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Calculation Using Taguchi Method for Tensile Strength

S/N Ratio
Table 3.1 S/N Ratio for Tensile Strength
Temp Pressure Speed Yield Strength, yi (Mpa) S/N
T (℃) P (bar) S (RPM) 1 2 3 Average,ӯi Ratio
210 100 200 32.70 30.50 19.50 27.57 28.11
210 125 300 33.40 28.20 32.30 31.30 29.84
210 150 400 31.50 33.60 35.40 33.50 30.47
230 100 300 36.00 30.80 35.40 34.07 30.58
230 125 400 32.00 27.80 34.50 31.43 29.84
230 150 200 31.80 30.00 27.50 29.77 29.43
250 100 400 14.00 23.00 25.00 20.67 25.43
250 125 200 22.00 22.70 19.60 21.43 26.57
250 150 300 20.80 26.80 22.00 23.20 27.16
Total 254.20 253.40 251.20

Calculation Steps for S/N ratio:

Formula: ŋi = -10 log [ 1/n i=1n(1/yi²)]
where ŋi = S/N ratio for ith experiment
yi= Observed value for ith experiment
n = Total number of observed value for ith experiment

ŋ1 = -10 log [1/3 (1/32.702+1/30.50² +1/19.50²)] = 28.11

ŋ2 = -10 log [1/3 (1/33.402+1/28.202+1/32.302) ] = 29.84
ŋ3 = -10 log [1/3 (1/31.502+1/33.602+1/35.402) ] = 30.47
ŋ4 = -10 log [1/3 (1/36.002+1/30.802+1/35.402) ] = 30.58
ŋ5 = -10 log [1/3 (1/32.002+1/27.802+1/34.502) ] = 29.84
ŋ6 = -10 log [1/3 (1/31.802+1/30.002+1/27.502) ] = 29.43
ŋ7 = -10 log [1/3 (1/14.002+1/23.002+1/25.002) ] = 25.43
ŋ8 = -10 log [1/3 (1/22.002+1/22.702+1/19.602) ] = 26.57
ŋ9 = -10 log [1/3 (1/20.802+1/26.802+1/22.002) ] = 27.16

Average S/N Ratio

Table 3.2 Average S/N Ratio for Each Parameter and Level
S/N Ratio
Level Temp,T Pressure,P Speed,S
1 29.47 28.04 28.03
2 29.95 28.75 29.19
3 26.39 29.02 28.58
Difference 3.56 0.98 1.16
Rank 1 3 2

1. For parameter of Temperature, T

Formula:
SNTj = Total signal-to-noise ratio, ŋi for parameter of temperature at level j
3
Where j = 1, 2, 3

SNT2= (30.58+29.84+29.43) /3 = 29.95

SNT3=(25.43+26.57+27.16) /3 = 26.39

2. For parameter of Pressure, P

Formula:
SNPj = Total signal-to-noise ratio, ŋi for parameter of pressure at level j
3
Where j = 1, 2, 3

3. For parameter of Speed, S

Formula:
SNSj = Total signal-to-noise ratio, ŋi for parameter of speed at level j
3
Where j = 1, 2, 3

SNS2 = (29.84+30.58+27.16)/3 = 29.19

SNS3 = (30.47+29.84+25.43)/3 = 28.58

Mean Tensile Strength

Table 3.3 Mean Tensile Strength for Each parameter and Level
Mean Tensile Strength (MPa)
Level Temp,T Pressure,P Speed,S
1 30.79 27.43 26.26
2 31.76 28.06 29.52
3 21.77 28.82 28.53
Difference 9.99 1.39 3.27
Rank 1 3 2

1. For parameter of Temperature, T

Formula:
Mean Tensile Strength at level j = Total ӯi for parameter of temperature at level j
3
Where j = 1, 2, 3
Mean Tensile Strength at level 1 = (27.57+31.30+33.50) /3 = 30.79

2. For parameter of Pressure, P

Formula:
Mean Tensile Strength at level j = Total ӯi for parameter of pressure at level j
3
Where j = 1, 2, 3

Mean Tensile Strength at level 3 = (33.50+29.77+23.20) /3 = 28.82

3. For parameter of speed, S
Formula:
Mean Tensile Strength at level j = Total ӯi for parameter of speed at level j
3
Where j = 1, 2, 3

Difference S = 29.52-26.26 = 3.27

Predicted Optimum Performance for Tensile Strength

Table 3.4 Optimum Parameter Level and Results

Temperature( Pressure(bar) Speed(RPM)
℃)
Optimum Level 2 3 2
Average Tensile Strength
30.79 28.82 29.52
(MPa)
Predicted Optimum Performance: 32.93 MPa

Calculation Steps for Predicted Optimum performance:

Formula: Yopt = T/N + (Popt –T/N) + ( Topt – T/N) +( Sopt – T/N)

Where Yopt = Predicted optimum performance

T = Total of observed values for all the experiment
N = Total number of observed values
Popt , Topt , Sopt = Average yield strength resulted from pressure, temperature and speed
at optimum level

*Average hardness for each optimum parameter level is got from table 3.3

Yopt = 28.1+ (30.79–28.1) + (28.82–28.1) + (29.52-28.1) = 32.93 MPa

Anova (Tensile Strength)
Table 3.5 Calculation results from Anova

Degree of Factor Sum of Pure Sum of Contribution, ρ

Parameter
Freedom, f Squares, SS Squares, SS' (%)

Temperature,T 2 507.34 437.62 48.41

Pressure,P 2 8.80 -24.92 2.76
Speed,S 2 50.60 16.88 1.87
Error 20 337.22 438.36 48.49
Total 26 903.96 　 100.00

Calcalation Steps for Degree of Freedom (DOF)

1. DOF of a parameter = number of level of the parameter – 1

2. Total DOFs = Total number of observed values (yi) – 1

= 27 – 1 = 26
3. DOF of error, fe = Total DOFs – Total of all parameter DOFs

fe = 26– (2 + 2 + 2) = 20

Where P1 = Total of yi that includes level 1 of parameter P

NP1 = Total number of yi in which level 1 of parameter P is present
C.F = correction factor = T²/N

Table 3.6 Total of yi for each parameter and level

Total yi
T1 T2 T3
277.10 285.80 195.00
P1 P2 P3
246.90 252.50 259.40
S1 S2 S3
236.30 265.70 256.80

Where yi= Observed values

C.F = correction factor
N= Total number of observed values

Where SST = Total sum of squares of the variance

SSpressure = Total sum of squares due to parameter of pressure
SStemp = Total sum of squares due to parameter of temperature
SSspeed = Total sum of squares due to parameter of speed

Calculation steps for Pure Sum of Squares

SS’P = SSP – ( SSe/ fe * fP )
Where SSP = Sum of squares of factor P
SSe = Sum of squares of error
fP = Degree of freedom for parameter P
fe = Degree of freedom of error

1. SS’T = 507.34 – (337.2/20 * 2) = 437.62

2. SS’P = 8.80 – (337.2/20 * 2) = -24.92
3. SS’S = 50.60 – (337.2/20 * 2) = 16.88