that they can all exhibit an oxidation number of
+4 in their compounds. Only tin and lead form ions, the other elements preferring to share electrons in covalent compounds. Tin and lead are also happy in the +2 oxidation state. Group 15 These elements are called the pnicogens (terrible name!). Nitrogen and phosphorus are non-metals. Arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) are metalloids and bismuth (Bi) is a metal. They all exhibit the maximum oxidation state in the group, and their chemistry is largely covalent. Many other oxidation states can be exhibited by these elements (see the periodic table in tutorial 1), especially -3. Question 5.2 What is the maximum oxidation state possible for the group 15 elements? The maximum oxidation state is also known as the group valency. Group 16 These elements are known as the chalcogens. Oxygen, sulfur and selenium (Se) are non-metals, tellurium (Te) is a metalloid, and polonium (Po) is radioactive and has no stable isotopes. Their chemistry is dominated by the formation of the -2 oxidation state but sulfur in particular can exhibit a variety of oxidation states. Question 5.3 What is the oxidation number of sulfur in each of the following species? (a) SO42(b) S2O32- (c ) SO3 (d) SO2 (e) H2S Group 17 These elements are all non-metals and are called the halogens. Formation of stable mono-anions is the most common chemistry displayed by these elements. However, they also display the +7, +5, +3 and +1 oxidation states, when bonded to oxygen. Group 18 The noble gases already have a full valence shell and therefore don’t get themselves involved in too much chemistry! The Periods The chemistry of the p-block elements does depend to some extent on which period the elements occur in. In particular the second period elements have a different chemistry from their heavier congeners (a congener is simply an element in the same group). We have touched on this difference before when talking about the octet rule in the 1st semester. The heavier elements, periods 3, 4, 5 and 6, all have vacant d-orbitals which allow them to expand their octet whereas period 2 elements have no vacant d-orbitals and cannot accommodate more than 8 valence electrons. Question 5.4 Why do the second period elements not have any energetically available d-orbitals? The second period elements B, C, N and O have a different chemistry from their congeners.
Question 5. however. Ionic Radius: The ionic radius of an element is its contribution to the distance between neighbouring ions in a solid ionic substance. Why is there such a large difference? Question 5. Question 5. The ionic radius of chlorine is 181 pm. Ionic radii are also measured in pm. The “extra” electrons are repelled by the existing electrons (since like charges repel) and the space taken up by the electrons expands. How about anions? The atomic radius of chlorine is 100 pm. For instance. These properties include atomic size and the energies required to remove electrons from atoms. The internuclear distance in solid magnesium 2chloride is 246 pm. whereas the ionic radius of Na+ is 95 pm. The atomic radius of Na is 180 pm. These properties also show definite trends as we go down a particular group in the periodic table. Question 5. 80 pm larger than its atomic radius. Thus anions are always substantially larger than their parent atoms. pm. The atomic radius of an element is not the same as its ionic radius. Given that the ionic radius of O is 140 pm.5 (a) What is the electronic configuration of sodium? (b) What is the electronic configuration of the sodium cation? Generally when an element loses its valence electrons when forming cations. Hence the atomic radius of chlorine is 99 pm. Consider for example the element sodium. (Remember a picometre is 10-12 m).8 The internuclear distance in solid magnesium oxide is 205 pm. then only the core electrons remain. we must be sure we know exactly what the physical properties are that we will be talking about.6 a) What is the electronic configuration of chlorine? b) What is the electronic configuration of the chloride anion? When we form anions we are adding electrons into the valence shell. Before we talk about the trends. (a) The atomic radius of aluminium is 125 pm while the ionic radius of the same element is only 50 pm.Periodic and Group Trends Many physical properties of the elements exhibit a striking periodicity (that is the physical properties change in a regular fashion as we go across a period).7 Explain the following observations. the distance between the two chlorine nuclei in Cl2 is 198 pm. 96 . (b) The ionic radius of oxygen is 140 pm. Atomic radii are usually measured in picometres. These core electrons are closer to the nuclei than the valence electrons and are thus tightly bound. calculate the ionic radius of Cl . 2r Atomic Radius (r): This is half the distance between the centres of neighbouring atoms in the pure element. Cations are always considerably smaller than their parent atoms.
X. as all the valence electrons have already been removed. however. in other words. 97 . is the energy required to remove an electron from a neutral gaseous atom. Half-reactions are hypothetical i. This is different from when we were dealing with ½-reactions in the redox chemistry section. Question 5. The first ionisation energy of an element. + X(g) → X (g) + e (g) I1 The second ionisation energy of an element X is the energy required to remove an electron from X+ X+(g) → X2+(g) + e-(g) I2 The third ionisation energy is the energy required to do the following 2+ 3+ X (g) → X (g) + e (g) I3 and so on. what is the electronic configuration of the species involved? For aluminium and its ions we have the following electronic configurations. Al Al+ Al2+ Al3+ Al4+ 1s22s22p63s23p1 1s22s22p63s2 1s22s22p63s1 1s22s22p6 1s22s22p5 Therefore when forming Al4+ we have had to remove a core electron.e. It is evident that I2 will be a bigger energy than I1. the electrons do not exist as separate species in solution. It therefore takes much more energy to remove them from the atom. All ionisation energies are positive enthalpies. It will be progressively more difficult to remove electrons stepwise from a species because the more positive the species is the more tightly it will hold onto the remaining electrons. + X(g) → X (g) + e (g) It should be noted here that we are actually removing the electron from the atom in a physical process.Ionisation Energy (I ): The ionisation energy of an element is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of a gaseous atom. or the ionisation energy. Perhaps we’d better be a little more precise in our terminology. I2 = 1 450 kJ mol-1. 2 740 kJ mol to 11 600 kJ mol . always ask yourself “which particular electrons are we dealing with?” or. consequently. Removing an electron from an atom always requires energy. I3 = 7 740 kJ mol-1. Core electrons are closer to the nucleus and. I / kJ mol 577 1 820 2 740 11 600 -1 Al(g) → Al (g) + e (g) Al+(g) → Al2+(g) + e-(g) 2+ 3+ Al (g) → Al (g) + e (g) 3+ 4+ Al (g) → Al (g) + e (g) + - We can see that I4 > I3 > I2 > I1 as we would expect. How do we account for this? Whenever dealing with ionisation energies.e. This energy is termed the enthalpy of ionisation. Let’s take aluminium as an example. is the large jump between -1 -1 I3 and I4 i. Of particular mention. are at much more negative energy than the valence electrons.9 Explain the following trend in ionisation energies for magnesium: I1= 736 kJ mol-1.
