You are on page 1of 8

Calculation Using Taguchi Method for Tensile Strength

S/N Ratio
Table 3.1 S/N Ratio for Tensile Strength
Temp Pressure Speed Yield Strength, yi (Mpa) S/N
T (℃) P (bar) S (RPM) 1 2 3 Average,ӯi Ratio
210 100 200 32.70 30.50 19.50 27.57 28.11
210 125 300 33.40 28.20 32.30 31.30 29.84
210 150 400 31.50 33.60 35.40 33.50 30.47
230 100 300 36.00 30.80 35.40 34.07 30.58
230 125 400 32.00 27.80 34.50 31.43 29.84
230 150 200 31.80 30.00 27.50 29.77 29.43
250 100 400 14.00 23.00 25.00 20.67 25.43
250 125 200 22.00 22.70 19.60 21.43 26.57
250 150 300 20.80 26.80 22.00 23.20 27.16
Total 254.20 253.40 251.20

Calculation Steps for S/N ratio:


Formula: ŋi = -10 log [ 1/n i=1n(1/yi²)]
where ŋi = S/N ratio for ith experiment
yi= Observed value for ith experiment
n = Total number of observed value for ith experiment

ŋ1 = -10 log [1/3 (1/32.702+1/30.50² +1/19.50²)] = 28.11


ŋ2 = -10 log [1/3 (1/33.402+1/28.202+1/32.302) ] = 29.84
ŋ3 = -10 log [1/3 (1/31.502+1/33.602+1/35.402) ] = 30.47
ŋ4 = -10 log [1/3 (1/36.002+1/30.802+1/35.402) ] = 30.58
ŋ5 = -10 log [1/3 (1/32.002+1/27.802+1/34.502) ] = 29.84
ŋ6 = -10 log [1/3 (1/31.802+1/30.002+1/27.502) ] = 29.43
ŋ7 = -10 log [1/3 (1/14.002+1/23.002+1/25.002) ] = 25.43
ŋ8 = -10 log [1/3 (1/22.002+1/22.702+1/19.602) ] = 26.57
ŋ9 = -10 log [1/3 (1/20.802+1/26.802+1/22.002) ] = 27.16

Average S/N Ratio

Table 3.2 Average S/N Ratio for Each Parameter and Level
S/N Ratio
Level Temp,T Pressure,P Speed,S
1 29.47 28.04 28.03
2 29.95 28.75 29.19
3 26.39 29.02 28.58
Difference 3.56 0.98 1.16
Rank 1 3 2

Calculation Steps for Average S/N Ratio:

1. For parameter of Temperature, T


Formula:
SNTj = Total signal-to-noise ratio, ŋi for parameter of temperature at level j
3
Where j = 1, 2, 3

SNT1= (28.11+29.84+30.47) /3 = 29.47

SNT2= (30.58+29.84+29.43) /3 = 29.95

SNT3=(25.43+26.57+27.16) /3 = 26.39

2. For parameter of Pressure, P


Formula:
SNPj = Total signal-to-noise ratio, ŋi for parameter of pressure at level j
3
Where j = 1, 2, 3

SNP1 = (28.11+30.58+25.43) /3 = 28.04

SNP2 = (29.84+29.84+26.57) /3 = 28.75

SNP3 = (30.47+29.43+27.16) /3 = 29.02

3. For parameter of Speed, S


Formula:
SNSj = Total signal-to-noise ratio, ŋi for parameter of speed at level j
3
Where j = 1, 2, 3

SNS1 = (28.11+29.43+26.57)/3 = 28.03

SNS2 = (29.84+30.58+27.16)/3 = 29.19


SNS3 = (30.47+29.84+25.43)/3 = 28.58

Calculation Steps for S/N Ratio Difference:

Difference S/N ratio = Max S/N ratio – Min S/N ratio

Difference T = 29.95-26.39 = 3.56

Difference P =29.02-28.04 = 0.98

Difference S = 29.19-28.03 = 1.16

Mean Tensile Strength


Table 3.3 Mean Tensile Strength for Each parameter and Level
Mean Tensile Strength (MPa)
Level Temp,T Pressure,P Speed,S
1 30.79 27.43 26.26
2 31.76 28.06 29.52
3 21.77 28.82 28.53
Difference 9.99 1.39 3.27
Rank 1 3 2

Calculation Steps for Mean Modulus:

1. For parameter of Temperature, T


Formula:
Mean Tensile Strength at level j = Total ӯi for parameter of temperature at level j
3
Where j = 1, 2, 3
Mean Tensile Strength at level 1 = (27.57+31.30+33.50) /3 = 30.79

Mean Tensile Strength at level 2 = (34.07+31.43+29.77) /3 = 31.76

Mean Tensile Strength at level 3 = (20.67+21.43+23.20) /3 = 21.77

2. For parameter of Pressure, P


Formula:
Mean Tensile Strength at level j = Total ӯi for parameter of pressure at level j
3
Where j = 1, 2, 3

Mean Tensile Strength at level 1 = (27.57+34.07+20.67)/3 = 27.43

Mean Tensile Strength at level 2 = (31.30+31.43+21.43) /3 = 28.06

Mean Tensile Strength at level 3 = (33.50+29.77+23.20) /3 = 28.82


3. For parameter of speed, S
Formula:
Mean Tensile Strength at level j = Total ӯi for parameter of speed at level j
3
Where j = 1, 2, 3

