THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
LOS ANGELES

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HANDBOOK OF PAINTING.
TUB

ITALIAN SCHOOLS.
BASED ON THE HANDBOOK OF KUGLEE.

ORIGINALLY EDITED

BY THE LATE SIR CHARLES V

L.

EASTLAKE,

P.E.A.

FOURTH EDITION.
REVISED AND REMODELLED FROM THE LATEST RESEARCHES,

BY

LADY EASTLAKE.

Illustrations.

IN

TWO

PARTS.

PART

I.

LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.
1874.

The riyht of Translation

is reserved

LOS-DON

:

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND

SON'S,

STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.

Art
Library

Mb
(all

\

,

PEEFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION.

IT is now more than forty years since the materials for a History of the Italian Schools of Painting were collected by Heir Kugler of
Berlin, a gentleman of high reputation
critics

among

the

German Art-

who, at that time, led the way in ardour and thoroughness of investigation. These materials were first presented by him to the

German

public in 1837, under the

title

of

'

Handbook

of the History

of Painting from the

Age

of Constantino to the Present Times.'

In 1841 an English translation by a Lady, edited by Sir Charles
Eastlake, was published in this country.

This supplied a need

which the increasing attention to the history of Painting, and especially the new and growing interest in the early Italian schools,

had made apparent.

In 1847 a fresh edition of the German work

appeared, especially enriched with a fuller description of the Cata-

comb

wall-paintings,

and of the early Christian mosaics, by the

pen of Dr. Jacob Burckhardt. This, in its turn, with the revision of Sir Charles Eastlake, assumed an English form, appeared as a
second edition in 1851, and was succeeded by a third edition in
1855, which has remained the chief guide of the English traveller
in Italy.

In

no department of history, however, have more important
last

changes and additions been made, curing the
in that of the Italian schools of Painting.

twenty years, than

The

results are

shown

in

numerous and remarkable accessions

to the National Gallery of

England, and also in the gradually correcting nomenclature which
is

taking place in

all

collections

of the

old masters.
is

Kugler's

Handbook,

therefore,

though embodying much that

permanent,
b

iv

PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION.
to represent the standard

had ceased

knowledge of the day.

A

with considerable alterations and extensions, is now The fresh matter imported into it, as well presented to the public.
edition,

new

as the corrections

of the

old text, are derived chiefly from two
five

sources

:

firstly,

from the

volumes of the

'

History of Painting
Cavalcaselle,

in Italy,' hitherto published

by Messrs. Crowe and

whose researches have, in many
of some of the greatest

respects, created a revolution in the

history of early Art, but who, however, stop, for the present, short

names

of the Cinque-cento ; and secondly,
late Sir Charles Eastlake, collected

from the careful notes by the
Mr. Miindler
also, as

during his frequent visits to Italy.
late

The valuable memoranda of the
'

embodied in the

Cicerone for Italy,' a

work compiled by Dr. Jacob Burckhardt, edited by Dr. v. Zahn, and translated by Mrs. A. H. Clough, have been consulted.
It

remains only to be said that the original notes to Kugler's

Handbook, supplied by Sir Charles L. Eastlake, and designated by " the signature Ed.," will now be recognised, when not embodied in
the text,

by the

initials C. L.

E.

LONDON,

May

1874.

PEEFACE BY SIE CHAELES L. EASTLAKE TO FIEST ENGLISH EDITION.

IN tracing the history of Painting and the different character of its schools, we find that an equal measure of the world's approbation
has been sometimes awarded to productions apparently opposite in their style and aim. This is not to be explained by the variety of
tastes in connoisseurs
;

for,

allowing for

all

individual and peculiar

predilections, the approbation in question

may

be admitted to be
less

universal.

This admission supposes the existence of some
;

mutable criterion
its

and

it is

therefore important to inquire

what

are

grounds. Considered generally, the Arts are assumed to have a
:

common

and end this principle is, however, too vague and undefined to meet the question we have started. The opposite process the discrimination of the different means by which a common end is arrived at will be found to lead to more definite and inIn all the Fine Arts some external attraction, telligible results. some element of beauty, is the vehicle of mental pleasure or moral
character

but in considering the special form, or means, of any one ; of the Arts, as distinguished from the rest, the excellence of each will be found not to arise from the qualities which it possesses in
interest

common with
to
itself.

its rivals,

but from those qualities which are peculiar

thus comprehend why various schools have attained great It is because their defects are celebrity in spite of certain defects. generally such as other modes of expression covild easily and better

We

supply their excellences, on the contrary, are their own, and not to be attained except in the form of art proper to them. Such ex:

may be called SPECIFIC STYLE. always be assumed that pictures of acknowledged merit, of whatever school, owe their reputation to the 6 2
cellences constitute

what

Accordingly,

it

may

the comparison with things not present all facts beyond the scope of a silent. is raised by raising : its characteristic qualities which its each displays those means of expression in rivals are deficient. on the part of great painters (and poets. if we suppose a comparison with Sculpture. is supplied by a more significant. mute. Three ' Treatises. of the art. ' The arrangement which. stationary. . The eye has its when representation its own poetry . formative Arts generally with nature. so the finest qualities of the formative arts are those which language cannot adequately convey.PREFACE TO FIRST ENGLISH EDITION. The principle here dwelt on with regard to Painting is equally applicable to all the Fine Arts each art. they are characteristic because. exactness of costume. The principle extends even to the rivalry of the surpass it. the powers of Painting are opposed to those of language generally. The absence of sound. some in another but they are all valued in proportion as they are.' fixes Compare Harris. the imagined interchange of speech. as compared with mere historians). are not essential in themselves. * See Lessing's 1744.* On the same grounds it must be apparent that a servile attention to the letter of description.. enters into rivalry with and as the mute lan- guage of nature in dition of simultaneous effect (the indispensable con- harmony) produces impressions which words restricted to mere succession can but imperfectly embody. of motion. school. distinguished in many respects from and in like manner. the strength of Painting will still be found to consist in the attributes proper to Of those attributes. apparently artless. In display of qualities that belong to the art of Painting. and immutable Art are resorted to without scruple in describing pictures and yet the description does not therefore strike us as It will immediately be seen that the same liberty is untrue. Laokoon. and momenits rivals tary appearance. some may be more prominent in one itself. and the mode in which language endeavours to give an equivalent for the impressions produced by a picture is at once an illustration of the above principles. histories of painting these merits are often attempted to be conveyed in words.' London. or with any other imitative art. on the same principle. or produce but are valuable only in proportion as they assist the purposes an effect on the imagination. while interfered so little with their reputation. . the results are unattainable in the same perfection by any other means. The changes of time. allowable and necessary description. those of Poetry . has In this instance. such as accuracy of historic details. &c. in order to compensate for those in which . . and of progressive action. This may sufficiently explain why an inattention to these points. in short. as such.

Next to the nature of the art itself. be found in some of the Dutch as well as in Even the elements of beauty. the emphasis on essential as opposed to adventitious qualities. are found to reside in charm of colour. The Genius of Painting might award the palm to Titian.EDITION. or that consistency of convention which suggests no want the test of style is attainable in the minuter as well as in the larger view of were wanting. the attention on important points. the modifying circumstances of climate and of place. but human beings would be more interested with the productions of Raphael. recommends itself by the evidence of mental labour. so any approach to ness. clusions by but as the enlightened observer is apt to form his conthis latter standard alone. and may the Italian masters. whatever be its themes. for example. The end of the Arts denned not only by their general nature. relative completeness. As this selection and adaptation are the qualities in which imitation. The necessity of appealing. a school. we should only be the more reminded that life and motion On the other hand. but by the consideration is to whom they are addressed. in Painting or in Sculpture. The rivalry of the Arts with Nature thus suggests the definition of their general style. the character of a nation. Could as usual. are all prerogatives and resources by feeble imitation successfully contends even with its great archetype. as opposed literal rivalry is. to human sympathies. The rivalry of Art with Art points out their specific style. are to be taken into account. The claims of the different schools are thus ultimately balanced by the degrees in which they satisfy the mind . and an individual. mental pleasure. and in other qualities. tends to correct an exaggerated and exclusive attention to specific style. nature. and open fresh sources of . the power of selecting expressive forms. as distinguished from those asso- and impressions which are the result of partial or peculiar study. the influence of religion. and of letters. and even the particular object of a particular painter. Both relate to the means. tone. directly or indirectly. incompatible as they might seem to be with the subjects commonly treated by the Dutch. to nature. and in the end increases the sum of remarks the Art to invite his attention itself. be carried to absolute deception as regards their mere surface. inasmuch as the end in question is more or less ciations common to all the Fine Arts. is strong.PREFACE TO FIRST ENGLISH . of social and political relations. of means of which a arresting evanescent beauties. it has been the object of these more especially to the excellence of on which the celebrity of every school more or less depends. and which. chiaroscuro. in danger of betraying comparative weakthe imitation of living objects.

by looking around but not above him. and the eye unconsciously educated. by deriving his religion as well as his taste from the perfect attributes of life throughout nature. ings demanded corresponding means of expression. With the cultivated observer. these associations are again in danger at first of superseding the consideration of the art as such . that so great a difference in the highest moral interests as that which existed between the Pagan and Christian world must tions. great modern masters. However imposing were the ideas of beauty and of power which the Pagan arrived at. as treated by the reserved for Painting to embody them. had not. since so large a proportion of its creations was devoted to the serin many instances. The qualities in which it is distinguished from the remaining specimens of classic Painting are. it may nevertheless be well to remember. . however. of necessity involve important modificaeven in the physical elements of imitation. indeed. the admiration of nature. jects were often the vehicles of feelings to which all classes of The implicit recognition of Christians are more or less alive. Hence. nearly identified with those which classic its specific style. be said in most cases to affect works of art only in their extrinsic conditions the great painters were so generally penetrated with the that the most unworthy subspirit of the faith they illustrated. we fear we must add. like Sculpture. interest. the Christian definition of the human being. Indeed some acquaintance with the legends and superstitions of the Middle Ages is as necessary to the intelligence of the contemporary works of art as the knowledge of the heathen mythology is to explain the Certain themes belong more subjects of Greek vases and marbles. In avoiding too precise a definition of the end of Art. and it was chiefly That art. must be admitted to rest on more just and comprehensive reIt is true the general character of the art itself is unchangeable. the vice of the Church Yet the difference or abuse of creeds may service of superstition. The apocryphal authorities is. and that character was never more accurately defined than in the sculpture of the ancient Greeks . but by whatever means attention is invited. a complete model in examples. the result sometimes became the worthy auxiliary of a religion that hallows. the judgment is gradually exercised. in fact. constitute consideration of the influence of Eeligion on the Arts forces on the attention in investigating the progress of Painting. but new human feellations. and was thus essentially a modern creation. at least. and purified by a spiritual aim. when carried to a perfection probably unknown to the ancients. not to be dissembled. but by no means interdicts.PREFACE TO FIRST ENGLISH EDITION. itself .

though augmented. the incidents that exemplified the leading dogmas of faith were chosen in preference to others. assembled round the enthroned Virgin and Child. c. Historic. hence the " Wise Men " are represented as kings. accessories in pictures of this subject are IT Isaiah xix. or at least the treatment. 11. t "Picturse ecclesiarum sunt quasi libri laicorum. or by the Madonna alone). or even of homage. especially to particular times and places.) The incident may have been directly borrowed from an apocryphal source.* Even Scripture subjects had their epochs : at first the dread of idolatry had the effect of introducing and consecrating a system of merely typical representation. from apocryphal sources. 6. the predilection for which varied . to say nothing of successive canonizations. Evang. many subjects remaining untouched even in the best ages This is again to be explained by remembering.' Circumstances adopted from similar authorities were sometimes interwoven with the subjects of the New Testament. and hence the characters and events of the Old Testament were long preferred to those of the New. and in this case the selection of the Saints rested with the original proprietor.^f Subjects of this class were sometimes combined in regular cycles. may have cumstances alluded to in the predictions of the Old Testament are not unfrequently blended in pictures with the facts of the New. from the The selection. that while of Art. and thus the Arts became the index of the tenets that were prominent at different periods. Evang. (See Comestor. was from first to last comparatively restricted. the neverfailing accompaniments of the Nativity || .with the devotional spirit of the age. ." is the observation of a writer of the twelfth century. and hence were selected with caution. 10. 5). those of the New were regarded as objects of direct edification. the 'Evangelium Infantise. and the habits of different countries and districts. and the Flight into Egypt is attended with the destruction of the idols. J Zechariah || xii. in the form they * In altar-pieces it was common to represent Saints who lived in different This is not to be ages. Psalm Ixxii. 10. of subjects from the been regulated in some instances also by their assumed correspondence with certain prophecies. Many pictures of the kind in churches were the property or gift of private individuals. considered an anachronism. 1. The subjects called the Deposition from the Cross.PREFACE TO FIRST ENGLISH EDITION.:}: Hence. Scholastica (Hist. may be thus explained. Isaiah i. 10. such are the incidents from the lives of the Saints. and the Pieta (the dead Christ mourned by the Marys and Disciples. 3. which. Contestor. f In general. the scenes and personages of the Old Testament were understood to be figurative. Certain derived from Isaiah Ix. too. since it rather represented a heavenly than an earthly assembly. c. Hist. The cycle latter. like the Bible series generally. the cirGospels. indeed.

5. The Crucifixion (the Virgin and St. The Presentation in the Temple. The Deposition from the Cross. 4. The Garden. The Ascension (the only present). Flagellation. Christ before Herod. other to these and The in addition subjects contained. 7. of the Middle Ages. Christ before Caiaphas. Throni. the Baptism and TransThe Life of the Virgin. for the most part.' of the Virgin (painted by Taddeo Gaddi. assumed after the revival of Art. " Thrones. Domenico Ghirlandajo. Christ Adoration of the Kings. St. are chiefly in the latter. ' || ' ' : ' Philosophic. the parents Jacobi. missed by his Mother. as represented by the Italian painters. 3. Pilate washing his Hands. The subject of the Death of the Virgin. Compare Brucker. The Resurrection. perhaps accordingly as they were separately or collectedly ' adapted to the divisions of the Rosary and Corona. The 6. formed. with scenes from her life Dominations. Virtues. which bears the name of Dionysius Areopagita. See the ' Evangelium de Nativitate Marise. figuration. The Nativity. The Speculum Salva' tionis (Augsburg edition) assigns seven to each of the first three series in the above order. The Annunciation. The Life of Entombment. and the principal common at the same time had their appropriate application the : selection of meditations for the History of St. 7. The The more complete series Crucifixion (the centurion and others present). The orders of angels. Archangeli. and may be traced to Jewish sources. Principatus. The Flight into Egypt. . 2. 2. Christ. 3. 35).! Other themes Virgin. probably had their origin in the Eosary (instituted in the thirteenth " Sorrows "f of the century): among these were the "Joys"* and of the events Passion. appear to have been derived from a treatise De Hierarchia coelesti (c. while disputing with the Doctors in the Temple. Cherubim. 7-11). The Last Supper. 5. Thomas Aquinas (after Dionysius) gives the nine orders of " Seraphim. 4. angels as follows Vasari ventured to cover a Potestates. The Visitation. ' was gradually superseded by it. John the Baptist was the constant subject iu Baptisthe chapels especially dedicated to the Virgin were adorned teries the hosts of heaven. 2. see the ' Flos Sanctorum (Aug. 6. or Christ bearing his Cross. 1). ' : 1. but the more customary subjects were the Ascension of Christ and the Assumption of the Virgin. though interwoven with that of Christ. Christ contained. Gaudemio Ferrari. which occurs in MSS. 25) and the ' Aurea Legenda :' both give the early authorities. The more ordinary division was five for each. a distinct series." were sometimes in. and others). Virtutes. Angeli. 6. Christ crowned with Thorns. Dominationes. The The Descent into Limbus. as well as in pictures of later date. found by his Mother in the Temple.PREFACE TO FIRST ENGLISH EDITION.^ The sub* 1. || troduced in cupolas . Powers. . Princedoms. For the legend. 3. Ragionamenti (Gior. John 7. 'Hist. The Assumption and Coronatipn of the Virgin. Christ betrayed. 5. The Ecce Homo. The Procession to Calvary. The subjects of all these cycles The Seven Hours of the Passion were in the Agony : varied in number. in addition to many of the above. 4.' and the Protevangelium The subjects from the history of Joachim and Anna. Virgin J left ' on earth)." in "Illustrations" of a still profbunder lore the Florence with ceiling ' See his Cabala. The Prophecy of Simeon (Luke ii. t 1.' ^f This last subject frequently adorned the high altar.

and in the Compendiums of Theology which were These commentaries contained in the hands of all ecclesiastics. . The most renowned of these doctors were of the Dominican order (de* the same fraternity afterwards boasted some distinguished painters (An-/clico da fiesole. was the Historia Scholastica of Predicatori) . much that may be traced to the early Fathers but during and after the revival of Art they were more immediately derived from the scholastic theologians. the legends of the Monastic Orders . and on many accounts may be considered the chief medium of communication between the Church and its handmaid. in relation to these subjects.* whose writings appear to have had considerable influence on the sacred Painting of Italy and Europe. jects of the : their ' ' . Old Testament were universally considered as types assumed ulterior meaning is frequently explained in glosses of MS. the remaining portion of the work treats of the history and legends of the Madonna. . &c. Among the earlier commentaries on Scripture evidently consulted by the painters. Martyrs. ' ' * Comestor. &c. Bibles. already referred to. be now considered superseded by ' Mrs. of the Iconography and Legends of the Saints. the third (a separate work). But all such works may. more or less fully. some works were enumerated which treat.' The first two volumes contain the legends of the Saints. In the Editor's Preface to the second edition of this Handbook (and more especially in the reprint of that Preface in his 'Contributions to the Literature of the Fine Arts ').). Fra Bartolommeo. Jameson's Poetry of Sacred and Legendary Art.PREFACE TO FIRST ENGLISH EDITION. Art.

.

Venetian . Byzan- Agemina work. Margheritone da Arezzo. Pisa.. Eavenna mosaics. St.CONTENTS.. Cosmati family. and Florence. 43 89 BOOK II. Guido rla Siena. Cimabue. style. Remains of Byzantine feeling. Christian emblems. Gradual decline. Sacred pictures .Byzantine works.. of Christ. Assisi. St.. miniatures.. EAELY CHBISTIAN PAET Monogram portraits I. Siena. Miniature-painting. Venetian mosaics. Art of the Catacombs. Mark's. art. Miniatures. THE EOMANESQUE STYLE. Mark's. Venice. Art of Eussian Church. Neapolitan works 90116 . Eavenna. BOOK I.Byzantine mosaics. Book of Pages 1 42 PAET Authority of the Church in art. Vatican Menologium. Norman-Byzantine Sicilian mosaics. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. II. Enamels. of Christ. Eoman . AET. tine miniatures.. Independent Bomanesque Italian-Roman mosaics. LATER ROMAN STYLE. Italian Wall-paintings. Embroideries. Art of Mount Athos. of Eoman Mosaics Rome and Joshua Images and miraculous Catacombs. : Torcello. AKT OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY.. Wall-paintings Parma.

. Taddeo and Domenico da Bartolo.. Mutina. BOOK III. II CHAPTER Simone Napolitano. Avignon. Pisa. Veronese. Taddeo Gaddi and other scholars of Giotto. The Lorenzetti. 120 162 Orcagna. Padua. Painters of Gubbio. Campo Santo. and Parma.xi v CONTENTS. Aldighiero da Zevio. .. D'Avanzo Early Paduan school. Cappella degli Spagnuoli.. INTRODUCTION. Giunto Padovano. Painters of the March of Ancona. Masters of the fourteenth century and followers Pages 117 120 CHAPTER Giotto and follower?. Cremona. Milan. Zingaro . CHAPTER SIEN. Sienese element. Siena.:SE II. SECOND STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT. MASTERS AND THEIR FOLLOWERS. EARLY SCHOOL OF NAPLES. Florence. Lorenzo il Monaco. Sirnone Martini. I. Early Venetian school. Spinello Aretino . Gentile da Fabriano 187 211 . Palazzo Pubblico. Lippo Dalmasio. Naples. Florence again. "Wall-paintings in Verona.. III. Duccio. Don 1G3 187 CHAPTER SCHOOLS OF UPPEK ITALY. Character of Giotto's art. Francesco da Volterra. EARLY TUSCAN SCHOOLS. Pietro Loreuzetti. IV. Byzantine art retained in Venice. Matteo da Siena. Fra Angelico .. Giotto's works at Assisi. Tommaso da Independent Bolognese school. 211 214 .. Colantonio del Fiore. Giovanni (Johannes Alamannus) and Antonio da Murano..

II Benedetto Pietro Penigiuo. and Ferrara: Cosimo Tura. Pavia. INTRODUCTION. THIRD STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT. : : : Parma. Gentile Bellini. Page 215 CHAPTER Paolo Uccello. Paduan school.. Dom. Masters of the fifteenth century and followers . Rosselli. Pinturicchio. Melozzo da -Niecolo Alunno. The Pollaiuoli. Certosa. Giovanni Santi. Paolo Moranda. : Giovanni Bellini. Carlo Crivelli. Ghirlandajo. Luca Signorelli Dom. Borgognone. Andrea del Castagno. Marco Palmezzano. TUSCAN SCHOOLS. Schools influenced by Mantegna. AND MASTERS OF A SIMILAR Forli. Bacchiacca. BOOK IV. Bonfigli.CONTENTS. Lo Spagna. Francesco Francia.. STYLE. Mantegna. Verona Bonsignori. Bramantino. Semi-Byzantine painters. Vittore Carpaccio. 252288 CHAPTER Vittore III. . Sienese painters. THE VENETIANS. Milan Bernardo Zenale. Lorenzc others. Antonello da Messina. Del Pacchia. : Andrea Vicenza Bart. Bellini . Lodi 289316 CHAPTER IV. Followers of Gio. Pisano. Pietro della Francesca.. da Panicale. Pages 21G 252 CHAPTER SCHOOLS OF L'MBEIA. Masolino Masaccio. The Vivarini. MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTl/KY. Cosimo Verocchio. Benozzo Gozzoli. I. . II. Ercole and Giulio Grande. Pacchiorotto. Montagna and others. L'Ingegno. School of Murano. Costa. Veneziano. The Peselli. Jacop Bellini. Andrea da Snlario. Fra Filippo Lippi. Francesco Squarcione. Cremona Bocaccio Bocaccino.

Lorenzo di Credi. Eastlake 370389 CHAPTER III. Masters of the sixteenth century . Fra Bartolommeo. Followers of Cima da. Scholars. Marco Basaiti. art. Bugiardini. Franc ia Bigio.Conegliano Pellegrino da S. Rid. by Remarks on origin Sir Charles L.xvi CONTENTS. Daniele and : Pages 316 343 BOOK V. of the Tapestries. AND OF DECLINE. I. Marco Oggione. Beltraffio. and works. PEKIOD OP HIGHEST DEVELOPMENT. Marcello Venusti. Andrea del Sarto. 347 370 Pedrini. and works. Ghirlandajo. Character of art. IV. Mariotto Albertinelli. MICHAEL ANGELO BUONARROTI. Character of Volterra. Pontormo. Scholars of Leonardo: Bernardino Luini. 344 346 CHAPTER LEONARDO DA VINCI. Cima da others Conegliano. And. II Rosso. Vincenzo Catena. by Sir Charles L. and others. Cesare da Sesto. . INTRODUCTION. Painters on whom Leonardo exercised influence Piero di Cosimo. situation 406 475 . Salaino... Daniele da Note on subjects of Sistine ceiling. Eastlake and original .. Raffaellino del Garbo 390406 CHAPTER RAPHAEL. Melzi. Fr. Gio. Gaudenzio Ferrari : CHAPTER II. OTHER FLORENTINE MASTERS.

Perino del Vaga. THE MANNERISTS. Savoldo. Cariani. Vasari. Titian. Giorgione. DossoDossi. Jacopo da Ponte. lano. Paris Bordone. Bonifazio. 497 508 CHAPTER VIII. Scholars of Francia and followers of Raphael. Ferrarese painters. and others 559 otJb . Rocco Marconi. Penni. MASTERS OF SIENA AND VERONA. Giulio Romano. Schiavone. Moretto. 492496 CHAPTER VII. and works. da Santa Croce. Gianantonio Razzi. . . Engravers from Raphael Pages 475 492 CHAPTER VI. Romanino. Garofalo. Beccafumi. nese. CORBEOGIO. Cotignola. and Gio. Paul Vero508 558 . Timoteo della Vite. Primaticcio. IX. Bagnacavallo. . Callista da Lodi. Moroni. Scholars. CHAPTER DECLINE OF ABT. The Bassani Character of Palma Vecchio. Gian. [nuocenzo da Imola. da Udine. II Sebastian del Piombo. Tintoret. Character of art. Mazzolino. xv ii CHAPTER V. Baldassare Peruzzi. L'OrtoOther scholars of Raphael. Gio. Pordenone. Parmigianino. Agnolo Bronzino. SCHOOLS OF VENICE. character of art and works.CONTENTS. and works. Buroccio. Lorenzo Lotto. Fr. Andrea da Salerno. art. Fr. SCHOLARS AND FOLLOWERS OF EAPHAEL. Carotto.

THE NATURALIST Lo Spagnoletto.CONTENTS. KESTORATION.. 603 INDEX . Guido Eeni. The Compi. Schedone. Sassoferrato. MASTERS OF THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES. The Procaccini. Carlo Dolce 569590 CHAPTER M. Salvator Rosa. CHAPTER The Carracci. Domenichino. flower. Baroccio. Latest Italian painters. AND SECOND DECLINE.. BOOK VI.. da Caravaggio. Pages of Milan. I. Giordano.. H. ECLECTIC SCHOOLS. and architectural painters .. Albano.. RECENT EFFORTS. Eclectics Cigoli. Followers of Guercino. Eclectics of Cremona. CHAPTER Names III.. Luca 590 601 Genre. . I. 604 . of living Italian painters 602. A.

154 154 C SCENE FROM THE HISTORY OF JOB a fresco by Francesco da Volterra.. Assisi THE NAVICELLA . in the Church of menico. in the Catacomb of S. FRANCIS WEDDED TO POVERTY Church of S. in the Bargello. by Florence Cimabue. by Giotto. Rome . Calisto. dated 1221 S. chamber in the representing DANIEL. on the Vault of the Lower Church of S. . Maria Maggiore. Do105 MADONNA ENTHRONED. a fresco fresco in the Campo Santo. Padua Allegorical Figures of FORTITUDE.ILLUSTRATIONS. in S. right of entrance.. 109 112 Mosaic of the Tribune of St. Padua THE TRIUMPH OF DEATH a fresco THE LAST JUDGMENT AND HELL . believed to be from a design by ST. Pisa THE MISFORTUNES OF JOB a Volterra. in the Campo Santo. 14 Mosaics 32 65 Large picture by Guido da Siena. in the Arena Chapel. Maria Novella. representing JUSTINIAN AND THEODORA Mosaics of the 9th century in S. by Giotto.. 124 125 127 127 149 151 Portrait of DANTE. 1287-92 Mosaics of the Tribune of cuted about 1300 ST. Rome Paintings on wall. Rome. NOAH IN THE ARK. surrounded by the Vine.. exe113 . Pisa . Prassede. a mosaic. of a To face page 13 Catacomb of MOSES S. and IN.. Siena. JOB. Giotto. in the Campo Santo.. in the Arena Chapel. Francesco. Pisa . with Genii gathering the Fruit of the 6th century in S. John Lateran. representing ELIJAH. by Giotto. executed by Jacobus Toriti. by Francesco da . Florence Allegorical Figures of JUSTICE and PRUDENCE. TEMPERANCE. Vitale. a Figure in the attitude of Prayer. Pisa .. in the Campo Santo. Francesco. . by Giotto. S. and 14 Paintings on wail of a chamber. Assisi . left of entrance. 14 . 124 Rome . and THE RAISING OF LAZARUS Wall-painting in the Catacomb of S. in the Vestibule of St. Calisto.. FIDKLITY. . representing CHRIST AS A TEACHER. in the Lower 122 FRANCIS IN GLORY by Giotto.. Rome. Ravenna. Calisto. Peter's. Ceiling in Catacomb of S. Calisto.

Maria Novella.. . Florence . of S.. in the M. ADORATION OF THE KINGS do-mia. HISTORY OF NOAH 217 220 HISTORY OF THE BAPTIST Castiglione ST. Annunziata . CHRIST'S ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM . M. in St. now in the Louvre . SS. 169 THE ANNUNCIATION by Angelico da Fiesole one of the panel compartments from the presses formerly in SS. . Antonio. in the Vatican Chapel of Nicolas V . : '. Florence . in S.. STEPHEN PREACHING a fresco by Angelico da Fiesole. in the Cappella S. Annunziata . Acca- 210 217 a fresco by Paolo Uccello. DOMINIC a picture by Angelico da Fiesole. in the Royal Institution. thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing. . del Carmine. del-Carmine. Florence ST." CHRIST FOUND IN THE TEMPLE a picture by Simone Martini. V ST. a fresco by Filippino Lippi. Liverpool . compartment from a 164 large altar-piece by Duccio of Siena . a fresco by Masaccio. . LAWRENCE a fresco by Angelico da Fiesole. CHRIST'S ENTRY INTO . Duomo. . by Fra Filippo. . Maria degli Angeli. Rome 221 THE FALL. by Gentile da Fabriano. . Arezzo To face page 161 . S. Clemente. : 182 JUDAS RECEIVING THE MONEY JERUSALEM. THE EXPULSION OF ADAM AND EVE. del Carmine. . Prato S. Padua ST. in the Vatican Chapel of Nicolas . .. 222 THE TRIBUTE MONEY ST. in the Uffizi. Florence . Florence NOAH'S SACRIFICE a fresco by Paolo Uccello. 186 194 197 THE LANDING OF THE BODY OF a fresco by Aldighiero. 226 229 MADONNA AND WITH ANGELS. a fresco by Masaccio. . by Botticelli. in the in the Church 222 of S. CATHERINE . del Carmine. in S.XX THE FALL OF LUCIFER. a fresco by Masolino da Panicale. MARTYRDOM OF Church of PETER . Annunziata CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN.' 182 THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT by Angelico da Fiesole one of the panel compartments from the presses formerly in . Fiesole : panel compartments from the presses formerly in SS. by Angelico da . in S. Florence HISTORY OF ST. Florence PETER BAPTIZING a fresco by Masaccio. STEPHEN CHILD. George's Chapel. by Masaccio : frescoes in the Church of S. Spinello of Arezzo a fresco in the Church of S.. by Filippino Lippi . M. S. by ILLUSTRATIONS. ANGEL AT SEPULCHRE " compartment from same altar-piece 1C4 Behold. 182 184 186 ST. .. Florence . Padua (two plates) . Maria Novella. JAMES Fresco by D'Avanzo. Felice. AND MIRACLES OF ST. Church 222 222 M.

del .. Duomo Nuovo. a fresco in the THE DEATH OF ST. in the Carmine. FAMILY fresco . Chapel of Sacristy. Maria Novella. Uffizi Gallery. .. 247 247 THE HISTORY OF MOSES Luca Signorelli a fresco in the Sistine Chapel. del Verocchio. Florence . Perugia. an altar-piece by Giovanni Santi.. by Benozzo Gozzoli by D. . 238 241 . . . 243 246 MARTYRDOM OF SEBASTIAN.. Vatican . by Antonio Pollaiuolo. . Florence ST. Ghirlandajo. in the Choir of S. Orvieto THE " FULMINATI :" DESTRUCTION OF THE WICKED part of a fresco by Luca Signorelli. Florence ST. 233 . 250 250 251 SCHOOL OF PAN rence . Trinita. in THE HISTORY OF MOSES. . PAUL ADDRESSING by Filippino ST. by Luca Signorelli. the Sistine Chapel 231 RESUSCITATION Filippino OF -THE KING'S SON. by Benedetto Bonfigli CHRIST'S CHARGE TO PETER . by D.. . Sistine Chapel 270 by Pietro Perugino. . Citta della MADONNA AND CHILD. by Figures from Luca Signorelli's fresco of HELL. in the Duomo. THE BIRTH OF THE VIRGIN a fresco by Ghirlandajo.. M. . a fresco by Pietro Perugino. HIS a fresco in the Sistine Chapel. 242 S. . by Pietro della 257 MADONNA WITH SAINTS. Accademia. ST.. THE RESURRECTION Pieve . Ghirlandajo 243 . Small allegorical painting (from the description of a picture by Apelles) relating to CALUMNY . at Montefiorentino 2G4 268 Fresco in Palazzo del Consiglio. S. Carmine.ILLUSTRATIONS.. by Andrea . Flo- FEDERIGO DA URBINO IN TRIUMPHAL CAR Francesca. Lippi. in the Duomo. a fresco in the Campo Santo. a Florence THE CALLING OF PETER AND ANDREW Sistine Chapel. PETER IN PRISON from a fresco . National Gallery BAPTISM OF CHRIST Florence . Marchesc Corsi. by Cosimo Rosselli NOAH AND Pisa. WITH ANGELS AND DONOR Altarpiece by Pinturicchio. Severino 277 . Florence. JEROME.. . in the Ognissanti.. by S. by Masaccio and Lippi a fresco in the Church of S.. 274 274 ADORATION OF THE MAGI by Pietro Perugino.. Florence 233 236 CHRIST'S SERMON ON THE MOUNT. Ghirlandajo FRANCIS a fresco in . Botticelli. Orvieto . by D. Xxi Florence To face page 230 a fresco by Sandro Botticelli. in the Uffizi.

. . Belle Arti. Accademia . Louvre . S. by Cima da Conegliano. Venice Antonello da Messina.. at Hampton Court (two plates) PIET! . Accademia Belle 324 . by Pinturicchio. by Bissolo. National Gallery THE MADONNA ENTHRONED Altar-piece by Bart. cartoon. by Domenico S. HOLY FAMILY. by Vittore Carpaccio. Accademia.ILLUSTRATIONS. . in chiaroscuro. URSULA. JAMES by Andrea Mantegna. Padua. Louvre THE HOLY FAMILY a tempera painting by Michael Angelo. Ertborn Col- Antwerp Gallery for 320 a An altar-piece painted by Bartolommeo Vivarini church at Bari. now in the Naples Gallery 321 . da Murano. by Jacopo Montagnana EUFEMIA. 298 299 299 Brera Allegory . in the Ac- 334 INCREDULITY OF ST. 329 331 FEAST OF THE GODS . Libreria. CATHERINE .. by Giovanni Bellini. Giobbe. Eremitani . Venice . Dudley Gallery 322 323 THE CRUCIFIXION Layard . Venice . Venice Altar-piece by Carlo Crivelli. ascribed to Andrea Mantegna. Siena To face page 278 di Paris Alfani . a series of coloured designs by Andrea Mantegna. Accademia. Accademia.. Brera 336 337 AGONY IN GARDEN by Marco Basaiti. by Gentile Right Hon. Compartment from the TRIUMPH OF JULIUS CAESAR. Montagna. . 300 by Lorenzo Costa. 323 PORTRAIT OF SULTAN. LIFE OF ENEA SILVIO PICCOLOMINI. Chapel. in the Brera HISTORY OF ST. Accademia Belle Arti. 307 VIRGIN AND CHILD ENTHRONED by Giovanni and Antonio 317 THE CRUCIFIXION. Altar-piece by Luigi Vivarini. by Mantegna. MIRACLE OF THE CROSS Arti. . H. . Venice . MARRIAGE OF ST. . Venice by Gentile Bellini.. Altar-piece by Giovanni Bellini. Verona Bellini . Group from Leonardo da Vinci's celebrated BATTLE OF THE STANDARD ST. 282 294 295 296 Fresco in the Town-hall of Belluno. by Jacopo Bellini. in the Tribune... CATHERINE by Cordelle Aghi . in the Berlin Museum INCIDENT IN LIFE OF SCIPIO. . THE 358 360 374 ANNA AND THE VIRGIN . 324 . by Leonardo da Vinci. . HISTORY OF ST. 338 339 CORONATION OF Venice ST. by lection. by Giovanni Mansueti. Florence . Venice ?> 332 HISTORY OF THE CROSS cademia. THOMAS. Alnwick Castle . . by Andrea Mantegna. . A.

della Segnatura. . LA DISPUTA DEL SACRAMENTO a fresco by Raphael. MARK by Fra Bartolommeo. 418 419 MADONNA DEL CARDELLINO Uffizi. Berlin Raphael.ILLUSTRATIONS. Gallery of the Uffizi. Romano. SS. Tribune of the 422 427 Florence THE ENTOMBMENT. To face page 375 379 in the Sistine Chapel. by Raffaellino del Garbo. Florence . Florence MADONNA AND Museum MADONNAS by CHILD. in the second Stanza of the Vatican . Borghese Gallery. A Group from the Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel THE LAST JUDGMENT a fresco by Michael Angelo. . 394 395 THE PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE Belvedere Gallery. in the Cappella Paolina by Daniele da Volterra . by Raphael. by Raphael. Brera . Maria Novella. . Vatican Stanza 429 433 HELIODORUS . Rome . Perugia . Pitti Palace. 392 Barto- lommeo. . 396 Sarto.. Annunziata. ST. Florence 393 Lucca A Group from Fra Bartolommeo's picture in S. " MADONNA DEL SACCO . by Raphael. S. Berlin Museum . PAUL . . Annunziata. A portion of Michael Angelo's celebrated cartoon. SOLDIERS BATHING IN THE ARNO . S. "" its position with reference to 383 THE CONVERSION OF ST.. OR THE PARNASSUS della Segnatura. in the . THE SCHOOL OF ATHENS. Vatican POETRY. . .. Plate 1 410 411 Ancajani Raphael. Onofrio. Albertinelli. THE MARRIAGE OF IHE VIRGIN. . 395 THE VISITATION Florence . BIRTH OF THE VIRGIN by Andrea del Florence 401 THE S. Stanza 428 a fresco by Raphael. Vienna . Stanza della Segnatura. Vatican . Panshanger MARRIAGE OF THE TWO SS. HOLY FAMILY by Fra Bartolommeo.. Uffizi Gallery.. first fresco S. by Mariotto . a fresco by Raphael. by Ridolfo Ghirlandajo. Florence 401 405 406 ZENOBIO RAISING A DEAD CHILD. MADONNAS by Raphael's Raphael. in the Pitti . attributed to Lo Spagna. SS. by Fra Bartolommeo. Plate 2 . CATHERINE by Fra . 386 391 LAST JUDGMENT. a fresco by Raphael. 384 . 413 416 417 LAST SUPPER . Severe. by Fra Bartolommeo. showing the high altar . . (?) by Pinturicchio." by Andrea del Sarto. . a fresco by Michael DESCENT FROM THE CROSS Florence Angelo...