Why is this? At first sight we might think that as we proceed across a period the atomic number is increasing and therefore the size should be increasing because we have more electrons present. a given value of n. 98 . Therefore as we go down a group the atomic size would be predicted to increase. Therefore as we proceed down a group the valence electrons are becoming progressively further away from the nucleus (i.e. 1 Li 145 Na 180 K 220 Rb 235 Cs 266 2 Be 105 Mg 150 Ca 180 Sr 200 Ba 215 13 B 85 Al 125 Ga 130 In 155 Tl 190 14 C 70 Si 110 Ge 125 Sn 145 Pb 180 15 N 65 P 100 As 125 Sb 145 Bi 160 16 O 60 S 100 Se 115 Te 140 17 F 50 Cl 100 Br 115 I 140 n=2 n=3 n=4 n=5 n=6 As we proceed down any of the groups the atomic radius is seen to increase. What happens to the atomic size as we proceed across the periodic table from left to right? You will notice that there is a general decrease in atomic size across a period. Electrons _ Increase the atomic number by one _ Attraction _ Nucleus + 2+ Each electron now experiences a greater positive charge and is more attracted to the nucleus. As we proceed across a period we are gradually filling up a given valence shell i.e. increases. n. As each electron is added we are also increasing the number of protons in the nucleus by one. As we proceed down a group the principal quantum number. they are at less negative energies). This can be shown in the diagram below. Atomic size decreases across a period. Again we have to think exactly where the electrons are going. The valence electrons are said to experience a greater effective nuclear charge as we go across a period from left to right. Thus the electrons are pulled closer to the nucleus and the atomic size decreases. This means that the nucleus has got a greater positive charge to attract the valence electrons. But this is clearly not the case. Atomic size increases down a group. X(g) + e (g) → X (g) Trends in Atomic Radii What would you expect to happen to atomic size as we proceed down a group in the periodic table? This is one of the easier questions to answer.Electron affinity (Ea): The electron affinity of an element is a measure of the change in energy that occurs when an electron is added to an atom or an ion of the element. The table below shows the atomic radii (pm) for the main group elements.
why the orbital energy diagram for hydrogen is different from that of the other elements. It experiences only the difference between the attractive and repulsive forces. That is why the s-orbital is of a more negative energy than the p-orbitals in the orbital diagram of the multi-electron atoms. This is. It is said to experience only the effective nuclear charge. Why does this ability of the core electrons to shield the valence electrons depend on the shape of the orbital that the core electron is in? It’s a simple case of geometry. The energy of one electron within the atom depends upon the energies of the other electrons present. All of the other elements have electron-electron interactions and these interactions depend on the shape of the orbital that each of the electrons is in.Shielding Why in the previous section did we use the term “effective nuclear charge” when describing nuclear charge? The answer to this question is very important when discussing the chemistry of the elements. If we consider the following two scenarios attraction nucleus electron Here the electron experiences the full nuclear charge. Electron-electron interactions take the form of repulsions (as like charges repel). 99 . the same order of stabilities of the orbitals for a given n value. Thus the ability to shield valence electrons is greatest for an selectron. Which electrons are closest to the nucleus for a given value of n? The answer is the s-electrons. The f-electrons for instance are in very diffuse orbitals away from the nucleus and are very poor at shielding valence electrons from the nuclear charge. the chemistry of an element depends upon its electronic configuration and thus on the relative energies of the electrons within the atom. The core electrons are said to shield the valence electrons from the nuclear charge. The closer a core electron is to the nucleus the better is will be at shielding the valence electrons. You will recall that the energy of the electrons in multi-electron atoms depends on both the quantum numbers n and l (l determines the shape of the orbital). in fact. These interactions tend therefore to oppose the attractive forces between the nucleus and the electrons. As we have said before. When more than one valence electron is present then it must be remembered that they are very poor at shielding each other from the nuclear charge.e. the effective nuclear charge experienced by the valence electrons increases because the nuclear charge has increased and the added electrons are poor at shielding each other. The full order of shielding ability is – s>p>d>f i. Hydrogen only has one electron and therefore there are no electron-electron interactions. Thus as we go across a period adding valence electrons. However if we now add some more electrons to the atom: repulsion attraction nucleus core electrons repulsion valence electron then we can see that the valence (outer) electron no longer experiences the full nuclear charge.
(c) Predict which of the following elements has the more exothermic (i. For boron a 2p electron is removed. This repulsive interaction results in it being easier to remove that electron than would be expected from the more simplistic atomic-size approach.e. Question 5. (ii) Nitrogen and Oxygen A more subtle explanation is required for these elements as in both cases we are removing a 2p electron. 100 . The result is that oxygen has a lower ionisation energy than expected and in fact it is less than the I value of nitrogen. However two values seem to ignore our reasoning. If we look at the ionisation energies for the second period: Li I1 -1 (kJ mol ) 519 Be 900 B 799 C 1 090 N 1 400 O 1 310 F 1 680 You will notice that in general the trend is as we predicted. This electron is paired with another electron in a p-orbital and will thus experience a repulsive interaction from that other electron. The 2p orbital is at a higher (less negative) energy than the 2s orbital and we would therefore expect that it would be easier to remove and that is borne out by the numbers. these discrepancies can be explained by looking at the electronic configuration of the elements involved. (i) Boron and Beryllium Be 1s22s2 B 1s22s22p1 For beryllium we are removing a 2s electron during ionisation.There are (of course!) exceptions to the trends stated above.10 (a) Which element in each of the following pairs of electrons has the higher I1 value? (i) Na or Mg (ii) Mg or Al (iii) As or Sn 2+ 3+ (b) Predict which of the following ions has the larger ionic radius: Mg or Al . We will in fact have to go to the orbital diagram for each of the elements. an increase from left to right. the most negative) electron affinity: fluorine or sodium. N O 1s 2s 2p When ionising oxygen which electron will be removed? The answer is the one marked . I1 for boron is less than that for Be and I1 for O is less than that for N. Again.
