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S/N Ratio

Table 3.1 S/N Ratio for Tensile Strength

Temp Pressure Speed Yield Strength, yi (Mpa) S/N

T (℃) P (bar) S (RPM) 1 2 3 Average,ӯi Ratio

210 100 200 32.70 30.50 19.50 27.57 28.11

210 125 300 33.40 28.20 32.30 31.30 29.84

210 150 400 31.50 33.60 35.40 33.50 30.47

230 100 300 36.00 30.80 35.40 34.07 30.58

230 125 400 32.00 27.80 34.50 31.43 29.84

230 150 200 31.80 30.00 27.50 29.77 29.43

250 100 400 14.00 23.00 25.00 20.67 25.43

250 125 200 22.00 22.70 19.60 21.43 26.57

250 150 300 20.80 26.80 22.00 23.20 27.16

Total 254.20 253.40 251.20

Formula: ŋi = -10 log [ 1/n i=1n(1/yi²)]

where ŋi = S/N ratio for ith experiment

yi= Observed value for ith experiment

n = Total number of observed value for ith experiment

ŋ2 = -10 log [1/3 (1/33.402+1/28.202+1/32.302) ] = 29.84

ŋ3 = -10 log [1/3 (1/31.502+1/33.602+1/35.402) ] = 30.47

ŋ4 = -10 log [1/3 (1/36.002+1/30.802+1/35.402) ] = 30.58

ŋ5 = -10 log [1/3 (1/32.002+1/27.802+1/34.502) ] = 29.84

ŋ6 = -10 log [1/3 (1/31.802+1/30.002+1/27.502) ] = 29.43

ŋ7 = -10 log [1/3 (1/14.002+1/23.002+1/25.002) ] = 25.43

ŋ8 = -10 log [1/3 (1/22.002+1/22.702+1/19.602) ] = 26.57

ŋ9 = -10 log [1/3 (1/20.802+1/26.802+1/22.002) ] = 27.16

Table 3.2 Average S/N Ratio for Each Parameter and Level

S/N Ratio

Level Temp,T Pressure,P Speed,S

1 29.47 28.04 28.03

2 29.95 28.75 29.19

3 26.39 29.02 28.58

Difference 3.56 0.98 1.16

Rank 1 3 2

Formula:

SNTj = Total signal-to-noise ratio, ŋi for parameter of temperature at level j

3

Where j = 1, 2, 3

SNT3=(25.43+26.57+27.16) /3 = 26.39

Formula:

SNPj = Total signal-to-noise ratio, ŋi for parameter of pressure at level j

3

Where j = 1, 2, 3

Formula:

SNSj = Total signal-to-noise ratio, ŋi for parameter of speed at level j

3

Where j = 1, 2, 3

SNS3 = (30.47+29.84+25.43)/3 = 28.58

Table 3.3 Mean Tensile Strength for Each parameter and Level

Mean Tensile Strength (MPa)

Level Temp,T Pressure,P Speed,S

1 30.79 27.43 26.26

2 31.76 28.06 29.52

3 21.77 28.82 28.53

Difference 9.99 1.39 3.27

Rank 1 3 2

Formula:

Mean Tensile Strength at level j = Total ӯi for parameter of temperature at level j

3

Where j = 1, 2, 3

Mean Tensile Strength at level 1 = (27.57+31.30+33.50) /3 = 30.79

Formula:

Mean Tensile Strength at level j = Total ӯi for parameter of pressure at level j

3

Where j = 1, 2, 3

3. For parameter of speed, S

Formula:

Mean Tensile Strength at level j = Total ӯi for parameter of speed at level j

3

Where j = 1, 2, 3

Predicted Optimum Performance for Tensile Strength

Temperature( Pressure(bar) Speed(RPM)

℃)

Optimum Level 2 3 2

Average Tensile Strength

30.79 28.82 29.52

(MPa)

Predicted Optimum Performance: 32.93 MPa

Formula: Yopt = T/N + (Popt –T/N) + ( Topt – T/N) +( Sopt – T/N)

T = Total of observed values for all the experiment

N = Total number of observed values

Popt , Topt , Sopt = Average yield strength resulted from pressure, temperature and speed

at optimum level

*Average hardness for each optimum parameter level is got from table 3.3

Anova (Tensile Strength)

Table 3.5 Calculation results from Anova

Parameter

Freedom, f Squares, SS Squares, SS' (%)

Pressure,P 2 8.80 -24.92 2.76

Speed,S 2 50.60 16.88 1.87

Error 20 337.22 438.36 48.49

Total 26 903.96 100.00

1. DOF of a parameter = number of level of the parameter – 1

= 27 – 1 = 26

3. DOF of error, fe = Total DOFs – Total of all parameter DOFs

fe = 26– (2 + 2 + 2) = 20

NP1 = Total number of yi in which level 1 of parameter P is present

C.F = correction factor = T²/N

Total yi

T1 T2 T3

277.10 285.80 195.00

P1 P2 P3

246.90 252.50 259.40

S1 S2 S3

236.30 265.70 256.80

C.F = correction factor

N= Total number of observed values

SSpressure = Total sum of squares due to parameter of pressure

SStemp = Total sum of squares due to parameter of temperature

SSspeed = Total sum of squares due to parameter of speed

SS’P = SSP – ( SSe/ fe * fP )

Where SSP = Sum of squares of factor P

SSe = Sum of squares of error

fP = Degree of freedom for parameter P

fe = Degree of freedom of error

2. SS’P = 8.80 – (337.2/20 * 2) = -24.92

3. SS’S = 50.60 – (337.2/20 * 2) = 16.88

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