. in PAUL ... LORENZO ENTHRONED.. a tapestry of the Sistine . ...... Madrid Gallery Arti. Parma . . Accademia . by Parmigianino. HULFO AND . Parma Florence . . . PETER MARTYR Paolo. by Pordenone. . . JEROME . '. THE STONING OF series. WITH SS. Vatican in a pavilion . .. MADONNAS by Raphael. . Rome 581 .. a tapestry . Giovanni e . ... fresco. by Domenichino. PHCEBUS AND AURORA a fresco by Guido Reui. . designed by Raphael and engraved by Antonio (two plates) Marc 448 451 MADONNAS by Raphael. . Mantua fresco by Giulio Romano THE ASSUMPTION OF THE VIRGIN portion of Correggio's Side of an . BRIGIDA... Mantua .. MICHAEL by Raphael.'.xxiv ILLUSTRATIONS. MADONNA ADORING THE CHILD* by Uffizi. MOSES. . . . .. .. di Pieta. Vatican Gallery DESTRUCTION OF THE GIANTS a fresco by Giulio Romano.. To face page 444 THE CONVERSION OF series. Correggio. formerly in SS. .. . Venice . ST. . in the Monte . in STEPHEN. by Pordenone.... CHILD. of the Sistine the Vatican ST. in the Madrid Gallery THE TRANSFIGURATION by Raphael. 508 512 529 MADONNA AND S. . in the Palazzo del Te. the Vatican 445 APOSTLES. 536 576 THE COMMUNION OF Gallery . in the 502 in the Steccata.. of the Rospigliosi Palace. . Louvre . . 529 by Titian.. . Plate 4 ST. Belle THE ENTOMBMENT Treviso ST. Venice .. 462 463 478 478 501 Apartment in the Palazzo del Te. ST.. 455 461 Lo SPASIMO by Raphael. Plate 3 ..

ILLUSTRATIONS. . XXV THE MADONNAS OF RAPHAEL.

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Greek art. whether for public or private purposes. was an occupation of a priestly character the Greeks. Art. so was it also her office to exalt and consecrate the human among as it : forms under which they could alone be represented. were carried on. tended. character. these followed in their their legions exWherever their splendid and colossal works. the Romans had also reduced Grecian civilization and . was called into requisiB . The statue of Jupiter Olympius brought the Father of the Gods himself He was deemed unfortunate who before the eyes of men. BOOK I. THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. The image of the God was no mere copy from common and variable life it was stamped with a supernatural grandeur which raised the mind to a higher world. Grecian art to their service. ART. GREEK art sprang from Greek religion.HANDBOOK OF PAINTING IN ITALY. and reality. died without beholding that statue. In subjugating the territories of Greece to their dominion. Wherever train. or such art as owed its invention originally to the Greeks. EARLY CHRISTIAN PAET I. It was art which gave the Gods form. belonged to her to lift the veil of mystery which concealed the Gods.

most barbaric luxury or in the vilest corruption of Roman life. ChristUnlike the ianity addressed herself to the inner man alone. The Grecian ideal of beauty became the ideal of all beauty. associated and bound up with the very spirit of Heathenism. the art which had sustained it became equally the object of their aversion. The types of Grecian art furnished the materials for a universal alphabet of art. EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. religions of art. assumed a more general character. . some portion of that religious feeling which had given her birth was found cleaving to her outward forms and wherever these appeared. . True to her calling. a world. direct alliance with then was. Heathendom. so. was expelled from the community.2 tion. detached from its original home and purposes. was declared unworthy of the cleansing waters of baptism whoever. peopled with beings. And although that charm of beauty which is shed over the creations of the highest period of Greek art necessarily departed from her when she was led forth a wanderer among nations. now. and of His Son our Saviour. From portant service. whether in the easily alienated. and exposing the lie of Heathenism. The carvers of graven images were looked upon as the servants and emisVfhoever carried on this hateful calling saries of Satan. what essential support Paganism had derived from it. she needed no art. met the eyes of the beholder. in the struggle of the early Christians against the old idolatry. when baptized. returned to his old vocation. Art remained the most powerful prop of the old . Christianity could only shrink with horror and as it was well known what imsuch as it . divine and heroic. way had to A be prepared for the spiritual renewal of mankind. The light of Christianity now broke upon the world. There is no doubt that the circumstances of the times The Gentile converts were at favoured these interdicts. That which had been the natural product of the Grecian national mind. proclaiming the truth of the one God. nay. Every object of daily use bore its Book L own particular impress of art. faith. yet the more general principles of form and proportion had been too firmly laid down to be Wherever she was seen.

on the contrary. bearing not only the charm of grace. by law and long were debarred most forms of art. however. poor and obscure the Jewish converts. in the times of oppression and neglect. community advanced classes. the emblem of strength. was sacred to Apollo. The griffin. in the minds of a race surrounded with classic objects. therefore. bespoke the owner's acquiescence in the new doctrine. The eagle and the thunderbolt. supplied an abundance of subjects. It was possible. were the attributes of Jove. to Substitute others which stood not only in no connection with the ancient idolatry. was originally the attribute of Hercules. The life and manners of Paganism had been too closely interwoven with for artistic forms the followers of the themselves from them. As the Christian in power. life faith entirely to disengage Almost every utensil of common new had its established shape and its figurative ornament.Part I. which appears so often in the deco- ration of antique objects. because Mercury was the God of traffic. The Oriental mode by means of parables with which the Bible abounds. The club. gradually revived. however exquisite in construction. and included more wealthy need for art. as it was to the early Christian to banish from his new life every object of his former idol worship. but. the natural instinct had not been totally extinguished. it was not so absolutely necessary to renounce those which were innocent in purpose. as well as its instincts. But even in these instances all the allegorical designs with which they were enriched had been borrowed from the pagan mythology. Symbolical forms were taken directly from Scriptural illustraothers were conceived in a similar spirit here and tions there some which bore no direct allusion to the old mythoof teaching : logy or admitted of a Christian transposition. the And even before this happier period had arrived. but the impress of an allegorical meaning. . Imperative. the symbols of power. were retained B 2 . allegorical representations could not be retained in the dwellings of Christians without reminding them of a mytho- logy which they repudiated. THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. 3 first habit. The symbol Thus of the sphinx was taken from the fable of (Edipus. The rod with the two serpents indicated commerce.

is there any cause in for surprise at the absence of all indications of the cross the simple form familiar to us in the first centuries of Christianity. utensils. See ' History of Our Lord. the monogram of Christ. a combination of the two first Greek letters of His name X represents the Ch. ing It is first seen in the middle of the fifth century. * Not till a century after the punishment by crucifixion had been abrogated when the interregnum of several generations had permitted the old and horrible associations to be merged in its present glorious meandid the simple sign of the Cross appear upon Christian monuments.. by the Eoman converts. lamps. . 1 has also been supposed that in the X the earliest Chris- % . Vine in accordance with the Saviour's own words. and P the E. As one of these but the earliest monuments of Christian art give no evidence whatever of the representation of the symbol itself. of and became also a sign of recognition among the members the and. 818.* On the other hand. slabs. generally in this form ^ : abounds on sarcophagi. which gave those objects of common higher character to to which they were applied. In other instances the monogram appears in these shapes or even represented thus. jp and not seldom )^ and it is accompanied by the mystical apocalyptic letters A and II. it is supposed. Among the more properly artistic symbols the following may be selected as the principal The Lamb or the emblem of Christ himself as the sacriThis fice so named in many parts of the New Testament. 317. Book class I.4 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. thus A ^fi. doubtless. new faith. but this idea belongs rather to the suggestions of a later period. : symbol is also employed to denote His disciples. Nor. 1 tians sought secretly to exhibit the sign of the cross. p. if we consider the horror in which this instrument of punish- ment " the " arbor infelix find. was held by the pagan Roman. Thus a numerous at once a life of Christian symbols sprang up. of whom The who He speaks as the flock of which He is the Shepherd. ii.' vol. . &c. in the antique form. from the earliest Christian times. glasses. signs of recognition in the gesture of crossing oneself still retained in the Eomish Church the form of the Cross is believed to have been used .

He had said. also in more direct allusion to the words of Christ. the heathen symbol of victory. and His disciples the branches. or accompanied by two fishes the emblem of fortitude. a dolphin. Cock. as typified by Noah's ark. in a Christian sense.Part 1." He had told . with other Biblical types and Hart at the Brook. Apollinare in Glasse near Ravenna. and also of Himself derived perhaps immediately from the equally lingering spirit of antique symbolism. "I am the Good Shepherd. the separate letters of the Greek word IXOY2 (Fish) being found to contain the initials of Christ. &c. who appointed His disciples to be " fishers of men. Son of God. however. but. the symbol of Christian meekness and charity. here understood as the baptismal water of life . the Brazen Serpent. attached to this symbol consisted in a fanciful play of letters. The The of watchfulness. The indicating the Church. Bunch of Grapes. &c. 'I^crovs Xpioros eov Yios The Ship. and of those words which betokened His Divine mission. Dove. Saviour). occasionally bearing the olive branch.. The words of though still under a symbolical figure. the Seven-branched Candlestick. and hope. It Christ himself soon pointed out a proper choice of subject. of the Covenant. symbols of eternity. the general symbol of the disciples. The Pho3nix and the Peacock." The greatest importance. the allusions. more was natural also that early piety should seek some direct representation of the person of the Eedeemer. faith. and. THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. the of of God. rich collection of these symbols will be found in tho spandrils of the arches in S. also of the Holy Ghost. with flowers in various combinations with other symbolical with a crown on the summit of a hill A with the Dove hovering about it. 2(im)/3 (Jesus Christ. as growing afresh from its root. finally. that only Later signs were the Sheaf. the of the victory over death. such as the the Ark Cross signs itself. The . Anchor always in close connection with the foregoing often entwined with a fish. and the Serpent in the Garden of Eden . or entwined in a garland. worship The Palm-branch. in which the fish calls The Fish denotes the element of water. Lyre. 5 Himself the Vine.

occasionally as a bearded man. often with the short mantle of the shepherd hanging over the shoulder. of every form. sometimes sorrowing for the lost sheep. His disciples of the shepherd who went into the wilderness to seek the lost sheep. suggested the scenes of the vintage. carried it home rejoicing upon his shoulders. in which we find Him thus represented. attired as a shepherd with a ram on his shoulders. He it was whom the Prophets had announced under this figure. that of pastoral life. or with a shepherd's pipe in His hand. namely. as in a similar scene the introduction of naked infants. and by the analogy which . The Saviour is usually shoulders. and in some instances has led to a confusion between the antique and Christian representation. is that of Orpheus captivating the wild beasts of the forest by the A This adoption of one of the personages lyre. Christ as the fisherman. among the foliage and The companion fruits of the vine. also to the Good Shepherd. portrayed as the Good Shepherd. in simple succinct drapery . As umpire is also in the popular games (Agonothetes) the Saviour depicted. of pagan mythology as a fitting object for Christian contemplation may be accounted for equally by the high respect in which the purer Orphean precepts were held by the sound of his Fathers of the Christian Church. A graceful idyllic character pervades these designs which. sometimes occurs. and again bearing the recovered one upon His flock. frequent. but this not often. was no unfrequent object in mythology. and when he had found it. allegorically rare and at first sight strange emblem. under one aspect. This last mode of representation is the most and even so early as Tertullian's time (second century). was generally adopted for the glass chalices used in the sacrament and love-feasts. Sometimes He appears in the midst of His alone or with companions. including even statues.6 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. By the type of the Good Shepherd also a further idea. which can only be interpreted as an allusion to the Saviour. and innumerable are the specimens of the early Christian works of art. represented as a youth. caressing a sheep. therefore. were familiar to the Heathen. Christ was. was suggested. or genii. Book I. For Mercury.

on the one hand. which had been employed by later pagan to the fifth century.Part I. so daring a representation of the Saviour soon vanished before the further progress of the Christian Church. if. In such examples. Night by a female figure with a torch and a star-bespangled robe." where we find Moses striking the rock. longing to ancient ages a river is occasionally represented by a river-god. where we see Abraham in the act of sacrificing " so loved the world that Isaac. is from which " we draw waters with joy. of naked boys or genii. and surrounded with animals so far. such. Accordingly. " the well of salvation. Orpheus is represented in the Phrygian costume. with kneeling figures drinking the waters. we are reminded that God He gave His only begotten Son for it. by those interpretations of Scripture of which our Lord Himself gave the example. Meanwhile. who. a mountain by a mountain-god." " the spiritual rock . it may be observed. on the other. Heaven by a male figure throwing a veil in an arched form above his head. emblem and that of the Good Shepherd. the events of the Gospels were clad under such scenes from the Old Testament as are declared to have prefigured them." according to the Prophet Isaiah. therefore. we understand the miraculous birth of Christ. remarkable of this kind are those personifications of Nature under the human form which the materialism of the ancients had led them to adopt. to exist was supposed between the fable of Orpheus and the history of Christ. continue at least and even the later fable of Cupid and Psyche occurs upon Christian sarcophagi. a city by a goddess with a mural crown. between this Meanwhile. especially as seen in the taming influence of Christianity over the hearts of heathens and savages. as those century. seated with his lyre among trees. in which later antique art always clothed him. Even to a late period of the middle many modes of expression of a more art. for example. that innocent kind be-' however closely associated with the The most ancient idolatry. art only for purposes of decoration. Many of these symbols may even be traced down as far as the thirteenth Other heathen forms. long maintained their position. THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. a certain affinity may be traced .

A is a bearded head in profile. " despised and rejected of men. as he is thrown into the sea. the lions' den. gives us some idea It of the style of physiognomy which the heathens attributed to Christ. . our faces from him. and of Orpheus. and no less than a century S. with the whale waiting to swallow him. the became common. from which we drink. belonging possibly to the third century. agreeing pretty much with the type of countenance given to the philosophers at that period. through the valley of the shadow of death His arms. who was. outstretched in prayer. of the patriarch Abraham. Even Eusebius of Ccsarea refuses. though here rather to be considered as an ideal representation than as a portrait.EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. the corresponding subject to that from the Old upon sarcophagi. where a figure of the Saviour. mounting towards Heaven in a chariot. D." &c. 230). in defiance of all theological scruples. The first images of Christ of which we read were not in the abodes of believers. Daniel. Book 1. that. the Great a picture of Christ . Elijah. but much restored mosaic. less. but in those of heretics and from the New Testament was added heathens for example.* stood next those of Apollonius of Tyana. rection of Christ." Or if the subject be Job afflicted with a sore disease. grief: and we hid. We likewise frequently meet with the delineation of Jonah. also. and then again. in the chapel of the Emperor Alexander Scverus (about A. a man of sorrows and acquainted with show by it were. to procure for the sister of Constantino later. as he is cast from the fish's jaws on to dry land this being the favourite and most intelligible type of the death and resurtypifies the Ascension. in the Museo Cristinno in the Vatican. Augustin declares that as regards the personal appearance of the Saviour nothing was known. and surrounded with his friends. is Christ. and so on. who their actions their horror at his state. Neverthe- the temptation to counterfeit a likeness of the Saviour was so great. who passed Again. as in according to early Christian representation. on positive religious grounds. we recognise the deep humiliation of the Saviour. for example but it was the art of the middle ages which first placed the two side by side. The origin of them being alternately ascribed to a picture by Jesus so-called portraits of Christ * very aucient. Gradually.

and divided down Nazarenes. t See Didron. Christ is described as A man of and of serious countenance. and corn-yellow complexion like His mother (on which circumstance the eyes. " pictures of Christ. slightly ruddy colour. who (though contrary to history) has been called the predecessor to Pontius Pilate in the " government of Palestine. the centre of the head. is He the most beautiful among is the children of men. on which the suffering Redeemer was supposed to have left the impression of His face. Veronica's handkerchief first arose. hair. " " was as he avers. as founded upon some ." he says. by John of Damascus. beautiful similar character Of His head somewhat curling. THE LATER ROHAN STYLE. that type of the Saviour's countenance which painters had meanwhile adopted J Miraculous portraits. manifestly counterfeit. from ancient writers."f the description given. descriptions are more embellished. or by S. the face without blemish. or (according to later views) by Nicodemus or. straight. and of a beautiful colour. love as well as fear in those who behold him." declared to have been imprinted upon His winding sheet. for example. with black beard. regular nose. but still early manuscripts . flowing upon the shoulders. Luke. not made with hands. The form expression noble and engaging. after the manner of the The forehead is smooth and serene. and of the same colour as the . 9 himself.* though believed to have been fabricated in the third century. and evidently follow. or by Pontius Pilate. such. 229. ' . J It was not till the middle ages that the legend of S. of a pleasant. Jesus. with long fingers.Part I. Histoire de Dieu. Archbishop of Canterbury. not mentioned in any record earlier than the eleventh century. of stately height. as the letter of Lentulus to the Roman Senate. and without lustre as low as the ears. but thence glossy and curly. the hair of Later greatest stress is laid). parted in the middle. Nose and mouth of perfect the beard abundant. with eyebrows that met together . in some particulars. The eyes blue and brilliant.' p. taken. or as the expression was." &c. about the middle of the eighth century. imposing inspiring lofty stature. In this letter by Lentulus. His hair is the colour of wine (meaning probably of a dark colour). to have been impressed by * In the writings of Anselmus.

feature most commonly seen in representations of our Lord. to have been left on the cloth with which He wiped His face. though numerous examples might be cited where both these signs equally fail. is seen under a form of ideal youthfulness. or standing on an eminence from which flow the four rivers of Paradise . performing miracles. Veronica) . and the other (identified by the cruciform nimbus) is of the common and morose type which long prevailed in Byzantine works. is the hair divided down the centre and the forked beard. though in some respects still the . or. They were excavated originally for the resting places of the Eoman hewn Christian dead. description by Einkel. and which He gave to St. Thomas both the first and second (all of which legends long preceded story of St. which are reckoned to have contained several millions of silent inmates. Book I Himself upon His robe. they are the most interesting. but in either case the patriarchs or apostles who accompany Him have generally The only precisely the same type of feature as Himself. miraculous portraits. 180. . perplexing materials for the student of Christian archaeology. and present labyrinths of passages. we repeat. in the soft pozzolano earth. .' vol. and most of them within a short distance of the city gates as the head-quarters of early Christian monumental art. so abounded. but identified * See a graphic Kunste. It has been usual to point to two heads in the Eoman Catacombs. The Catacombs* of Borne are all of them outside the city. What class of countenance may have been thus exhibited is unknown. is not time. ' Geschichte der bildenden p. as the types of our Lord adopted by the early Christians but the one bears no sign of having been intended for Him. The practice of burying the dead originated with the Jews.10 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. and those by no means the earliest. it was found necessary to condemn them. transmitted from an early Christ corroborated by early works of art. or are common to the attendant figures. and Catacombs of a similar kind to those at Eome and Naples. i. that in a general council held at Constantinople in the eighth century. as a bearded man enthroned upon a symbolical figure of heaven. but type of it is certain that a belief in a particular our Lord's features.

having graves in three sides. and by the frequent representations of the seven-branched candlestick. and these dates extend at intervals.f The walls of these passages. Jerome visited these vaults in the latter part of the fourth century. like very small chambers. These spaces have been painted on walls and ceilings with slight and coarsely-executed frescoes. inscribed some of them with epitaph and name. called cubicula. and now survive in churches and museums in Italy. more of them not inscribed at With the rarest exceptions. which are stated to ramify in the different Cata- combs to the extent of several hundred miles round and under Rome. and in the south of France. THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. an ancient episcopal seat. and evidently betoken- ing the burial place of a family of distinction. one above the other from floor to ceiling. and such inscribed slabs as have not perished are found scattered in Roman and other museums. have been found in the Catacombs. These recesses were originally securely closed by a tile. f S. and with much rarer . to be the depositories of the Hebrew people. of the same class of decorations as are seen in Pompeii.* The Eoman Catacombs mencement of are believed to have been used for The compurposes of interment up to the seventh century. have been discovered in the old Kingdom of the two Sicilies where the Jews are known to have settled. Many of the Catacomb passages expand at intervals into larger spaces. occurrence into the seventh century. with a series of recesses. . H by inscriptions. or marble slab. these resting places have been rifled. and our English Evelyn did the same in 1645. like the berths in a ship. are literally honeycombed on each side along their whole length. * At Venosa. The Catacombs in the lapse of centuries have from time to time fallen into oblivion. decorated with bas-reliefs of the same import as the mural paint- and repeated over and over again in varying grades of inferiority. every one of all. and also with the Christian types we have described.Part I. and have evidently ings. but datedthis practice is wrapt in obscurity inscriptions (on slabs) of the fourth century are numerous. and at Oria and Lavello. each appropriated to one occupant. both near the western frontier of the Basilicata. Numerous white marble sarcophagi.

as well as on the art of the Catacombs. Paul. by name Antonio this Bosio. when in danger of shipwreck. The whole structure of martyrology raised on the evidence Child on her knees as the three wise of the Catacombs falls to the ground . and that in a strictly historical sense. the close of the sixteenth cen- tury a Eomish priest. without diadem or glory. a Maltese by birth. the bottles as- sumed to contain blood are the same vessels usually found in pagan graves. Nor is his learned text lightly to be nothing to discarded." . their number being here for the first time established. They contain no allusion to the worship of saints. re-opened and thoroughly explored the wonders of To his indefatigable labours we underground world. is on the same level with him. though much that he and other partisans of Rome have written on the interpretation of the inscriptions. been re-discovered. Peter appears in no way distinguished from other holy by personages of entirely forgotten note. the palm-branch was a symbol common to Pagan and Christian . * /Eneas. which in point of accuracy leave desire.12 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. &c. discovered. The fact is. that the evidence thus laid up in the Catacombs tends to entirely opposite For the clearest refutation of Eomish practice conclusions. simply holding the men (not kings) approach. The Virgin appears but once in a later period. thus prayed to the gods: " Duplices tendons ad sidera palmas. are indebted for engravings of the most remarkable paintings and objects. Towards Book 1. or when accompanied St. implements. has been too zealously directed to square with the modern usages of the Eomish Church to be of any value to the archaeologist or historian. standing with hands uplifted in prayer (those of men are also given in the same attitude). this posture being a pagan usage.* In . as with the voice of a trumpet. Allusions are found to only two sacraments. St. and continued doubtless by habit and lingering the implements of torsuperstition in those of Christians ture are the tools of the artisan the supposed figure of the Virgin is simply the effigy of some departed woman. utensils. Inscriptions prove that the popes were only bishops that priests had wives. or to purgatory. and doctrine may be said to be proclaimed.. . from these ancient walls and graves.

.

. HOME p 13.CEILING IN CATACOMB OF S. CALISTO.

Marcellinus and Peter. p. as the act of benediction.f In order to give the reader an idea of the subjects and their arrangement of the art of the Catacombs. judged by the internal evidence of their art and their subject. and the smoke of torches. of Pope subject. &c. from having been shunned by the mass cf early humble and more to offer the solution Most of the Eoman Catacombs are now wisely closed. we subjoin a woodcut of one of the ceilings in the Catacomb of S.' vol. and raise the dead.. ii. extend even to the eleventh century. S. on the Via Appia. while in those still open.J This contains those events from the Old Testament. Calisto. Sebastiano S. and on the other.Part I. General dates may thus be arrived at which. vol. Among fixion. in the absence of inscriptions or documents. * By a larger and closer system of observation it is now known that certain actions and attributes such. or the keys of St. far Christians. habits on the one hand. S. beneath the church of S. Lorenzo. ' Roma tab. pagan habits. S. doctrines of Christianity as far removed as possible from those later enunciated in the great city above. which. 354. those latest executed appears one instance of a cruci- and that by no means the earliest instance of that This exists in the Catacomb. THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. cxviii. for instance. . The most interesting of these paintings.* Julius on the Via Flaminia. assist to guide the student of early Christian art. which and resurrection from the dead. illustrate the evangelical ideas of regeneration of life. . Catacomb of SS. Saturnine. Peter have their approx- imate periods of introduction. the whole evidence of this underground city is simply what might have been expected equally proving the naturally lingering pagan . so called. will be found more of many a Catacomb puzzle. for it is needless to multiply instances. Sotteranea. were found in the Catacombs of S. t See engraving in * Bottari. ii. Calisto. 13 short. Marcellino. and also the power of Christ to feed the hungry. the attribute of the nimbus. the wall paintings are fast perishing under the joint influence of air. Indeed it is probable that in the progress of accurate archaeological knowledge. Priscilla. all centring in His figure as the Good Shepherd carrying His sheep. heal the sick. their insecure state necessitating these measures of precaution. others of less importance in those of S. Ponziano.

" sed non rubus igne calescit :" under the Nativity. Absque dolore pans Virgo Maria maris." The subject of the Nativity is surmounted by that of Moses and the MS. in one of the windows [These initials are in King's College Chapel at Cambridge. we read. welcoming the dove . Book I. Daniel between the lions. the arch of one of the recesses are seen eleven little genii. three from the New . Calisto deserves mention for its antique style of beauty. next her Noah. Christ restoring Lazarus to life. Within and above Our next plate Calisto. are too identical with antique ornamentation to be strictly taken in such a sense. preted as Christ. The lame man made whole and taking up his bed. Burning Bush C.* of prayer. Moses striking the rock. " Lucet et Thus. ignescit. and the Biblia Pauperum." The subject of Aaron's rod bearing flowers is occasionally added. Here. Daniel between the lions. of type and anti-type. above. The birds and fruits in the inner circle have been interpreted as the human soul feeding on fruits of Paradise but . L. with arms extended. The miracle of the loaves. shows two walls in a cubiculum in S. sentations explain the connection. such as it is. as follows in : the ark. On the one hand. and Moses Below is a woman in attitude unbinding his sandals.14 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. with a scroll in his left hand.] . the other figure is probably one of the yoiiths. Jonah swallowed by the whale. welcoming the dove. Five of the subjects are from the Old Testament. Easthtke. the ark being a mere box floating in a boat. with the Hue "Hie contra morem producit virgula florem. here appended to all the notes originally by Sir C. the subject of Moses and the Burning Bush generally accompanies that of the Nativity (in some instances the Annunciation) and alludes to the mystery of the The inscriptions which sometimes accompany these repreIncarnation. L. Noah Jonah ejected by the whale. and Christ raising Lazarus underneath Moses we see Elijah taken up to heaven. dropping his mantle to Elisha . E. turning with the air of a teacher towards a * In illuminated number of hearers. encircled with vine tendrils. Bibles. in the centre again. Another painting in the Catacombs of S. . is seen Job seated. eagerly occupied in the labours In the recess itself appears a figure. under the subject of the Burning Bush. interof the vintage.

representing DANIEL. Calixtus. No. left of entrance. Paintings on wall of a chamber. JOB. right of entrance. Calisto. THE EAIS1NG OF LAZARDS. in the Catacomb of S. of a chamber in the Catacomb of S. 1.Paintings on wall. and MOSES. and p. representing ELIJAH . 14. a rigure in the attitude of Prayer. NOAH IN THE ARE. .

.

oi a T: ^ 3 5 I u tn * .

Part

I.

THE LATER ROMAN STYLE.

15

also, in

these Catacombs, may be occasionally traced the see them assembled for habits of the early Christians. their love-feasts (though these particular representations are of very uncertain meaning), celebrating baptisms and mar-

We

riages,
tion.

and congregating together for the purposes of instruc-

As

the Catacombs, for

many centuries

after Constantine

the Great, remained open to the public as places of veneration, and as such continued to be decorated in the taste of the day,
it

later periods

follows that the paintings in them extend to much but possessing, as we do, far more valuable
;

specimens of those periods, we have limited our notice here to those of the earliest times under the Empire.

The Catacombs of Naples are upon a more extensive plan than those of Eome. They contain, however, fewer specimens of the early Christian school, which, though markedly rude
in -execution, yet,

by a

stricter

drawing and greater body of

maintain a relation with ancient art. colour, appear Thus it was, therefore, to sum up the foregoing remarks in a few words, that the genius of ancient art succeeded in
still to

infusing itself into the forms of Christianity. highly important to observe how the system

And
of

it

is

early Christian symbolism, by the deeper meaning which it suggests to the mind of the spectator, unites itself to the spirit

of the later Pagan art, in which the subjects of ancient fable, considered as emblems, were merely vehicles for a general idea. Much, therefore, as the higher feeling for power, richness, and beauty of form, as such, had departed from art in the later period of the Empire much as the outward expression of art at that time, like the forms of government

und habits of

life, appears for the most part only fit to be likened to a broken vessel or a cast-off garment yet, in the

formal simplicity of these Catacomb paintings, in the peaceful earnestness of their forms, in their simple expression of a

any other aim, we a contrasts which spirit refreshingly with the recognise affectation of later pagan works.
spiritual meaning, to the exclusion of

As regards the state of art under Constantine the Great, there are many works which give us a far higher idea of its
technical processes and resources than

we should be

inclined

16
to infer

EARLY CHRISTIAN ART.

Book

I.

from the clumsy and ugly sculpture upon the probably as was the deterihastily-erected Arch of Constantine. Great oration of ancient art, there still remained too much vigour in its tradition of many centuries not to conceal here and there the reality of its decline. It is true the old laws which regulated the drawing of the human figure had already been much The heads and extremities upon the sculptured neglected. are too large. In painting, on the other hand, the sarcophagi proportions are too long. The positions and motives* in both
too conventional.

The marking

of the joints

is

defective

the drapery, though here and there finely felt, is weak in execution nevertheless we are sometimes agreeably sur-

In point of decoraprised by a spiritedly conceived figure. tion, too, we observe for a length of time a certain grace, though no actual beauty ; while in neatness of execution, for

example in the ivory Diptychs, nothing better is to be found in similar works even of the best period. Further, it must be borne in mind that, as compared with the gigantic works of Constantine's time, described by Eusebius and Anastasius, such relics as have descended to us can only be regarded as
very inadequate specimens ; for we may take it as a rule that the Catacomb pictures of that time belong, without exception, To form, as far as to the more unimportant class of works.
possible, a just conception of this epoch of art, we shall, in the course of the ensuing pages, especially call the attention
* [This word, familiar as it is in the technical phraseology of other languages, is not yet generally adopted in our own, and hence some apology may be necessary for employing it as above. It may often be rendered In its ordinary application, and as intention, but has a fuller meaning. generally used by the author, it means the principle of action, attitude, and composition in a single figure or group ; thus it has been observed, that in some antique gems which are defective in execution, the motives are frequently fine. Such qualities in this case may have been the result of the artist's feeling, but in servile copies like those of the Byzantine artists the motives could only belong to the original inventor. In its more extended signification the term comprehends invention generally, as distinguished from execution. Another very different and less general sense in which this expression is also used, must not be confounded with the foregoing ; thus a motive is sometimes understood in the sense of a suggesIt is said, for example, that Poussin found the motives of his landtion. In this case we have a suggestion improved scape compositions at Tivoli. and carried out in the copies of the Byzantine artists we have intentions transmitted. C. JL. K.] not their own, blindly
;

Parl

I.

THE LATER ROMAN STYLE.

17

of the reader to such works as, however late in their own date, may be with probability considered as repetitions or imitations of the productions of the fourth century.

With the general recognition of Christianity as the religion of the state, followed also the introduction of painting into the vast Basilicas and other churches of the new faith, where
walls, cupolas,

and

altars

were soon decorated with the utmost

content, also, with the rich treasury of Scriptural subjects, Christian art sought her materials in the wide circle of saintly history, nor hesitated even to avail herself of

splendour.

Not

the persons of distinguished living characters.

Circum-

stantial inscriptions, ornamentally disposed, were now adopted to explain the meaning of the picture, and in smaller churches

were eventually substituted for them.* The technical processes in vogue at Byzantium at the time when the city assumed its present name consisted at first and elsewhere in such as had hitherto been used for wall paintings namely, in tempera f and encaustic. During the fourth century, however, mosaic, which had hitherto been restricted more particularly to pavements, began to be prea circumstance to ferred for churches and even for palaces which we are exclusively indebted for the preservation of a

number of early Christian
Mosaic-work, or

subjects of the first class. the placing together of small cubes of stone, terra-cotta, and, later, of vitrified substances of various colours, for decorations and figures, on the principles of

ordinary painting, was an invention of the sumptuous Alexandrian age, diiring which a prodigality of form and material

began to corrupt the simplicity of Grecian art. According to general tradition, the application of mosaic as an ornament
for
objects,

pavements commenced in the close imitation of inanimate such as broken food and scattered articles, lying
thence proceeded in rapid progress

apparently upon the floor

to large historical compositions, and,

under the

first

emperors,

* See the ' important letter by Paulinus de -Nola, in Augusti's BeitrUge zur Christlichen Kunstgeschiehte,' 1841, p. 147. The same occurred iu palaces: see 'Chron. Salernitauum,' chap. 37 (Pertz. Mouum.), upon the inscriptions of Paulus Diaconus in the palace at Salerno.
t A more or less glutinous medium, soluble, which the colours were applied. C. L. E.
at
first,

in water,

with

18

EARLY CHRISTIAN ART.

Book

I.

attained the highest technical development and refinement. It was subsequent to this that it first came into use as a decoration for walls.*
this peculiar art spread itself over the ancient world,

executed in
Atlas,

Under the protection of the Roman dominion and was the same manner upon the Euphrates, on Mount

and

in Britain.