This then results in a very poor overlap of the p-orbitals and a π bond cannot form. We have seen that N2 is a molecule which contains one σ bond and two π bonds. Phosphorus therefore forms three σ bonds to other phosphorus atoms. Atomic radius/pm 65 100 N P When two phosphorus atoms come together they cannot therefore approach each other as closely as two nitrogen atoms can. The same is true for oxygen and carbon. Thus elements such as carbon nitrogen and oxygen are amongst the smallest of the elements. P P Phosphorus therefore does not exist as a P2 molecule with a triple bond between the phosphorus atoms. The π bonds form from porbitals which overlap in the following manner. If we now go down Group 15 to the next element. We have seen that atomic size increases as one goes down a group in the periodic table and that it decreases as we go across a period from left to right.INTRAMOLECULAR BONDING We have seen previously that there are two types of covalent bonds that can form in molecules. This allows the p-orbitals to overlap and form π bonds. However it still needs to form three bonds to complete its octet. Therefore compounds containing oxygen. We have also added to this the fact that the second period elements have a distinctly different chemistry from their heavier congeners. nitrogen and carbon often contain π bonds to those atoms. which is phosphorus. nd N N As nitrogen is a small atom the two nitrogens can approach very close to each other. thus: P P P P 101 . These are σ bonds and π bonds. an increase in atomic size results. This has an important consequence in the bonding that occurs in molecules containing these elements. One reason for this is that the heavier elements have dorbitals available to expand the octet of electrons that are available from the s-orbital and three p-orbitals. There is another reason why the 2 period elements have a different chemistry and that is their size.
P4 is called white phosphorus. There are five categories of solids • Metallic • Atomic • Ionic • Molecular covalent • Polymeric covalent Metallic Bonding Metals adopt a close-packed crystal structure. Elemental sulfur occurs in the form shown below S S S S S S S S This is known as crown sulfur for obvious reasons. A similar case arises when considering oxygen and sulfur. When a substance is in the solid state there is one other thing which is important and that is how the atoms or molecules are packed together. THE SOLID STATE We have already seen that the physical properties of the elements depend upon intermolecular interactions. etc. 102 . If we imagine the metal atoms as being identical spheres then the packing of the spheres are such that the atoms occupy the smallest total volume with the least empty space. Oxygen occurs as O2 which has one σ bond and one π bond between the oxygen atoms. Sulfur being much larger than oxygen would rather form two σ bonds.Each phosphorus atom now has eight electrons in its valence shell. The 1st layer of atoms pack as follows: Then the 2nd layer sits in the holes created by the 1st layer and the 3rd layer sits in the holes created by the 2nd layer. Only the 2nd period elements form stable π bonds in covalent compounds.
We would therefore expect these types of solid to have much lower melting point temperatures than the metals. This movement of electrons within a crystal results in metals being very good conductors of electricity. The electrons are said to be delocalised (as opposed to localised on one atom). consequently. in the main. say. they are localised. metallic bonding is very strong and. These structures however have very different physical properties from metallic structures and thus we will separate them out into a different category.Metallic bonding is special in that it is best envisaged as metal cations sitting in a ‘sea’ of electrons. The melting point temperatures of the group 18 elements are shown below. We can explain this using our ‘sea’ of electrons model. Due to the electrostatic interaction between the metal cations and the sea of electrons. Sodium. tungsten (W). This is due to the electrons not being confined just to one metal atom. however. soft metals with low melting point o temperature. the electrons stay within their parent atoms i. This results in only weak intermolecular London forces between the adjoining atoms. has a melting point of about 3400 oC! The Group 1 elements are atypical for metals in that they are. the melting point temperatures of metals are very high. The metal with the highest melting point temperature. for aluminium which has three valence electrons it can donate to the ‘sea’. 103 . The noble gases (Group 18). is easily cut with a knife and has a melting point temperature of 98 C.e. Here. Rather. + + 3+ + + 3+ 3+ - + - 3+ 3+ - + - 3+ Al (strong interaction) Na (weak interaction) Bonding in Atomic Solids Another group of elements also exhibits close-packed crystal structures. they are free to roam all over the crystal. for instance. Group I metals have only one valence electron and therefore the electrostatic interaction between the cations and the sea of electrons is not as great as. also exhibit close-packing in their solid state.
He Ne Ar Kr Xe Melting point temperature/oC .249 . It is only in the molten state that ionic solids conduct electricity. A molecular solid is one which contains discrete molecules packed together. The ions are in fixed positions and therefore ionic solids are poor conductors of electricity. anions tend to be much larger than cations. Thus when ions pack together we can envisage the anions packing together and the cations sitting in the holes in between.12 Would you expect solid argon (Ar) to conduct electricity? Both metals and the noble gases can adopt close packing structures as each of the “spheres” in the crystal are the same size. When molten.11 Why does the melting point temperature of the substance increase as we go down group 18? Question 5. This is not the case in our next type of solid structure.156 . 104 . Each type of ionic solid has one thing in common. in general. Molecular Solids What type of solids do elements such as nitrogen and fluorine adopt? We must remember that these elements occur as diatomic molecules and thus these diatomic molecules are the building-blocks for the solid. + + - - The exact type of structure adopted depends on the relative sizes of the anions and the cations and the charges on each.272 . the crystal structure has broken down and the ions become mobile and thus the movement of charge can occur.112 Question 5.189 . Ionic Solids You will remember that.
and this is indeed the case. This implies that there are other structures of carbon that occur.218 . the “lead” in pencils: 105 . Therefore if we were to melt these substances we would need to break covalent bonds and thus we would expect a lot of energy to be required. In this molecule carbon is σ bonded to four other carbons in a huge 3-dimensional 3 structure of carbon atoms. Allotropy and Polymorphism In the previous section we referred to the diamond structure of carbon. as the number of atoms increases in the molecule. due to the increased London forces present. This type of crystal is quite different from the molecular covalent solids. the higher the melting point temperature will be. The melting point temperature of the diamond structure of carbon is 3547oC. even higher than that of tungst tungsten (3400oC).210 44 113 o O2 N2 P4 S8(α) Again we can see that. the metal with the highest melting point temperature. Here we have each atom covalently bonded to the other atoms.As only dipole-dipole dipole interactions (for polar molecules) and London forces (for all molecules) hold the molecules together molecular solids have low melting point temperatures as as shown for some elements overleaf. An example is the diamond structure of carbon. Polymeric Covalent Solids These are sometimes known as network solids as they consist of giant molecules which contain hundreds (or even thousands or even millions!) of atoms. Carbon can also occur in the solid state as graphite. Melting point temperature/ C . toms.