Mean Tensile Strength at level 1 = (27.57+29.77+21.43) /3 = 26.26

Mean Tensile Strength at level 2 = (31.30+34.07+23.20) /3 = 29.52

Mean Tensile Strength at level 3 = (33.50+31.43+20.67) /3 = 28.53

Calculation Steps for Mean Result Difference:

Difference observed values = Max observed values – Min observed values

Difference T = 31.76-21.77= 9.99

Difference P =28.82-27.43 = 1.39

Difference S = 29.52-26.26 = 3.27


Predicted Optimum Performance for Tensile Strength

Table 3.4 Optimum Parameter Level and Results


Temperature( Pressure(bar) Speed(RPM)
℃)
Optimum Level 2 3 2
Average Tensile Strength
30.79 28.82 29.52
(MPa)
Predicted Optimum Performance: 32.93 MPa

Calculation Steps for Predicted Optimum performance:


Formula: Yopt = T/N + (Popt –T/N) + ( Topt – T/N) +( Sopt – T/N)

Where Yopt = Predicted optimum performance


T = Total of observed values for all the experiment
N = Total number of observed values
Popt , Topt , Sopt = Average yield strength resulted from pressure, temperature and speed
at optimum level

*Average hardness for each optimum parameter level is got from table 3.3

T/N = (254.20+253.40+251.20) /27 = 758.8/27 = 28.10

Yopt = 28.1+ (30.79–28.1) + (28.82–28.1) + (29.52-28.1) = 32.93 MPa


Anova (Tensile Strength)
Table 3.5 Calculation results from Anova

Degree of Factor Sum of Pure Sum of Contribution, ρ


Parameter
Freedom, f Squares, SS Squares, SS' (%)

Temperature,T 2 507.34 437.62 48.41


Pressure,P 2 8.80 -24.92 2.76
Speed,S 2 50.60 16.88 1.87
Error 20 337.22 438.36 48.49
Total 26 903.96   100.00

Calcalation Steps for Degree of Freedom (DOF)


1. DOF of a parameter = number of level of the parameter – 1

DOF for temperature = 3 – 1 = 2

DOF for pressure = 3 – 1 = 2

DOF for speed = 3 – 1 = 2

2. Total DOFs = Total number of observed values (yi) – 1

= 27 – 1 = 26
3. DOF of error, fe = Total DOFs – Total of all parameter DOFs

fe = 26– (2 + 2 + 2) = 20

Calculation Steps for Factor Sum of Squares, SS

Formula: SSp = P12/NP1 + P22/NP2 + P32/NP3 – C.F

Where P1 = Total of yi that includes level 1 of parameter P


NP1 = Total number of yi in which level 1 of parameter P is present
C.F = correction factor = T²/N

T= Total of observed values for all the experiment = 758.8

N= Total number of observed values

C.F = 758.8²/ 27 = 21325

Table 3.6 Total of yi for each parameter and level


Total yi
T1 T2 T3
277.10 285.80 195.00
P1 P2 P3
246.90 252.50 259.40
S1 S2 S3
236.30 265.70 256.80

1. SST = (277.10²/9 + 285.80²/9 + 195.00²/9) –21325 = 507.34

2. SSP = (246.90²/9+ 252.50²/9+259.40²/9) –21325 = 8.80

3. SSS = (236.30²/9+ 265.70²/9+ 256.80²/9) –21325 = 50.60

Calculation Steps for Total Sum of Squares, SST

Formula: SST =i=1Nyi2 – C.F

Where yi= Observed values


C.F = correction factor
N= Total number of observed values

SST = (32.7² +30.5²+……+22²) - 21325= 903.96

Calculation Steps for Sum of Squares of error, SSe

Formula: SSe = SST – SStemp – SSpressure– SSspeed

Where SST = Total sum of squares of the variance


SSpressure = Total sum of squares due to parameter of pressure
SStemp = Total sum of squares due to parameter of temperature
SSspeed = Total sum of squares due to parameter of speed

SSe = 903.96 - 507.34 - 8.80 - 50.60 = 337.22

Calculation steps for Pure Sum of Squares


SS’P = SSP – ( SSe/ fe * fP )
Where SSP = Sum of squares of factor P
SSe = Sum of squares of error
fP = Degree of freedom for parameter P
fe = Degree of freedom of error

1. SS’T = 507.34 – (337.2/20 * 2) = 437.62


2. SS’P = 8.80 – (337.2/20 * 2) = -24.92
3. SS’S = 50.60 – (337.2/20 * 2) = 16.88

SS’e = SSe + ( SSe/ fe * fT )

Where fT = Total degree of freedom of all the parameters

SS’e = 337.2 + [337.2/20 * (2 + 2 + 2) ] = 438.36

Calculation Steps for Percent of Contribution, ρ

Formula: ρ = [SS’P / SST ] x 100 %

Where SST = Total sum of squares of the variance

SS’P = Pure sum of squares for factor P

1. Ρ Temperature = [437.62/903.96] * 100 = 48.41 %

2. ΡPressure = [-24.92/903.96] * 100 = 2.76%

3. ΡSpeed = [16.88/903.96] * 100 = 1.87 %

4. Ρerror = [438.36/903.96] * 100 = 48.49 %