The

inherent defect of such pictures,

the impossibility, namely, from the almost mechanical manner in which they were wrought from the cartoon, of imparting
to

them any immediate expression of

sistently with the

Roman

counterbalanced by

feeling, appears, conlove of solidity, to have been fully their durability. The essential conditions
its restriction,
its

of this branch of art

as far as possible, to

large and simple forms.

renunciation of rich and crowded

compositions, and its indispensable requisite of general distinctness have exercised, since the time of Constantine, an important influence over the whole province of art.
It

must be remembered, however, that the

style to

which

the materials and practice of this art necessarily and gradually tended, may by no means be considered to have attained its

highest perfection at the period of its first application to the walls and arches of Christian churches. The earliest, and
* We own that the middle links between the small cabinet pieces in mosaic, which the relics of Pompeii and imperial Rome have preserved to us, and the suddenly commencing wall-mosaics of Christian origin, are as The temples, baths, and palaces of the later emperors conyet wanting.
tain innumerable wall-paintings, stuccos, and mosaic pavements, but, as far as we know, no mosaic-work on ceilings or walls. Pliny, it is true, distinctly tells us (xxxvi. 64) that mosaic-work, proceeding, as it were,

upwards from the pavements, had recently taken possession of the arches above them, and had, since then, been made of vitrified substances ; also that mosaic work had been made capable of expressing every colour, and
that these materials were as applicable for the purposes of painting as any But the few existing specimens, exceeding the limits of the paveother. ment and the small wall-picture (namely, the four pillars and the two mosaic fountains from Pompeii, and a monument of the Vigna Campana in Rome, &c.) are of a purely decorative style, without figures while it is very strange that, neither upon the arches of Diocletian's baths, nor upon those of any other edifices of this period, have any traces of a higher class We are almost of painting in a material thus durable been discovered. tempted to believe that historical mosaic painting of the grander style first started into life in the course of the fourth century, and suddenly took its It must be remembered that Anastasius, in hi; Life of wide spread. S. Sylvester, where he describes the splendid ecclesiastical buildings erected by Constantine, and numbers their scarcely credible amount of objects of decoration, is entirely silent on the subject of mosaics. Certainly, he pays them, elsewhere, no grer.t attention.
;

Part

I.

THE LATER ROMAN STYLE.

19

the only Christian mosaics of the fourth century with which

we

are acquainted those on the waggon-roof of the ambulatory of S. Costanza, near Rome * belong essentially to the decorative schools of ancient art, while their little genii, among

on a white ground, stand on a parallel line of Catacombs of S. Calistof of which we have given a specimen. In the fifth century, also, historical mosaic painting attempted paths of development which it soon after and for ever renounced. Considered apart from
vine-tendrils,
art with similar subjects in the

symbols and Biblical which subsequently declined, this style of art essayed its powers also in the line of animated historical composition, and it was only by degrees that the range of its subjects became so narrowed as to comprehend only those where the arrangement was in the strictest symmetry, and the mode of conthose, at first frequent, early Christian
allegories,

ception, as regards single figures, of a tranquil statuesque character. But as our power of judgment here depends especially

upon a knowledge of the transitions of style, we shall proceed chronologically, and point out the changes of subject as they
occur.

Fortunately for us, the dates of these changes are for

the most part accurately defined. Here, however, as in the later times of heathen art, only very few artists' names appear

a circumstance consistent with the moral condition of the

world of art

at that time.

For

it

may be assumed

that where,

as in this case, the mind of the patron is chiefly intent upon a display of luxury and a prodigality of decoration, the fame of the workman is sure to be obscured by the splendour of

material execution.

At the same time

that artist who, in a

period like the fourth and fifth centuries, could establish such a type of Christ as we shall have occasion to comment on in the church of SS. Cosmo and Damiano, well deserves
to

have had his name transmitted to posterity.

* Either built under Constantino as a baptistery for the neighbouring S. Agnes, or, soon after him, as a monumental chapel to his two daughters (see Platner). The supposition of its being a temple of Bacchus, which the subjects of the mosaics had suggested, is now given up.

church of

t If we may venture to form a general conclusion from so isolated specimen, we should say that this almost exclusively ornamental mosaic at S. Costanza argues the probability that those earlier Koman ceiling mosaics, of which Pliny speaks, were, for the greater part, only of a decorative kind.
n

c2

20

EARLY CHRISTIAN ART.

Book

I.

The most numerous and

valuable mosaics of the

fifth

and

following centuries are found in the churches of Eome and The Bishopric of Eome, enriched beyond all Ravenna.*
others by the munificence of its emperors and the piety of erected itself, more and more, into the private individuals, of the seat hierarchy, while Ravenna, on the other principal

hand, became successively the residence of the last members of the imperial Theodosian house, of several of the Ostrogoth sovereigns, and finally that of an orthodox Archbishop, whose

power and dignity for a long time hardly yielded to that of the Papacy. Here it was that painting again united itself closely with architecture, and submitted to be guided by the latter not only in external arrangement, but in great measure In the generally circular or also in direction of thought. polygonal Baptisteries, the decoration of which was chiefly confined to the cupola, it was natural that the centre subject should represent the Baptism of Christ, round which the In the figures of the Apostles formed an outward circle. few larger churches, with cupolas and circular galleries, scarcely any traces of mosaics have been preserved, though we have reason to conclude that in their original state the
decorations in this line of art exhibited peculiar beauties of conception and arrangement. In this we are supported by
the character of the mosaics in the existing, and in some measure still perfect, Basilicas. This form of church-building

had generally obtained in the East.

It consisted in a prin-

cipal oblong space, of three or five aisles, divided by rows of columns the centre aisle loftier than the others, and ter-

minating in one or three semi-domed tribunes or apsides, before which, in some instances, a transept was introduced. A gradation of surfaces was thus offered to the decorative
painter, which, according to their relation with, or local viciafforded nity to, the altar (always in front of the centre
apsis),
collection also of these specimens, which have subsequently ' disappeared, occurs in Ciampini's Vetera Monumenta in quibus praccipue Musiva Opera illustrantur,' Roma, 1747. (The illustrations unfortunately
J.

*

A complete

are so incorrect, that no conclusion can be formed as to style.) See also G. Mtiller, ' Die bildlichen Darstellungen in Sanctuarium der Christliche
Christl.

vom 5ten bis 14ten Jahrh.' Trier, 1835; and v. Quast, 'Die alt Bauwerke von Ravenna,' Berlin, 1842 ; also the Mosaics of Rome,' late Dr. E. Bi-aun. the by
Kirchen,
'

Part

I.

THE LATER ROMAN STYLE.
field for the

21

an appropriate

following frequently recurring

order of decoration.

The chief apsis behind the altar, as the most sacred portion of the building, was almost invariably reserved for the colossal figure of the standing or enthroned Saviour, with the Apostles
or the patron saints and founders of the church on either hand in later times the Virgin was introduced next to Christ, or

Above the chief figure appears generally a hand extended from the clouds, and holding a crown an emblem of the Almighty power of the Father, whose representation in human form was then not tolerated. Undereven in His stead.
neath, in a

narrow

division,

may

be seen the

Agnus Dei

with twelve sheep, which are advancing on both sides from the gates of Jerusalem and Bethlehem a symbol of the
twelve disciples, or of the Faithful generally. Above, and on each side of the arch which terminates the apsis, usually

appear various subjects from the Apocalypse, referring to In the centre generally the Lamb, the Advent of our Lord.
or the book with the seven seals upon the throne ; next to it the symbols of the Evangelists, the seven Candlesticks, and the four-and-twenty Elders, their arms outstretched in adoration towards the

Lamb.

In the larger Basilicas where a

introduced before the apsis it is divided from the nave by a large arch, called the Arch of Triumph. In this case the subjects from the Apocalypse were usually introtransept
is

duced upon this arch. In addition to this, the clerestory of the centre aisle and the spandrils of the arches over the columns were seldom left, in the larger and more splendid so few specimens, however, Basilicas, without decoration
it is not easy to arrive at any general conclusion, though we have reason to believe that the decorations consisted simply of a series of Biblical scenes

have been preserved, that

;

of a double procession of saints and martyrs ; in later ages of a set of portrait-heads of the popes ; and in the spandrils of a variety of early Christian symbols. Of those representations of the Passion of our Lord, which, in the middle ages, occupied the high altar, no trace has yet been found ; the idea of the

Godhead of Christ having
of His earthly career.

For

for ages taken precedence of that it lay in the very nature of

22

EARLY CHRISTIAN ART.

Book

I.

human

an art derived from Pagan sources not to dwell on His To sufferings, but rather upon His almighty power. which may be ascribed the fact that no representation of the
is

Passion or crucifixion

traceable before the eighth century.

The

earliest mosaics of the fifth century with

which we

are acquainted, namely, the internal decorations of the baptistery of the cathedral at Ravenna, are, in respect of
figures as well as ornament, among the most remarkable of their kind. The building is of an octagon form, surmounted

double row of arches occupies the walls in by a cupola. the spandrils of the lower arches, between splendid gold arabesques on a blue ground, are seen the figures of the
:

A

eight prophets, which, in general conception, especially in the motives of the draperies, are in no way distinguishable from the later antique works. Though the execution is
light

and

bold,

the

chiaroscuro

is

complete.

In the upper

tier of arches,

throughout tolerably between rich archi-

place of the mosaics.

tectural decorations, a series of stucco reliefs occupy the The subjects of these are male and

female saints, with rams, peacocks, sea-horses, stags, and griffins above chiefly white upon a red-yellow or grey ground. At the base of the cupola is a rich circle of mosaics
;

consisting of four altars, with the four open books of the Gospel, four thrones with crosses, eight Episcopal Sedilia

beneath eonch-niches, and eight elegant tombs surmounted with garlands. All these subjects are divided symmetrically,

and

set in a

framework of architecture of beautiful and

almost Pompeian character. Within this circle appear the the twelve Apostles, colossal in size chief representations
;

and in the

centre, as a circular picture, the

Baptism of

The Apostles stand upon a green base, representing Christ. the earth, with a blue background, under a white golddecorated drapery which embraces the whole circle of the
cupola, and
plants.
is

The

divided into compartments by gold acanthus robes of the Apostles are of gold stuff; and as

they step along in easy, dignified measure, bearing crowns in their hands, they form a striking contrast to the stiff immobility of later mosaics.

The

Catacomb

pictures, are

heads, like most of those in the somewhat small, and, at the same

which can at most be discerned in the figure of Peter -who appears with grey hair. occur but rarely at this time. In spite of their walking action.Part I. somewhat in the spirit of ancient fable. : on the left in the act of presenting a cloth. the arrangement of the figures. dating from A. In default of a definite type for the Apostles the first traces of St. the folds appear to be agitated by a supernatural wind. D. profile. but to the desire of giving the spectator as much as possible of the holy countenances. 432 to 440. into the middle ages. in a work otherwise of such excellence. with a cross while the river between the Saviour and the Baptist form of a river rises out of the water under the God. the figure being represented simply. the lower part of the Saviour's figure being seen through the water a mode of treating this subject which continued late The head of Christ. recall the best Roman works. by no means youthfully 23 time. In the centre picture the Baptism of Christ the character of the nude is still easy and unconstrained. is decidedly not ascribable to any inability of drawing on the part of the artist. conception and execution are the draperies. ideal or abstract. in their gentle flow and grandeur of massing. The combined ornamental effect. Jordan. though not as yet they are distinguished by inscriptions. THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. without nimbus or glory. corresponds in great measure with the descripThe whole is still treated tion ascribed to Lentulus. with a bald head Especially fine in which. Maria Maggiore at Home. which in later representations perform this office. the heads are not given in but in front. and the delicate feeling for colour pervading the whole. in thirty- . On the upper walls of the centre aisle. Of a totally different description are those now much restored mosaics. The angels. but rather livingly individual. with the long divided hair. which. which occupy the centre aisle and arch of triumph in S. As in the antique representations of Victory. and even of that late Roman character of ugliness so observable in the portraits of the time. enable us to form an idea of the genuine splendour and beauty which have been lost to the world in the destruction of the later decorated buildings of Imperial Rome.

or. which binds the * See the admirable coloured illustrations by Von Quast. From the entablature chiefly gold upon a dark-blue ground. not seen to advantage in this material on so small a scale. and in the laborious crowding together of the figures the . before A. is being occupied by a square elevation. on the arch of triumph. Book I. The lower walls were formerly faced with marble generally as the built in the known form of a cross. It The Passion of may be remarked also is that in the Adoration of the Wise Men the Infant Christ seen seated alone upon the throne. and in single figures particularly on the arch of triumph excellent in style. Church of SS. upwards begin the mosaics. are the believers under the form of lambs with the cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem behind. whole . Below. scenes from the life of Christ. while his mother stands among the crowd. especially of the warriors. Christ is here still excluded. . represented. at the same time. Contemporary with these last examples. Ra- venna. alone fitted to give us an idea of the general decorations of the ornamented buildings of that period. in awkwardness of action. arched over in the form of the segment of a cupola aisles and transepts terminate above in waggon roofs. on each side. are still of the ancient cast . the centre : slabs. and the emblems of the Evangelists. appear in several rows. . Nazaro e Celso.* preserved entire with all its mosaics and. Outlines and shadows are strongly and boldly denned. beginning with the Annunciation and ending with the beheading of John the Baptist including also the figures of the Apostles Peter and Paul. increasing inability of execution may appear. In the freedom of historical composition which characterises these mosaics they differ in no essential principle from the antique however evident in point of deficiency of keeping and drawing. incidents from the Old Testament. on (those which are lost not included). are a small scale. on each side of the apocalyptic throne. therefore. D.24 one pictures EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. with the histories of Moses and Joshua . while. at all events. The costumes. 450. one above the other. we may consider the rich decorations of the at monumental chapel of the Empress Galla Placidia . This chapel. though.

together with On the lunettes.. and finally. two-and-two. Giovanni Evangelista at Eavenna. also built by the Empress Galla Another probably contemporary work.-. 25 a pleasant effect. Placidia. Upon the arches are ornaments. appears. A. the conception of which is attributable probably to the Pope himself. with the flag of victory. in point of decorative harmony.D. a pair of doves sipping out of basins between and below each. belong. between large stars. over the altar. to the most excellent of their kind. Upon the whole. Shepherd. In the lunette over the entrance of the nave we observe character. gives us a high idea of the fine feeling for decoration which was peculiar to this otherwise degenerate age. with the exception of the Good corners are the . At the same time. are seen golden stags advancing between green-gold arabesques upon a blue ground towards a fountain an emblem of the conversion of the heathen. and which became * Von Quast has somewhat over-estimated the artistic value of this fignr. which. seated the Good Shepherd. of very youthful among His flock while. believed for the first time. in point of elegance. at the termination of the transepts. though not in the antique taste. At it is the symbols of the Evangelists. Christ appears full length. On the walls of the elevated portion before alluded to are seen the Apostles. On that account we may the more lament the loss of the very extensive mosaics of S. D. the effect of the whole is incomparable. The age of Pope Leo the Great (A.* the figures are of inferior character. a plain Latin cross. in the chief lunette . THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. without any particular attributes . burning the writings of the heretics (or of the philosophers) upon a grate.Part I. namely. centre of the cupola itself. the combination of symbols and historical characters in these mosaics evinces no definite principle or consistently carried out thought and. in the . the single apsis of the vestibule in the baptistery of the Lateran in Eome (of the time of Sixtus III. above which the Agnus Dei appears with four doves. . 440 to 462) is distinguished by an imposing work. The semicircle of the apsis is filled with the most beautiful green-gold tendrils upon a dark-blue ground. 432 to 440 '?).

a favourite example for subsequent times. in the clouds. the apostles of the New Testament. on the left. with saints.26 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. which 1823. partially survived the unfortunate fire in Within a cruciform nimbus. Finally. the style of the divided hair somewhat approaching the type of Christ . on each side . St. which is left clear of all beard. and hair and beard divided in the centre. Paolo fuori le rnura. of the . we mean the mosaics on the arch of triumph in S. but grand in conception the eyebrows in : . who only saw the truth through a veil the other. as if engaged in the proclamation of the Gospel. finely arched half-circles above the widely opened eyes . whom the four-and-twenty elders are humbly casting their crowns those on the right bareheaded. the others covered the one signifying the prophets of the Old Testament. Book I. in Eome. in arch. appear. . p. who beheld it face to face. closed with an expression of mild serenity. are seen the four winged animals bearing the books of the Gospels lower down two angels (perhaps one of the earliest specimens of angel representation) are lowering their wands before the Redeemer. Paul and St. where only a narrow space remains next the both. will find it difficult to imagine how the mosaics of the tribune itself could surpass in beauty those of the That this was neither accomplished nor intended aisles. Above. the adorations of the old and new time. . * We borrow this description of the mosaics of St. 215. f. the last many centuries later .fteen feet in diameter. the nose in a straight Grecian line . the mouth. shines forth in the centre the colossal figure of the Saviour the right hand raised. and have since undergone repair. Peter of . both in active gesture. on a smaller scale. the left holding the sceptre a delicately folded mantle of thin material covers the shoulder the form is stern. martyrs. . Paul from Kinkel. sisting of a series of Biblical scenes .* Like the sound of a hymn of praise. below these. here unite and whoever at the same time considers that the whole length of the walls of the centre aisle were formerly occupied with the history of Christ and the Church con- and the portraits of the Popes in date. and surrounded with rays. Evangelists and of the great teachers of the faith. .

with SS. entirely draped. and Andrew space. but a more vigorous and varied representation of the glory of Christ. had been enthusiastically read and promulgated. Paolo fuori le mura considered to indicate in more than one respect a by no means unimportant transition period.Part I. for if we assume that the subjects of the present mosaics of the apsis. with the idyllic scenery of Good Shepherd. so in these Apocalyptic pictures it is not the forms of death and destruction which appear. Paul. partly symbolical. and the donors. such as the patron saints. The little naked genii. with Christ in the centre. only the aspect of His glory and not of His suffering was to be given. namely. and elders. But. while the apsis was occupied only with a few statu- esque figures referring to the building itself. but only those which indicate the glorification of Christ and His For we are still in presence of a youthful Church. the figures of angels. saints. and has sought to express itself in characters. 27 may be justly concluded . the Book of Revelations. give may be way now to the figures of angels. from a distance. from the earliest Christian era. . is to be found upon the arch of triumph. an observation which we shall have frequent occasion to repeat. on each side of the central Agnus Dei. and the gay decorative forms of the genii of the vintage. apostles. . THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. which required that the glory of her Lord should first be depicted and also in that of an art which. or half- length of Christ. The the earlier Christian symbolism. represented as tall and youthful forms. dating from the thirteenth century namely. sunk and decrepit people. partly real. and on the arch above the tribune. The feeling for ancient art here only sounds. Christ. and occasionally indicated by their wands as messengers of God. with wings. it is are the same as those originally occupying this undeniable that not only greater poetical and symbolical beauty. Luke. here takes possession of that portion of the New Testament which. These mosaics in the church of S. as in the history of the Saviour. For from this time it became the custom to introduce on the arch of triumph. by a total change of intention. and that fantastic mystifying element which has always accompanied all religious art. have now passed away. Peter. as it were.

Above the arch of the tolerably spacious apsis appear. age. a blue . scarcely perceptibly inferior to those of the fifth. already noticed as the emblem of the First Person of the Trinity. each with crowns in their hands. four angels of excellent but somewhat severe style then follow various Apocalyptic emblems a modern walling-up having left but few traces of the figures of the four-and-twenty elders. with a star-shaped nimbus. the apostles Peter and later date.28 as EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. at least. art appears The chief to have remained in a stationary condition. it was. Book I. forms the backthough in Eome. . Cosmo and Damiano. is the river Jordan. followed by St. The figure of Christ may be regarded as one of the most marvellous specimens of the art of the middle ages. the founder of the church. and by Pope Felix IV. is an entirely palm-trees. mosaics of the sixth century are. In the apsis itself. restored figure. 526 to 530). above one of which appears the emblem of eternity the Two phoenix on each side. : A dimmed by ground . with little purple clouds. Paul are leading SS. . and in a somewhat altered treatment of colouring. on each side of the Lamb. the left holding a written scroll above is the hand extended from the clouds. Below. Countenance. in the still gorgeous style of ornament. attitude. in point of conception. sparkling with gold. Theodore on the right. those of SS. We commence this new class with the finest mosaics of ancient Christian Eome. towards the Saviour. with golden-edged clouds. drawing. and mode of shadowing.D. . close the composition Further below. is seen the colossal figure of Christ the right hand raised. sparkling also with gold. unfortunately. on the left. This latter. on each side. and in The distinctive splendour of material by no means so. indicated by water plants. at both an earlier and ground prevailed. upon a dark-blue ground. up to the period of Theodoric the Great. gold surface. difference between them can at most be traced in an increasing want of spirit. During the worst times of the decline of the Western Empire. still retained enough of the strength and dignity of her better days to keep itself free from all that was monstrous and vague. Cosmo e Damiano (A..

SS. and drapery combine disposed in noble folds. hill. though without any particular depth of expression somewhat elderly also in physiognomy. producing a gorgeous play of colour which reJieves the figures vigorously from the dark blue ground. Paul the short brown hair and dark That beard. with the exception of the principal figure. by which they were afterwards recognisable. in order to obtain the greatest possible softness of shadowing. The whole is executed with the utmost care . with red embroideries of Oriental barbaric Otherwise the chief motives of the drapery are of The great beauty. the artist has adopted. 29 to give Him an expression of quiet majesty. and without any of that heraldic conventionality which belongs to the animal representations of the later middle ages. accounted for by their particular relation as patron saints of it being supposed that the pious believers the church would desire to behold the entire countenances of those . high lights are brought out by gold and other sparkling materials. but still far removed from any Byzantine stiffness St. but are advancing forward. they are looking before them. Under this chief composition. which. observable chiefly in the five or six gradations of which. and St. so that their figures appear somewhat distorted. this is tints . Altogether a feeling for colour is here displayed of which no The heads. while we already remark something conThe apostles Peter strained and inanimate in their step. THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. for many centuries after. parallel forms. is . and only in its somewhat too ornate details is a further departure from the antique observable. though somewhat too abundant in folds.Part I. Peter has already the bald head. on a gold ground. . and not toward the Saviour. The saints are not as yet arranged in stiff. attired in the late Koman dress violet mantles. are animated and individual. : Cosmo and Damiano are in gold effect. sheep on either hand drawn with much truth of nature. is not found again The drapery. especially. stuff. whom upon a they regarded as their especial intercessors. is in equal beauty and freedom. these are is seen the Lamb with the four rivers of Paradise and the twelve . and Paul wear the usual ideal costume . later mosaics with gold grounds give any idea.

yet for all this. shield. entirely disappeared. has. between the alleand Eavenna. in succeeding works but little action is ex- Eeal. and the incapacity of representation. Both here and hibited.30 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. from its commencement. animated. personages (with the exception of the Saviour. the colossal scale of the forms awakens in the spectator a feeling of awe . very imperfect memorial with the mosaics of the church of S. with breastplate. portrait-like. undisturbed by any earthly passions. we are every of that ancient art whence these works . In Eavenna no mosaics of the Ostrogothic period have been preserved. Cosmo and Damiano being represented as men of fifty years of age. at which period an absowhile the lutely statuesque immobility of form commences artist soon ceased to comprehend both the principles and Not less characteristic the effects of natural movement. SS. which represented him on horseback. it is precisely here that we can clearly discern in what respects the degeneracy and impoverishment of art first showed itself. coincided more and more moment reminded Even are derived. the ideal drapery and the regular lines in which it is disposed convey the impression of a higher nature. was not till towards the middle of the sixth century that . Maria Maggiore and with the exception of a few and constantly repeated Biblical scenes. even physically. The slightly animated action also. on the front of his palace. and with representations of ceremonials almost as lifeless. in spite of the high excellence of this work. and lance. But. Book I. with the features of a race who had. we have henceforth only to do with the glory-subjects of the apsis. We have already observed that Christian art. ceases with the seventh century. left its last. Thus 4ie objects proposed to be represented. never ventured to represent these personages under mere ideal forms. historical composition also. which imparted to the figures some appearance of life. like the mural gorical figures of Eome It paintings in his palace at Pavia. who nevertheless appears in the ripeness of man's estate). Even the picture of Theodoric the Great. of the rapid wane of art is the increasing age of the holy . in the higher sense. . but sought rather to earliest clothe them. and it is true. deteriorated.

to the middle of the sixth century. is somewhat stiffer. ascribes. the Baptistery of the Arians. but the draperies already display stiffness of line. with the upper part of the figure bare. and even particularly to the artist-monks of Mount Athos. Maria in Cosmedin. decline of the feeling for decoration shows itself not only in the unpleasant interruption of the figures caused by the throne. 46). which does not warrant the application .* Of doubtful age are the mosaics in S. however. arid the motives here and there beside him. p. therefore. though that of St. We here observe a free imitation of the cupola mosaics of the orthodox church. the mosaics of S. the river Jordan is introduced as a third person. though the decoration of that building belongs almost indisputably to the time of the veritable Byzantine dominion probably. it is true. and an urn In the drawing and shadowing of the flesh no great alteration is observable.P.' Paris. " of the term " Byzantine to works of that period. but also in the introduction of heavy palm-trees between the single figures. . a reed in his hand. hair and beard long and white. bearing crowns in their hands. but stand motionless. after the occupation of Uavenna by the Byzantians in 539 an event. The heads are somewhat more uniformly drawn. crescentshaped horns on his head. with unmeaning breaks and The folds. though giving no reason for this very bold assertion. advancing. On the other hand. yet without stiffness. ' * . 1845. Manuel d'leonographie Didron. less free. John is precisely the same as in the Baptisteries of the orthodox church. Vitale to that school. Sur. a green lower garment. instead of the graceful acanthusIn the centre picture the nude form of the Christ plant. rounding the centre picture of the Baptism of Christ are arranged the figures of the Twelve Apostles. two red. in his Byzantine enthusiasm (see Chreticnne. and a certain crudeness of light and shade. The of art is still of that late Eoman class which we have style already described. 31 mosaic painting recommenced in Ravenna consequently. but the general execution lias become somewhat ruder.irt I. their line interrupted on the east side by The figures are no longer a golden throne with a cross. and we have no reason to conclude that the artists belonged to a more Eastern school. THE LATER ROMAN STYLE.

with the eyebrows elevated . only the decorations of the principal tribune. his hands full of costly gifts his haughty.D. though the perpendicular wall of the apsis appear two large ceremonial representations upon a gold ground. flowing through green meadows. In the semidome of the apsis appears a still very youthful Christ. Vitale. advancing. on each side two angels. A. as the almost sole surviving specimens of the higher style of secular subjects. Upon of shading. but yet regular countenance. laden with the diadem and large as life. doubtless also portraits. with a purple and gold-embroidered mantle. is seen the Emperor. is seen in front. and those of the quadrangular arched space before it. followed the consecration of the celebrated church of S. towards the temples. vulgar.32 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. with patron of the church. as examples of costume. as founder especially the Christ. representing the Saviour triumphant among angels and archangels. Book I. especially in mode a certain truthfulness still prevails. are all that have been preserved. the beautiful mosaics of which. recurs after that time. quite invaluable. fastened with an enormous fibula. They refer in subject to the foundation been completed some short time before. Below are the four rivers of Paradise. To him succeed a to number of courtiers. while the golden ground is striped with purple clouds. in the apsis and upon the arch of triumph. the mosaics of which may have Unfortunately. and consecration of the church. and next . In the year 545 the church of S. have been Two taken down and sold to the Prussian government. which. the former being confined to the apsis and to two of the four divisions of the arched space. and. years later. Michele in Affricisco was consecrated. The picture on the right represents the relation in which the Emperor Justinian stood to the church the figures as In splendid attire. with the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. S. bloated. Vitalis as . and Bishop Ecclesius the latter carrying a model of the building. are of great interest. Gold grounds and blue grounds alternate here. 547. seated upon the globe of the world . whose ideal youthfulness scarcely In the drapery there is much that the is conventional. The figures are all noble and dignified.

Ravenna.Mosaics of the 6th century in S Vitale. representing JOSTINIAN AND THEODOEA .

.

since he evidently knew no other form of flattery. a blue ground above them. surrounded by gorgeously attired women and The Empress attendants. viz. He. On between green gold tendrils upon a blue ground. Germanic body-guard. a homage which the artist of that time could scarcely withhold. A chamberlain before her is drawing back a richly embroidered curtain. Archbishop Maximian. with vine-tendrils and birds on On either side-wall. also. and sensual mouth. On the upper wall. 33 them the with sword and shield. subjects. represents the Empress Theodora. and green upon a gold ground. and from her grotesque diadem hangs a whole cascade and jewels. are the mosaics of the lofty quadrangular space before the apsis. inclosing a narrow. Justinian and Theodora are distinguished by bright glories. with his meet the Emperor. of which they are entirely constructed. the bloody and bloodless sacrifice of the Old Covenant. and the pathetic half-closed slits of eyes. hold a shield with the sign of the Redeemer . blazing with jewels. betokened as such by its cleansing fountain. gracefully hovering. the whole history of that clever.. is advancing to his bald head. resembling antique Victories four angles. of beads significant so as to exhibit the entrance-court of a church. D'Agiucourt gives a sketch of Sec his ' Hiijtoire de 1'Art. highly small face.Part I. in the globes. voluptuous. are four peacocks. is a characteristic portrait of the time.' Plate XVI. clergy. who are seated at table under sec it. the apsis.* are the secular pictures wo have Two semicircles contain the principal already mentioned. on the left. representing the sacrifice of the mass. are four flying angels below. in whose large hollow eyes. easily recognisable. imperious. in a curious architectural framework. with The opposite picture. above upon . fair. are the cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem. and merciless woman is written. in the act of entering the church. two angels. THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. pale. on each side. is also clad in the dark violet (purple) imperial mantle. . We young men in * Abraham bearing provisions to the three white garments. Of somewhat inferior execution Old Testament symbols of the the vaulting.

pronounces a blessing over the bread and wine. an evident attempt to imitate the forms of reality. seen as a Shepherd. while Sarah stands behind the door laughing. Above. fectly antique shepherd figure) in the act of holding up the firstling of his flock before a wooden hut . Unfortu- Abraham's dwelling. Mark. vehemently agitated by the spirit of prophecy and further upward. Matthew looking to the angel as if to a vision. while Mel- chisedec (designated by a nimbus as the symbol of Christ). for example in the lion of St. and birds. St. these portions are inferior to the works in the apsis. especially that of the prophets and evangelists. his first further the history of the Old Covenant. although. a leafless but budding tree. is still evinced . while the people are waiting below. are seen the Four Evangelists seated with their emblems. next specimens to be considered are the mosaics in Apollinare Nuovo. Then. grey-headed Isaiah and men in white robes. The S. appear to be . in similar gestures of inspiration. In drawing. The pictures then continue with Moses. vine-tendrils. containing individual. Finally. we behold the Patriarch on the point of offering up his son Isaac. again. portrait-like heads. and lastly receiving the tables of the Law upon the Mount. representations of Christ and the Apostles . In the partially rude a sound feeling for nature tree before delineation of animals. they still excel those of the following century. the subject is closed by fine arabesques.34 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. in that respect. who kneels Then Abel (an excellent and pernaked before him. in the front archivolt next the dome are thirteen medallions up between elegant arabesques upon a blue ground. advancing from a temple in the form of a Basilica. also. and superficial. consisting of steep steps of rocks covered with verdure . several of which have suffered a later The execution of the whole front space is restoration. formerly the Basilica of Theodoric the . Jeremiah. then drawing off sandals before the Burning Bush (a well -conceived motive) . Book I. is ground landscape nately nothing more is preserved of the mosaics of the cupola and the rest of the church. the same in the In many parts the backelevated in a very remarkable manner.

have been restored. contain long processions upon a gold ground. 35 Great. recognised by its harbours and fortifications. appears Christ upon a throne. At the head of the procession is the Adoration of the Three Kings. appears the Madonna. as we have said before. All are clad in light-coloured garments. remind us curiously of the Panathenaic procession upon the Parthenon at Athens. though still tolerably true to nature. next above the arch. On the right are the martyrs and the confessors. Vitale. Vitale) are reduced to a few spirited lines. with their Two prodigious original and very rich mosaic decorations. which is here signified by a magnificent representation of the palace of the Ostrogothic kings. On the left side of the church (that which was occupied by the women) we perceive a similarly arranged procession of female martyrs and confessors advancing from the suburb of Classis. were executed chiefly between the years 553 and 566. the four archangels around Him noble. in no respect inferior either in style or execution to those in the apsis of S. But the upper walls of the centre aisle still sparkle. friezes. with its . in all probability. with crowns Their countenances are all greatly similar. to the very last days of ancient art.flirt I. On the walls are the female forms of and white hangings. which. who. richly deVictory in gay garments corated with flowers and fringes. belonging as they do. as is also At the end uf the procession. THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. and are also perfectly unique in their way. takes her place at this early period only in an historical sense. Upon a throne. from the arches up to the roof. upper and lower arcade and corner towers and domes. ornament the lower arcade. and (in contradistinction to the individual character of the figures of the apostles in the older Baptisteries and even in S. though the principal portions. surmounted by four beautiful angels. which divide the single figures. The procession is advancing in slow but well-expressed movement through an avenue of palm-trees. . Through the entrance-gate a gold ground shines forth. apsis and arch of triumph. which. the gradation of the tints. advancing solemnly from the city of Ravenna. and as the goal of it. in their hands. The execution is careful. solemn figures. as symbol of dominion. She is depicted as a matron of middle age D 2 .

intermediate spaces are the winged emblems of the Evan* See Von Quast. upon a blue ground. ' . are sets of seven medallions. and several saints. Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna. and now scarcely distinguishable. with birds and vases between them. ing of their white garments. 202. the last portion of the subject Further up. and to S. logos. on a very small scale. are single figures of the apostles and saints standing in niches. a veil upon her head is encircled by a nimbus. but a spiritedly expressed and active action is still discernible. which is of later introduction. between the windows. 569 to 574. and the stiff and unrefined conception of the whole. with the representations of the youthful Christ.D. ibid. The dark and heavy shadowis best treated. as in the opposite frieze. certainly indicate a somewhat later Quite above.. and S. upon ground. as well as the splendid barbaric costume. We may neyt to be allowed to mention the mosaics in the chapel of the archiepiscopal palace at Ravenna. iii. p. in his Kunstgeschichte. and nether garments of tiger-skin. of the apostles. Of the subject of the Three Kings the greater portion has been restored.. A. period." which is considered to refer to the then living archbishop. Here.' Schnaase. Petrus ChrysoWe should rather connect it with the Archbishop Petrus IV. upon gold circular four arches.. The centre of the gold-grounded dome is occupied by a large medallion with the monogram of Christ. Vitale. yet in style remind us more of the latter The chapel consists of a dome end of the sixth century. Upon her lap is seated the already wellgrown and fully clothed child. Maria Maggiore in Rome the date of 425-430. and probably the seventh century.' vol. assigns to S. short silken mantle. 16. Maria in Cosmedin. where they are pronounced to belong to the middle of the fifth century chiefly on account of a monogram "Petrus. but is lighter and inferior in execution. a work which resembles the thirteen circular pictures in S. Book I. are the Miracles of our Lord. and partly from ' Platner's and Urlich's Beschreibung Rom's. which. a period before the year 526. over the windovfs. upheld by four simple and graceful angel figures In the four rising from the four springings of the arch. with its richly bordered doublet. Altogether we have taken the chronology of the mosaics partly from the already cited works of Von Quast.36 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. although upon no contemptible historical grounds* attributable an earlier age. on the soffits of which. p.

THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. more extensive. for instance. still this work at least must have been copied from one I. In S. 884-885). the date of which is uncertain. the latter always in the character of the restorer's own time so that no entire reliance can be placed on the evidence of their details. 37 gelists. representing the Emperor as Monarch of the World. of St. at all events not to the time of Pope Hadrian (A. which are very rudely and form of head. the only considered the more important of works of the fifth and sixth centuries.* All the other principal works of the time of Justinian. for even if opinion the building itself be proved to be of more recent date. or of Hadrian III. still We have at present existing All that remains for us now is to and grander in plan. surrounded by his court. as is the common . namely. Pudenziana at Rome.' t It must be borne in mind that every existing ancient mosaic has been necessarily subjected to repairs and restorations . mention a few specimens. This is decorated with birds and flowers upon a gold ground. Altchristliche Baudenkmaie in Konstantinopel. those which are lost must have been incomparably more splendid. too much restored at different times for the date to be now determinable . it belonged originally perhaps even to the fourth century. . having been on a recent occasion of repairs.Part I. which have since been given to the public in a worthy form. according both to tradition and analogy.f but. the opportunity was seized to copy their chief remains. The Lion bearing the richly decorated books of the Gospel. 772-785).D. the mosaics in the church of S. (A. Sophia. but which may be probably assigned to this period. . Next in order to these come such relics of the time of Justinian as have been preserved in Constantinople. terminating in a waggon roof. and probably belong to a still later period. The whitewash. have utterly disappeared. there is a large apsis mosaic. temporarily removed. Mark is remarkable for an almost human A broad passage leads into a space beyond. middle of the sixth century. with which the transformation these mosaics have been covered since of the church into a mosque. some portions of which appear to belong and others to a later to the date. sketchily treated. as for example the great cupola picture in the vestibule of the palace at Constantinople.D. ' * See Salzenberg.

and at all events from a more than commonly disfigured work. . indicate. and even the nude portions are here depicted with tolerable spirit . though we are judging from what is perhaps only a copy.33 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. Above. which are represented by purple. The figures of SS. From and perhaps demolished picture the representa- tion of the Christ is taken we know not. upon a gold ground. Peter. In the circular church of S. with a long sceptre in St. is probably a new creation. a roof and glittering buildings over it. what cast down. while the younger saint. The mosaics upon the arch of triumph in S. on the left. older. both presenting their crowns upon their richly embroidered mantles as an offering to Christ. but overlap each other like double Behind these figures is an arcade with on a coin. and is chiefly interesting to us here as one of the earliest specimens of the copying of the old Christ is represented in a violet robe. The execution is good. if we are not mistaken. their very broad and free treatment (so far as they are not the work of the modern restorer). perhaps. Book I. Peter and Paul. which are not either profiles much placed singly side by side. the Constantinian period of art. length above a row of eight male half-figures in antique drapery (portraits. of the founders). is conducting St. Peter and Theodore blue. Lorenzo fuori . on hand SS. only in the unmeaning character of the drapery is the deep decline of art apparent. light His left hand. richly decorated gold cross. with his eyes humbly older. Cosmo e Damiano. and the two female saints These figures are seen halfPraxedis and Pudentiana. gold-edged clouds. He is seated in the act of benediction upon a mosaics. The centre represents Christ enthroned. the shading careful. Teodoro in Rome a figure of Christ with saints. has been preserved This work is probably not earlier than in the end tribune. starred globe. a The architectural background. on the right. Theodore and St. the seventh century. are the four signs of the Evangelists. are here exact copies of those in the corresponding subject in SS. another youthful saint. Paul. with long hair and short beard. in the heavens. with an expression of great benignity. in the centre. the perspective arrangement of the figures. and.

with the apostles in white garments. surrounded by five saints. but have been so restored and disfigured that. to all appearance. they belong to a later period. 39 le mura. and also a pastoral scene in a very ancient pre-Byzantine style of art (if we are not mistaken). They represent Christ upon the globe of the world. but doubtless from some work of the best early Christian time. where Christ. according to an inscription upon it. Lorenzo in Milan. decorate the semidomes of two large niches. it was usual to decorate the contents as well as the exterior of the Scriptures in the most gorgeous manner. 590. Finally. more extensive than in pictures and some of the painting present to us In this class of art the range of subjects is that of the catacomb or mosaic To those surviving belongs the Book of Joshua perished. THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. executed in few colours. with the copies of the classic authors which needed the assistance of pictorial illustration to explain those usages and costumes which had passed away with the glory of the ancient world. With the reverential feeling of the times. were adorned with more or less of pictorial splendour. near Eome (towards the hinder church). we may here notice the mosaics in the octagon side-chapel of S. doubtless. by means of which the books employed both in the service of the church and for purposes of private devotion. entirely covered with historical . Next in importance to the art of mosaics must be con- sidered that of miniature-painting.. as also many of a worldly import. not of earlier date than the seventh or eight century. in the Library of the Vatican. with Pope Pelagius II. This is a parchment roll of more than scenes thirty feet long. 578. the founder of the building. bear the positive dates of A. a fashion which commenced. There is a spirit in the composition. This interesting specimen has the appearance of a carefully but boldly and freely drawn sketch. and a richness of invention in . far earliest specimens of miniatureonce more the antique mode of composition in such grandeur and variety that we can only the more regret the treasures of this kind which have .D.Part I. a beauty in some of the motives. and differing greatly from the highly finished splendour of later Byzantine miniatures.

586 in a Mesopotamian monastery by one Rabula. as yet. in composition. is not conceived without grandeur. round.D. . Plate 27. the period considered. a calligraphist. it early period. In the Ambrosian Library Milan fifty-eight miniatures have been preserved. mountain and river deities. very remarkable Syrian book of the Gospels. would. appears to greater advantage. If A conclusion from the specimens in D'Agincourt. By the same hand. In the battle scenes the wildest action is often most happily expressed. by his obvious ignorance of the drawing of joints and extremities. the figure of Christ hovering among angels. The colours. is one of the first known representations of the Crucifixion. with sceptres and mural crowns. fragments of a manuscript * The above-mentioned and other miniatures may be judged of in the ' tolerably authentic tracings in D'Agincourt's Histoire de 1'Art.* Of the same much more us the Book defective in drawing. as an original work of the fourth or fifth century. not too minute. abundance of motive from the antique. though wretched in execution. it may here be observed. which assign to this work the highest place representations of early Chris- Costume and weapons are here still perfectly antique Joshua is always distinguished by the nimbus. XIX. but to is already very inanimate. appears of Genesis in the Imperial Library at at Vienna. The drawing displays a superand. No. : the whole. where the Virgil especially. though the artist. though. of course. shows little knowledge either of perspective cities or of the relative proportion of the figures. exists in the Laurentian Library at Florence. executed A. as are also the fine symbolical female forms. tint. Book I. among the properly historical tian times.40 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. where they are not so rubbed away as to exhibit the drawing beneath. and have considerable body. almost solely. Here we are struck by full. and the animated group of apostles and angels on each side of the Madonna.. though otherwise conventional forms. is upon the whole well rendered. which D'Agiucourt has spirit of action and gesture. &c. In this respect the celebrated Virgil of the Vatican. in the action of the figures. which. At all events.' Tab. 3225. The copyist of the later period is discernible. it does not equal the Book of Joshua. does not further concern us here. selected as a specimen. it we may form any . appears that the decline of art took a different direction here to that which is apparent among the Byzantians. accompanied by the greatest The Ascension. give a very high idea of the composition of these miniatures. however. though. are light in The shading is slight. which represent the besieged and conquered for the whole landscape is expressed by symbols.

while on the other hand. fragments cum Picturis. perhaps. such as miniatures and a few surviving sculptures. there occurs a those artists who in the schools of painting persevere exclusively in the old track may be observed to sink into barbaric ignorance of form..' Milan. Nazzaro e Celso at Verona (where a glory and Biblical scenes are rudely painted upon a white ground). for mosaics and all higher kinds of decorative work. the very rude copy of an excellent work of classic times. Longobards was correctly portrayed in them.* Vatican Terence of the A ninth century is. The miniatures consist of rudely daubed outlines * ' filled up with patches of colour. Besides these we find beautiful single figures and compositions of early Christian and antique feeling scattered in various separate manuscripts even in the later middle ages. to it became a matter of convenience copy what already existed. &c. 41 Homer.^ Iliadis 1819. come more and more into vogue. 186. in the gradual decline of the powers of invention. while the lesser class of works. p. see Von Rumohr's Ital. but principally after the seventh century. and in the subterranean chapel of SS. The Longobardian diplomas at Monte Casino and other places generally commence with a miniature. consisting of the remains of the Frescoes in the Crypt of the Cathedral at Assisi. nothing is preserved of the Longobardian historical subjects which Queen Theolinda caused to be painted in her palace at Monza at the beginning of the seventh According to Paulus Diaconus the old national costume of the century. still more weakly and unskilfully executed. edente Aug. THE LATER ROMAN STYLE. . Thus it happened that the more important Italian works of the seventh and succeeding centuries are found to follow the Byzantine style. and in the broad. i. division : the style and materials of Byzantine art. showing that. and the com- position not only scattered as in the Vatican Virgil. which we shall consider in the next chapter. Majo. Forschungen.' vol. as well as in the treatment of the drapery. much restored by some feeble modern ' t For information on the Longobardian style.. Unfortunately. hand. As early as after the conquest of Italy by the Longobards. &c. where a catalogue of the few adducible specimens is given. several manuscripts. have At the same time the details are quite the antique look. but either confused or monotonous.Part I. &c. These also date from the fourth or fifth century. seem (occasionally at least) to run wild in a total licence of style which may be designated as Longobardian. Fifty eight outline drawings. solid manner in which the colours are applied.

a new school of development was to spring. with their coarse. thick figures. Fidele in Como. as opposed to the more legitimate Byzantine rigidities. recognise Nevertheless we are fully conscious that in these apparently formless productions of conventionality.. germ of freedom from which. heavy counte- nances and extremities. Book I. . it would be even the faintest trace of ancient art. In difficult to these short. As specimens Habakkuk on the hinder door of of the sculptural school we may cite the relief S. there lay a later. with the subject of carried by angels by the hair of his head.42 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART.

to be essentially one and the same in the other east and the west. this was precisely After having the period of the deepest decline of art. The reasons which lead us to differ in this respect have been already alluded to.Part II. in an intellectual sense. THE BYZANTINE STYLE* THE commencement of the Byzantine school is generally placed at an earlier period than that of the fifth century which we here assume. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. to the armies of Justinian. and therefore entitled that of late to no or early Christian. at that time. later. If. it is from that period also that the Byzantine element may be said to have attained its full development. as far as Roman civilization still existed. surrendered up its mildest rulers. thoroughly amalgamated with the Gothic. we must not. 43 PART II. it was next invaded by the Longobards. developed itself more especially into the art of the Eastern Empire. In Italy. on that account. influenced originally by ancient Greek art. Under the Emperor Justinian the Eastern Empire acquired that form which adhered to it in the following centuries . For while the great mass of the centre of the land fell to the invaders. but rather designate it only as that late Roman style which. . on the other hand. assume for it. and submitted itself to the Eastern dominion. including the largest * Byzantine or Greek (Christian) art for the terms are identical is the offspring of the Eastern Church. was common to It was not until after the middle of the seventh century that this state of things broke up. the appellation name than Roman of Byzantine. the Ostrogoths. the important coast regions. wherever the Roman element was not too the whole ancient world. as early as the fifth and sixth centuries. the foundations of that school are discernible which. who brought about the most singular division of the country. Up to the beginning of the seventh century art appears to us. while.

therefore. In this way there ensued in Italy every grade of relationship with Byzantine art. that works executed at third hand. whence the provinces were supplied with innumerable works of every kind. to attach itself more closely to the protecting power of Byzantium. while Lower Italy and that city which was hereafter to play such a conspicuous part in the history of art. and those of Mount Athos. teries of Constantinople and Thessalonica (?). There is no doubt that from the great nursery school of Constantinople many a Greek artist emigrated into Italy. for instance. was the time for this portion of the territory. power to destroy or interrupt the deeply founded connection between the schools of Italy and Constantinople. has ever known. by the Western scholars . Book I. from the directest school connexion. to the capital of a pillar.44: EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. in the seventh century. in Apulia and Calabria as in Sicily. to the merest superFinally. it is certain that many an artist from the West pursued his studies in the chief places of artistic activity in the East. Now also the period had arrived when cities. as the great central ateliers of while. The diffusion of the Byzantine style may be conjecturally accounted for in various ways. the decline both of art and civilization may be considered to have so increased that an influence from without had become indispensable. remained in possession of the Byzantines. remained inaccesible to his attacks. and therefore it is that for that universal style of art which. from a The monasstatue or painting. on the other hand. was precisely the most easily communicable ficial influence. later. prevailed alike in Eome as in Naples. So much so. At that time the Eastern capital abounded unquestionably in workshops. namely Venice. in the higher civilized nations. in Ravenna and the Pentapolis as in the rising city of Venice. in connexion with the state of civilization at that time. and even partially in Genoa differing as it does from the previous late Eoman school we rightly assume the title of The victories of Charlemagne had. in outward forms which the history of art. and all the islands. no Byzantine. we may regard painting . This. we shall endeavour to show that the Byzantine style. perpetually threatened as it was by the Longobards.

manners m .' vol. iii. and the light. graceful colouring of the old Koman works it was still of the greatest importance that there should have been one spot in the world where artistic activity on a large scale never . either cruel despots or cowards. in its totally undisturbed tradition and cultivation (or perversion) of ancient art. at least in the capital. 93. embalmed like mummies for the wonder of posterity. an undisturbed normal form faltered remember for their authority in times of emergency. for the earlier middle ages of the West to have always possessed. which went hand in hand with these advantages. * We Sctnaase's refer here to the masterly characteristics of Byzantine ' Kunstgeschichte. surrounded with oriental pomp and splendour. The either greatly troubled or worn-out forms of the old world are here found. The courtiers around them concealed beneath the disguise of the most abject servility a disposition to perpetual intrigue and sanguinary conspiracy. But we must that no art is nourished by tradition and colossal undertakings alone. such as the luxury of a great capital demanded. for the most part. in the Byzantine government. and in that tendency to neatness and elegance of execution. p.Part II. in point of art. The monarchs who sat upon the throne. in Byzantium these sources were entirely sealed. It matters not how widely the modes of composition differed from those of antiquity how little there was in common between the heavy. gloomy varnished colours of this school. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. the condition of the enslaved people. consisted in its freedom from all barbarian invasion. just as it was important. were. in a political sense. * With this state of things among the higher classes. 45 of a Western master himself having been perhaps but for a short time the pupil of some emigrated Greek artist differ in no great degree from the original models in Constantinople itself. Her proper existence can only be supplied from those thousand moral sources which we compre" hend in the widest sense by the term " national life and . The indisputable advantage which Byzantium possessed over the Western countries. stood in conIt is significant that the public games were sistent relation. to use a hackneyed but most suitable illustration.

The most important political event of Byzantine times (next to the wars with the Persians. Even Christianity. this or that division of the racers in the Hippodrome. precisely at that time. wherever real piety showed herself. the passion for argument had become second nature while.46 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. is connected with the fanaticism which four centuries of disputes had nourished into full growth. whom and that the same people in every political idea was extinguished. but served also for an object of pastime and dispute to the common people. though even this was only ephemeral. which it in- volved in the fiercest contests. dispute. all the interests of life. The triumph of the image partisans was first decided by the tumultuous Synod of 842. was laying the foundations for the future unity of Europe among the Teutonic races. not only to the court and government. and all national life unknown. inasmuch as the province of painting and that of flat relief were ultimately alone retained. had suggested to the Emperor Leo the Isaurian the idea of doing away with pictures altogether. was to be traced here in the Empire of the East only by its perversions. with whom. oriental luxury and sensuality. Dogmatical disputes upon the absolutely Incomprehensible extended from the clergy. or cruel intolerance. His coercive measures for this purpose began in the year 730. . the controversy about images. In other respects. while the long languishing art of pure sculpture was entirely condemned. and Hungarians). The origin and history of this controversy The reproach of idol worship. which. Saracens. Book I. she was obstructed by monkish austerity. No visible disadvantage to the cause of art is . foreign as most of them were to the question. and Koman thirst of gain. being involved in the namely. Science had degenerated to a system of dry compilation all literary activity was dead. and Mahometan had alike cast upon the richly decorated Christian service. even in better times. usurped. and a struggle ensued which lasted for above a century the whole State and all the interests belonging to it. and the hope of converting both the Israelite and the infidel. between them. which Jew are well known. could yet bring about a great general insurrection by their party zeal for their highest object of interest.

47 traceable. Paolo fuori le mura at Rome. and that the Church now stood firm enough to afford to exhibit the image of An the suffering as well as of the triumphant Saviour. first obtained in the Byzantine Schools." by which the representation of His Passion. continued to be practised.* borne in mind that artists themselves had fallen martyrs to also the cause in the fury of the struggle . Besides. ecclesiastical decision. the Council expressly " speaks of Him who bore the sins of the world. shows that in respect of the Passion a particular change in religious sentiment had arisen. and that they now first assume that hieratical stiffit ness of type which seems to bid defiance equally to the heresy which opposed them. if not positively of His Though. may be here and there remarked that the last relics of freedom and nature disappeared from Byzantine works at this time. thanks to many an obstinate monk. namely. as it were. to this period of struggle. With this is further connected the fact that at this time (the eighth and ninth centuries) the representation of the Passion of our Lord. of artistic Ecclesiastical art had doubtfermentation. yet this must be considered as an accidental exception. of Amasiii. as early as the fourth century. subjects of which art had hitherto been ignoIt must be rant. will not be considered strange. but religious painting also. The Council of Constantinople in the year 692 (generally denominated the Quinisext council) had decided that the direct human representation of the Saviour was to be preferred to the symbolical. The speedy introduction of the Crucifixion pictures was a necessary conseto quence. and to the image-proscribing tenets of Islamism. and of the transition from the symbolical to the historical. Bishop Asterius. and of the Martyrdoms of the Saints. to that of the Lamb.Part II. however. which we have already had occasion to point out in the mosaics of S. less nothing to do with it. Still. This was a formal declaration of the extinction of that allegorical taste which had been proper to the earliest Christian age. Euphemia. a decision which the whole world of art was expected to conform. during which not only profane painting. which in a time. ten years prior to the question of images. mentions a picture of the martyrdom of St. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. ( * . hitherto adopted . for the redeeming office of the Saviour could now be hardly otherwise expressed.

even the very power of depicting the movements of life. then stripped of its old subjects and animated with the new which a new religion supplied. appropriate in action. It is curious to remark how one portion of the figure after the other now becomes rigid the joints. EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. both of an historic and resist. was indicated. had sunk into utter oblivion showing aesthetic nature. with a solemn flow of drapery. Book I. and the gold ground. already in the third century deep in decline. in the year 730. as feasible and praiseworthy subjects of the walls of churches. the art of dramatic historical painting. arrested. In order more rightly to estimate the Byzantine style within the limits we have prescribed to ourselves. Tra&^taTa. in which the element of the sublime can be as little denied as in the older Greek forms utterly inferior as they are in other respects. as to create new types of art.. the figures thus expressed look down upon us from their altar tribunes with a fascination. The step is. as in every epoch of decline. What still remained wanting to direct the new school was supplied by the already mentioned modes of thought which the image-question had developed. which assumes a morose stricken expression. but in the midst also spirit vitality left. gigantic in races. we must once more give a glance at the events we have been recording. had still so much from the fourth to the sixth century.48 Crucifixion. that this size. and at last even the countenance. and had found in the material of mosaic a brilliant and suitable mode of representation. It was not only during the most wretched period of despotism. Soon after this. the extremities. in his letter to Leo the Isaurian. as it were. Pope Gregory II. Eeplete with quiet dignity. makes mention of the various scenes of the Passion. at the same period. of that misery occasioned by the irruption of the northern new tendency had been developed. Ancient art. to be regarded either as the source or auxiliary of artistic inspiration. which the unprejudiced spectator can hardly Nevertheless. that the study of nature had ceased. the art of decoration degenerates even in the midst of apparently the greatest wealth of ornament. which we have seen in the Eavenna mosaics of the . the garments are loaded with inexpressive folds.

only to the original works of the Byzantine school. not to the copies of older and better works which are occasionally mistaken for them. See p. and in the following pages. in which no one limb is rightly disposed. Sometimes the earth beneath banished. and a most unnecessary display How utterly all power had departed of muscle in the arms. and even the beautiful. Here we see at the first glance that a relation has arisen between the painter and his picture. so that the figures are relieved upon their gold ground as if in the air. be it only a single step. 49 finer sense of colour. and where the slightest action is attempted. the late ing. kept her highly It state of prostration. have still.* From the totally superficial and defective representation of the human form observable in these works. we must warn our readers of plate 62 of D'Agincourt's 'Histoire d'Art.' where a Vatican Bible manuscript of the fourteenth century is given as a proof of the " " apparent resuscitation of the Byzantine art of that period . In many cases. 39. stationary there for many a long century. still his efforts to express the elevated. instead of a living form we seem to have half-animated corpses before us. For instance. from this school is shown by the most abject restriction to quietness of attitude. unless the painter have added a little footstool or pedestal. At the same time a singular pretension to correctness of anatomy forms a more odious contrast to the departure from nature in all other respects.Part IL THE BYZANTINE STYLE. whereas the first glance suffices to show that this is only the copy of an excellent early work but little inferior to the Book of Joshua we have described. it is evident that the Byzantine artist tional now rested satisfied with a all type. was the Byzantine school which first brought art to this and then. sixth century supplanting the blue. bespeak a certain freedom * We allude here. from which semblance of mere convenreality was The figures are long and meagre. new In Eoman works which we have hitherto been consider- however closely the conventional type of the Church might confine the painter. the action stiff and angular. their feet is entirely omitted. the figure appears to be stumbling on level ground. accompanied as it was by a but developed merely technical skill. hands and feet attenuated and powerless. as far as the form is seen. now extinguishes all the and substitutes for it a false gaudiness. an impression which the sight of the head only increases. E . the full complement of ribs in the body. Figures.

with all their deeply wrinkled gravity. absolutely heartless and malicious but when the introduction of a kind of smirk is intended to convey the idea of a . when the countenance does not become tolerated . extends from brow to brow. the very object artist The Byzantine of art was changed in was generally a monk. youthful countenance. The large. 37. beneath the bald and heavily wrinkled The nose has the broad ridge of the antique still forehead. Book I. the gloomy moroseness of his countenances. to whose countenance the intolerable. or for an exercise of devotion. they may be that is. in which illhumour seems to have taken up its permanent abode. The mouth is small and neatly formed. Hence the dryness and meagreness of his figures. Draperies and figures agree perfectly together. EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. inasmuch as he substitutes that which had become his individual ideal for that which is universal in human nature. . is in As long character with the melancholy of as such representations refer only to grey-headed saints and ecclesiastics. but equally of any depth of thought. the anxious nostrils corresponding with the deep lines on each side of them. here. the only difference being a somewhat with the omission of a few wrinkles. they appear utterly incapable of any exertion of moral will. .* and as such opposed to the usual enjoyments of life. His art partakes of the same feeling. ill-shaped eyes stare straight forward . in the form of the person and in the chief lines of the dress. but the somewhat protruded lower lip the whole picture. left above. or energy of : love or hatred. still more so. a spark of antique feeling is still discernible. Alnot only together these heads leave us totally unmoved because. meagreness of asceticism was hardly applicable. Antscpod. nevertheless.' iii. is uncertain. less elongated face. ' See Luitpran. unhappy line. and the shortening of beard and moustache. and. here assumes a thoroughly peevish expression.!.50 of action character.. this type becomes Even the Madonna. a deep. but is narrow and thin below. The artistic arrangement of drapery which was common towards the end * Whether the Emperor Porphyrogemtus (tenth century) pursued the art of painting for pastime. and was certainly never represented under so unattractive an aspect.

An art which * See D'Agincourt's very instructive miniature of the twelfth century. as if glued upon a wooden figure. only that Chinese painting (uai've as it occasionally was) found its climax in a kind of grimacing activity. . and the Byzantine in an unhappy-looking immobility. be filled according to the fashion of the time. as in miniatures. with all its gorgeous ornament. as for instance in the richly embroidered and jewel-studded costume of Byzantine fashion. whose drapery is treated after the antique. with ingenious and symmetrical arrangements. In point of fact. Under such a complication of adverse circumstances we have no right to look for any independence of composition and whenever we are surprised.2 . and the garment. and then was afraid of the ghost he had raised. with fine and animated composition. lies flat and without a fold. but crept gradually in. where the Emperor Alexius Comnenus I. and. and bends. we may safely give all the praise to a foregone period. in the mosaics. yet. and. and with the antique personification of scenery and abstract objects.Part II. who set himself to animate a lifeless corpse. F. the masses had to up with an accumulation of detail. but by the innate slavishness and timidity of the artist. plate 58. however. as. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. by want of skill. of the sixth century seems from that time to have been But though the Byzantine artist never bestowed a thought in the execution of these portions. and brought out with the utmost heightening of gold. In the eleventh century they were at their height.. or rather was incapable of approaching the slightest reality of form. and is doubtless imitated from some older work. attired in just such a formless and smoothly spread dress. we are often reminded of Chinese art. as among a primitive people. Chinese art stands in a similar relation to the old Indian as the Byzantine to the Roman. all attempt at any artistic form ceases. Where the subject. for instance.* It is unnecessary to remind the reader that these defects did not suddenly arise. and parallel folds. The forms of the latter do not appear to be impeded. so there arose the absurdest complication of breaks. 51 arrested. in the stiff conventionalities of later works. all executed with the greatest neatness. admitted of no traditional arrangement of drapery. is standing before the representation of the triumphant Saviour. as.

surrounded by numerous ecclesiastics. in the Constantinopolitan miniatures. which. we arrive at the strange fact that the old types were not only. beyond all . question. But in this degenerate art older as well as newer subjects were condemned to endless repetition. iu the martyr subjects. and in the frescoes of Greek monasteries thus showing. the worn-out state of the ground we are treading. con: for sisting of mere stationary figures. inasmuch as she openly assumed the direction and control of art. reproduced in fresh forms. Book I. as if the relaxed limbs had no longer the power to sustain the body. which are not . triumphant even in death. as. and expression. The first known Byzantine representation of the crucifixion (ninth century) depicts Him in an upright position. position. The later pictures show Him with closed eyes and sunken form. all with a repetition of the same attitude. In one of the argu- . and even in the newly introduced subjects of martyrdom and crucifixion a regular decline is of art obvious. action. and with outstretched arms. as in antique art. the Church. in the mosaics of St. and in the art of the western middle ages. were an easy task example. and that exactly the same forms. Mark at Venice. was ill adapted to venture on new ground. or a Synod. in exactly the same arrangement. for instance. But this is not the realisation of historical painting. lying in the dust before an emperor . and that in the most slavish manner . but that one painter absolutely copied from another. may be said to be symbolically expressed. Not that the blame rests solely with the artists . art is shown. for instance. showing the patriarchs seated with the emperor in a circle.52 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. which is hanging swayed towards the right side. no longer created a single animated figure. but was content to borrow a wretchedly disfigured antique motive at tenth hand that had so accustomed itself to a deathlike stillness of form that it dared not even attempt the variety of a profile. in the person of the Saviour. Where this was indispensable. the representation of eight persons. necessitated such a state of things. In a closer examination of Byzantine works in the mass. while a van- quished heretic lies prostrate on the floor. found in any older works. recur. the thorough powerlessness of the The ceremonial and procession subjects.

the stages.* A. Thus frequently it happened that excellent inventions of the Constantinian. and we shall see. Theodosian. altogether prescribe any new mode of representation. there existed no grounds for ever departing from it . including those in the Russian Church.Part II. according to the proximity in which the copyist stood to the original .D. the Church had once decided upon the most fitting representation of any sacred subject. it is clearly said. 360). after 787. and here and there the attitude (the latter often wretched enough). the holy fathers did not. in point of fact. in the single figures. .. Byzantine art. fathers who have to invent It is not the painters but the holy and to dictate. 1714. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. vol. to a really living art. to this day scrupulously submit themselves to this principle only it must be remembered that no church would have ventured to dictate . a tradition (Oea-fj-oOecrta /ecu TrapdSocris) of the Catholic Church. col. " it is not the invention (ec/>erpeo-<.s) of the painter which creates the picture. so that only the arrangement. and that of course with more or less truth and beauty. Fortunately for art. and Justinian times have been preserved. with which we shall become better acquainted in its later It was altogether a superficial mechanical art. but an inviolable law. 53 ments adduced by an advocate for images in the second Nicene Council. to these perpetually recurring types. Paris. therefore. and that the deadness of the Byzantine of copying had begun long school was as much the cause as the effect of such ecclesias- tical interference. but permitted the copying of those older compositions which had been sanctified by custom. To them mani- festly belongs the composition (Starafts) to the painter only the execution (re'xvr/)." If. The system before the Church interposed its laws. which also contain many interesting facts connected with the history of art. that the Greek painters. had degenerated into a mere luxuriously conducted handicraft. * Printed in the Acts of this Council (Conciliorum ccllectio regia maxima. and in detail Even when the artist has to compose strictly Byzantine. copies at fifth and sixth hand being only true to the original in general arrangement. in short. 787. and precisely on that account did it admit of that incredible ease of imitation are altered. iv. afresh he always adheres.

with their well-known green shadows and rosy lights. the colour- ing became cruder and more motley. was longer preserved than that of drawing . and the highest possible value that can be assigned to it is of a decorative kind. there is a skill and precision observable. injustice in regarding. and. and the outlines more . In respect of colouring also. which. as well as of drawing. and ultimately. A decided mannerism is earliest traceable in the treatment of the flesh tones. Book I. which are at first of an orange colour. as we shall see. This handicraft continued dustry till to be pursued with care and in- "We do this art no into the thirteenth century. but already half-decomposed bodies. the capacity of the artist was only regulated by the number and quality of tracings which he had been able to procure from the works of his predecessors. inasmuch as the : better part of that quality. was excellent also as a mechanical merit is . in proportion as the antique models receded from view. considering the otherwise absolute deadness of the art. It is signifilively cant of the totally unplastic feeling of that time that the gradations were produced by mere strokes. Thus. The effect. with darker and lighter tints. without any breadth of shadow. and at last. not to extol the colouring of some excellent miniatures of the time of the Macedonian emperors as that of the Byzantine school. and then lights. subjects for which had. is always particularly neat. we must take care not to confound the copy with the original for instance. with delicate hatchings. generally speaking. shadows. for instance. especially in the mode of applying the pigments. and finally. the treatment of colour it displays which.54 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. what the feeling for colour. remind us of rouged. and folds inserted. is marvellous. for as far as imitation of nature concerned there is as little reality intended in colouring as in drawing. belongs to the best late Eoman time. and then of a dark brick-red . considering the circumstances. Even the colouring materials in the miniatures appear to be selected and supplied with chemical knowledge. however. generally. once for all. been definitely fixed . as well as of the drawing and Not but invention. Over the outline which the pencil had traced a unbroken colour was usually laid.

with this school of painting was associated.Part II. A. antique mode of decoration tionality. A trace of remaining vigour. as if the precious metal could not be unsparingly.' f The Saracens also borrowed from Byzantium the materials of mosaic work. perhaps the only change which deserves the name of an improvement. natural.. That use of. while after the conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders. which. The backgrounds. For.D. by which the wealth and luxury of this city was greatly undermined. the high lights also. Long before that also an unfor- tunate vehicle of a into use. as we have said before.* The haggard. the garments of Imperial or holy personages are often entirely of gold materials. 55 apparent. does not exclude a perfectly in- In this respect Byzantium telligent mode of treatment.' vol. i. was developed in the department of decoration. look. the nimbuses. . gummy description seems to have come which soon dulled the colours. fsefysa. may be gathered from Hurter's ' Geschichte Innocenz III. only the more wretched on this account. under the title ' ein Gang durch Constantinopel. is evidently from the Greek which . with splendid embroideries. 1204. as in the representation of the glory of Heaven. for in Byzantine art a gold ground was used is for every possible occasion. and. gold which might be sufficiently supposed to be applicable to the subject itself. and such-like lor . there seemed a totally careless sketchincss of treatment. is not to be taken into account here.f * The excessive luxury in other respects. which is laid on solidly and And. here lost in a certain calligraphic convenhowever. and therefore is At the same time the more the more consistent. To this period we are indebted the most splendid arabesques of mixed foliage and animals rich architectural fancies in margins for manuor almost all executed with scripts pictures. after the eleventh century. served as a model to the image-hating Saracenic art. brought into requisition. it the nature of a simken art to endeavour to make amends for its incapacity for all original composition by the splenfigures. as may be supposed. the Arabic name of which. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. the utmost care and neatness. morose with their brick-red or olive-coloured flesh tones.. dour of its materials. and probably received many an impulse from her in return. in churches and palaces. consist generally of gold.

also with battle and hunting subjects. we are. the Emperor Romanus II. in which the valour of the reigning monarch in conflict with enemies or wild beasts was made duly pro- minent . this latter potentate stipulated for a certain quantity of fsefysa for the decoration of the new mosque at Damascus.56 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. tions to refer to. even three centuries later. though one high functionary. by way of exception. we may now mention some mosaics in Rome of the seventh century. ventured in this manner to commemorate the victories of his These mosaics country's arch foe. D. are questions which must be left to their own merits. \i/ij<po>ffis. Cinnamus also informs us that. namely. are all we meanwhile. but few specimens have been preserved in the East. and of these we have no illustraThere is. Agnese fuori le mura. In the subject itself. therefore. Book I. mosaic work. no distinction can well be drawn between the decline of the former and the rise of The most considerable specimens are the latter. Standing upon the boundary-line between the earlier and later styles. mosaics in the tribune of S. fices of the if not surpassed. although we are made aware of the existence of a novel element. however. As regards the only earlier Byzantine painting of a monumental kind. virtually reduced having disappeared. the Sultan of Iconium. Whether and how far the prevailing modes of to be means thought in Italy were favourable to its intrusion. the materials for the mosaics of the Kibla in the mosque at Cordova. The common funda- mental features of these works can but be estimated by the chronological analysis we have already pursued. . at the commencement of the eighth century. we find a sigWhen. which are by no ranked as thorough specimens of the Byzantine style . connected as it is with the the gradual alterations in the Church service. The palatial edi- richest Emperor Theophilus (829-842) sparkled with the ornaments. A. sent the Caliph Abderrhaman III. peace was concluded between Byzantium and the Caliph Walid. also. the palace-walls of the richer courtiers were decorated with the deeds of ancient heroes. 625-638. in which. left to decide here and there upon the degree of Byzantine influence very much according to our own judgment. In the middle of the tenth century. and only very defective notices. to the Italian mosaics of the seventh century. reason to conclude that the splendour of the Justinian time was often equalled.

in contradistinction nificant deviation of Christ appears that of . under the feet of the smallest indication. Agnese standing between the Popes Symmachus and Honorius I. Venanzio. the signs of the Evangelists and of the Christ and the angels cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem. but still with dignity and freedom. only represented by dark stripes. between the three windows. as well as the for the first time thus positively as . mosaics. the sixteen saints. eight saints. Instead of the figure S. On the walls. their stiff. deathlike attitudes. Still plainer indications of the Byzantine style are seen in the very extensive mosaics in the Oratorio di S. is figures. Agnese are mere heavy . appears the Madonna standing with outstretched arms. blotches . already highly conventional heads consist only of a few strokes the red cheeks of S. of the period of On the other hand. in their tolerably flowing forms. the vitrified cubes are larger and no longer fit in closely toMore significant still than this rudeness of outward gether.. much fallen in the world even in the external means of The middle tones are at last entirely omitted (in the draperies they appear to have been later inserted). and had art. on each side of the apsis. circumstance which to is not to be wondered at. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. 57 from the general rule. all the 6th century. as in almost all succeeding of gold. rude and even poor a . D. is here. remind are painted rudely. are four saints. and us. 640-642. Above are half-length figures of Christ and two angels rising out of gaudy clouds. A. the floor. as in most of the later Koman mosaics. the restorers of the Church while the indication of the Godhead is confined to a hand protruding from the heavens and placing a crown upon the head of the saint. and the The staring Byzantine pomp of the saint's garments. between the Lateran. The execution. standing Madonna (who appears motionless one beside another. and above. a side chapel of the Baptistery to In the altar apsis. but has not quite vanished from it is reduced to the The ground. material is the want of intrinsic feeling which is evident in the three figures with their straight folds. it is true. for Rome stood Byzantium in the relation of a provincial town. to the usual neatness of the Byzantine school.Part II.

are the mosaics of the small altar apsis of S. on occasion of the plague in 680. and even in the chief motives there is a want of intelligence of which the foregoing century affords no example. more pains was bestowed than usual . : of the tribune is now occupied by a fresco. It is intended for St. are totally Byzantine. Sebastian subsequently adopted. upon the Coelian Hill. and much more so later. as probably.58 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. On the upper end of the cross (very tastefully introduced) appears a small head of Christ with a nimbus. St. between the Virgin and St. . On the contrary. probably the copy of a mosaic. 682. Similar in style. and doubtless executed soon after this dato. George and St. The subordinate Peter. the figure. There is no analogy between this figure and the usual youthful type of St. over which the hand of the Father is extended in benediction. Giorgio in Velabro the semiis blue. Sebastian. their centre). and draped from head to foot in true Byzantine style. upon the whole. Primus and Feliciauus. As a solitary specimen of this kind it is very remarkable. in a work intended to be so much exposed to the gaze of the nevertheless pious. more careful shading also of the drapery shows that. the copy of the very one which was placed in this church at the time of its dome erection. position of the Virgin here compels us to assign to this work an original of the earliest date. in which a brilliantly decorated cross is represented between the two standing figures of SS. Pietro in Vincoli. date (A. figure in the church of SS. A. and almofet contemporary in 642-649). and. is very inanimate the ground In the church of S. the Virgin with the infant Saviour on her knees assumes the central place. and was vowed to the church by Pope Agathon. the saint is represented here as an old man with white hair and beard. D. Stefano Eotondo. for even at this time (682). Sebastian. The Saviour (copied from the splendid Cosmo e Damiano) is standing upon the globe of the world. D. carrying the crown of martyrdom in his hand. the folds and shadows are indicated In their garments also by a mere stripe of dark conventional colour. Book I. A single figure in mosaic exists as an altar-piece in S. In The his countenance there is still some life and dignity.