e. These π-electrons form a delocalised π bond over the whole sheet of carbon atoms. If more than one allotrope exists for an element. However there is another allotrope known as red phosphorus. Question 5. Same element. We have met white phosphorus.13 (a) What is the hybridisation of the carbon atoms in the diamond structure? (b) Are there any delocalised π electrons in the diamond structure? (c) Will the diamond structure conduct electricity? What about the difference in hardness between the graphite and diamond allotropes? Again this results directly from the difference in bonding. Thus we have a case where the π electrons can move within the crystal and thus the crystal conducts electricity. This results in the sheets ‘slipping’ along the plane of the sheets and thus graphite is soft. P4. You will recall that white phosphorus has the following structure: P P P P 106 . it forms only three σ bonds to three other carbons. Diamond on the other hand is a three dimensional covalent structure and is thus very hard. This results in sheets of carbon atoms covalently bonded to each other. be sure to specify which one you are talking about. Each carbon still has one more electron which is in a p-orbital of π symmetry. graphite and buckminsterfullerene are said to be allotropic forms of the element carbon.or as the more exotic buckminsterfullerene. and therefore different properties! The properties of graphite arise from the fact that each carbon is sp2-hybridised i. Diamond. Each allotrope has unique physical properties due to the different types of bonding within the structure. previously. Graphite for instance is soft and conducts electricity whereas diamond is very hard (the hardest substance known) and is an electrical insulator. Only London forces hold the sheets together and therefore these bonds are easily broken. However between these sheets there are no covalent bonds. The sheet structure of graphite contains covalently–bonded carbons. Phosphorus is another element which has more than one allotrope. but different structures.
while even the packing of a given structural unit within a crystal lattice (polymorphism) can affect the physical properties of a substance. 107 Weak acids HF (hydrofluoric acid) HCN (hydrogen cyanide) HCOOH (methanoic acid or formic acid) HClO (hypochlorous acid) o . Here the structural unit is constant and the packing is different. You might be wondering what the ( α) was for? It is actually used to describe the way the S8 units are packed together in the crystal. When we did this we wrote it as S8(α). Examples of weak acids are the carboxylic acids. However when we put HCl in water the following occurs. Question 5. HCl is therefore an acid and water is acting as a base. There is however another way that we can draw three σ bonds to each phosphorus. INORGANIC ACIDS AND BASES We have seen previously that HCl in the gaseous state is a covalent molecule. Some acids do not dissociate completely in water. They are different polymorphs of sulfur. For instance monoclinic sulfur melts at 119 C while the o rhombic form melts at 113 C. Previously we quoted the melting point temperature for sulfur. This is quite different from allotropy where the structural unit was different. Some other acids are listed below. The other product is the chloride ion. HCl is said to be a strong acid. to pack the S8 molecules. Polymorphism does affect the physical properties. These are known as weak acids. different way. P P P P P P P P P P P P Long chains form and we end up with a polymeric structure known as red phosphorus. HCl(g) + H2O(l) → H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq) HCl donates a proton to water to form the hydronium ion. The α-form is called rhombic sulfur and the β -form is known as monoclinic sulfur. They also have different densities and different thermodynamic properties.14 (a) What type of crystal structure would you expect for red phosphorus? (b) Which allotrope of phosphorus would you expect to have the higher melting point temperature? Allotropes are different structural units of an element. Why do we need to specify (α)? Because there is another. If we break the bond marked in bold in the above structure and form two new bonds to those phosphorus atoms we will end up with the following structure. Strong acids HNO3 (nitric acid) HClO4 (perchloric acid) HBr (hydrobromic acid) HI (hydroiodic acid) Some strong and weak bases are listed below. A strong acid is one which dissociates completely in water to form ions. It is obvious therefore that the different structural units that elements can form (allotropy) affects their chemical and physical properties. S8.where each phosphorus had to form three σ bonds in order to obey the octet rule.
The acidic protons are all attached to oxygen atoms. H2C2O4 (oxalic acid) and H3PO4 (phosphoric acid). we put HOCl in water. Oxo-Acids The aforementioned polyprotic acids all have one thing in common. HOCl contains a polar oxygenhydrogen bond thus: δ δ H – O – Cl When. δ+ δ+ - H O H H O Cl 108 . therefore. An example of a simple monoprotic oxo-acid is hypochlorous acid. An example is sulfuric acid. Thus for H2SO4: H2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) → H3O+(aq) + HSO4-(aq) HSO4-(aq) + H2O(l) H3O+(aq) + SO42-(aq) You will note that H2SO4 behaves as a strong acid when it loses its first proton but as a weak acid when it loses its second proton. one at a time. H2SO4.e. the hydrogen is attracted to a lone pair on the oxygen atom in water as shown below. HOCl. H O H O P O O H H H O C O C O O H O S O H phosphoric acid (triprotic) oxalic acid (diprotic) sulfurous acid (diprotic) O In fact all hydrogens attached to oxygens in a covalent molecule are acidic. Polyprotic acids lose their protons in a stepwise manner i. Other weak polyprotic acids include H2SO3 (sulfurous acid). Species which contain such hydrogens are known as oxo-acids.Strong bases NaNH2 (sodium amide) Na2O (sodium oxide) KOH Weak bases NH2OH (hydroxylamine) CH3NH2 (methylamine) (C2H5)3N (triethylamine) Sodium oxide is a base because it forms hydroxide ions in solution: Na2O(aq) + H2O(l) → 2 Na+(aq) + 2 OH-(aq) Polyprotic Acids Some acids can donate more than one proton and are thus called polyprotic acids.