* of course not the original works which. TLe cathedral of Nicaea displayed the portraits of the 318 bishops who presided at the council there. upon a gold ground. a splendidly decorated cross with a half-length figure of Christ in the centre. The mosaics. a level with that apostle. the destruction of S. the profile to that art. once more declared itself upon an equality with the Roman Church. Apollinaris (the scholar of St. Paolo fuori le mura at Rome.. On each side of the circle are the half4ength figures of Moses and Elijah emerging from the clouds. namely. in league with Byzantium. with light pink and light blue clouds. the glorification of In the semidome of the apsis. very youthfully depicted. Lord of Rimini. . Apollinare in Classe which. Peter). as formerly in the pictures of the Popes in le mura. II.Part. They exemplify. here. The heads Paolo fuori time when the church of Ravenna. and. those in the splendid basilica of S. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. which we described at the beginning of this work. 59 To this period (probably from 671 to 677) belong the last mosaic decorations of importance at Ravenna. were entirely lost but apparently correct copies. viz. on account of their transfiguration. by fire. we observe an almost perfect collection of those earliest symbols of Christian art. to place him upon St. between the arches of the centre aisle. from the simple monogram to the Good Shepherd and the Fisherman. In the spandrils. appears a blue circle studded with gold stars and set in jewels. unknown being totally in and above the apsis. now that the history of art has sustained an irreparable injury in . upon a * In the Western Church also there existed a similar work. the Church of Ravenna. owing to the destruction of the surface of these walls by that enemy to art Sigismund Malatesta. both. are given full in front. within this. Further below. however. while above the arch in a row of medallions are the portraits of the Archbishops of Ravenna. are old and genuine remarkable S. and sought by paying honour to its relics of that own patron saint. alone give us any idea of the manner in which whole rows of pictures and symbols in mosaics were employed to ornament the interior of churches. The order and arrangement of these mosaics declare this intention in the clearest way.

at all events. Stefano Rotondo. side pictures of the lower wall merit also a closer examinawhich are here combined in one really spirited composition. the influence of Abraham's Byzantium may be considered to have been here restricted to the the arrangement alone occupying . we work to 671-677. and are only distinguished by more powerful and less conventional heads. the drawing is in every way inferior to those of the sixth the execution. the four bishops excepted. The shall hesitate perhaps to assign the invention of this figure of Abel is. who are rudely and sketchily treated. surrounded by On the lower walls appear four Ravenna sheep. On the other hand. however. Apollinaris. in the centre ' Book I. residence.* * If we consider how habitual the practice of copying had become late in the Roman time. century though doubtless executed within the shadow of the exarchal " term " Byzantine than inasmuch as the the Roman works we have just described. have greater dignity and beauty of folds. Melchisedek. stands St. while the presence of the Saviour is only. are less entitled to the figures only partake in the slightest degree of that stiff lifelessness which characterises the saints in S. and in point of execution Beneath an open curtain. however. his arms raised in benediction. of meaning in the arrangement. is very careful. a direct imitation of that in S. Venanzio The draperies. and. meadow with fifteen of the whole.60 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. the Granting of the In all these works Privileges to the Church of Ravenna. under canopies with draperies and chandeliers. These mosaics. tion. have disappeared in Too many churches. also. Vitale. with their respective Ravenna (th cathedral. mosaics. and Abraham. indicated by the cross. trees. the principal church . or the totally conventional-shaped trees with that before hut in S. and on each side are two larger pictures of the sacrifices of Abel. especially as we find a mere saint central place which had hitherto been assigned to Christ. especially the three sacrifices. Nevertheless. Cosmo and Damiano. a sensible decline in the feeling for nature is here observable. on comparing the and long-legged ugly sheep surrounding St. Apollinaris. in spite of a frequent want others. with more . The two as in S. but little in character with the foregoing. Vitale. middle tones than usual. on a blue ground. bishops. behind a are decidedly the best. with those in the church of SS.

glimmering through the dust of a thousand years. in the figures of the archangels Michael and Gabriel. in figure of a half-naked youth in linen chlamys. who is clad in the crimson of the heads mantle. who is not represented naked (as in S.. Here an obvious Byzantine stiffness is apparent. Vitale. and inferior in drawing and execution. an old man in white robe. which are advancing up both sides of the arch of the tribune two palm-trees are placed lower down. On the left Abel is seen advancing.* On the right. These are suc. which are introduced lower down at the side of the tribune. Upon the wall above the tribune.Part 11. in act of breaking the bread. a half-length of Christ with the signs of the Evangelists. Eavenna.). Tiberius 11. Privilegia. 61 covered table. On the right. and Tiberius. advancing door of the palace Constantine. In respect. is leading his son. in pointing out decided originals in those which still exist. to justify us. . good antique taste. stands the Archbishop of Ravenna surrounded by four ecclesiastics. in diadem and crimson mantle. however. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. In all probability the three figures are intended for Constantine Pogonatus. upon a strip of blue ground. is slighter. both of building and painting. &c. and the well-known Emperor Heraclius. may be seen. which is faced with embroidered cloth of The heads gold. Three imperial with are from a curtained nimbuses. as compared with the two ceremonial pictures in S. Heraclius. On the other hand. that a part of the white tunic is visible. so that. (type of Christ). carrying a lamb. to say nothing of those in Byzantium itself. the outlines are rudely conspicuous. but wears a yellow robe. Yitale). Neither animals nor trees are superior to those within the tribune. we find traces of a Each is holding in his right hand the Labarum). ceeded by the twelve sheep. of the suburb Classis. the Granting of the Privileges. while the left so grasps the crimson mantle. * The difficult question as to which of the emperors is meant by this name is not ours to solve. flag of victory (the are of youthful beauty. Abraham. youths. The corresponding picture. one of whom is receiving from Constantine a scroll with a red inscription. quietly looking on. sits the venerable white-haired Mclchisedek. for example. without the strongest external proofs.

In the struggle with the Iconoclasts. after the Franks had snatched the Exarchate from chair. confined itself to a few solitary decora- and to repairs. of the numerous treasures that are recorded by different anything has survived.62 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. it is difficult to decide. Maria in Cosmedin an Adoration of the three Kings which. who had caused Gregory tions of destroyed in Constantinople. The only specimen fragment belonging to the old church of St. every trace of Classis has disappeared. A to this. and to this latter circumstance solely is this little out-of-the-way papal country town indebted for tions the preservation of some early middle-age treasures of art such as the whole world cannot furnish elsewhere. form an easy group. Finally. now in the sacristy of S.D. and. the mosaic decora- many churches were devised. till in the year 782 the splendid suburb Classis was conquered and laid waste. art. A. the Virgin and Child. displays a good antique feeling for The figures which have been preserved.. to the cause. the perpetual attacks of the Longobards had robbed the Exarchate of successive portions of territory. after the fall of the Ostrogoths. How far the wars and disastrous events of the eighth century had any influence upon art at Rome.D. had greatly declined. under any circumIn addition stances. 708-715). As regards Pope Constantine (A. Peter. 705. Zacharias. Peter's (whether in mosaic is not said). we are informed by Paulus Diaconus (vi. pictures" Emperor Leo at the commencement of the dispute " elevate . at the present day. on the border of the celebrated pine wood. a similar row of council pictures to be Also in the pontificates of and Adrain I. and an angel. with the exception of the fine and solitary Apollinaris church. though of a barbaric writers. since. scarcely is a little negligence in execution. Earthquakes also did their part to destroy what other evils spared. and. further. Rome had zealously espoused the picture " The sacred thus wrote Gregory II.. III. that this was done out of spite against the monothelite Emperor Philipicus Bardanes. Joseph. provincial city of the Eastern Empire had. Book I. no very brilliant history in those times. 34) that he caused the six orthodox councils to be painted in the vestibule of St. in the hand of the Longobards and made it over to the papal Ravenna. composition.

ren to view them. enthroned. the monasteries of Eome granted an asylum to whole bands of Byzantine painters. on w hich occasion the application of mosaics is frequently mentioned. to whom He is giving the Keys.D. as already said. the ancient original. drapery. God. Unfortunately the apsis mosaic of the Leonine Triclinium in the Lateran. Sylvester before Him. in their stiff. so important also in other respects. with the exception of a few somewhat modernized heads. stands the Saviour in act of benediction. so important as being the last relic of the great historical subjects in this building. On the walls next the tribune we find those celebrated pictures of deep political and ecclesiastical significance. only adheres to the shape of the figure. This pontificate. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. In both the last-named kneeling figures . Here we first perceive a totally conventional distribution of the masses of the forth at drapery. yet infirm attistill more in the unmeaning disposition of the and tudes. (A." And when. in Byzantium. the eleven apostles in white robes around Him . All hearts raise themselves to cation to the painted histories. ecclesiastical art was attacked by the sword. the four rivers of Paradise gushing His feet. On stola the right is St.Part II. in the still existing Eoman mosaics. Peter. though loaded with meaningless folds (namely with bluish strokes of colour). On the left appears the Saviour enthroned. 795-816). an interval of almost a century. that we must content ourselves with a copy in mosaic. which. and resume them only after the pacification of the country under Pope Leo III. The figures. almost replaces Within the tribune. display a decided Byzantine influence. upon a gold ground. Fathers and mothers lift up their Youths and foreigners point with 63 childedifi- the feelings of men. which. in the act of bestowing the upon Pope Leo III. in sign of investiture. is distin- guished by numerous church repairs and new erections. has suffered so severely in the attempt made in the last century to transfer it to the outer walls of the chapel of the Sancta Sanctorum. with the kneeling figure of St. Nevertheless. which are of immeasurably higher historical value than the ceremonial pictures of the Imperial Palace at Constantinople. and a banner upon Charlemagne. while He extends a banner to Constantino the Great. scarcely any influence from this circumstance is to be perceived we find.

a species of likeness is aimed at. are represented in profile. and with the symbols of the Evangelists. Of the same period is the altar apsis in the church of SS. is in the centre between Moses and EliNereo and Achilleo kneeling on either side further on the left the Annunciation. and on the right the Virgin and Child. so do we perceive in the Roman works of this period only a deeper decline into Byzantine deformity. underneath the baths of Caracalla. we do not presume The most splendid and extensive works of that to decide. with gates representing the heavenly Jerusalem. In all mosaics of later date than those containing the history of Christ upon the arch of Triumph in S.D. and how far this was again acted upon from the parent nursery. however.. is the Saviour between two angels. who are represented Him . almost without exception. Over the arch of Triumph. as usual. viz. . but are still remarkable in intention. taken from aisle. holding a globe in His hand. Maria Maggiore. only that Charlemagne has been caricatured in the attempt. The pontificate of Paschal I. which succeeded that of Leo III. Book I. Whether there then existed in Rome a branch school of mosaic-workers from Constantinople. the gates. owing doubtless to the free exercise of art which the maintenance oi peace permitted.. was rich in mosaic works.EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. those on the arch of Triumph. and have been greatly restored. while on each side of Him are a row of saints offering Four angels are standing at their triumphal crowns. more have been preserved in this church than in any other. (A. flourishing school of Carlovingian art only the tardy echo of the antique. the decoration of this portion is again of an historical nature. For any positive advance these were not and equally as we trace in the apparently the times transfigured Saviour . we have observed that same arch decorated. accompanied by an angel. though short in time. 817-824). were doubtless the mosaics in S. with apocalyptic subjects. pontificate Esquiline Hill. within the tribune itself. who Nereo e Achilleo. on the arch of the tribune. in the centre of a walled space. Prassede on the At all events. and the entire decorations of the chapel of one side The subjects on the arches are. The figures are small. Here. with SS. The jah. the Apocalypse. inviting the concourse to enter.

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' f See Rumohr's Ital. i. Zeno. and Preface. Peter and St. from their " splendour. p. In the (copied from SS. without any connection as regards their scheme. S. which are merely rude Within. nor to fill up with truth of detail.Part II. Paul. and. Not that anything was gained by the multiplicity of these small stiff parallel-placed figures on the contrary. one of them with the same phoenix as in the church of SS. they originally obtained the name of the Garden of Paradise. Upon the arch of is the customary representation of the Lamb decorated with jewels. advancing to cast their crowns before the Lamb. As for the contemporary mosaics in the side chapel.. where the style of these Roman mosaics of the ninth century is for the first time investigated with some precision. though. clad in white robes. See also idem. (See woodcut. The only remarkable portion is the Lamb * The square nimbus is conjectured to represent one living at the time. four angels. owing to the increasing rudeness of execution. On each side of the arch are the four-and-twenty elders. viii. the thirteen lambs as usual.) The church not being large for such an amount of subjects. folds of the consist chiefly draperies are only dark strokes the faces of three coarse lines. The church . SS. p. us only the impression of disjointed atoms. the walls are covered with saints and various symbols. the * nimbus founder.f Altogether we perceive that the Byzantine art of that time relied upon the multitude of its figures for effect. in mosaics. surrounded with the seven a seat upon candlesticks.' vol. and more and more avoided those single colossal forms which it was neither able to animate with feeling. Cosmo e Damiano. and the symbols of the Evangelists. Cosmo e D^miaiio) Christ occupies the centre above Him the hand of the Father holding a wreath on either side St. their hands. Further below. 246. with a square carrying the model of a last of all two palm-trees. F . they may be considered as completely barbaric. 65 and with palm-branches in the tribune advancing in solemn procession below. semi-dome Praxedis and Pudentiana. 239. the figures are on a small scale. Forschungen. vol ii." The door is enframed in a double row of medallion-portraits caricatures. and Pope Paschal. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. have a somewhat barbaric effect. p. they give .

Of just described. usually in the form of a frieze decoration. good might be seen the Virgin and Child enthroned between two angels and eleven martyrs who are advancing from the two cities of . at feet. dome itself. this time upon a blue ground with small clouds. with four stags. the in elders their accustomed attitudes. the flowers floor beneath the figures is also decorated with a graceful species of ornament seldom aimed at in . But four-and-twenty the entablature of the vestibule has still its old decoration On Bethlehem and Jerusalem of beautiful gold ornaments on a blue ground and blue ornaments upon a gold ground. Within the tribune appear the Virgin and Child seated on a throne . till a recent date. most remarkable thing here is the rich foliage decoration. forming a border in no very the walls of the tribune. Upon the groined roof is a half-length figure of Christ.* Within the tribune is seen the Saviour again. in rudeness and multiplicity of figures. two prophets. with unspeakable stiffness of limb. Cecilia are those in and above the tribune of S. alternately intersected with small portrait medallions showing that the decorative of an art long survive the decline of all the rest. Cecilia in Trastevcre. Pope Paschal. with angels ranged in regular rows on each side and. connect the semicircular lower wall of the tribune with the semidome above in an agreeable manner. with four half-length figures below to correspond. Similar in style to the mosaics in S. who appear to point towards Him. The thirteen lambs which. correspond pretty much with those we have artist's invention. Maria della Navicella (also parts called in Dominica) upon the Coalian Hill. Book I. and further below. which. with five saints. further below.66 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. and the two palmtrees . with two angels and the twelve apostles on either hand. and. are arches. on a much larger The scale. her the Saviour in a nimbus. Besides the wreaths of flowers (otherwise not a rare feature) which are growing out of two vessels at the edge of the dome. the kneeling Upon the walls of the tribune is figure of Pope Paschal I. are all included on the taste. borne by four angels. who in the poverty of the divided in two by the groining of the the same period are the mosaics of the Church of S.

executed under Pope Gregory IV.Part II. Further on. The lines of the drapery are chiefly straight and parallel. is the portrait of Christ between the symbols of the Evangelists. and of true Byzantine rigidity.* The greatly restored tribune mosaics of S. were inaccessible to us. mosaics of the time of Sergitis II. five angels and Pope Gregory IV. there still exist in the chapd of the Sancta Sanctorum. Francesca Komana (probably A. while. with all their splendour. is the standing figure of Christ with an open book. Marco at Rome.D. however. are the thirteen lambs. 827-844). seem to indicate that we have not so much to do here with the decline of Byzantine art as with a Northern. By had become apparent that such figures as the art of that day was alone able to achieve could have no possible relation to each other. and a few accessories (for instance. with all this rudeness. D. beneath a hand extended with a wreath. of 67 the moroseness Byzantine art. is The ground. Above the tribune. in circular compartments. and probably Frankish. and therefore no longer constitute a I.) close the group of these it this time composition the artist accordingly separated the Madonna on the throne and the four saints with uplifted hands. 844-847). The execution is here especially rude. (A. fulness in the forms. while. Paul (or two prophets) with scrolls. but still belonging to the dome. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. (A. forming a second and quite uneven circle round the figures. Within the tribune. page 76. graceful arcades. only of feeble lines the cheeks are only red blotches the folds merely dark strokes nevertheless. At the same * According to Eme'ric David. on either side. exhibit the utmost poverty of expression. he has given them each a separate little pedestal. a certain play of colour has been contrived by the introduction of high lights of another colour. by . a certain flow and . the glories blue. the pontificate of Nicholas Roman-Byzantine works. as in most foregoing mosaics. decline into utter barbarism is rapid. influence. 858-867. F2 . From this point the The mosaics of S. St. and further below. the exchange of a crown upon the Virgin's head for the invariable Byzantine veil). Peter and St. D. as if the artist knew that his long lean figures were anything but secure upon their feet. and. . The faces of course consist gold. These. near the Lateran.

presented by Bishop Hugo. there the mosaics which Gisela. The execution seems more careful. " " the with which the Abbots Potto beautiful figures very George. the portrait The Cathedral and Gisulf embellished the entire walls of the church of Monte Casino have disappeared. figures. Book I. we cannot assign this mosaic to the thirteenth century. the help of Byzantium into requisition. of St. 832. Rome especially was the sport of the most terrible factions. Those which Pope Formosus contributed to the old church of still exist St. endeavoured to raise her head. had. For seventy years that undistracted happy country had been by ceaseless broils. of Gisela. which had grown up under the nominal protection of Byzantium. that basilica. Of the later works of the ninth century nothing more exists at Rome. After the close of the ninth century mosaic art seems to have almost ceased in Italy. D. we compare together all authentic works of the time. recently restored. art sustained did not readily heal again. 891-896) shared In Aquileja. than in the mosaics of H similar period in Home. Peace was restored by force of arms under the Othos but the deep wounds which all intellectual and artistic enterprise had . presented to the church. * We may Ambrose . he was compelled to was called hire mosaic-workers from Constantinople. according to all accounts. This state became the thriving mart for the empires of the here mention in addition those mosaics of the choir apsis at Milan (Christ between two archangels with SS. On the other hand. and the figures more animated. For example. in the general distraction of the country. in many instances scarcely less detrimental to its well-being than the inroads of the northern tribes. They contain (what is most remarkable for that time) a crucifixion. which are supposed to have been executed A. after this. the Virgin.D. remained undisturbed. by a monk of the name of Gaudentius. if EARLY CHRISTIAN ART.) rebuilt the church of his monastery. and various allegorical of Capua also possesses mosaics of that period.68 time. St. * Meanwhile the republic of Venice. the destruction of (A. Gervasius and Protasius). the daughter of Louis Peter the Pious. when Abbot Desiderius of Monte Casino (afterwards Pope Victor III. who instructed several pupils in the art. Wherever.

and cupolas comprising a surface of more than forty thousand square feet was covered with walls. the inhabitants of these isles adopted the lion for their symbol.Part II. Mark. which were completed in the year 882. mosaics on a gold ground a gigantic work. Mark the Evangelist from Alexandria to Venice. After the transfer of the body of St. church honoured as the resting-place of the saint with all the splendour which the wealth of a thriving commercial The gorgeous luxury of the city could bestow. adhered entirely to Greek models her architecture partook equally of Oriental and Occidental elements. founded A. to supply which the whole mere maempire of The floor. as her painters : because this alone. THE BYZANTINE STYLE.D. inasmuch art. half way up. how- the Byzantine type represented in the church of St. may be considered almost exclusively a Byzantine colony. in the condemnation which Byzantium had passed on all the higher plastic forms of art. which even all the wealth of Venice spent six centuries in patching together. the active commerce which. and perhaps even to the tenth century. Cyprian in the island of Murano. In point of however. up to the thirteenth century. and only her sculpture retained a positive Western character. was maintained became a constant bond of union. and the pillars. The Venetian mosaics especially we may regard as an almost sufficient indemnification for those of the Eastern Empire which have been lost to posterity. could derive no assistance from that city. while the rest of the interior upper waggon roofs. ever. terials of the edifice. for instance. is With incomparably more force. 69 East and West and even after all political connection with Byzantium had ceased. . 976. The earliest existing specimens of this kind are the mosaics in the church of St. representing a Christ with the Virgin between archangels. . walls. Venice. the the East was ransacked. is well known. to decorate the their prosperity. therefore. the earliest wall and cupola pictures of which go back at least to the eleventh. since the characters of undisturbed Byzantine descent are those much more legible there than. . were covered with the most costly marbles. and regarded the sacred remains as the pledge of It behoved them. in Eoman works just described.

70 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. contains. it is As respects our own researches. the history of the translation of the sacred re- mains. has been perpetuated in this edifice. The divide these from the principal cruciform space. appears. as is well known. converted into a . the figure of a cross. by way as it were of introduction. atrium. and indifferent. We are reminded that raised . with five cupolas. as we often observe in the porches of Gothic churches. down to the lowest mannerism of the Every school of Tintoretto. style of art. was the devotion of seafaring men that men who were willing to propitiate the favour of Heaven by the richest offerings they could devise. chapel and baptistery. the edifice forms. And even if any ginally existed. certain that here alone do we obtain any idea of the wealth of mosaics which existed in the State buildings of ancient Constantinople. In these mosaics of St. to the higher beauties of art. especially The earliest since the time of Titian. though of modern execution. provided the utmost pomp and splendour were but attained. nise Mark it would be difficult to recogori- any consistent or sustained idea. which subjects. Rows of pillars. The interior of referring to the mystery of baptism. connected as certain groups and masses may In the five large semiappear. The general coup the pile d'oeil is it somewhat dim and heavy. the history of the old covenant from the Creation to the time of Moses (excellent works. portions also. have taken the place of older works. with false galleries half way up the church. the history of Christ . will . however. in the multiplicity of forms. in their short intervals of rest. The further) St. which. have not adhered to it. the artists of the different epochs. circular recesses of the front. show no traces of any plan. and in the semicircular terminations of the upper walls. which necessarily flourished during this period. which we shall consider and then in a portion of the atrium which has been . and a multitude of curious symbolical subjects. the history of Mark. therefore. can only embrace the principal features. each of which rests on four wide massive arches every two of them constituting a sort of side aisle. descriptive plan on page 72. Book I. which surrounds the edifice on three sides.

Here are the Christian virtues. In commencing with Any Paradise. Christ and the Prophets. Here alone do we see the guests of the Feast of Pentecost. for all the innumerable Northern churches. hermits. the Apocalypse. but to all the more important examples of times. On the other hand. we perceive in all those subjects (as. some trace of freedom and ible. was still discern- on the contrary. and drawing Adam upwards with the other. and column saints of all kinds being placed here according to their rank. the highest value of these works find. an exception was made. the acts and martyrdoms of the apostles. and terminating with the Holy of Holies. and the Feast of Pentecost. and the contiguous waggon roofs) are such as to require only a brief notice. which amount of frescoes belonging to may have exhibited the same sub- jects (and those in a much finer form). with the Saviour repre- sented mounting above the riven gates of Hades. the Ascension. Mark's (included principally in the front. given with a completeness scarcely found elsewhere . the Arabians almost naked . for which are not the obvious copies of older works . Here we for example. with the banner of victory in one hand. and executed without any strict reference to the In the innumerable single figures of saints principal events. It is this kind of later mediaeval only in the history of Christ that we find some consistency. each two and two. and arrow .Part II. centre. have vanished. and so on. and left cupola. or left only the scantiest relics behind. sequence of ideas in these representations can only be suggested by the spectator himself. is of an archfeo-liturgical description. the earlier mosaics of St. in the Eoman mosaics of the time of Pope life Paschal L. though accompanied with numerous repetitions. After all. we see the commencement of that remarkable order of precedence which later Byzantine art assigned to them holy deacons. not only to the then generally accepted order of ecclesiastical decoration. in their respective costumes the Jews in pointed hats the Parthians with bow . THE BYZANTINE STYLE. 71 show how little the opportunity of following up the artistic development of a theological design was taken suffice to advantage of. here. If. in point of artistic worth.

So- L ^ . Book I. the Virgin.72 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. In the Tribune. with four Saints below. A colossal Christ. ^ jS Christ.

Mark seated with the book of the Gospels upon the throne . that very Ascension) an utter extinction of all free- The figures are. are small and well fitted. flat silver inlaid figures of which belong to the department School. next to him the standing figures of four saints . while by the omission of the ground under their feet. the execution is delicate and careful. only the meagre and conleft. not of a very animated character. and the Normans the first alone possessed a developed school of painting.Part II. but round and soft.of the Latin inscriptions. though in the arts of architecture and sculpture they Even in the earliest Norman pursued their own course. of the decrepit theology of Byzantium. 73 instance. namely.D. as conquerors. which the Normans. the Saracens. On the other hand. A. specimen that has been preserved. building is of the Norman style of architecture. appears here in likeness of an old man. tracted outlines are Christ Himself. only the mosaics (an altar apsis on the and a door lunette) and the brazen central gate the right. of form. Every step the merest stretching forth of a dom hand threatens to overset them. as it were. Of the three races which contended in the eleventh century for the possession of this territory the Greeks. essentially Byzantine. in the style of the Western Indeed. it is true. at least in The vitrified cubes those portions which are near the eye. Another group of Occidental-Byzantine mosaics exists in Lower Italy and Sicily. in crimson . of drawing. this state of The things is illustrated in the most remarkable way. other light colours gleam and delicate hatchings of gold and among the stiffness of the drapery. of the time of the Normans. 1080. the last remnant of stability seems removed. throughout. above. a winged Christ. in spite . The mosaics on the altar apsis represent St. adopted from them . a symbol. and not to that of sculpture are. founded by Robert Guiscard. looking as if they would fall asunder with the slightest movement. The more important sculptures are. Of the grand and solemn types of mosaic art of the fifth and sixth century. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. the Cathedral of Salerno. with white hair and beard. lifeless shadows. mingled (as far as it is not constructed of ancient materials stolen from Passtum) with evidences of a Saracenic influence.

* As far as we can judge from illustrations and descriptions. churches S. a number which. In treating of the miniatures of the Byzantine school. the Cathedral of Cefalu (the last especially remarkable). reminds us of the probably similar decorations of the Hall of State. and the mosaics of several other . since a number of excellent descriptions and satisfactory illustrations already exist. withered style which we find in the earlier pictures of St. erected in Constantinople A. Paul and finally. 829-842. Maria dell' Ammiraglio . because the best miniatures of the Byzantine * The illustrations of all these mosaics. more than a were required for the execution of these existence of an old and hundred mosaics. and the illustrations in D'Agincourt's ' Histoire de 1'Art. of Norman-Byzantine art are the mosaics in the Cathe- dral of Monreale. Matthew in the The most splendid specimens. which. last page gives us a true idea of the style. with the somewhat heraldic-shaped animals and ornaments upon a gold ground. and that only in a few examples. to be coloured in a modern In Hittorf and Zanth's Architecture Moderne de la Sidle. j" to which it will be easy to refer our readers also. more may : especially. ' . with the other numerous palaces of this potentate. 201. near Palermo (after the year 1174). As this edifice artists was very rapidly completed. without exception. could hardly have been Of somewhat earlier date is the no less splendid supplied. the same barren. however.). Palermo decoration of the walls of the chapel of King Eoger in (after 1140). f See principally Waagen's Kunstwerke und Kunstler in Paris. The same may this be said of the half-length figure of door lunette.' p. in Palermo (about 1100). a long row of Biblical events. the nave.room of King Roger I. Book I.D. by Serradifalco (del Duomo di Monreale. only the style. Mark. is throughout observ- able in these Sicilian works. robe. appear.' many of which are taken from tracings. called the Margarita. we safely curtail our remarks. St. The hunting. where the centre apsis contains an unusually colossal half-length figure of Christ the space around it a crowd of saints the arms of the transept the histories of St. all in the same stiff but neat style as in the earliest Venetian mosaics. have disappeared. by the Emperor Theophilue. with long sceptre and globe . &c. and many others.74 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. without the long-established school in Sicily. Peter and St.

in the antique style. although broad and full. in the manner of the antique." compared allows also that the beautiful composition of the Isaiah must have had " a very early original. " Melody" leaning on the shoulder of the youthful and On one side lies the " Mountain.Part II. is a Psaltery of the tenth century. while Farther robe. while Strength is stationed behind David. and with a allegorical on is David killing a lion. and as such have been in some measure already described. ' * See illustrations in f Waagen. the most celebrated Codices of the time of the Macedonian Emperors. Gregory Nazianzen. Gregory. and other distinguished personages of a late period. for instance. " similar manner. In . they have quite an antique " that the mode of look . When portrayed as " " and " Prophecy encompass him a monarch. 203-205. under the symbols of antiquely-conceived History of Our Lord in Art.' pp. now in the Koyal Library at Paris. is hovering over him. Thus. laying on the colours. and arrangement of drapery. while the other subjects Here we find the petitions of the charming compositions of the fifth and sixth centuries represent the principal events from the creation of the world to the time of St. " " " Vainglory is seen fleeing behind the giant. " Wisdom " " when as a penitent sinner. are contained in a codex of sermons by St. from whom we forms."f Here may be seen. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. but admits that motives. " Strength. Repentance is above him. does not strictly declare " in these miniatures to be copies of older works. green still. yet is by no means to be He the to feeling foi. More interesting from its numerous personifications of natural imagery and abstract qualities. borrow these words. The finest and most important miniatures. male figure crowned with a wreath. Again." . are copies and facsimiles of the best Romano-Christian works. represented in the restyle of the ninth century . at the scene of his anointing." a youthful female figure. under the form of a sublime-looking female. Clemency At his encounter with Goliath." an beautiful David. martyrs. costume. is inciting him to deeds " " of valour.* of which it may be truly " in no other Greek said that manuscript has the ancient mode of conception been so purely preserved. the monarchs. but are copies of earlier Roman works. forty-seven in number." and remarks further. composition displayed in these works. 75 time do not actually belong to the Byzantine school.

burnt in the red-hot effigy of a bull. and so on . the conqueror of the Bulgarians." &c. The Bottomless " Pit. suspended by the feet. though all idea of anatomy is lost. scourged to death. is essentially a work of and decidedly one of the best known. ' ' t The tracings from the above in D'Agincourt's Histoire de 1'Art are somewhat modernised in detail. traces of that period. the saints. where the Eiver Jordan appears as a male figure with an urn. by which a tolerably correct understanding of action is shown.f In the Biblical scenes. from the life of Christ. were we not corrected in our supposition by the figure of a female with succinct drapery and flying veil. they do that century great credit for though. and. in the single figures. only to the half of the year) with scenes. belonging to the ninth century. Eight whose name recur from time to time." " EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. J It is remarkable that single subjects from the Menologium are repeated in the mosaics of the cathedral of Monreale probably because this work contained old compositions which had become common property in Byzantine art. the so-called Vatican Menologium. are represented BOOK " " 1. and the history of the Church the latter in the form of Synods. torn by wild beasts in the amphitheatre. The saints are here seen suffering martyrdom in various ways . horrible as many of them are. crucified. but powerfully " conceived miniatures of " The Christian Topography of the Cosmas (now in the Vatican). and not quite trustworthy.." The Night. we discern a : great want of life. drowned. A. and here and there very animated.76 male and female Desert. 989-1025). figures. earlier original still to the rudely executed. decorated the separate days of this most costly of all calendars (extending.! but the martyrdoms of the Saints are really the compositions of the tenth century . which represents '' Dancing. artists. being a semi-heathenish worship of nature abstract ideas. earlier motives occur. Drapery and * See ' Menologium Grzecum. however.* with its 430 splendid miniatures on a gold ground (executed for the Emperor Basil. . of which the tenth century of itself was totally On the same principle we might attribute a much incapable.' 3 vols." The Eed Sea." On the other hand. yet the composition is upon the whole well understood." " Mount and of Sinai. dragged to death by horses.D.

gold embroidered garments. the well-known allegory of the Virtues as the steps leading to Heaven. explained by marginal inscriptions the bad qualities. which were formerly characterised attribute. not only of an early character. Far inferior to these heads are throughout are the miniatures of the Dogmatica Panoplia. the colours gay and gaudy. Of the panel pictures of the Byzantine school much the same . On the other hand. The symbols of abstract objects . being represented as negroes. ' The actions are mostly expressed in a very awkward manner. With the thirteenth century an irretrievable decline in technical power and invention ensued. according to some prescribed system. and the whole execution one mere painted scrawl. The already elongated forms became more attenuated.Part II. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. while here they appear only as small male and female figures. but also of the character belonging to that century. contains excellent compositions. a collection of sermons for the Feast of the Virgin (in the Vatican. Another important manuscript of the time of the Comneni the Klimax of Johannes Klimakus (in the Vatican). It is interesting here to observe the new treatment of the frequently recurring personifications of these abstract subjects. in the Vatican. decrepit heads. and is remarkable for great beauty of decorative ornament. are seen in the gorgeous apparel of the imperial daughters of Byzantium. while portraits of the time of the Palseologi consist of meagre heads. 77 stiff and conventional. Justice and Mercy. for instance. executed for Alexis Comneuus (A. which are only remarkable for stiff. and clearly drawn compositions on a gold ground. the appear seldomer and when they do. however. the drawing utterly feeble. exhibits in small. are clad. and weak. and of a mass of ornament intended to represent a robe.D. the nude is somewhat meagre. not in the old ideal costume but in the fashion last relics of antique art of the period. and moreover disfigured by an ugly brickred colour the result perhaps of an improper vehicle. by form and and generally represented looking on in silent dignity. 1081-1118). which has also lowered the colours.) belonging to the twelfth century. and of the Vices as those which lead to Hell. highly delicate. in which the initials consist chiefly of the figures of animals.

with Biblical scenes. countless pictures of this kind had been executed for the purposes of private devotion chiefly in the monasteries but it must be remembered that. and solid nature of the the Saints. appears to be somewhat stiffer. Mark's. which it tints. previous to the controversy concerning images. brought into Italy by means It represents the death of St. also. It consists of a number of delicate gold plates. may and here wanting its be said as of the miniatures. have been hung up by the keeper of the Vatican. ordered for Mark's the most costly altar-piece that Constantinople could furnish. are represented in an enamel of the richest and deepest colours. life The of that anchorite. The Republic of Venice. The most important is a Byzantine picture of the ninth century. and which is still preserved in that church. there are golden reliquaries of a similar workmanship. upon which Christ and the Saints. St. There being no knowledge (which is perceptible in all enamels of mediaeval times) of gradation of St. the Virgin. the fruits of * very instructive collection of such pictures. It is true that. Ephraim. and many still more recent. In the background are various scenes A from the variety. now found in Italy. belongs to the later Middle Ages. the wood itself would have decayed in the lapse of a thousand years. perhaps even the order In the of the subjects. only that positive dates are while. in the spaces of the Museo Cristiano. the style of which is of course intimately allied with that of the foregoing are pictures. the lights and shadows are expressed by gold hatchings (whether scratched out or laid on. from the stationary monotony of art . The present decorative framework.78 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. Book I. though requires a microscopic eye to trace. The style. with of the painter Squarcione. and the Life of Mark. in spite of the ground or preparation. The innumerable Byzantine pictures of Christ. for instance. monks and suffering poor around. perhaps.* are almost entirely the manufacture of the later periods of Eastern art. not without some expression of individual artist's name was Emanuel Tzanfurnari. Monsig Laureani. no conclusion as to time can be obtained. and of the highest delicacy of execution. . some of them. treasury of St. we know not). as well as many of an 6 old -Italian kind. Another especial department of Byzantine workmanship consists in those gorgeous enamels upon gold. types for so many centuries. contemporary with the Vatican Menologium.