therefore chloric acid is a stronger acid than iodic acid. + H O H H + O Cl Water has accepted a proton and is thus a base and HOCl has donated a proton and is thus an acid. What factors affect the strengths of oxo-acids? We can answer this question by considering the nature of the oxygen-hydrogen bond. + H3O (aq) + OCl (aq) HOCl(aq) + H2O(l) The strength of an acid is a measure of how many of the acid molecules donate protons to water i. The products are H3O+. is which atoms are attached to the atom which is attached to the oxygen! The same reasoning is relevant. closely related to the first. The more electronegative the atom attached to the oxygen the more electron density will be withdrawn from the hydrogen and the more polar will be the oxygen-hydrogen bond. the stronger the acid will be. in turn.e. Question 5. how many hydronium ions are formed in solution. Another factor. and OCl-. the greater will be the tendency for the water molecule to form a bond to the hydrogen atom.The reaction then results in the following. thus breaking the oxygen-hydrogen bond in the acid. 109 . Which of the following will be the stronger acid? H O Cl O O H O I O O chloric acid iodic acid The easiest way to answer this problem is to consider which of the chlorine or the iodine is the more electronegative.15 (a) What is the oxidation number of chlorine in HOCl? (b) What is the oxidation number of chlorine in OCl-? (c) What is the correct IUPAC name for the OCl. The greater the tendency of the acid to donate a proton. What factors can affect the polarity of the oxygen-hydrogen bond in an oxo-acid? molecule. This.ion? HOCl is a weak acid and thus the correct way of writing the reaction is with the double arrow between the reactants and products. will depend upon the polarity of the oxygenhydrogen bond. If those groups withdraw electron density then the oxygen-hydrogen bond becomes more polar and the acid strength will increase. The greater the polarity of the oxygen-hydrogen bond in the oxo-acids. the hypochlorite ion. the hydronium ion. Easy(!).the rest of the Firstly let’s consider varying the atom attached to the oxygen atom in the acid. Chlorine is more electronegative than iodine.
the hydrosphere (the water) and the atmosphere. (a) sodium (b) calcium (c) aluminium (d) gallium (e) carbon (f) antimony Question 5.20 Predict whether the bonding in each of the oxides in the question above is ionic or covalent. the three oxygens double-bonded to the chlorine atom are highly electronegative. which of the acids in 5.16 Predict which of the following acids is the stronger . In general the more oxygens attached to the atom bonded to the –OH group the stronger will be the acid. Acidic and Basic Oxides As we live in an oxygen-rich planet many of the elements occur combined with oxygen in oxides. Question 5.17 Given the following names for oxo-acids: HClO4 perchloric acid HClO3 chloric acid HClO2 chlorous acid HClO hypochlorous acid Name the following acids. O H O Cl O perchloric acid chlorous acid O H O Cl O In perchloric acid. Therefore they will increase the electron-withdrawing effect on the hydrogen making it more acidic. It is thus very important we understand the acidbase properties of these species. How do ionic oxides behave when added to water? Let’s look at the reaction between CaO and H2O. Chlorous acid only has one such oxygen and thus the effect is less and chlorous acid is consequently a weaker acid than perchloric acid. Question 5. (a) HBrO4 (b) HIO [chloric(VII) acid] [chloric (V) acid] [chloric (III) acid] [chloric (I) acid] (c) HBrO2 Question 5. The chemistry of the oxides largely determine the movement of these elements between the geosphere (the earth).Consider the following acids. with clear reasoning.19 Predict the common binary (something that contains only two elements) oxides of the following elements.18 Predict. CaO(s) + H2O(l) → 110 Ca2+(aq) + O2-(aq) . Basic Oxides The oxides of groups 1 and 2 are all solids and all are ionic (due to the large ΔEN values between the metals and oxygen atoms).17 is the strongest acid.nitric acid or nitrous acid? Question 5.
2O (aq) + H2O(l) → 2 OH (aq) or if we draw the Lewis structures: . The oxide ion. H . thus acting as a base. O .. Base Al2O3(s) + 6 H (aq) → base acid + 2 Al (aq) + 3 H2O(l) 3+ Acid Al2O3(s) + 2 OH (aq) + 3 H2O(l) → 2 Al(OH)4 (aq) Acid base - It is important to realise that the acid/base characteristics of an oxide are similar to the acid-base chemistry of the corresponding hydroxide... If we take SO2 as an example: SO2(g) + H2O(l) → H2SO3(aq) We have thus formed sulfurous acid.ion however is a very strong base (it has a very large negative charge density) and thus has a strong affinity for protons. O H . . H O . O2-. Amphoteric Oxides and Hydroxides We have seen that metal oxides are largely basic and non-metallic oxides are largely acidic. Instead it reacts with water thus. There is another class of oxides. not ionic.Ionic substances dissolve in water to give rise to ions. OH O S O + O H O S OH Question 5. These oxides can react with acids and bases and are known as amphoteric oxides.21 Write a balanced reaction equation for the reaction between sodium oxide and water. is in fact such a strong base that it does not exist in aqueous solution.22 Write balanced equations for the reaction between: (a) SO3 and H2O (b) CO2 and H2O Covalent oxides generally give rise to acidic solutions... The O2. This results in these oxides having very different acid/base behaviour from the metal-oxides. those which can exhibit acidic or basic behaviour. Therefore if a metal oxide is basic. H O extracts a proton from a water molecule. For example: Na2O(s) + H2O(l) → 2 Na+(aq) + 2 OH-(aq) 111 .. Aluminium oxide is an example. Acidic Oxides When non-metals form oxides the bonding is always polar-covalent. O . Therefore the reaction between CaO and H2O is better written as: 2+ CaO(aq) + H2O(l) → Ca (aq) + 2 OH (aq) All ionic oxides are basic 2- Question 5... + . the hydroxide of that same metal will also be basic.