at least on occasion of their assisting at the consecration of the Pope in the character of Deacons. Saviour as dispenser of the Sacraments.Part II.! Finally. to be of the same style. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. 1204). and the execution is of the utmost and truest Byzantine delicacy. by } S. Figures were probably first introduced in them in Northern art. as still existing.' assigns this work to an Apulian nun of the order of St.* in the sacristy of St. Basil. after the tenth century. The very inanimate and especially the length of the proportions. we may mention. Ornament and arrangement are admirable. A Geschichte der bildenden Kiinste in of Apulia.. but rather to the is true. Fiorillo. See an elaborate treatment of this subject. we may mention with silver. upon the sleeves. and which. and has even explained Those gorgeous the constellations. ' Duke .D. embroidered in gold and silver. with illustrations. "The composer or designer of the figures has mingled up things worldly and spiritual. which makes it Byzantine to all intents and purposes. the style. 79 the pillage of Constantinople (A. The mosaic pictures also of the Royal Palace at Ravenna (in S.) tapestries which are seen as much in Eastern as in Italian churches and palaces. the so-called Dalmatic of Charlemagne. however. i. admits of no dalmatic. considering the space allotted. in his Deutschland. When Art is identified with materials so tempting to the spoiler. saints and angels all round. are contained the Transfiguration behind. of which scarcely anything else is extant. were not seldom manufactured. There is no doubt. she must renounce all hope of descending to posterity. or we might expect more particular notices of them. But as the Greek service this robe. it not to the style of Charlemagne. suspended from pillar to pillar. 1844. things astronomical. Boisse'ree. though not utterly foreign to the South. point. and apocalyptical. Peter's at Eonie. reported to be in the Bamberg Sacristy. in the Correspondence of the Munich Academy. seem to be only decorated with ornaments and flowers not with figures. that later emperors. inlaid doors of churches were covered. with a few colours on a deep blue silk. Apollinare Nuovo) are an argument against the existence of figures in such tapestries. and. astrological. Christ in Glory in front. As specimens of the State embroideries for which Byzan tium was especially celebrated. on which. is supposed The Emperor received this mantle from Melus. it is to be supposed that the robe was ordered by Eome from Constantinople. partly as commissions from the ' * See engraving." (See the above-mentioned work.' vol. mantle of Henry II. have worn twelfth century. with which the wooden those metallic plates. Annales Archaeologiques.

for the pale silver threads upon the shining brass only permitted of very indistinct outlines.80 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. East. cast in Venice itself. of the cathedral of Salerno (about the year 1080). which. in such cases. for the North. had no demand for them. but the architectural frame- work. The entire inner door of St. have perished in our time. inlaid with silver wire. in this instance was not supplied at home. doors within the reach of a thieving hand. that from those portions of the silver. the rest was executed by native workmen. the Life of Christ. and were incapable of any shadowing. that a few of these costly Byzantine tablets having been supplied. was unfortunately chosen. This is more especially the case in forms of Byzantine origin. But this description of workmanship. architecturally divided. Paolo fuori le nmra at Rome. are not only more delicately executed. contain this species of workmanship only in the centre panels.. right door. They consisted of fifty-four (9 X 6) bronze tablets. every morsel of . the most delicate among them being the S. which is supposed to have adorned Here the outlines of the Sophia at Constantinople. a mode of so few lines has but a paltry and barbaric appearance. that any effect can be thus produced drawing which .. namely. which were executed in Constantinople in 1070. called Agemina. The others are purely Byzantine . is equally inlaid with We need hardly add. while the rest of the door is &c. Mark's at Venice was however. representing the Prophets. with the martyrdoms of the latter. but is also of Byzantine workmanship. 1062). rudely riveted or soldered on to the surface.D. and finished up with single figures in precisely the same style as those from Byzantium. figures. The chef-d'oeuvre of this kind. and the Apostles. while in a composition of is restricted to many figures. standing under graceful horseshoe arches. which at that time possessed a highly developed school of bronze casting. It is obvious. merely decorated with crosses and vases. with the meagre figures of the saints (sometimes thirteen heads long). Book I. to whom the slightest action seems impossible. Other doors of this kind. and partly as articles of commerce for Italy . It is only in quiet separate figures. those of the cathedral of Amalfi (A. the brazen doors of S. for example. &c.

where. if we compare its Byzantine sculptures with those of a Western origin. that the few very flat reliefs which this school sometimes ventured to undertake. but with the Sclavonic North. so that. in more than one instance which we could cite. even in the best period of sculpture. by the most rigid adherence to a flatness of repre- away . should be. especially its multitude of pictures. 81 silver wire. on the other hand (at least among the Eussians). We need not wonder. a long time afterwards in Venice. were worked in the most masterly relief. West. assimilating in no way to the intention of plastic art. in point of fact. were here covered with a costly and laboured enamel and silver niello. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. has been picked thereby giving the finishing stroke to the ghostly appearance of the utterly Kfeless figures. in the North. works in relief of the Lombard school have. applied to express the face and of those small silver pieces which were and extremities. The intercourse carried on by Byzantium. Thus. it appears more dependent upon painting than anywhere else . struck us to have had paintings for their originals. however imperatively the metallic material to which it was applied might seem to require it. there lay the seeds of a remarkable manual mechanical That which had now become a merely met by a purely mechanical feeling. at first sight. was precisely . was art. Those altar-pieces and brazen doors which. of a contemporary or even We trace the result of these circumstances for earlier date.Part II. sentation. besides their deficiency of all artistic instinct. Mark supplies the most remarkable evidence. all that was gaudy and brilliant in the Byzantine : worship. especially after the ninth century. culture. in the highest degree. In this respect the Church of St. and art in those countries qualities which seem the more easily combined when we remember that the Byzantine monks were generally artists as well as missionaries while. therefore. Byzantine art avoided the slightest approach to the forbidden plastic form. An art thus sunk into the mere outward form of a lifeless tradition was. nothing more than pictures transferred to marble. not only with the skilfulness. had led to the dissemination of Byzantine Christianity. fitted to be the employment of a rude people in whom.

As regards Armenian painting. without shadows. king of the Bulgarians. Methodus being reported to have shaken that the Bulgarians. adopted the Byzantine style. in the eleventh century. represent- ing the archangels Gabriel. gaudy in See Schnaase. Book I. 988).' ' Geschichte der zeichneuden Kiinste in Deutschland. by means of a Last Judgment. The monastery of the Holy Cross in Donauwerth possessed a Greek mosaic picture. had an early Christian tradition for its foundation. the walls of the church are " in a painted t with saints and figures of the old Waiwodes more than Greek taste. adopted both the Christianity and the art of the Byzantines and the little we know of Bulgarian painting shows both Byzantine style and motives. and both the SS. who. D. 29. Bohemia St. which most assisted in their conversion. but a relief in metal or ivory egvegia ccelatura pretiosain. Not only Bulgaria. These figures are " stiff and lifeless. Michael. colour. chap. even. plate 61. as Fiorillo " tabulam affirms. only transplanted A well-known anecdote leads even to into a savage soil. the stubborn heart of Bogaris. : . a . which. but the other countries on the Lower Danube. even to the frontiers of Bavaria. In the great monastery above Tergovist." In a few solitary instances the Byzantine school penetrated high up the Danube. Paul. we are not sufficiently informed to speak. outwardly at least. for an idea of the Bulgarian miniatures of the fourteenth century. which he painted upon the walls of Nicopolis. John. sent a Byzantine representation of the Virgin to Bishop Altman of Passau. to the religious * See D'Agincourt.82 that EARLY CHRISTIAN ART." Vita Altmaui. besides the Byzantine models. Peter. with the help of innumerable missionaries from Constantinople. and St. Thus it was remnant of the Huns on the Lower Danube. i. Of greater importance was the conversion of the Eussians under Wladimir the Great (A.' J See Fiorillo's vol. a place held nationally sacred by the Wallachians.! though at that time it is certain that the religion and manners of the Madonna with the West had obliterated all traces of Byzantine influence in that country. 93. p. in a Codex in the Vatican.* the conclusion that painting was here employed as an essential element in those conversions where preaching and teaching had failed St. Bishop Altman's picture on wood was no painting. succeeded in giving a new aspect." ' t See Walsh's Travels through European Turkey. flat. and barbaric in costume.

day have done as little to raise either the theology or the painting with which Byzantium endowed them. rich peasants possessing whole The picture is a fetish. One chief cause to which this may be attributed. lowest soldier takes to battle with him. It is easy to comprehend that those pictures which. entirely behung with pictures of the saints. this mass of the people. because its established forms were sacred and this is why the common Russian. founded 1037. thinks that he can never have pictures enough. some . or to the despotic form of government. but the chief " splendour is concentrated upon the screen. or were even executed by Byzantine artists. The Russians received the new doctrines with superstitious humility. have both remained only an impoverished and barbarized Byzantine tradition. : 83 change was chiefly effected by the and schools. to be had for collections of them. and the new art Avith all the ingenuity and love of and to this imitation which distinguish the Sclavonians state of his people this institution of bishoprics. among whom whether owing to any national deficiency of capacity. which separates the altar from the rest of the church. monasteries. the higher classes of Russia have adopted the views and practice of art belonging to modern Europe. to this day. besides these. or to the long-continued Mongolian yoke. which is indispensable in every room. in point of time. or Iconostasis.Part II THE BYZANTINE STYLE. . were the bast as for instance the frescoes belonging to the church of S." that high partition with three doors. stood nearest to their Byzantine originals. by which the style of art prevailing in the tenth century was honoured as something essentially belonging to and so that indivisible from the sacred subjects of Christianity every exercise of individual power and genius is interdicted Thus the picture itself became sacred to the Russian artist. is the religious prejudice in no way affects the great religion and painting. . as with the modern Greeks also. The churches are covered from floor to roof with pictures . money. If. and which the . in more recent times. G2 . and is the most distinguishing mark of the interior architecture of a Russian place of worship. Sophia at Kieff. as centre of which arose the splendid metropolitan church of Kieff. where.

and a gaudy drapery that is. picture : this is especially the case on festivals. and that most monasteries are manufactories in which pictures are merely mechanically produced. for private piety no less than till more unmeaning. and contrasts strangely with the rigidity of their general forms. mosaics are also found. As the Byzantine workmen de- pended chiefly on tracing. from a doctrinal aversion to all plastic representation of the human form. But this tendency can be but little indulged. is not spread over portions of the paintings a dark . which. * In the year 1551 a Grand Ducal Decree was issued requiring all sacred pictures to be painted like those by Andrew Rub!e/. departed from the at length the last art. while. Book L later. where. of which scarcely an instance occurs In the course of centuries. the dark-coloured nude is kept as flat as possible. . It only remains for us now briefly to sum up the later and present fate of Byzantine art. which operates upon the senses of the worshipper. a monk who lived towards the close of the fourteenth century. and corresponds with his idea of divine and This mode of treatment here. no one could well expect the practice of art in its higher sense. as well as in saintly majesty. mummylike hands. We therefore see in these Eussian brown colouring. the Byzantine school. From a people so wretched as the Greeks formerly were under Turkish dominion. The effect thus produced is something perfectly spectral. however. forms and colours became ruder and remnant of life amount of the technical habits of the West has now found its way into the more modern Eussian sacred pictures. elongated heads. a robe wrought in a species of relief and embossed with gold and silver. so the operation of stencilling is here the principal auxiliary.84 EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. instead of the latter. however. A certain ancient the laws of the state* require the artist's adherence to the mode of representation. is intimately associated with the fact that the artists are chiefly monks and nuns. It is precisely this combination. and this decidedly aimed at the gloomy and sombre. did not elapse without renewed influence from the declining parent school in the East. inasmuch as the garment introduced in the mode described is of a plastic nature. frightful as it is.

at all events. no longer afford.* A modern traveller. under such oppression. in the white-washed and imperfect state of their The following. and also the slight yet unavoidable influence of Italian art. in order to throw that light upon the subjects of symbolism and iconography especially. whatever that might be. are the results he arrived at Mosaic work is now seldom heard of. may be readily supposed that the Turkish sway. 85 For more than a century. the academic efforts of the late few years. of St. chiefly derived from Italian examples.Part II. works existing elsewhere. Luke upon Mount Helicon. Those mosaics which are seen in the monastery : churches of Daphne near Athens. belong to the earlier Byzantine time . built by the Emperor Constantino Monomachus upon the island of Chio. we can but admire a people who. and Macedonia. Nevertheless. as genuine specimens of the Byzantine school. which our Western churches. every Greek boy who showed any talent or energy was regularly marched off to the Janissary barracks in Constantinople. Didron. must have caused some change still the spirit of the school is to this It . THE BYZANTINE STYLE. Partial improvements in colouring and in disposition of drapery. as far as they affect walls. and such as are now executed. day essentially Byzantine. of course. the French archaeologist. while such pictures as are painted without these foreign influences interest us. possesses mosaics of the seventeenth century. near Patras. could still maintain the old tradition of art. Giorgio de' Greci in Venice give a view of modern Greek art from the fourteenth century down to the present day. being a costly species of work. form a strange and motley contrast with the ever lifeless and constrained forms and composition. are restricted chiefly and pictures on wood. and only the monastery of Megaspileeon. Otherwise. which necessarily declined with the ruin of the people. made researches in 1839 into the state of painting in Greece. while the department of miniature seems to have greatly declined since the introto frescoes * The paintings in S. who has devoted himself con amore to the investigation and study of the Byzantine element of art. setting aside. and in the church of the Basilians. . Thessaly. our object.

and are entirely covered with frescoes. One pupil : spread the mortar on the wall. all. and wrote the inscriptions. within the space of an hour this also without cartoons or tracings. Byzantine painters. with a rapidity of execution thus far exceeding all Western practice. but the mode of representation. another laid on the colours and completed the forms. printed books. are small. even to the smallest details. memory question may be painted in a few days. a native of Argos. their subjects. churches. painted the ornaments. and completed in 1735. and. nevertheless the unexampled quantity. compared with those in the West.86 duction of frescoes is EARLY CHRISTIAN ART. Didron's astonishment increased as he visited the sacred mount Athos. however hard and slight the execution may be. and his three Observation soon proves pupils. is all supplied to them by tradition and old They begin with making tracings from the works patterns. The only what are the conditions of such a power of The modern production. upon the island of Salamis. It follows that. so entirely . painted jointly by Giorgios Markos. of their predecessors. that the separate subjects are repeated in many churches without any change . but in one of the monasteries he had the opportunity of witnessing the excessively rapid and easy mode in which they are produced the monk Joasaph and his five assistants having painted a Christ and eleven apostles. one and chapels. two boys were fully occupied in grinding and mixing the colours. Not only the range of a whole church is. Not only did he find them. require to bring no thought whatever of their own to the task. filled with frescoes. the size of life. but very numerous. with its 935 churches. and by degrees learn every composition and figure. which the master dictated to him by . presents the most striking coup d'ceil. and oratories. the master drew the outline. The incredible quantity of The subject of astonishment. monastery church of the Panagia Phaneroumene. with their accompanying accessories. lastly. a younger pupil gilt the glories. and this enigma is soon explained. contains no less than 3724 figures. namely. the especially a innumerable figures of which embrace the utmost possible Thus the one single range of ecclesiastical subjects. before his eyes. Book I.

The stamp of individual genius or character would be here only a hindrance. Indeed the artists of the understood. by which means we may safely infer that the large amount of labour which was required for the decoration of churches and cathedrals was greatly lightened. Head. that. tradition. and drapery belong to him alone. not of a tradition independent of himself. then. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. and would be as little appreciated as by In Greece a painter is quickly forgotten. to certain compositions and motives. even he have painted fifty churches. in her ecclesiastical subjects. But the Western artist. probably for the same reason. Here tine lies. if Sacred Mount (Hagion Orosj themselves complain of this rapidity of production as a source of corruption. this being probably that '* Explanation of Painting ' : (ep^vct'a TJ}S a>ypa</>- * Published under the title et Manuel d Iconographie Chre'tienne. but copied with more care and industry than now. while. when painters did not invent one whit the more. avec une introduction et des notes par M. and without the slightest exertion of thought. the fundamental difference between Byzanand Western mediaeval art. and refer with regret to the good old times. should at have lapsed into mere written directions for all periods. if he so desired. and his own personality lias nothing to do with his works. the name of the individual artist was seldom known. In point of fact. like the painter Joasaph. in the case of Byzantine art. because he is only the instrument of one common process. traduit . can be no matter of surprise. &c.Part II. they work with the utmost rapidity. Didron. Didron found last That this in the hands of the monks of Mount Athos several copies of a manuscript containing a close description of the technical process. and explaining single figures. 87 heart. but also created every single figure anew. retained not only a great freedom in arrangement of subject. up to the fourteenth century. It is true that the last ad- hered. their distribution on the walls. . Grecque Latme. and are evidences of his artistic personality. and in single figures to certain types which perpetually recur. with the mode of their grouping. and all accom- panying devices and inscriptions identical ' . action.

In the numbers of his ' Annales Archeblogiques. . Royale. The third part. according to their own confession. fully describing the style. Book I in the fifteenth century from older docu1*075). gives recipes for the representation of every possible " How figure and scene. also. Impr." among whom appears St. directions for the preparation of the walls." and. however. The Assembly of all the Saints.' Didron has given some A account of various churches in Greece. without which the monks. John the Evangelist. a considerable number of well-known Saints here grouped together under the name of " The Sacred Poets. to this day. On Mount Athos. and the mode of laying them on. assisted by ysius. painting. and where. or compiler of the manual was the monk Dionthe of monastery of Furna." " The Ladder of Salvation. for "The 72 (70?) Disciples." " The Stylites. and by far the most important part. finally. Paul Durand : Paris. Panselinos is still considered the real founder of the present style of Byzan- No mention is made of Constantinople. is to dwells with be found respecting the different schools. or Column Saints." "The Seven Synods. instance or despisers of money. could not have continued the art of painting.' par le Dr. Nothing. compiled ments. also." " The Holy Anargyres. with their frescoes.88 JiAKLY CHRISTIAN AK'l. where Dionysius himself learnt the art. or the disposal of the : " frescoes on the walls of churches and monasteries. without. 1845. of the city of Thessalonica." and whole classes of Saints. the manuscript was not written until after the Probably tine du Manuscrit Byzantin. does not the interest we expected. The second. near Agrapha. the grinding of the colours. le Guide de la Peinture." opens." " The Sacred Myrrh Bearers. The spirit which dictated this his scholar Cyril of Ohio. The author work it is sufficiently expressed by the instruction with which Then follow tracings should be made. as it especially confines present itself to the disposition of Kussian churches. or no longer exist there. good old pictures exist. many of which either never occurred in : our Western churches (being peculiar to the Greek form of Some of them are worship). copy of the Greek original is in Munich. The author much stress upon the esteemed pictures of the Panselinos (who died in the eleventh or monk Manuel twelfth century). the nature of the materials.

find in these strange and dismal pictures fitting incentives for their zeal. as late as the last century. have not yet penetrated. 89 Turkish conquest. exon this sacred mount in one unbroken course since the sixth century. here stand upon ground to be painted up in his booth. and a countless number of pictures on wood are imported thence as articles of commerce. also. whatever be its style. even in these times. with all their influence. In those parts of Italy where the Byzantine dominion lasted the longest. and Eussia.Part II. who with small knowledge and great devotion. with dark face and stiff gold garments. We . was maintained in juxtaposition with that of the most perfectly developed form of In Venice. If we consider. is congenial to the feelings of certain Western races. THE BYZANTINE STYLE. with olive-green complexion and veiled head. * The Museum of Berlin possesses a Pieta of the fourteenth century. genuine Byzantine Madonna picture. that isted that the tradition of art has. to a certain degree of it respect. or one executed A in the style. for popular devotion. will everywhere most readily obtain the repute of a miraculous an honour seldom bestowed on the most finished picture same work of art. a lemonade seller will permit none other than a Byzantine Madonna. quality has preserved in life although precisely that which has proved the ruin of Western schools of ventional forms. art. the inflexible adherence to con- It is a remarkable fact that the Byzantine style of art. painters painting. to which Titian and Bibera.. inasmuch as almost every artist has pursued his studies there. Turkey. to Greece. which has been translated from a picture by Giovanni Bellini into the Bvzantme stvie.* of "sacred pictures" still existed. the cultivation of the stiff Byzantine type. we shall feel that thirteen hundred years entitle this school of religious artists. and in Kaples. For the last few centuries it is certain Mount Athos has been alone entitled to rank as the general academy of Greek art. viz. according to all evidence. to this day.

Book II. we now trace the rise of a new and to the Italians a sense of national existence . We only perceive that earlier or entirely hidden from us. though individual painters occasionally . The Eoman Church arose from a long-continued state of degradation. was now called into being in Upper and Lower Italy. for which she was herself partly accountable. to be mistress of the West. that epoch of national prosperity dawned upon the distracted country. art. consisting of the free townships which had maintained their rights successfully against all aggression. ITALIAN art in the eleventh century was divided between the native and the Byzantine styles the one as utterly rude as the other was deeply sunk. and restored at the same time a new social element. at that time. Slowly. PAET I. never fails to infuse into art a fresh and higher life. independent style in according to the local conditions of each district. BOOK II. by the thirteenth century. The Byzantine style was. however. Upon the whole. the Byzantine style and the old native Longobardian became amalgamated into a new whole first one. THE ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY. and then another later. She reinstated Eome as the centre of the world. the Byzantine had the ascendancy. so utterly sapless and withered. but unmistakably. THE ROMANESQUE STYLE. which. But after the close of the eleventh century. but always governed and impelled forward by the same new tendency. which sooner or later. that it could as little resist as rival the innovating principle. however.90 ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY. even in its native land. constituent feature predominating. had assumed a greater decision of character. The progress of particular departments of this development is.

which. and much earlier even than this may be traced. for. and often very irregular transformation. which. occurred too late to arrest the change. the first germs of a purely Western conception. in praise of the celebrated Countess Matilda of Tuscany. attempt. In the prime of a period of art. even in the eleventh century. may be said to have borne the character of an intermediate school only. One of the old manuscripts from which the art of this period has been estimated exists in the library of the Vatican. can lead to no strict conclusions. composition. but not so in the time of its decay . And here the term " Romanesque " becomes applicable. it cannot always enlist the best artistic resources in its service. 91 made the Piece by piece it gradually crumbled and action away. as works of an inferior kind. considering the confusion Italian mode of Upon of all the political relations of Italy. THE ROMANESQUE STYLE. still agrees in principle with the Gothic Romanesque. drapery. and which. Even the conquest of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204. But at the same time we should do wrong to form our judgment from a few manuscripts which are here made the criterion of comparison. Contemporary with the same works in which the influence of these last emigrants from the East is supposed to be discernible. at all events. antique tradition into the spirit of the newly created nationThe epoch of Byzantine art in Italy ality first took place. though it was the means of pouring into Italy a number of Byzantine artists and works of art. it must be admitted that the Italian examples of the eleventh and twelfth centuries fall short of those of the same period in the North. arose others in which a very considerable progress in the new tendency may be discovered. introduced and upheld by external circumstances. for now it was that in Italy also the metamorphosis of the features. underwent a gradual. manuscripts may perhaps be admitted as safe evidence. with all its rudeness and barbarity. extremities. and the comparative prosperity of the countries on the other side of the Alps.Part I. It contains a poem by one Donizo. the whole. dependent as this species of decoration necessarily is. This we may justly assume from the evidence of Italian sculpture. need not surprise us. and is decorated with rudely .

pass over the no longer existing frescoes of other Roman churches which have been described by Ciampini and Bosio . and thus. Urbanus. und Kiinstler in Paris. we know of no argument for not supposing them to be from one to two centuries earlier. like those of the Byzantine school. not so entirely despicable. of Italian art far more decidedly in some works of the twelfth century. 240). These wall-paintings are now scarcely discernible. can be formed of them in their present state. i.* The outlines here are in the highest degree feeble and uncertain. which indubitably places them upon a par with many contemporary Northern works. though confined to simple and awkward actions. As far as any opinion to the twelfth century is not easily accounted for. plate 53. plate 66 and.J the unmeaning character of the drapery. while. The Basilica * See D'Agincourt. See plate 105.' vol. though in the highest degree rude. and sometimes very tolerably conceived arrangement. Book II. give evidence of a power already considerably in advance of the other.. of an historical nature.90. Equally partaking of both styles. however. Somewhat better are the miniatures of a so-called " Exultet. j Ibid. the expression of the artist's intention. whose too fastidious verdict. the comparative animation of the composition.' pp. a II Tempio della Caffarella. we may mention also the wall paintings with the date 1011 (?) in the church of S. 260 and 267.f in the Barberini Palace at Rome. and glorified Christ. f See D'Agincourt. Though form and arrange- ment are here essentially of the stiff symmetrical order. Other relics of this period are enumerated by Rumohr (' Ital. also those scarcely We and probably very ancient remains in S. we cannot Why he should assign the paintings in S. the colouring utterly rude and blotty . betray the Byzantine influence . coloured pen-drawings. Waagen's ' Kunstw. yet the details throughout are of the native Italian character. however." partly of liturgical. ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY. Sylvestro ai Monti. of the latter end of the eleventh century. Urbano possibly subscribe to. now trace the development . plate 94. The immoderate length and leanness of the proportions. Drawing and artistic execution are in every We way defective. chiefly in a relief-like. Forschungen. Urbano at and the legend of St. and the speaking though clumsy action. p. they are not dry and inanimate. for notices of some Italian miniatures of the ninth and tenth centuries. in Rome. on the other hand. generally designated These represent the Passion. visible . partly of symbolical import. Rome.

two genii extending a cloth filled with fruits. are more imChrist and the Virgin. produced by Italian art. are relics of the Byzantine school. e. eight of are distinguished as supposed martyrs. within and around the tribune of the choir. His arm laid upon her shoulder. Later. before her kneel the very diminutive figures of both the above-mentioned Popes. But that the statement of Vasari in no way refers to these is proved bv the authentic works of Cavallini. 1139In the large recess formed by the front may be seen 1153). which no longer exist. is . after 1300. and even with admirable attempts at individual character. on a larger scale. The style of these mosaics certainly di tiers from those in the interior. while on each side ten female saints are seen advancing. almost in the spirit of later Pagan art.D. birds.Part L THE ROMANESQUE STYLE. are seated upon a magnificent throne. in * These are generally taken for the wise and foolish virgin?. and Eugenius III. on a blue ground. the Evangelists with those of the Apocalypse . by their crowns. however. are the Above the tribune are the usual symbols of . while the conception of the two principal figures is perfectly new. while the simplicity and comparative purity of style noticeable in the flowing arrangement of other show signs of Gothic feeling. Pope Innocent below. and vessels. seen portant. the forms not angular. though devoid of all folds. but soft and round . next these. Here the release from the trammels of the Byzantine school is obviously far advanced and this may be considered as perhaps the first purely Western work of a higher order . parts in this juxtaposition. below each of these. The Prophets. are Isaiah and Jeremiah unfolding their scrolls . but still indicates the period of the twelfth century. for the first time. Maria in Trastevere at Borne still possesses its mosaics of the time of Innocent II. i. The proportions are rather short than long . The mosaics.* The very slender proportions and the mode in which portions of the drapery are whom loaded with ornaments. because their basins or bowls have somewhat the form of lamps. On either side are six saints with thirteen lambs.. We are here agreeably surprised with free and original motives. the robe of Christ especially is distinguished by great dignity and beauty of arrangement. (A. Pietro Cavillini supposed to have decorated the facade of this church with mosaics. 93 of S. here. and basins with streaks of blood. the Virgin upon the throne .

Below the semidome.* In lieu of the Byzantine mode of crowding the spaces. Clemente Kome. . show how deep had been the decline from which art was now endeavouring to rise. especially. below. as usual. in their present works of Giovenale do Orvieto. however imperfect. The semi- dome a gold ground is filled with the charmof the tribune ingly arranged branches of a vine. at which peacocks and stags are refreshing themselves . like Western character. idea of the principles of the human form. upon and be- tween the boughs are birds and small human figures. On either side of the cross are the Virgin and John the Baptist . seems to have been entirely overcome. in manner and those. as far as regards single works of art. at the roots of the vine. And. a saint and apostle . which also belong to the first half of the twelfth century. on each side. Book II. Prassede). Sabina. and. seated contiguously. exhibit also a totally new. the character of a decoration. We may cite the carved doors of S. and further below. At the same time. are the thirteen lambs . are the four streams of Paradise. tradition. The figures. are distinguished by a lively character which we seek for in vain among the Roman mosaics of a foregoing period. in its conformity with architecture. about 1400. the outspread form of the feet. are of a thoroughly proportion. and the unmeaning character of particular portions of the drapery. assumed. resemble those in S. then on each side. Maria in Trastevere. we observe here an agreeable simplicity of arrangement. as an instance. by the commencement of the thirteenth century a period when the Roman church attained the influence of Byzantine great power under Innocent III. The four seated figures. among them the four Fathers of the church. though. on the Aventine Hill. their animated. as - belonging to the department of sculpture. the rudeness of the execution. as in the Romanesque period of Gothic art. The tribune mosaics of in the beautiful Basilica of S. from the centre of which springs a crucifix with twelve doves. a prophet.94 ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY". only pass for the The Apostles upon the wall of the choir tribune can. afford us the proof that painting here. on the upper part of the wall a bust picture of Christ and the symbols of the Evangelists . without any regard to architectural eifect (as in S. they are hardly a * state. half-advancing position.

tury. plate 96.Part I.. however. The heads and garments still display much of Byzantine ing at His the general proportions and the chief motives. Luke. but greatly overpainted. Giuliano. the gigantic mosaics of the choir tribune of S. . which. 95 In other respects slight indications of legitimate criterion. The numerous which the walls of once decorated this church were paintings destroyed by the fire of 1823. indicate a pleasing return to the great models of early Christian date. called the Oratorio di S. with the very diminutive figure of Honorius kneel- Farther below. Peter. feet. altogether. which was preserved. though undertaken as late as 1216-1227. had far more influence upon this period of reviving art than those of the remoter feebleness : antique times. at all events in part. we are here refreshed with few and simple forms. At the same time it is possible that these mosaics may be merely the repetition of a former locality as set occupying the same the fourth century. St. f They belonged. THE ROMANESQUE STYLE. In the semidome is seen the Saviour enthroned between St. and would strengthen the evidence in favour of thoir great age. See some slight illustrations in D'Agincourt. to the time of Benedict VIII.* the old and apparently forgotten school of the East are traceable through the whole century. Instead of lifeless masses of figures piled together. are the standing figures of the Apostles with scrolls (containing the articles of the Apostolic Creed) and palm-trees. indicate a style which greatly resembles the wall-paintings of S. however. Paolo fuori le mura (greatly restored) are less free from Byzantine influence than the works we have just described. probably of the twelfth or thirteenth cencertain criterion. Paul. and St. under Honorius III.f The same fate befell the early as mosaics of the west facade. hand. of the state of painting under Honorius III. may be formed A * The same dramatic liveliness of action which distinguishes this work appears to have been peculiar also to the now obliterated wall paintings (scenes of monastic life) in the abbey Alls Tre Fontane ia Rome. (1012-1024). executed by Pietro Cavallini in 1300. The side chapel of the transept. Urbano. St. The paintings in the vestibule were by another and inferior plate 97. The illustrations given in D'Agincourt. on the wall of the tribune. contains numerous figures of saints. For example. and not completed till the close of that century. also erected in the time of Innocent III. Andrew.

from the wall pictures in the vestibule of S. representing the Saviour with two Apostles and four sheep. The heads also to the same school. In spite of original rudeness and repeated le overpaintings. painted upon the wall though tolerably animated. on the right. next the chief door. and scarcely equal. In the interior. The four larger figures have been somewhat modernized by the engraver. painting are more feeble period just before them. may be seen a Madonna. full eighty years elapsed before this developEven the contemporary wall paintings in the interior of the same church are incomand. as to the small mosaic parably smaller and inferior frieze of in the the vestibule. exhibits an obvious retrograde movement. Quattro Coronati at Rome. in composition. . we still perceive in many single figures a pic- turesque arrangement.t Here we must also mention the great mosaics in the front of the Duomo or * See D'Agincourt. Other fragments are f See D'Agincourt. 275. are very rudely executed. The figures are systematically arranged and placed together in true Byzantine fashion. belong decidedly though the mosaics in The S. Many other works also of Roman and undeveloped than those of the The wall-painting in the Sylvester Chapel near the church of the SS. partly of historical import for instance. Byzantine in described by . Maria in Trastevere seem already to have cast it off. near Rome. which appear to promise a speedy and higher development. Nevertheless. an animated expression. ment made any further progress. near Rome. style. built by Alexander IV. plate 101. 1217. (1254-1261). and a feeling for significant rounding. Lorenzo fuori mura.ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY. the communion and coronation of the Latin Emperor of Constantinople. the mosaics of S. plate 99. subjects they may fairly rank as the rudest and most wretched specimens of this line of art that Eome contains. The mosaics also of two small recesses in S. Rumohr. which are above a century earlier. Peter de Courtenay. and again seated upon the globe of the world with palm-trees and one Apostle. executed about 1245. Clemente. vol i. Costanza. Book II.* which are partly of legendary. so that the same intention repeats itself in the whole series. subjects of those in the Sylvester chapel refer chiefly to the legends of the pope of that name.

which are large and round. would incline us to question the period which D'Agincourt." See Home's 'Introduction to Bibliography. Francis is known to have visited this convent in 1216. to the sixth century. We suggest the possibility of this manuscript belonging. p. and the name of the master. and the believed. plates 67 and 69 also Waagen's Kunstler in Paris. absence of every characteristic peculiarity of the middle ages by which all late copies are betrayed. called "II Sacro Speco. though pursued with less slavishness of manner." shows paintings of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.'. consist apparently of freely transposed antique motives. a genuine portrait of the saint.Part I. and even the highly placed line of horizon. L. however. In the Italian manuscripts of this period a composition and construction are displayed which. while capitals nre square. the copying of earlier works was usual. The heads. as is asserted. lead us directly back to the late Eoman style of art. t Marked No. plate 63. is still visible there. and a portrait of a Mendicant friar. began to be adopted about the middle of the fifth century. 9. invention of this work. 1 1 [" Uncial letters. it is curious as bearing no witness to the legend of the Stigmata. The Benedictine convent at Subiaco. Forsch. If. E. 1821.] H . This exhibits the usual Byzantine arrangement in all its grandeur.' C. It is marked with St. ' Kunstw. as in the Empire of the East. John beside him. inscribed with his name. THE ROMANESQUE STYLE. and drapery. the date 1267. as Mabillon The splendid uncial letters. has assigned to this work. 97 with the Virgin and Cathedral of Spoleto. i. . The miniatures belonging to a Virgil in the Vatican Library. See D'Agincourt. Solsernus. with an engraving.* representing the Saviour enthroned. also. St. judging only from the style. 260 and 267. but every detail also of position. larger works of art. in the Tub.' pp. seen under the disguise of a barbaric transformation^ also * See Rumohr. are still. for no such marks are given. action. regarding some Italian miniatures of the ninth and tenth centuries. have the antique breadth and youthfulness . allied with those of the Here. in which it is difficult to distinguish the defects of the first Not only the general hand from those of the second. being treated more in the spirit of a free repetition. No.! upon the whole.^ probably of the 13th century. 3867. however rude and careless. Kunstblatt. 338. ' Ital. all. und See t D'Agincourt. vol.

ferent purpose. and these last may be adjudged to the thirteenth century. They represent in a rich succession of pictures. defeats that surmise. probably only because that was the period when the chapel received some alterations. * See G. In Venice. with one great work. than in totally . called the Cappella Zeno. and but little inferior in grace. breaking through the trammels of tradition. Incomparably more important. These mosaics. and trammelled forms. the heads are executed with extraordinary care.* constitute the transition to those in the vestibule nearest the three inner doors. are the cupolas and lunettes of the vestibule of St. It is still striking how. and in the soffits of the arches. In the great mosaics of the cathedral of the neighbouring island of Torcello.98 ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY. while succeeding artists lapsed deeper than ever into the old forms. lights of the drapery. Piazza (La. a fresh action and position being conception finer and larger. Mark in Venice itself. however. have We here the strange spectacle of a bold mind. and are distributed without distinction in the shallow cupolas. in the Western spirit is perceptible more animated. Mark and a Madonna between two Angels tine works of the utmost Byzanand and neatness. the Bible history from the Creation of the world to the time of Moses. however. . genuine Byzantine works. Book II. at once. where Byzantine painting had struck the deepest root. Similar in character. Eegia Basilica di San Marco). Mark on one of the walls of the right transept. and representing the Eesurrection and Day of Judgment. we already perceive a greater liveliness of conception and richness of thought. which we may attribute to the twelfth century. in the The execution is lunettes. is the translation of the body of St. who them to the sixteenth century. as well as to those on the left side of the building. Venice. the struggle between ancient and modern art assumed a different character to that in Rome. we have the Life of St. 1835. In the mosaics of the waggon roofs and semi-circular recesses of a portion of this vestibule. belonging apparently to the 1 2th century. and was applied to a dif- assigns The style of these mosaics. elegance excelling in a remarkable manner not only all contemporary but most preceding works. The gold all the details in short. partly upon a white and partly upon a gold ground.