The other common number is six. Hydroxide Al(OH)3 Cr(OH)3 Sn(OH)2 Zn(OH)2 Acidic solution Al3+ Cr3+ Sn2+ Zn2+ Basic solution* Al(OH)4aluminate ion Cr(OH)4chromite ion Sn(OH)42stannite ion Zn(OH)42zincate ion *You will notice that many metals form complex ions with four hydroxides. CH3COO and FCH2COO in order of increasing strength.26 Arrange the bases ClCH2COO .27 Which of the following oxides are basic? (a) BaO (b) CO2 (c) CO (d) Rb2O Question 5. Question 5. a base or an amphiprotic substance in aqueous solution 3+ (a) H 2O (b) PO4 (c) CH3NH2 (d) CH3NH3 Question 5.25 Arrange the acids HCl.29 Identify all species in the following reactions as either an acid or a base.NaOH(s) + H2O(l) → Na+(aq) + OH-(aq) + H2O(l) If an oxide is amphoteric then so will be the corresponding hydroxide. Therefore. Question 5. Acid Pb(OH)2(s) + 2 OH (aq) → Pb(OH)4 (aq) plumbite ion Pb(OH)2(s) + 2 H+(aq) → Pb2+(aq) + 2 H2O(l) 2- Base Some other amphoteric hydroxides are listed below. will give rise to Pb(OH)2 upon hydration.24 Arrange the acids H2SO4.23 Write a balanced equation for the reaction of Sn(OH)2 with: (a) acid (b) base Question 5. Question 5. Question 5. H2SO3 and HSO3 in order of decreasing strength. (a) HCO3 (aq) + H2SO4(aq) HSO4 (aq) + H2CO3(aq) 112 . HF and H2O in order of decreasing strength. an amphoteric oxide.28 Classify each of the following species as an acid. PbO. although Pb(OH)2 is a hydroxide (which you might think is a base). it is actually amphoteric.
The reaction sequence used in industry is called the contact process.30 (a) What is the full electronic configuration of sulfur? (b) How many electrons does it require to fill its valence shell? (c) Give an example of a compound which contains sulfur in the following oxidation states.(b) (c) H2C2O4(aq) + NO2-(aq) NH4+(aq) + HCO3-(aq) HNO2(aq) + HC2O4-(aq) NH3(aq) + H2CO3(aq) SOME IMPORTANT ELEMENTS SULPHUR What do we know about sulphur? Perhaps we should summarise some of the important material we’ve covered already. +4 and –2. S(s) + O2(g) → SO2(g) 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) → 2 SO3(g) SO3(g) + H2SO4(aq) → H2S2O7(aq) H2S2O7(aq) + H2O(l) → 2 H2SO4(aq) Question 5. • It can extend its octet in molecules and complex ions due to the presence of d-orbitals. It is prepared by oxidising elemental sulphur. Sulphuric Acid Sulphuric acid is used in more industrial processes than any other chemical (with the exception of water!). rd • Sulphur is in group 16 and the 3 period. (i) +6 (ii) +4 (iii) -2 (d) Which oxides do you know of sulfur? (e) Which oxo-anions do you know of sulfur? (f) Name a weak acid containing sulfur. A common source of nitrogen is ammonium sulfate which is prepared in the following manner. Question 5. • It exhibits many different oxidation numbers in its compounds.31 (a) What is the oxidation number of S on the RHS of the first and second equations above? (b) What is being reduced in the second equation? (c) H2S2O7 is known as oleum. most commonly +6. 2 NH3(g) + H2SO4(aq) → base acid (NH4)2SO4(s) salt 113 . • Its oxides are covalent and thus acidic. Biomass requires nitrogen and phosphorus (as well as potassium) which often need to be supplied by the farmer using synthetic fertilisers. (g) Name a strong acid containing sulfur. The acidic properties of H2SO4 are used widely in the industrial manufacture of fertilisers. What is the oxidation state of sulphur in this compound? (d) Is the fourth equation a redox equation? Explain your answer.
nitrogen compounds and oxo ions normally obey the octet rule. For instance the following reaction is used to prepare SO2 on a laboratory scale. +2. Ca10(PO4)6F2(s) + 7 H2SO4(aq) → 3 Ca(H2PO4)2(s) + 2 HF(g) + 7 CaSO4(s) fluorapatite The fertiliser material prepared in this way. something which has a high affinity for water. elemental sulphur is produced. bromides and iodides in the laboratory when one is trying to identify an unknown salt. As well as its acidic properties. +4. containing both Ca(H2PO4)2 and CaSO4. NITROGEN Some of the important information for the element nitrogen is listed below. is called single superphosphate. exhibits many oxidation numbers. +1. HCl(aq) + H2SO4(aq) + heat → no reaction 2 HBr(aq) + H2SO4(aq) + heat → Br2(aq) + 2 H2O(l) + SO2(g) 8 HI(aq) + H2SO4(aq) + heat → 4 I2(aq) + H2S(g) + 4 H2O(l) The above reactions.Sulfuric acid is also used in the manufacture of phosphate fertilisers by reaction with minerals such as fluorapatite. • Nitrogen. H2SO4(c) C6H12O6 (s) → -6 H2O 6C The sulfuric acid extracts the water from the sugar leaving behind a black residue which dramatically “flows” out of the reaction vessel. The oxidation states +5. as you know. like sulfur. +3. H2SO4 is often used as an oxidising agent in chemical preparations. 3 Zn(s) + 4 H2SO4(aq) → 3 ZnSO4(aq) + S(s) + 4 H2O(l) Another example of concentrated sulphuric acid reacting with different strengths of reducing agents is its reaction with hydrogen halides.32 (a) How many unpaired electrons does an atom of nitrogen have? (b) Give an example of a species which contains nitrogen in oxidation state: (i) +5 (ii) +3 (iii) 0 (c) What is the oxidation number of nitrogen in the following gases? i) N2O (ii) NO (iii) N2O4 114 . • Being in the second period.e. Another use of H2SO4 in chemistry is as a dehydrating agent i. The following reaction takes place. Cu(s) + 2 H2SO4(aq) → CuSO4(aq) + SO2(g) + 2 H2O(l) With stronger reducing agents such as zinc. Concentrated H2SO4 oxidises most metals. A very spectacular demonstration of this ability is when we treat ordinary sugar (sucrose) with concentrated H2SO4.e. 0 and –3 all occur in the natural environment. can be used to distinguish between chlorides. Question 5. i. nd • Nitrogen is in group 15 and the 2 period. • Nitrogen is a non-metal and thus forms covalent oxides which are acidic in nature.
The above reactions can thus be viewed as ideal equations. and dilute nitric acid by looking at their respective reactions with copper metal.) + 2+ 115 . (ii) NH3 (iii) N2O (i) HNO3 Nitric Acid Nitric acid is prepared on a large scale in industry via the Ostwald Process. and depend upon the reducing agent and (as was true for H2SO4) whether the acid is dilute or concentrated. Again the acid/base properties are used in fertiliser manufacture such as in the production of ammonium nitrate. nitric acid has important acid/base properties and extensive redox behaviour. both essential elements for plant growth. Two equations we have seen before are: Cu(s) + 4 HNO3(c) → Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2 H2O(l) + 2 NO2(g) Cu(s) + HNO3(aq) + H (aq) → Cu (aq) + H2O(l) + NO(g) (To be quite honest the reaction of HNO3 with copper.33 Calculate the number of electrons being transferred in each of the equations above. Ca10(PO4)6F2(s) + 14 HNO3(aq) → 3 Ca(H2PO4)2(s) + 7 Ca(NO3)2(s) + 2 HF(g) The fertiliser material thus produced contains both phosphorus (Ca(H2PO4)2) and nitrogen (Ca(NO3)2). and in fact most metals that dissolve in HNO3. HNO3 can also be used (instead of H2SO4) in the production of phosphate fertilisers from apatite minerals. the possible products upon reduction of nitric acid are numerous. NH3(g) + HNO3(aq) → NH4NO3(s) This reaction in fact uses about 80% of the HNO3 produced via the Ostwald process. an oxidizing agent or both. The redox properties of HNO3 can be very complicated for students starting out in chemistry. 4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2 → 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O 2 NO(g) + O2(g) → 2 NO2(g) 3 NO2(g) + H2O(l) → 2 HNO3(aq) + NO(g) Like sulfuric acid. We can also illustrate the difference between conc. Question 5. normally leads to a mixture of NO(g) and NO2(g). If we look for instance at the reaction of conc. HNO3 with some reducing agents: (i) (ii) (iii) S2-(aq) + 2 HNO3(aq) + 2 H+(aq) → S(s) + 2 NO2(g) + 2 H2O(l) + 2 I (aq) + 2 HNO3(aq) + 2 H (aq) → I2(s) + 2 NO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) 2+ + 3+ 6 Fe (aq) + 2 HNO3(aq) + 6 H (aq) → 6 Fe (aq) + 2 NO(g) + 4 H2O(l) Either NO(g) or NO2(g) can result. Due to the number of stable oxidation states available to nitrogen.(d) Identify each of the following species as a reducing agent.
PHOSPHORUS Like nitrogen. is a triprotic weak acid and is prepared from one of two common pathways.34 Assuming that NO2(g) is the by-product of the two redox reactions above. for instance. • Phosphorus is in the 3rd period and group 15 2 3 • Phosphorus has the valence electronic configuration 3s 3p • Phosphorus has the common oxidation numbers +5. S HNO3(c) hot → SO3 H 2O → H2SO4 P4 HNO3(c) hot → P4O10 H 2O → H3PO4 Question 5. The reducing agent used is carbon (“coke”). Some examples are shown below using hot. The element itself does not occur uncombined in nature. instead phosphorus is always combined with oxygen to form oxides and oxo-acids. +3 and –3 • Phosphorus forms covalent bonds to oxygen and the halides Question 5. We can get a good idea of the chemistry of phosphorus just by reminding ourselves of some basic facts.35 Predict the shape around phosphorus in the following molecules. The first route involves treating raw phosphate rock such as Ca3(PO4)2 with sulfuric acid thus: Ca3(PO4)2(s) + 3 H2SO4(aq) → 2 CaSO4(s) + 2 H3PO4(l) The phosphoric acid made in this manner is in turn used to prepare a fertiliser material called “triple superphosphate” from phosphate rock. usually to their highest available oxidation number. H3PO4. 2 Ca10(PO4)6F2 + 30 C + 18 SiO2 → 18 CaSiO3 + 30 CO + 2 CaF2 + 3 P4 116 . P4 is generated from the reduction of phosphate rock. phosphorus appears in many forms in soils and waters.The reason most metals dissolve in HNO3 is that it is a very strong oxidising agent. The second method used to prepare phosphoric acid is employed when one requires pure H3PO4 if. (i) PCl3 (ii) PF5 (iii) H3PO4 Phosphoric Acid Phosphoric acid. write balanced reaction equations. This time we must go through an intermediate of elemental white phosphorus P4. it is to be used in food and beverages. If we again take fluorapatite as our starting material: Ca10(PO4)6F2 + 14 H3PO4 → 10 Ca(H2PO4)2 + 2 HF In this case. Non-metals can also be oxidised. mainly due to its use in fertilisers. concentrated HNO3. the phosphorus fertiliser is not “diluted” by CaSO4 and we thus have so-called “triple superphosphate”.
Hydrogen Peroxide Hydrogen peroxide has the formula H2O2. H O O H Question 5. We now need to qualify that statement because in some important compounds oxygen can exhibit an oxidation number of –1! These compounds are known as peroxides. If H2O2 acts as an oxidising agent then it. The white phosphorus thus isolated can now be reoxidised to prepare pure H3PO4. P4(s) + 5 O2(g) → P4O10(s) P4O10(s) + 6 H2O(g) → 4 H3PO4(aq) P4O10 is known as phosphorus pentoxide (this name arises from the formula P2O5.37 (a) How many lone pairs are present on each oxygen atom? (b) Would you expect H2O2 to be a reducing agent or an oxidizing agent? Explain your answer. The products of reduction will depend upon whether we are in acidic or basic media. From organic chemistry we know that alcohols can be oxidized and are thus reducing agents.→ 2 OH-(aq) + 2e + 2H → 2H2O(l) Question 5.36 Identify which elements are changing their oxidation number in this reaction and therefore calculate the number of electrons being transferred. H3PO4 prepared this way is added to soft drinks such as Cola to give it an acidic. way back in the 1st tutorial. This is done in two steps. sour taste. If we allocate hydrogen an oxidation number of +1 then oxygen must have an oxidation number of –1. Bleaching agents act through their ability to oxidise. You.38 Write balanced reaction equations for the following oxidations using H2O2 22(a) SO3 to SO4 in acid 2+ (b) Mn to MnO2 in base 117 .Question 5. which is the empirical formula for P4O10). OXYGEN It is now time to look back on one of our rules when determining oxidation numbers. itself. H2O2 has the following structure. in fact. (except when combined with fluorine). Base Acid H2O2(aq) + H2O2(aq) + 2e. Previously. Hydrogen peroxide can be prepared industrially from treatment of O2 with a reducing agent. we determined that oxygen always exhibited an oxidation number in a compound of –2. met hydrogen peroxide in prac 3. (CH3)2CHOH isopropyl alcohol + O2 → (CH3)2CO acetone + H 2O 2 The main industrial use of H2O2 is as a bleaching agent. will be reduced.
2 H2O2(l) → 2 H2O(l) + O2(g) Question 5. They therefore readily form anions. Question 5. The Elements The elements occur as diatomic molecules. is oxidised and O2(g) is always evolved.40 (a) Is H2O2 being reduced or oxidised? (b) What name is given to this type of reaction? Understanding this reaction is important as it could save your life! Hydrogen peroxide decomposes spontaneously and. all of which are oxidising agents. as oxygen gas is produced.to form Mn2+ in acid solution. Hydrogen peroxide can therefore act as an oxidizing agent or a reducing agent.42 Balance the following reactions and calculate the number of electrons transferred. Question 5.41 Would the following reaction go spontaneously to the left or to the right? Cl2(g) + 2 Br-(aq) ↔ Br2(l) + 2 Cl-(aq) The above equation is in fact how liquid bromine is produced on an industrial scale. (b) Write a balanced equation for the theoretical reaction of H2O2 with Fe2+ to form Fe3+ in a basic solution. this decomposition is explosive! [Always treat hydrogen peroxide with great care. I2(aq) + S2O32→ 2 I-(aq) + S4O62-(aq) thiosulphate tetrathionate I2(aq) + H3AsO3(aq) → 2 I-(aq) + H3AsO4(aq) arsenic(V) acid + 2 H+ arsenic(III) acid (arsenous acid) 118 . Consider the following reaction. Other important chemistry is their ability to form a range of oxo-anions and oxo-acids. depending upon the circumstances. Cl2(g). THE HALOGENS The halogens are of course the group 17 elements. F2(g) is not often used in chemical reactions in the laboratory as it is such a powerful oxidising agent it has to be handled with extreme care. (a) NH3(g) + Cl2(g) → N2(g) + HCl(g) (b) H2S(g) + Cl2(g) → S(s) + HCl(g) Aqueous solutions of iodine are often used by analytical chemists in titrimetry. itself. is used extensively as an oxidizing agent both in the lab and in industry. Typical reactions involving iodine are shown below. Question 5. Never open a bottle of hydrogen peroxide which has been sitting around on a shelf for years].When H2O2 acts as a reducing agent it.39 (a) Write a balanced equation for the reaction of H2O2 with MnO4. on the other hand.
conc) → Ca(HSO4)2(aq) + 2 HF(g) HBr and HI cannot be prepared using sulfuric acid as they themselves are oxidised by the H2SO4 used in the preparation to form Br2 and I2 respectively.44 (a) In your own words explain why H2SO4 does not oxidize HF to F2. An example is the swimming pool bleaching agent HTH. Halides We have already noted that the hydrogen halides. [Hint: you should recognise this equation!] HBr and HI are thus prepared from the reaction of a suitable salt with a non-oxidising acid such as H3PO4. which itself is an oxidising agent which can destroy bacteria. 2 Cl2(g) + 2 Ca(OH)2(aq) → Ca(OCl)2(s) + CaCl2(s) + 2 H2O(l) HTH is thus a mixture of Ca(OCl)2. They can be prepared from the direct reaction of the elements thus: H2(g) + X2(g) → 2 HX(g) - However if you attempt this reaction with F2 (g) or Cl2 (g) get ready to run! Both of these reactions are explosive. ∆ KI(s) + H3PO4(aq) → KH2PO4(aq) + HI(g) Question 5. Question 5. (b) Explain the trends of the following data Normal boiling point temperature oC 20 -85 -67 -35 HF HCl HBr HI 119 . and calcium chloride. HX. are acidic.The oxidising ability of Cl2 is often used in chemical products such as bleaches. OCl . However.43 Write down a balanced reaction for the reaction of HBr with H2SO4 if the products include Br2 and SO2. For example. HTH is manufactured by the following reaction. Normally in the laboratory we instead take the metal halide and react it with an acid. CaCl2. CaF2(s) + 2 H2SO4(aq. The chlorine is now in the form of the hypochlorite ion. calcium hypochlorite. because Cl2(g) is poisonous it is converted into a less toxic material first. HF can be prepared by the following reaction. (HTH actually stands for High Test Hypochlorite).
a whole array of different oxoacids results.→ Cl.46 Give the oxidation number of the halogen atom for each example in the table below and give the IUPAC name for each acid. Another important industrial halogen-oxygen species is the chlorate (V) ion. Question 5. It is also a powerful oxidising agent (chlorine is in its highest possible oxidation state). Question 5. Known Examples HClO4 HBrO4 HIO4 HClO3 HBrO3 HIO3 HClO2 HBrO2 HFO HClO HBrO HIO Oxidation number IUPAC Name Perhalic acid Halic acid Halous acid Hypohalous acid Question 5. hydrochloric acid and aluminium oxide (if you can balance this equation you’ll be able to do redox chemistry for life!). Perchloric acid is the strongest of all the common acids. Perchlorate. ClO3-. in the form of the ammonium perchlorate salt. (a) ClO3.+ O2 Balance each of the above reactions. 3 Cl2(g) + - 6 OH (aq) - → ∆ ClO3 (aq) - + 5 Cl (aq) + - 3 H2O(l) ClO3 is again a powerful oxidant and is used as such in fireworks and safety matches. bromine and iodine can exhibit a number of different oxidation numbers when combined with oxygen.One acid worth particular mention is perchloric acid. It is prepared by treating chlorine with a concentrated alkali in a disproportionation reaction. is used in the booster rockets of the space shuttle in combination with aluminium powder.45 Chlorate salts decompose when heated. water. When the oxygens are also bonded to hydrogen. (a) HClO4 (b) HIO3 (c) HBrO2 (d) HFO 120 .47 Draw Lewis dot-cross diagrams for the following species.→ ClO4. Two different reactions occur depending upon the conditions.+ Clor (b) ClO3. Halogen Oxoacids Chlorine. The aluminium is the “fuel” and the perchlorate is the “oxidant” and the products are nitrogen.
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