Innumerable new artistic motives are here expressed in forms which but remind us occasionally of the Byzantine mode of conception. there is much which is archseologically imThe youthful archangels which. Those mosaics in S. as well as the vestibule itself. though. and display a character hitherto unknown in Venetian art. at the Creation portant. 175. attributed to the close of the thirteenth and beginning of the fourteenth century. evince not so much a return early tradition. so delicate and in the while on the other hand. 32 and 33. Nos. we here see the manifestations of The soft round forms. THE ROMANESQUE STYLE. as to an instinctive feeling for nature. upon the whole. however. flowing drapery. and the freedom of to action. in his Ital.. but by no means . the occasionally very expressive heads. remind us of historical The expressed antique Victories nimbus. the fresh and Cappella Zeno almost totally Western tendency of art bursts upon us here with such surprising richness. a somewhat freer mode of conception is apparent in them. Mark's which are. the a new consciousness in art. point of fact. is full of remarkable features. however. In the details. that we may regard these works as the finest productions of the Komanesque style. - H2 . Rumohr.Part I. is of opinion that these mosaics. p. of the world. the mediaeval costumes which occasionally occur are sufficient evidence of a much more modern period. 99 fine as careful. also. Forsch. with probability. occupy the place of the Deity. But there is no possible reason to imagine that the vestibule is older than the rest of the building and even if the style did not so totally differ from the accredited works of the Exarchal time. We lake this opportunity to remark that these mosaics are here and there interspersed with works of the time of the Vivarini and Titian. .* This distinguished example found at first. In still oftener of that of the early Christian period. The one of them is distinguished by cross and history of Joseph in particular. but few followers. date from the time of the Greek exarchate (the sixth and seventh centuries). are incomparably more Byzantine and conventional. 1831. We allude here only to those mosaics in the chapel which serves also constituting a portion of this remarkas a baptistery able vestibule and less for the style than for the subjects * See the catalogue of these mosaics in the Tiibinger Kunstblatt. occurrences are distinctly and intelligibly action and drawing animated and clear.

as such. with the baptism of Christ is ascribed (though wrongfully) the scene takes place in the presence to the eleventh century of adoring angels. with explanatory inscriptions. an angel is holding a child in swaddling clothes in token of being its guardian : spirit an archangel sustains a naked supplicating figure (a while below. Book II. Forming another and wider action circle are nine other angels.' 1st edition. again. which.* consist chiefly of scenes from the life of the Baptist. umh? diu tier (eleventh century) in ' nagel's Altdevtsches Lesebuch. . and. Another. a The rest significant contrast to the subject of baptism. contain a series of symbolical scenes and figures in relation to the rite of baptism. a cherub with ten " " wings is seen bearing the inscription Plenitudo scientiae upon his breast. another is seated in helmet and armour upon a throne a seraph with a staff being similarly placed. An angel. representing the baptism of each apostle. is seated with crown and sceptre upon the starred globe of the world St. with spear and scales. In one of the shallow domes is the figure of Christ borne on cherubim. for example. with the inscription beckons authoritatively to a skeleton on the ground to rise up fire and water being close by as signs of the second birth. rather Wacker- * So explained in the Redo. or dwellers in purgatory. rises a siren with golden scales on her body. the other. a symbol of the world and its attractions.100 ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY. An " Yirtutes. in a pit. represents Dominations . is binding the hideous form of Satan which lies before him. beside the history of the Baptist. 104. three lamenting forms (souls of soul) the newly-born. each of whom indicate their office towards the human family by some appropriate thus showing the particular class of the heavenly . . From out the river Jordan. which is full : of fishes. are better executed. of the pictures. of the class of Thrones." angel. The decorations of the second shallow dome Bound the figure of Christ are arranged twelve groups. Finally. Michael in armour. The person to be baptized appears always standing in a stone basin behind him a figure as A lunette witness and a town in token of the locality. and surrounded by nine undraped angelic figures (half-lengths).) are clinging one to . hierarchy to which they belong. of the order of Powers.

with a blue sky. THE ROMANESQUE STYLE. of thoroughly Byzantine treatment in colour and handling. we have no certain history. vol. the draperies very dark . The the Christ in the Garden with the Magdalen in the Museo best picture Christiano in the Vatican (See D'Agincourt. of which. upon a Visitation of the Virgin (plate 93) which frequently. which in these times constituted a rival to that of Venice. in Apulia. an element of art is observable which often occurs in German-Romanesque works. at present. of Otranto itself is not much older than the fifteenth century. of late Byzantine pictures. also. The flesh is of a brickcolour . though the colouring is still somewhat Byzantine. For these combined reasons. the germ of a new development began to show itself about the commencement of the thirteenth century (or even earlier). we may conclude that the school Should it. lights thickly applied (seldom with gold). namely. however. some of which appear to confirm this fact. . by a rich fantastic landscape.Part I. and further. was parts of Italy. Here. These are mostly small miniature-like altar triptychs. Otranto pictures are not seldom seen in the market of art under every possible denomination. is replaced either the which absence of by a black ground or gold ground. accustomed to mark its pictures. by Quandt and Wagner. though. 6-8 : also Lanzi. particularly those on the 1230. | ceiling." for instance. &c. translated f See Kugler. with the name of the place. the With all this. that of Otranto. 294. bears the inscription " Donatus Bizamanus The same family name recurs pinxit in Hotranto. . obviously belongs to the fifteenth century. where perhaps Byzantine feeling never entirely obtained the mastery. Upon the whole.* In the works of Lombard painters also we remark a decided movement at the commencement of the thirteenth century. as he is seen led by an angel in the desert receiving the coat of camel's hair from another angel. they may perhaps have been gathered together from the most opposite One school.. which were executed probably about the year : are in three compartments in the uppermost are the Apostles and the symbols of the Evangelists under They . having no date or locality upon them. we remark a certain breadth and feeling for composition as regards the human form. The from the Byzantine type as to display some But the most remarkable feature is the total liveliness of expression.. the gradations of shadows hatched .' Nos. a vehemence of dramatic representation. p. * In the art of Lower Italy. with other similar subjects. plate 92). as D'Agincourt persists in doing. be proved to be earlier than the period of the influence of the Flemish school upon the Neapolitan. in spite of the well-known Byzantine multiplicity of folds. The most important are the wall-paintings in the baptistery at Parma. it is utterly impossible to assign these works to the twelfth or even to the thirteenth century. 101 unusual in character for instance. however. The drapery. at least. singular to say. ' Ttibinger Kunstblatt. ii. &c. shows a simple heads also have so far departed and intelligent mode of arrangement. however. the circumstance of the finished character of the landscape would justify a strict inquiry. The Gallery at Naples contains a considerable number.

verified also by inscriptions. and John the Baptist. which is frequently repeated. In these we also find all the hardness of execution which characterises the Byzantine style. in which a dawning sense of composition is It perceptible. belong various monuments . and two saints next each window. at Subiaeo. and an impassioned vehemence in the action. united with a powerful and lively colouring. between the windows. was a scion He is recorded to have been the author of the choir tribune mosaics in S. itself also in attitudes of repose. still Belonging also to the thirteenth century. these the Prophets. of Naples in 1308. is of the Cosmati. also a Roman. both the in Rome . and. and in the Cathedral of Anagni. In these works we see the first violent efforts of a youthful and lifeless vigorous fancy. Book II. so rapid is the movement . To one of the same family. Maria in Trastevere. who laboured. in mosaics and paintings in the Cathedral of Civita Castellana. of Cardinal Gonsalvi. which is carried even to exaggeration. Maria in Trastevere at also of frescoes in the Rome . In the third row. the gestures of John while baptizing of the imploring sick of the disciples when their master is taken prisoner of the soldier who acts as executioner all appear to be the production of a fancy which delighted in This energy manifests the most vehement and excited action. . and of Durand. Maria sopra Minerva. in S. The interesting mosaics of the tribune and arch of the tribune in S. in S. are the work of the school of the Cosmati. in a niche. endeavouring to bend to its purposes the form of art with which it had to deal. particularly in the noble dignity of Daniel and of the two prophets beside him. and to Eome and its neighbourhood. are twelve scenes from the life of John the Baptist. who lived in that fourteenth century. Bishop of Mende. same church of which only vestiges It is certain that he was in the service of Robert survive. He was thus cotemporary with Giotto. as inscriptions testify. and other characters of the Old Testament. the disciples going to meet John in the wilderness appear in the those greatest haste . Christ with the Virgin.102 ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY. believed that Pietro Cavallini. Maria Maggiore. seems scarcely to touch the ground. were the family of the Cosmati. The figure of an angel.

though they This. and another manuscript been kept up. on the conmost opposite parts of Italy began at this time unanimously to stir with new artistic life.D. in Home (A. THE ROMANESQUE STYLE. at namely. Paolo fuori le mura.' 1835. or those in the vestibule of S. Peter and St. also. We wish especially to call the reader's attention to this fact. The origin of Tuscan painting. but that. is the question we have to treat namely. and those on the inner side of the Arch of Triumph. being chiefly Tuscans by birth. is already decided. p. great as that un- more modern Italian writers on doubtedly was. At all events. far more dependent on the Byzantine school than those of contemporary date in Home. the Byzantine mode. 103 whose designs he carried out in the mosaics of the faQade of S. Maria in Trastevere.* foregoing suffices to show that the rise of mediaeval painting in Tuscany. was no isolated circumstance. and belong probably to the twelfth century. the inquiry into which we have delayed The now. an Exultet. that Tuscany Pisa and Siena. Mark's artists at Venice. however. no specimen exists which shows so decided a Western conception of form and composition as the mosaics of S. 1139-1153). Beitrage zur neuern Kunstgeschichte. as well as Florence pursued. . the commencement of the thirteenth century. surpass these latter in thought and invention.Part I. f In the department of sculpture it is possible that it may always have In painting. therefore. is still very obscure. may be considered as the latest specimens of the native style. what painter. They represent the Virgin and the Baptist on the one side. Paoli fuori le mura.f At all events. or * The mosaics on the wall above the choir tribune of S. because the till trary. Paul on the other. the influence of the Gothic style. ' in the Opera of the cathedral of Pisa (see E. the art. as modified by the Tuscan school. that the later Tuscan of the thirteenth century remained and continued. and modern investigation has served more to show the confusion which attends its history than to throw any on it. and that the old rude Western style had almost disappositive light peared before then. Thus far appears certain. may have been the production of a contemporary of Cavallini. in many external respects. and St. Forster. have been inclined to exaggerate the influence of their native art upon the rest of Italy. in spite of (and in some measure on account of) various early inquiries. We shall find. 78).

Bero) in Grado. We now trace the more authentic specimens with greater frequency. it is true. Rosini.' Atlas. this somewhat doubtful specimen. . hut only in reference to the period assigned to them. Apollinare in Classe. or with the mosaics in the vesti- time. designates these pictures. with the figures of angels influence. 85. Forster. in his Beitrage zur neuern Kunstgeschichte. awkward. what school within the dominion of the Byzantine began to show an independent feeling ? head the list of the more remarkable works fitted to decide this question with the wall-paintings in the church of S. Paul. 297. though perhaps not the most distinguished of their still too much fettered by Byzantine mannerism to with the dramatic animation of the wall-paintings compare in the Baptistery at Parma. dated 1215. after 1352. portraits of the Popes. first We at open or half-closed windows above them. representing a Christ (slightly relieved) between the signs of the Evangelists. of. but partakes. in the The figures spandrils of the arches. which extend to Clement VI. and ' * See Rumohr. local Book II. i. upon the upper walls of the middle aisle. we next come to a picture on wood in the public gallery at Siena. Peter and St. near Ravenna) for later comers. Here. with heavy outlines of a clearly-expressed. a space was left free (as in S. This period is determined by the portraits of the popes. Pietro (or S. but even particular masters determined by curious (though not always trustworthy) tradition an advantage which contemporary German art is almost entirely devoid tion. when first executed.104 ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY. namely. and incorrect in drawing. we perceive the histories of St. " of in the upper row display " the graceful meagreness Byzantine forms. and. p. but rude character. probably executed about 1200.* Setting aside. by way of exception. inasmuch as not only particular works are marked with name and date. as tame. though the arrangement is good and animated. plate 5. and six scenes from the New Testament. Examples may be found in Giov. that. E. of the purely Italian style. vol.' p. 345. in barbaric drapery. 'Storia della Pittura Italiana. upon the high road between Pisa and Leghorn.! It so happens. It is possible however. however. f See Rumohr. that this picture in no way belongs to the Byzantine school. however. two artists come under our considera- who. the figures being short. And first. p.

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Lurfie Picture by Gaido da Siena. 105. dated 1221. Domenico. p. . in the Church of S. Siena.

The inscription contains the following playful verse " Me Guido de Senis diebus depinsit amcenis Quern Christus lenis nullis velit angere poanis. on sufficient grounds) may be particubesides a crucifix in S. Kunstblatt. The (See woodcut. Kugler.) a large style of this painting is still perfectly Byzantine. consisting of the Martyrdom of St. The researches of several modern historians have elicited no mention of a Sienese Guido earlier in date than 1278. with the date 1236. from 1202 to 1258. and suspected to have been altered. Rumohr. plate 107 . Nos. far outstep the bounds of Byzantine convention. such as is foreign to the Byzantine artist Nevertheless we * See D'Agincourt." .' 1827. Peter. Among the existing works ascribed to him (not. Forsch. and the decorations round the furthest window of the choir tribune the first very much overpainted. according to old chronicles. Francesco at Assisi. ' . Domenico at Siena the second (in chapel on the left). THE ROMANESQUE STYLE. The second is Giunto da Pisa. inscribed with the name of the master. by "whom Madonna picture in S. 47 Ital.Part I. yet. the Destruction of Simon Magus. that the inscription is known to have been retouched. Eanieri. p. Action and expression are still feeble and fettered. 'Tub. 105 bule of S. plate 102. formerly in the church of S. who is borne violently through the air by demons. . Xo. and a larly mentioned picture with saints in the chapel of the Campo Santo at Pisa some wall-paintings in the upper church of S. Tub. or Guido da Siena. indeed. Also D'Agincourt.* It must be owned. perceive a certain feeling for purer form and livelier colouring. now lost. however. too. He. Mark's.f whose name. 334. 26 and 27. who lived.'.' 1827. graceful head of the child. and in the round. yet not without dignity and a peculiar naivete in the attitude of the principal figure. Kunstblatt. in the comparative adherence to nature evinced by their works. The picture has been partly restored and painted over but in the figures of the angels and in the upper spandrils the old execution is quite visible. Francesco at Assisi. ' f See Kugler. The there is first is Guido Gratiani. is a very obscure subject. was inscribed on a picture of the Crucifixion. : : Perhaps the earliest evidence of a freshly-awakened artistic complacency at an originally conceived work. and the date 1221.

The Greek artist Apollonius is supposed to have contributed to other portions of the vailed dome upon to he whom Tafi (according to Vasari) had preremove from Venice to Florence. however. is supposed to be the work of the Florentine artist. tines of the time. the life of Christ and the fifth. L. Book II.106 ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY. and of very various periods. p. at Florence. which. the gold hatchings consistently carried out. bear an inscription designating the artist as a Franciscan monk by the name of Jacobus. the quadrangular altar-tribune. Andrea Toft 1213-1294). the second. Giovanni. as in other parts of Italy. Byzantine motives which occur here appear to be more happily chosen than in Guido da Siena 's works. the third. tribune these bands are interrupted by an enthroned Christ of colossal size. E. .* And as these works serve as specimens of the awakening taste of the day at Siena and Pisa. painters above mentioned equalled their Byzantine models. in the arch of S. of opinion that neither of the two C. the innermost containart. Nearest before the . but uever in the flesh Some miniature illuminations of the twelfth century may be tints. vol. Thus far * The lively. or Jacobus Toriti. Waagen. of whom more hereafter.. but with a certain fulness and dignity of form. or rather gaudy. as well as the groups of angels. Forsch. in Paris. of that late period. Kunstwerke. who studied under the Greek mosaicists in The Christ is a figure of the strictest Byzantine type. The architecturally disposed arrangement reminds us also of those early Christian models which here. ing groups of angels . The with the date 1225. the fourth. The execution is delicate and neat.') is ' Rumohr (' Ital. very different to the meagre weakness in vogue among the Byzan(A.^ The subject is a circle of saintly personages. has satisfactorily proved that this Jacobus has nothing to do with the monk Jacob of Tarrita. ranged round the Agnus Dei. so the same may be said of those in the baptistery or church of The mosaics here. of the octagonal dome are by very various hands. colouring to which the author alludes sometimes occurs in the draperies of the Byzantines. the life of Joseph . subjects from Genesis . 387. &c. They are arranged in several concentric bands. Venice. p. and supported by four kneeling male figures in the spandrils of the arches. See Dr.' 1839. 226. that of John the Baptist. t Rumohr. exercised an influence over the newly-awakening spirit of The mosaics. i. quoted as specimens.D.

then could the debased p. the highest prosperity of the country. The apparently sudden rise of Byzantine forms of art in Tuscany. no doubt that Venice at that time offered the nearest source for fine and elegant Byzantine mosaic work but we question very much whether. and their settling there brought into conjunction with the fall of the whole assertion falls to the ground. thirteenth century had III.. . The Innocent under whose great commenced with the papacy of gifts and triumphant measures the See of Rome attained a power and splendour unknown before. may be accounted for in a different way. even in Venice. 349. and that in the We newly-awakened demand for mosaics the delicate Venetian workmanship could not fail to be preferred to the incomparably ruder Roman.* Alto- appears to us that too much stress is laid upon the supposed emigration of Greek artists. i.Part I. we must give a developed brief view of that renovation which marked the intellectual It was the life intelligible of the time. the development of Tuscan art being only when considered in connection with it. Rumohr. but when Apollonius magnified into a whole Greek school at Florence. and of its chief cities. . from the twelfth century. and whether there may not rather have existed. THE ROMANESQUE STYLE. latter half of the thirteenth century which really the new tendency. or to the remotely situated NormanSicilian school. an independent school of Venetian-Byzantine gether last it art. That. Francis country. must not overlook the fact that. with the technical execution of Venice. with the exception of Pisa. is sufficiently 107 the account is questionable . Constantinople. Here. of Assisi inspired all hearts. There is . * See How vol. dates from that time. it was introduced. nor that the style should influence other departments of painting an analogous case being supplied to us in the Flemish art of oil-painting. the style should follow (if this latter had not actually preceded it) need not surprise us. brought almost invariably something of Flemish reality in its train. pervaded the The highest feeling of religious enthusiasm The glowing devotion of St. however. any considerable body of native Greek artists existed at all. which. wherever. at the beginning of the thirteenth century.

this free and elevated conception of form and character was destined soon to give way to a more conventional. he formed his style immediately upon it. while. Other moral tendencies also of a contemporary date contributed to the complete emancipation of art. Here. and in art. according to Vasari. The immediate followers of Nicola Pisano departed at once from his example. without having produced any obvious effect upon the department of painting. At this period commences the true nationality of Italy. and now preserved in the Academy . was equally pregnant with great results. having himself come in contact with an antique example. announced. though it is highly probable that the authors of them were devoid of all knowledge of the antique. as in Germany and France. formerly in S. Trinita. The early works of the great sculptor Nicola Pisano (born about 1300) are strongly marked with this tendency. in those paintings contemporary with and closely succeeding him. of the of modern Italian painting family of the Cimabui. Among the works ascribed with the greatest probability to him are two large Madonnas in Florence. and haggard forms of the Byzantine school have fulfilled the purposes of religious art at such a period? Sooner or later a truer expression of feeling was sure to break the bonds by which it had been paralysed. The earlier one. and which. was born in the year 1240. among other signs. approached the form of the highest classical perfection.108 ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY. till. namely. though it bore a very different fruit to that pro- duced by the contemporary spirit of chivalry in the North. and even to a mannered Gothic style. And now we must first consider that painter who is usually (though too exclusively) looked upon as the founder we mean Giovanni. This was the case. in a few specimens of sculpture of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. and appears to have died soon after 1300. Book II. though only for a brief moment. however. that higher cultivation of form which he aimed at is only very seldom to be traced. One common impulse for the attainment of a higher ideal animated every department of civilization in the Western Empire. who. by the rise of a splendid literature in the vernacular tongue.

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Florence. p. in S. . ltt>.MADONNA ENTHRONED . A! aria Ncveila. by Cimatuft.

on the are introduced heads of saints. manner. An engraving is given in Riepenhausen's 'Geschichte der Malerei. in which This work. the artist seems to have been fettered by the prescribed types of the church. unlike the Byzantine. however. ' t Engravings in Riepenhausen. still following the Byzantine arrangement. THE ROMANESQUE STYLE. Beitrage zur neuern Kunstgesch. though.f The infant Christ on the lap of the Madonna shows an approach to . and the execution. it contains germ of Florentine greatness which was established in the person of Giotto.' 1821. in the figure of the Saviour. 9.^ The greater part of the large mosaic which adorns the chief tribune of the Duorno at Pisa. this art and only relatively admirable as the may be. over a neglected altar in a dark passage between the church and sacristy. . was carried from the house of the artist to the church with pomp and rejoicing. 109 (with grand figures of prophets and patriarchs introduced in the lower part). representing the Saviour. .' i. according to aiithentic documents. 7. while in the figure of John the Baptist we already remark a more animated conception of the head and a more natural action. already for the drawing is employs it with artist-like freedom improved by the study of nature. and apparently by the same hand. by Cimabue. the ornamentation of the medallions also are successful . angels are represouth chapel of the transept sented kneeling on each side of the Madonna the frame . .Part I. towards the close of his life. Simone in Florence. Here.'. ' J E. Engravings of two of the medallions in Tub. is modelled and round. It is said that this picture. was executed. is a colossal St.* The later picture is in S. Forster. with two angels. is still closely allied to the Byzantine style. and D'Agincourt. when finished. Some the colouring is truer.'pl. 'Gesch. - Very similar in style to this work. 108. The great talents of Cimabue are exhibited in fullest development in the large wall-paintings ascribed to him in * i. whole. ' Peinture. 101. nature in action in better taste. of colossal size. with John the Baptist and the Madonna beside him.' 6. p. Maria Novella in the in this. of the picture is ornamented with small medallions. der Mai. No. in S. Peter enthroned. Kunst- blatt.

the lower building formed originally the sepulchral church of St. . Francis (who died 1226). as is supposed. blatt. Kunst- . had executed the mosaics of the choir tribune in S.' ii. two churches of almost equal extent being built one over the other. 38. in the choir and transept of the upper church are for at least afforded were . third. The decoration the upper church of S. too. the second and fourth with gold * The reasons given by Rumohr ('Ital. Nos. but little is now recognisable. in Florence .HO ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY. 34. 30) to prove that th two Madonnas before mentioned are by the hand of Cimabue. 35. Forsch. The new Order here appears in a remarkable way as the promoting cause of the new style of painting. of which the first. To these belong the roof of the nave. in which this church was held is evinced by the amount of paintings with which the walls were covered in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. having been erected by foreign artists in the first half of the thirteenth The century. First. Francesco at Assisi. and fifth are ornamented with figures. The paintings ascribed to him on the vaulted roof consists of five chief quadran- gular compartments. was summoned to continue the series what he may have painted in the under church no longer exists his works. So early even as during the lifetime of St. however. however. executed considerable works. See Kugler." remarkable in the history of architecture. the Jacobus above mentioned. ' Tub. Francis. Greek masters. in the Gothic style then foreign to Italy. is disposition of the building is also peculiar.' 1827. 40." in Crowe and Cavalcaselle's painting. 28. still preserved. of this church must be regarded as one of the most important circumstances in the historical development of modern " Here lies concealed. all the artists which the vicinity employed by the monks to adorn this their holy of holies. Giovanni. Giunto da Pisa. Cimdbue of which. appear to be equally applicable to these paintings at Assisi. the upper one alone was dedicated to the usual The great veneration religious service of the monastery. 39. and after them. almost wholly obliterated. history of Florentine art. BOOK II. and in Assisi. " The church itself the words. one of his monks. two generations.* Many important specimens are.

Of the works still existing. and the Descent from the Cross. a striking resemblance to the genii of classic art as we find them commonly represented. Still more important are the paintings with which Cimabue. bearing tasteful vases on their heads . the hand of Cimabue himself. and in the successful attempt (for such. John the Baptist. Maria Novella. looking from the choir. . and repulsive peculiarities are in . One of the figures has. in its attitude. contains the four Evangelists.) to express the modelling of the naked form. the Madonna. but that of an imitator. The character of these paintings is almost the same as in the above-mentioned altar-pictures the countenance of the Virgin especially has a close affinity to the . however. Francis. In the lower corners of the triangles are represented naked genii. over the choir. of a single passing moment in the grouping of the masses. which are however almost obliterated. out of these grow rich foliage and flowers. adorned the upper part of the walls of the nave in a line with the On the left. and in the attitudes and gestures of the individual figures. on the right the Birth and Passion of Christ. show the Byzantine school some degree lifeless. with other genii among them. In the free movements of these figures. some investigators recognise not in these. THE ROMANESQUE STYLE. The first HI stars compartment. we recognise a decided and not unsatisfactory approach to the antique. fifth : com- however. the Marriage at Cana. on a blue ground. standing with a torch reversed on the sides of sarcophagi in the partment are the four great Doctors of the Church . it must be regarded. the Betrayal of These also still Christ. Joseph windows. as a first effort. or other Tuscan painters partaking of his aim. avoided the artist has succeeded in expressing the action . the best are.Part I. with his Brethren. at the same time its stiff. more interesting than the medallions themselves. separated from each other by the ribs of the arch are medallions with figures of Christ. is represented the history of the Creation and of the Patriarchs of the Old Testament . and St. Madonna of S. The ornaments which surround these medallions are. In the triangular spaces of the third compartment. who pluck the fruits or lurk in the calyxes of the flowers.

new path to the free exercise of part of the walls of the nave. . Forsch. both inscribed with the name Jacobus Toriti. all that belongs to the conception of characteristic or graceful action. No. Book II we recognise in these works as in the cupola the struggle to paintings in the baptistery at Parma form traditional the to of a living intenexpression give tion. on which the Lateran and S. in A the mosaics of the tribunes of S. are ad' Tub. Francis and St. 67) ascribes almost the whole of these works to Parri Spinello. apostles.* general affinity with the style and aim of Cimabue is observable in some mosaics executed by contemporary artists for example. Franciscan monk Jacobus de Camerino assisted. exhibit scholars of Cimdbue. But only to a certain extent the artist has succeeded in carrying out this prinit is. however. notwithstanding all these defects.112 It is true ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY. and less developed in form. The first. and executed necessarily between the years 1287 and 1292. and in a bending position (emblematic of their recent canonisation). From the frequent recurrence of Byzantine characteristics. is simpler in Six saints and arrangement. in fact. 42. to by different hands. it appears. these works must be regarded as having been mainly instrumental in opening a art. ii. in this instance. We shall return to the most important. They The lower and begin. probable that they were executed by are executed position. however. in general comthe style of the fourteenth century. the expression always conventional. the impassioned movement of the grandeur and that figures is happily tempered by an air of it is dignity. Kunstbl. Anthony of Padua on a smaller scale. with whom appear the figures of St. is still wanting. Yet. 1827. * Compare Kugler. John Maria Maggiore in Rome.'. the life of the Saint to whom the church is dedicated. under the in twenty-eight compartments events from contains windows. The type of the heads is alike throughout. only attained so far as ciple of animation it is necessary to the intelligible representation of a given .' . a master of the fifteenth century. Rumohr (' Ital. event all that belongs to a closer imitation of Nature in her individual peculiarities.

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Below are the River Jordan and the four rivers of Paradise. with several saints above. An inscription gives the name of This the otherwise unknown master. 113 vancing. Paul. towards a cross in the centre. the mosaics of century. the two St. we recognise in the animated and inspired action a revival of that poetic fifth intention which gives such grandeur to the mosaics of the In every respect. Maria Maggiore in Rome. Below is the Jordan again. Here. S. being surpassed by no contemporary work in dignity. and on the wall of the trihune Christ with the Apostles. Both well- arranged compositions. though not traceable in the details of the forms. and decorative beauty of arrangement. the execution careful. Johns. is seen the head of Christ. in a glory of angels. enframed in architectural decorations." I . Further below gods. with their hands raised in ado-ration. executed by Jacobus Toriti. gold-starred circle is seen Christ enthroned with the Virgin on each side are adoring angels. advancing devoutly along. St. as preserved from the older tribune. are four scenes from the life of Christ in animated arrangement. with small riveras before). the mosaics by Giovanni Cosmato in the recesses of two monuments in S. boats. Maria sopra Minerva. The ground is gold. and figures of men and animals. however. THE ROMANESQUE STYLE. she lifts up her hands with the expression both of adoration and of modest remonstrance. and the legend of the founding of the church below. The group is in the circle. Francis and St. Over this.Part I. on a gold ground. in two rows. To the same time (about 1300) belong the mosaics on the upper part of the facade of the lastnamed church (now inserted in the loggia). is Christ in the act of benediction. with St. stand the highest. in which. Virgin. from the Roman mosaics of the twelfth More decidedly still do we trace the new style in century. The forms and very different are very pure and noble . kneeling and flying. Anthony (the same in size and position : filled The upper part is with graceful vine-branches. Peter and St. Maria Maggiore. In a blue grace. on a smaller scale. with symbolical animals among them. " Philippus Busutti. and in S. Christ enthroned with the : while the Saviour places the especially fine crown on his mother's head.

in Naples may possibly be by him. Peter at Eome. near Avellino. an Assumption of the Virgin in the cathedral at Pisa. namely. Here we see the person of Christ. by whom a signed picture of an almost calligraphic kind exists in the National Gallery. Miniato al Monte. the gold hatchings of the stiff draperies of the utmost delicacy. As one who. and a Coronation of the Virgin in the inner lunette of the chief portal of the These last mosaics comcathedral at Florence. by whom certain subjects in the dome of the baptistery at Florence. may be mentioned Margheritone da Arezzo. 121)7. late in the thirteenth century. enthroned upon a green meadow. Other nameless remains of pictures going. and show a truth of nature which is very remarkable for the period. here as being identified by more than one signed specimen. show bue who adhered that there were painters living in the vicinity of Cirnastrictly to the Byzantine style. depart from the old type. still adhered unswervingly to the most decrepid Byzantine types. on the left. On the other hand. the numerous birds dispersed in the meadow. work was formerly ascribed to the Florentine mosaicist Gaddo Gaddi (died 1312). who is presenting a crown to the Saviour. The animals alone. He to 1306. between the signs of the four Evangelists . Miniato. conceived in the most morose Byzantine type. He was employed by Pope Urban IV.114 ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY. Book II. Virgin not without a certain rigid grace with outstretched hands. bine the most careful Byzantine treatment (for instance. famous for a legend of the Madonna's head at the monastery of Monte Vergine. execution is very careful. above Florence (A. D. and in no way advanced beyond it. . if the inscription to that purport be rightly interpreted). He is believed to have died in 1313. (died 1265) to decorate the portico of the ancient He is only worthy of note Basilica of S. the mosaics of the choir tribune of S. stands the and on the right The St. still exist. The name of Mentano da Arezzo may be added to the foreis recorded to have painted in Naples from 1305 and was the author of an altar-piece. who was allied in friendship with the artist. delicate high lights in gold) with the fine and dignified conception of Cimdbue.

and is generally supposed put upon a level with Cimabue. was under the dominion of the House of Anjou. in his surviving authentic works. in the telling of the tale. attaining a step beyond him. He has left. the mosaics of a small recess in S. a This was di Buoninsegna the revival of art. however. that the utmost we can affirm of them is that their author was no Byzantine. at that time. and was perhaps even the means of bringing the influence of French art to bear French manuscript. entirely to its own native merits its owed and is efforts. though otherwise it gives us no ground for supposing a closer connection with them. 115 Another great master cotemporary with Cimabue. Eestituta (the old cathedral) at Naples. In the highest importance in power of expression. of which we shall give specimens How far the Tuscan influence of the thirteenth century extended to the rest of Italy it is impossible now to determine. is to all intents lost to us . who have lived from 1230 to 1310. having under- gone such overpaintings and general ill-treatment. himself from them. whether the Neapo- litan school emancipation from the Byzantine style. It is uncertain. the wall-paintings of the Passion in the Cappella Minutoli.' upon the Neapolitan. no large works to contend for the palm with the great artist who went before him. and. rest entirely on a small series of works. An to artist. which is known to have encouraged painting. Januarius and another saint. in the cathedral of Naples. and is supposed to have been completed about 1300. which we mentioned before. Naples. THE ROMANESQUE STYLE. can only be adverted to here. displays that similar union of freer and more dignified forms with delicate Byzantine execution. A probably executed for that court towards the close of the i2 . at the proper place. Further details of his art and life will be found heading the Sienese school. his only known works. which we see in certain Tuscan works. and with the greater one Duccio's fame may be said to (Giotto) who followed after. for example. and in the spirit and freshness with which he disengaged Ducdo name of . A better preserved work. ' The Tristan. in the employment of the highest traditional forms.Part I. no one stands above Ducdo. which represents the Virgin enthroned between St. by name Tommaso degli Stefani.

singularly noble in form. is thirteenth century.116 ART OF THE MIDDLE AGES IN ITALY. Book II. for a noble type of Deliheads. for instance in the Momessian Codex. cate and individual traits of expression are also not wanting. for slender proportion and clever arrangement. are proportionably ill-formed and clumsy. As we are not ac- quainted with the date of Neapolitan painting under the last of the Hohenstaufen. . and decorated by some Italian hand with numerous miniatures (now in the Royal Library at Paris). 315.of the time. ' Kunst und Kiinstler in Paris. * Waagen. for that period. it remains to be determined how much of its merits belongs to a purely native development. while those in the most important German miniatures .' p.* The horses especially are. remarkable for delicacy of execution.

in some instances. whenever this distinction is dwelt on. INTRODUCTION. on the other hand. 117 BOOK III. and that of the object chiefly apparent. If. there is little wonder should have transpired. the the word is employed 'eaking of the subject of a picture) requires to be carefully avoided. When the tone or tendencies of the individual mind very perceptibly modify the nature of the materials with which it has to deal. for reasons which it may be as well to state. his chief aim became the * intelligible expression of the theme he had to treat. an impassioned feeling has been represented. distinction alluded to is not immediately prominent. SECOND STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT. Hence. when not derived from tradition. the object all that is without him. MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY AND THEIR FOLLOWERS. would be intelligible enough in our language on the other hand. though they relate to a distinction which is familiar to many. E. L. When the trammels. is less appropriate in English without sense the subject is the human being. and the manifestation of the individual mind in treating them. C. and whenever the adoption of this terminology is unavoidable. be pronounced to have proceeded rather from external causes of excitement peculiar to the * The word theme (Gegenstand) is preferred in this instance to the more obvious term subject. it may. this is called a subjective mode of conception or treatment. In the German s] Where. . the word subject. the character of the individual is comparatively passive. BETWEEN that the first enfranchisement of art from Byzantine development. INTRODUCTION. to the individual. for the first. The general term object. the Germans always carefully distinguish between the objects or materials on which the mind works. it is obvious that the word subject in its usual English meaning (as for instance in some explanation. When. for example in the baptistery of Parma. to the observer. they may serve to throw some light on the views of the author which follow. for.Book III. this is called an objective mode. which the Germans restrict . and its full two centuries artist ceased servilely to repeat traditional forms. in this translation in the usual sense. however. In considering the productions of human genius. not the manifestation of his own individual mind.

for many reasons. : : meaning. This united with a style of representation. Certain indications even show that the North (where this style was developed half a century earlier) exercised influence upon the development of the same in Italy. objective his appropriation of external forms. The forms then assumed were for long merely But in the further development of Art. may be denominated Gothic. this purpose it became necessary that the creating should appear more definitely in his own individual It was from his consciousness only that this relacharacter. Book III. an symbolical. than from any inly-felt necessity to express his own character and feelings through the medium of the incident represented. no attempt was made to express what we now feel to be the exact truth. This separation and union have their foundation in the very essence of Christianity. which recognises no independent value in the outer world and its phenomena. on that account. This may be concluded from . the rearbitrary symbolization was no longer sufficient to be at once itself was required symbol and presentation It appears at first sight that such a distinction itself theme . Thus the perfection of religious art was only to be attained objective by a due combination of the subjective and power : the subjective revealing the artist's individual character . the And here. and which. tion between the earthly form and the unearthly spirit could For artist be made evident . period. it was natural as well as necessary that new aim appears now the subjective tendency should take at first the lead. the intellectual direction and order of which correspond strikingly with that of Northern art. In the first exercise of art among the Christians.118 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. between the and the manifestation of the individual mind in that the repose of a work of art treating it is inadmissible would be destroyed by such a disunion and such in fact is the case but out of this disunion a new and closer alliance was to arise. only when the representation was the result of original conception could the spiritual meaning be freely expressed.

other hand. Giotto feeling of the period. however. and express the relation between the earthly and spiritual between the objects of beyond it in representations of a richly The Sienese school. on the poetical and allegorical nature. INTRODUCTION. on the contrary. of influence was also. in We now new period. Regarded. in short. ception. or schools. Those essenwhich the Italian Gothic and the Northern Gothic style correspond. which. and Willielm of Cologne are seen to approach closely to- gether . the two schools are as widely sundered . in other respects. Tuscany. somewhat sooner than painting. one reason for which may be traced in the better condition of wall space possessed by the Italian races. we consider this metamorphosis in style as one of native origin. In this also we consummation of the purely mediaeval artistic life. adheres (as sight and those . evince rather a depth of feeling which does not require that richness of form. are less of an outward and material than of a moral nature. Siena. disregarding the accidental. principal The centre of the one was Florence.Book III. still maintains the art. in some instances. though. They throw themselves with a lively consciousness into the various and changeful scenes of life. The Florentines and the artists who were influenced by them evince a peculiar quickness and vigour of thought. may be now distendencies. They are based upon a mode of tial features in conception which. kept only the abstract and strictly essential in view that mode of con. but. first place during this Two defined. consider the next succeeding period of modern which the subjective mode of conception prevails. Another means accepted the Gothic principle of form. 119 sculpture. as we have suggested. The difference between the two may be thus other. and followed by analogous results. and of the Gothic spirit generally speaking. founded on the same causes which led to it in the may find the North. that portion of Italy to which the greatest names of the preceding period had belonged. in a broader light. contributed Italian by the circumstance of Naples being governed by a noble French house. of the tinguished. which is generally characteristic of the This is why.

GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. and the nature and extent of the innovations he introduced. by an almost modern 1 " The modern manner is Vasari's term for the perfection of the art in the hands of Raphael. The allegorical tendency on which the author lays so much stress. the only points on which these historians are not quite in accordance. distinctive feature with the Florentines is their richness of thought and composition. but might rather be traced to the accidental influence of his friendship with It may be observed generally that the Dante. The formative arts which are immediately intelare imitative) would be the last to abandon this ligible (inasmuch as they if those forms had not in some sort supplied privilege for arbitrary forms. not an individual . " . and to the spirit of the age. remarkable as it is. It must. To come to those qualities which appear to have been essentially original in Giotto. in 1276.120 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. the place of nature. for a system of conventional personification must of necessity be the gradual result of a general understanding and common education. and the aim at reality of character the distinctive feature with the Sienes is the intense and : heartfelt grace of their single figures. is far from being an essential characteristic of Giotto. we observe that his invention is mainly distinguished from the earlier productions by the introduction of natural l richness and depth of incidents and expressions. CHAPTER TUSCAN SCHOOLS I. are the definition of his style. a poor labourer. that it is frequently modified by external circumstances. far as the principle of Gothic art prevails) more to traditional The forms. Without any disposition to question his claims to fame. be borne in mind that this line of separation is decidedly visible in a few cases only. Titian. aud the long-enduring influence of his example. and died at Florence in * The great revolution which Giotto effected. Book III. while it animates them with a genial warmth. GIOTTO. have been recorded by every historian of art. and that each of the tendencies in question exercises a reciprocal influence on the other. He was born at Vespignano. AT the head of the didactic or allegorical style stands Giotto* the son of one Bondone. &c. near Florence. habitual employment of allegory can only in strictness be said to characterise an epoch. however.

and by a general conThis last for the formal and servile style of his predecessors. Leon Battista Alberti (' Delia Pittura e della Statua. Francis. Forsch. The minor peculiarities are in like manner all diametrically opposed to " the preceding practice. L. illustrating the life of St. character of Ital. Francis. the death of the dissolute Lord of Celano lamented his his of on St. Of the frescoes now ascribed to him may be mentioned the first the Saint to tread on his cloak on the ground for with several on the opposite side the dead viz.' into the Giotto. the sister of the embracing the body as it rests at S. then ten years of age. who thrusts his hand into the in order a man throwing . by the dramatic interest of his groups. the dark colour changed eyes. C. in the celebrated church of S. circumstance is partly to be explained (as Rumohr sufficiently proves in an ii. for he remarks that it would be well for Art if white paint were dearer ' tempt than gems. appears to have regretted the prevalence of this taste. that he laboured as a youth as well as in early manhood on the walls of that grand sanctuary of piety and art which At Assisi. Francis a flask Saint. arose after the death of St. Struck with the boy.Chap. unnaturally long of the Byzantines to a delicate and even pale carnation. . but it may be safely assumed great 1336. Francesco the cradle of and surrounded by the rudimental efforts of his predecessors. composition. Chiara. pallet by body while angels convey his soul to Heaven the incredulity of Girolamo. It is here. It is unnecessary to anticipate the author's just remarks on other particulars. E. He was said. receiving in his sleep from the hands of St. in which condition. that his hand is traced by the internal evidence of its dawning superiority.. have teacher perished.) even in the fifteenth century. The pale colour of Giotto was the most unfortunate of his innovations. and gave him inAll traces of his industry under this struction in the arts. a doctor of Assisi. therefore. the young Giotto may be said to have worked out his apprenticeship as a painter.' lib. 55) by a personal inquiry total absence of the superstitious enthusiasm of the time. Florentine art among the frescoes of the lower series of the upper church. I. for it was adopted by the Florentines for more than a century after him. p. he was discovered by Cimabue drawing a sheep upon a slab of stone. with her nuns. wound in the Saint's side S. ii. 121 it is originally a shepherd boy. Cimabue took him to Florence. Damiano on the way to Assisi Pope Gregory IX. Francis brethren. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. of the early painters is The " spectral stare to in half-closed shape.

" f * Most of these frescoes here Florentine School. till he came. containing blood from the wound in his side. the description by Dante.' f named are engraved in Ottley's ' Early "A dame. e dolce sguardo Faceano esser cagion de' pensier santi. Mille e cent' anni e piii. Francis. La porta Et coram patre Poscia di di in di le si fece unite.* more mature works. dispetta e scura Fino a costui si stette senza invito : Ma perch' io non proceda troppo chiuso . slighted and obscure. 1' piii forte. In the first of these our seen uniting St. Francis restoring to life a lady who had died before making Btit Giotto's confession. St. was. e i lor lieti sembianti Amore e maraviglia. In the subject of the Saint healing a wounded man. Francesco e Poverti per questi amanti Prendi oramai nel mio parlar diffuse. and lastly. representing the three vows of the order. significant of Giotto's dramatic power. Book III. are those which adorn the lower church of Assisi. Giotto's cotemis Lord porary and friend. Poverty. and the glorification of St. com' alia morte. La loro concordia. amo Questa. who thus speaks of the tal donna giovinetto in guerra Del padre corse. remain'd Without a single suitor. del piacer nessun disserra : E dinanzi alia sua spirital corte. the action of the Doctor is about to leave the apartment.122 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. His stripling choice and he did make her his. And in his father's sight from day to day. a cui. Francis in marriage to Poverty (see woodcut). bereav'd Of her first husband. She. take at large . showing that there is no hope. to whom none openeth pleasure's gate More than to death. known as his by historical as well as by internal evidence. 'gainst his father's will. : But not Thus to deal closely with thee longer. privata del primo marito. by nuptial bonds. : Before the spiritual court. Chastity. " Che per is traceable. and Obedience. These consist of four triangular compartments in the groined roof above the high altar (underneath which lie the remains of the saint). Here. Then loved her more devoutly. Saint. Thousand and hundred years and more.

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Facendo spesso a' giudici far fallo E d' onor donna e damigella spoglia. is seated within a temple. 51. The representation of Obedience is not so clear. on each side stand groups of angels as witnesses of On the left." . Francis she stands This . but who. E E E fa far furto. gave birth to holy thoughts." Gary's Translation. On the other figure receiving the Angel of Penitence driving away demons. p. after the example of the Saint on the right stand the rich and the great. 123 allegory has been copied. Francis welcoming three candidates for admission a Monk. Francis standing. And sweet regard. a youth. with angels doing her homage. wonder and love." vol. holding. conducted by an angel. quoted by Rumohr. I. See his canzone. and hind-feet of a dog. whom Christ gives in marriage to St. ii. che tuttavia : Che di pecchare e via. and a Lay Brother. above the temple is St. in which he dwells with better sense than metre on the evils entailed by poverty. the others bags of money in . one a falcon on his wrist. The lovers' titles Poverty and Francis. and an angel on each side holding the rules of the Order. who are invited by an angel to approach. : The vow of Chastity is their hands.Chap. with the hands of the Father shedding effulgence upon him. forza e villania spesso usar bugia. by the painter. amongst thorns in the foreground are two boys mocking her. who gives his garment to a poor man. with some additional embellishment. Below are groups consisting on one side of St. and the On each side are groups of angels. Poverty appears as a woman. a centaur animal with the tail of a lion. a Nun. Italienische Forschungen. Their concord and glad looks. * Giotto's own ideas of poverty were more adapted to the world in which ' he lived. In the centre is a side youthful is baptism. We give a few lines from it " Di guella Poverta ch' e contro a voglia Non e da dubitar. is the holy union. turn scornfully away.* illustrated by a young female figure seated in a strong fortress. with the Angel 'Prudentia' with a face looking backwards as well as forThe Angel of Obedience wards on one In front is side. and the Angel ' Humilitas' on the other. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. ciascun priva d' onorato stallo.

sky with actions of sympathy for those in the ship below them on each side are the winds in form of a demon. Peter. judging according to his progress in are the works he executed in Rome. and also in those of the life of St. Rome. with hands clasped in prayer (see woodcut). standing in a deacon's robe. painted on each side with sacred subjects believed to have originally formed part of a Ciborium which * He had remained a deacon from a feeling of humility. Peter on the waves with our Lord extending his hand to him. near Christ. In the fourth compartment Francis is seen enthroned in glory (see woodcut). has been so extensively injured and repaired that it would be difficult to form any critical estimate of its author.' 1821. Book III. and now preserved in the portico of the modern church. though mutilated to make room for an orchestra. is seen the mitred head of Cardinal Stefaneschi. which Giotto is believed to have designed. nephew of Boniface VIII. ' . enriched with gold.* surrounded with saints and angels dancing and singing. and had never been consecrated as a priest. Four bust-length figures of bearded Fathers are seen in the . Nos. as it is believed. is full of expression. In the lower corner. on dry land. f The best engravings of these four subjects are those in Fea's work.f The hand of Giotto is also recognised in the frescoes in southern transept of the lower church in the series illustrating the life of our Lord. in a rough sea. Among the former the Salutation the and the Visitation are foremost in merit. containing eleven of the Apostles. Francesco d' Assisi. Opposite. and playing on musical instruments. Cardinal Stefaneschi. art. Descrizione della Basilica di S. in the Tiibinger Kunstblatt. .' 1820. Next in sequence. more satisfactory example of Giotto consists of a series A of three panels. the restoration to life Among the others of a boy of the Spini family by St. occupies the principal part of the scene. A fuller ' description of the subjects is given under the signature W. 45.1-24 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. In front is St. Francis. St. A ship.. Francis. 44. is known to have been his patron there. between 1298 and 1300. is a figure fishing with rod and line. The principal record of Giotto's labours is a mosaic executed for the ancient basilica of St. called the This Navicella.

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125 . by Giotto. in the Bordello. Florence p.Portrait of DANTE.

Peter's. .Chap.| These originally occupied the entire walls . Seymour Kirkup. John Lateran. as far as it goes. an Englishman long resident in Florence. and Mr. when Dante visited the eternal city. the sides covered with incidents from the lives of the Magdalen. Mary Egyptiaca. Mr." Thus translated by Gary ' A ' (' Pur- gatorio. Sicche la fama di colui oscura. and the walls so far scraped as to reveal at all events a faint idea of the composition and spirit of Giotto's works. figure here and there remaining. . 1840. representing Pope Boniface VIII. But the chief interest and object of those instrumental in effecting the restoration of the chapel were the portraits of Dante. Brunetti Latini. This fresco confirms the belief that Giotto remained in until 1300. Corso Donati. from the United States. in the Chapel of the Bargello. the other by that of the Paradiso." f This recovery.' si. was owing to the energy of three gentlemen Mr. or palace of the Podesta. and of St. These panels are preserved in the Sacristy of the Canons of St. the year of the proclamation of the Jubilee. Aubrey Bezzi whose united efforts overcame the opposition of the authorities in July. having undergone many vicissitudes having been divided into two stories the upper one used as a the frescoes covered with prison. GIOTTO AXD HIS FOLLOWERS. of fine conception and expression. Henry Wilde. It was on this occasion. and his name eclipsed. and respects * Dante's well-known allusion to him in the Divina Commedia runs thus " Credette Cimabue nella pittura Tener lo campo ed ora ha Giotto il grido. I.* The hand and mind of Giotto are next traced in Florence.. 125 he executed for Cardinal Stefaneschi. No other works by the master have survived in Rome except the fragment of a much-injured fresco in St. attests the beauties of art which have been for ever obliterated. one end of the chapel being filled by a fresco of the Inferno. the lower as a magazine whitewash at was last rescued from its degraded dirty plight. that the friend- Kome ship between himself and the painter was formed. This chapel. 94) : : : " Cimabue thought To lord it over painting's field and now The cry is Giotto's. In the " Noli me tangere " a wreck in other the head of the Magdalen is of the highest order of expression. in full pontificals announcing the opening of the Jubilee.

are believed not to have gained by the partial repairs executed It is to be supposed that the date of these portraits since. The history of the Madonna and of Christ are here rendered in three courses of frescoes. E. Book III other cotemporaries of the painter. similarly grouped. . erection of the Arena Chapel.' f Many of these have been engraved by the Arundel Society.' Giotto. and the Prophets. which is singularly adapted to pictorial purposes. 241. and it seems probable that. In addition to original ill-treatment. a rich citizen of Padua.* It has even been believed that he assisted in the design of the building. the plan. 377. dedicated to the Madonna. 354. no better specimens exist of the painter's power of individuality. and here unmistakable . who engaged the painter to adorn its walls. mentioned by Vasari as the first successful attempts at portraiture after the revival of art. 365. was completed by Enrico Scrovegno.126 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. therefore between 1300 In the same order. comprising thirty-eight subjects. believed to be intended for Charles of Valois.' and a review of the Marchese Selvatico's work 1837. The portrait of Dante is the heads are of strong character. and headed by three figures the hindmost of which is supposed to be Giotto himself. Combined with these sacred scenes and personages. to proceed to Avignon. while above the arch of the choir is the Saviour in a glory of angels. These have come to light in the lower portion of the Paradiso where a procession of citizens are seen following a crowned youth. and included in these frescoes. . they suffered greatly by the removal of the whitewash. the Virgin. among which appear the heads of Christ. are * See ' ' Kunstblatt. window. It now appears that Giotto was engaged by Pope Benedict XI. on the failure of the In 1303. is another procession. and execute works in the Papal Palace there this engagement was defeated by the death of that Pontiif. Forster's essay ' Sulla Cappelliiia degli Scrovegni. the painter repaired to the north of Italy. and further. is previous to the exile of the poet.f The ground of the simply arched vault is blue. which begin with Joachim's Offering and end with the Descent of the Holy Ghost. pp. studded with gold stars. on the left side of the and 1302.

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though in execution of details he is necessarily much behindhand. allegorical figures of the virtues and vices the virtues feminine and ideal. the disciples behind the Saviour on the one side. Anna praying. the power of giving animation not only to single portions. where an angel is Joachim in a dream. form two choruses. who contemplate the vision with awe. with the expression of the highest moral feeling. He enriches the well-known subjects with numerous subordi- nate figures. a number appears gorical subjects. and the scribes on the right. where a servant-maid sits spinning in an adjoining room. and the astonished multitude on the other. with the figure of a youthful scoffer kneeling in front. The Murder of the Innocents combines with moderate action the expression of the deepest terror and sorrow in the women. This approach to reality sometimes assumes a character which oversteps the strict limits of the higher ecclesiastical style . for example. also. I. painted in chiaroscuro. The Resurrection of Lazarus. also. and of the most relentless malice in the executioners. or seen in a totally new form. . In these departments Giotto is both founder and completer of his school. in the picture of St. the Holy Family is accompanied by a serving-man and three other figures. in medallions . 127 introduced fitting allusions to the moral state of man the lower part of the side-walls containing. But such extensions of the subject alone would hardly have furthered the designs of art had they not been accompanied by every endowment requisite for histonamely. At the Raising of Lazarus. the scourgers constitute a rich group. he has introduced two shepherds on one side. a as Giotto great innovator. thus intelligible. In the picture of the Flagellation. Where the event is the Flight into Egypt. Certain sacred occurrical painting. as. appearing to making the picture more truthful or more In that scene. considering the necessary . of situations suggested by the Scriptures being here either expressed for the first time.Chap. and an intuitive truthfulness of action. but to the whole composition. for instance. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. as in the allesentation of the Last Judgment. rences have perhaps never been so happily expressed as by him. the vices masculine and individual while the entrance-wall has a large repre- In these.

Book III. have left also. exhibits. with his arms raised and extended. subject of the The Last Judgment. obliterated what the devouring element spared. . Giotto's labours in Padua also extended to the great church of " II Santo. while a priest in white supports the The lower part on the right side embodies those hideous images encouraged by the Eomish church in the old Sacred Plays. not been surpassed by any subsequent representation. left of the The Annunciation. figures seen in profile execution. according to Vasari. has. one subject. but none survive to test the connoisseur. are overwhelmed with grief. entrance. he is reported to works. a new conception of the At Verona. Parts of six figures in niches. who is in the act of pronouncing the words of life.128 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. ' unjustly. Among them are three the centre one. but model of the chapel. in its customary place above the entrance-door. Francis. Enrico Scrovegno is also seen in purple dress and bonnet. around. Portions of these have been destroyed by conflaand the usual maltreatment and whitewash have grations. while in the St. more in conformity with traditional treatment. dimly show the imTwo lunettes on the perishable beauty of Giotto's forms." where he adorned the chapter-house with incidents from the lives of St. also. while Mary has already cast herself at the Saviour's feet. limits of the time may be pronounced a perfect work. in choice of motives. also discernible. as might be supposed. supposed to be answerable. is conceived. supported on a painted cornice and separated by painted pilasters. Martha and an aged saint are holding the still swathedup body.' for which Dante is usually. supporting the dead Saviour. The women seated on the ground. the painter had preserved the anOther mourners form a fine group tique gesture of sorrow. are partially of them. in the Virgin's expression of surprise and terror. and style. according to tradition. mind being the portrait of the painter. and is inferior in The upper part shows signs of Giotto's original in the procession of the Blessed. John. The Entombment. kneeling before a group of three female figures. Anthony of Padua. and of St.

however rest of the scenes were liberated. than here. that towards so the much they underwent the common ingratitude that was valuable in Italian art. they were no longer visible. the the the Bardi. In 1841. pression of Zacharias. the student will find it is true. Giugni. they are mentioned by a writer. he At Ravenna. Croce furnishes a gallery of Giotto's works. the other to that of John the Evangelist. I. therefore. are pronounced the master-pieces of Giotto. with the four Evangelists and the four Doctors of the church. where the church of S. The birth of the Baptist with Zacharias writing the infant's . however. the apparition of the angel to Zacharias engages Giotto our admiration. was seldom more classical in com- position. now return to Florence. 129 also laboured. uo surviving works. (or sacristy) illustrating the lives of the Baptist and of St. but a ceiling in the first in the church of S. Towards the end of the seventeenth century. Ascension of the Evangelist but it was not till 1863 that the These works. It was in that interval. but the chief interest On centres in the walls. and the Spinelli were decoThe frescoes in the old Peruzzi chapel rated by his hand. Peruzzi chapel) are eight half-figures of prophets . Tosinghi. one side being devoted to the Life of the Baptist. where. on the ceiling the signs of the Evangelists . Vasari states.Chap. Francesco. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. injured and defaced. chapel to the left in S. those of the families of the Peruzzi. equally fitted to excite No less admiration for his industry as well as power. and so far lessening the repute of his followers. as showing how much more they owed to the great man than had been hitherto the vaulting of the entrance-arch (of the supposed. In the first. In the middle of the eighteenth century. The same may be said of Ferrara. first attempts made to rescue these works from oblivion discovered the Dance of the Daughter of Herodias and the . or scarcely the form of the angel. or at the same time more true to the text of ScripNo subsequent art has surpassed the exture. bears evidence of the master's hand. Giovanni Evangelista. justifying the enthusiastic admiration of early writers. We than four chapels John the Evangelist were for a time concealed from sight.

may of the Virgin. The Dance of Herodias. Elizabeth at her women bedside and of the the attitude and grace drapery of the grave.* in the Baroncelli Chapel. Forster. The death-bed of the Saint still preserves its pre-eminence for perfection of arrangement and expression. Giotto. Nos. occupy two of . Still finer are some of the scenes from the Life of the Evangelist viz. a greater nature and individuality of Seldom. Outlines. which may be compared with those in the upper church at Assisi. even when compared with Ghirlandajo's grand fresco of the same scene painted at Florence a century and a half later. restored . with all his grander qualities of arrangement. The Bardi chapel has also but recently been relieved from Here the nature of the subjects its veil of dirty whitewash. These illustrations. dumb father. Francis shows the prevalent enthusiasm for the Mendicant ( )rder. in D'Aeincourt. and. later times. Book III. grouping and action. the Miracle of the Resurrection of Drusiana and the Ascension of St. 114.. have fitter action and features been rendered than those which characterise the viol player as he plies his art. The frescoes by Giotto on the walls of the Giugni (now Riccardi) and Spinelli Chapels are still hid from view . and watches the dancing Salome. 4 and 5. Giotto found it a neverending theme. next be mentioned. but the intelligent observer of Giotto's works will soon perceive great beauties. though little more than outlines are left. unites. . even in expression than he had before attained. the walls in three courses of frescoes. for they have been covered by paintings by a modern hand. among which may be the particularised the grand antique pose of St. John the group round the grave express individual varieties of wonder and surprise which few painters have attempted. those in the Spinelli Chapel are more than hidden. 'Beitriige. indeed. Scenes from the Life of St.130 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. Some of these are grievously damaged. 4. what is synonymous. The Coronation by * jjl. pi. name is also replete with beauties. It is a vast picture on E.

' ' hausen.' No. 1. 9. originally of twenty-six pictures. The other is a miracle wrought by St.' 1833. 131 numerous attendant saints and angels. with painter is istics will be found here as well as in the five figures of the lower compartment.} * 1 give the two series in their is although the reciprocal relation parallel arrangement. Studien nach altflorentinischen Meistern.' v. as the second No. are repeated from illuminated medieval MSS. The remote connection between the types and antitypes in subjects taken from the Old and New Testament. 70. as on the Still. is also incorrectly described. No early seen to such advantage under the conditions of a tempera picture (and this has been much defaced). which is still at ' : Florence. has been already adverted to. x. that the two in the Berlin Museum are the two Nos. No. 13 . In tht: . 6.). it is to be remembered. 13 in the first series. Croce also that Giotto executed the panels of the presses in the sacristy. Geschichte der Malerei. Forsch.f in typical reference to that of our Lord a comparison accounted for by the enthusiastic admiration in which St. in the (Berlin) 117.Chap. Francis was then held. 'Beitrage.s . Francis after his death there can be little doubt that it was the original companion. . That of the Saint is represented in some senses Francis. not equally evident in Rumohr. These present a series. are the four that have As the original number was only twenty-six. 3-8. Giotto's charactergreater scope of the prepared wall. it is probable disappeared. panel.'. pi. this is the more probable.' p. note. and Nos. The Last Supper and other frescoes which wall of the old Refectory of are S. Forster. if so. I. being looked upon as the second angel of the Revelation. Riepenf Kiihbeil. Richa described the subject incorrectly. We all. ii. Forster. The Visitation. 15. In an edition of the Biblia Pauperum. the parallel subjects art K2 .' vol. 11. fill the end now a carpet factory assigned to Giotto's school. and E. subject occurs (the figures in these books.m present extraordinary parallel the allusions are still more distant example or two may suffice. combining the two great subjects which respectively enlisted his art the Life of Christ and the Life of St. ' Ital. J The author appears to have taken his description of these subjects from Richa's Notizie istoriche delle Chiese Florentine. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS..* and will be mentioned Croce now under Taddeo GaddL It was for S. Compare F. Jluseum. and. p. preserved in the Academy at Florence. the subject of one of these being the Descent of the Holy Ghost. in which thi. and 13 in the second. ii. 137 The Last Supper is engraved by Lasinio and by Ruscheweyh. etc.

(See the Life of the Saint bv S. and four in private hands. 3. Francis Sultan. Stigmata. Francis visits his spiritual father. St. The Resurrection. 3. of the Kings. preaching before the 7. a sovereign. St. 10. and returns them to his father. Francis defends the rules. Francis takes off his clothes in the presence of the bishop. Bonaventura. instructed by a sign. The Birth of Christ. 2. 6. as they believed. St. . E. 9. A similar representation. St. St. twenty only are in the Florence Academy. and hails the promise of his second birth. The Adoration 4. St. L. The appearance of Christ to the Marys. 6. St. supports the falling building of the Lateran. 10. was to restore the supremacy of his nation. a pious disciple the Stigmata. The Redeemer receives baptism from John. examines saint 13. respects the claims of one in humble condition who was destined to support the declining authority of the Church. The Descent of the Holy Ghost. 4. The pope. 13. 8. The Transfiguration. was owing to no want of zeal or even provocation on his part. who receives him with joy.132 1. i C. who. The Magi (kings). Book III The St. 11. infant Christ appears Saint on Christmas-eve. Of these twenty-six panels. in which. The Saint restores a man brethren. Francis o. his avowed object. The Last Supper. instructed by a dream. Francis seeks martyrdom (called the baptism of blood) at the hands of the Sultan. The the 3. The Circumcision. according to a dream of the pope. St. the monks with astonishment. MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. St. Francis carried Tip in a chariot of fire. Francis receiving the 9. Two Moses visited by Jethro. Francis kneels before the pope. The Crucifixes painted less characteristic by Giotto display another and not form of his art. One of the followers of the hangs himself like a second Judas. Such works were the touchstone of the painter in the fourteenth century. 7. however. The Baptism. The Incredulity of Thomas. That he did not obtain this. 6. The Dispute with the Doctors. fall prostrate 12. 5. Visitation. 12. to 2. . The Crucifixion. The body of the Saint being placed on a bier. to life. 1. to whom he presents the rules of his Order. Francis appears to the assembled 11. 8. and the Levite visiting his father-in-law. pay homage to one in lowly state. two in the Berlin Museum.

knowledge of early Italian art to overturn this idea. at The the extremity of the transverse beam of the cross. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. In the Gondi-Dini Crucifix.Chap. It hardly needed Signor Cavalcaselle's consummate It is . and that the building itself was not com- menced until later * See still. took place eleven years after Giotto's death. as the style of these works differs as much from the great master as it is inferior to him. skull that typifies Calvary is also seen below. both at Florence are identified by Signor Cavalcaselle as Giotto's. Crowe and p. the other in the Gondi-Dini Chapel of the church of the Ognissanti. John on right . Queen of Naples. above the Saviour's head and the Virgin and St. He has adhered to the mediteval type of the Pelican feeding her young. Marco. Giotto formerly in the earlier The frescoes at by the church of the Carmine Florence fire stroyed by the Life of the Baptist were dein 1771. a medallion figure of the youthful Saviour in the act Byzantine type) is of blessing (a relic of substituted for the Pelican. who also preserved fragments of the frescoes after the fire. an historical fact * that Giotto was invited by King Robert of Naples to practise his art in that city in 1330 and it has been usual to ascribe to his hand the frescoes of the Seven Sacraments in the church of the Incoronata at Naples. conveying the expression of without (also comparatively) contortion. It is needful to know something of the abject and degraded form given the prevalent type. These frescoes are supposed to have been executed about 1330. They had been principally en- graved by Thomas Patch. to this subject in the latter Byzantine school. 317. I. 133 Crucifixes still existing the one in S. This internal evidence is further corroborated by the historical fact that the nuptials between Louis of Tarentum and Giovanna. One undoubted work by Cavalcaselle. vol. Rogers' collection. Giotto. and thence into the National Gallery. to perceive the extent to which Giotto improved on The figure of our Lord is comparatively suffering youthful and erect. i. . and left. Two heads of disciples belonging to the Entombment of the Baptist made their way into Mr. represented in the Sacrament of Marriage.

' This shop is part of a vast hall appertaining of old to the Titipaldi. Gesu. Francis receiving the Stigmata. No other works of the painter are believed to exist in Naples. combining the idea of charity with the majesty of religion a sublime mixture of the heavenly and the lowly. representing the Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes. is in An Entombment of the Virgin. where. Maria del Fiore (the Cathedral). While engaged in this office. Chiara in direction of the gate which opens towards the new church 'del at 23 a furniture shop under the name of Francesco he will find No. however. Count Gaetani (at Naples) has in his possession two injured panels of a Bishop and a Saint. by : invitation of a Visconti. and architect of the walls of Florence and of the cities within the confines of the state. and may possibly be the work described by * " If the visitor to Naples approaches the old convent of S. and which was executed by Andrea Pisano. with the Louvre. Eeturning from Naples. he is found again at Florence. Book III. a wide picture. painted for S. at the extremity of a hall formerly belonging to the convent. in reference to the almsgiving attributes of the Franciscans of This is one of those grand and characteristic comwhich claim for the master the admiration of all positions " ages. formerly in the collection of Mr." at The two wings of this picture are in the Gallery St. which show their pictorial paternity. Virgin and Child. i. bears the inscription of Op. though the frequently devastated city affords no relic of his art. in the " Brera. but no other relics of the master have been discovered. he was appointed master of the works of S. Francesco at Pisa. in what was formerly the old convent of S. and also at Rimini all have perished. Another picture. Bologna. in 1334. 323. at Gaeta. he executed frescoes in the Nunziata.134 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. Davenport Bromley. is believed to be by the master. convent. p.* Here." Naples. exists at Naples. Magister Jocti de A Flora. vol. Those in the Castel Nuovo and in the Castel dell' Uovo have perished with the walls that contained them. . In these later years he also visited Milan. Chiara. Finally." Crowe and Cavalcaselle. and similarly signed. the . is a large fresco by Giotto. he designed the beautiful Campanile and also the sculpture with which it is decorated.

for example. in in the which a movements. That sweetness and grace which. and is particularly observable in the flowing and long-drawn folds of This last peculiarity is characteristic of the the drapery. There that the Byzantine manner is entirely abandoned. 135 Vasari. He. approaching development of the highest ideality of form. it is even treated in a peculiarly solemn. executed by the best handsThis facade was destroyed by a Vandal placed in authority. peculiar flexibility appears some is carried even to an excess of elegance. beauty was less his object than the expression of character. and the whole composition is always Where the subject rebeautifully disposed in its masses. however. we may place the above-mentioned treatment in close connection with Gothic architecture. quired. leaving the fa9ade of the Cathedral and the bell-tower incomplete. supported by their patron saints signed 1334 is in the Treasury of the Cathedral at Florence. frequently peculiar very the eyes are generally long and narrow. we remark. we now examine the style of Giotto. to the character of which it corresponds In his universally. in Duccio's works. For the first time since the decline . beautiful type and very close to each other. on the conIn these trary. and. and with which it rose and declined. whole period.Chap. first. its of the If name of Ugnccione. with small figures kneeling on each side. founded on no ancient tradition. we find very graceful heads in his pictures. The facade had been carried up two-thirds of destined height. in his time. Giotto died in 1336. Here and there. simple. though modified by the peculiarities of the more eminent masters and. and harmonious manner. was not one of Giotto's attributes. in 1558. . as an architectural influence is everywhere visible in the measured forms of the severe style of drapery. appeared to announce . Another work by his hand. in the church of the Ognissanti at Florence. the newly-invented representations. and was adorned with sculpture from his designs. I. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. It recurs continually as an established type. led the spirit of art in another direction. exhibits a and not Giotto heads. a half-figure of the Madonna.

springing from a painter. which gave a fresh impulse to an impulse which.' by Sir C. for instance. Basso-rilievo. Book III. would characteristically himself than in these be interesting to trace how many of the motives admired in the works of later painters have descended from this great man. He opened a fountain of Nature to the gifted generations who succeeded him in Italy. was doubtless created by Giotto. a stream of convenshape of a multitude of now nameless Giottill tesque painters. which grew feeble and more lifeless it expired. The sculpture of the Kenaissance may be said to be in great measure his creation. we * See 'Essay on 'Contributions to the . L. Such.136 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. of ancient art. which permeated through the length and breadth of the land. certainly none of whom even the names of his imitators have been so completely forgotten. The must be confessed. generally is. The feeble and mannered sculptors of Pisa partook more of the grotesque element. tion. it has also darkened but allowed a greater freedom of hand. and. No Christian artist can perhaps be quoted who raised such a host of imitators. maintained with singular tenacity the picturesque character which is one broad distinction between Italian sculpture and the the art antique. It is impossible to over estimate the influence of Giotto's genius. suggestive completeness was perhaps less essentially allied to his peculiar views as an artist. were. This Giotto has combined with the utmost animation of the whole. The vehicle he employed with his colours was more fluid than execution of the details it it sketchy. spreading beauty At the same time there also and fertility in its course. as : that hitherto used . though not. in the followed. as the of the action extended hands in HaphaeTs Virgin's pathetic Spasimo. as in the nature of things.' First Series of Fine Arts. Eastlake.* Those interested in the study of It Giotto will find him nowhere more designs. It was Giotto's designs for the bronze doors on the north side of the Baptistery at Florence. Nor does painting only claim him as her reviver. executed by Andrea Pisano. we observe a successful attempt at the regular disposal of the subject in the space allotted. and for the subjects on the Campanile. and little with time.

though he contributed much Viewed in a general facility of hand and grace of form.' Tav. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. very low since the death of Giotto" It is certain that he was unequal to carry on the development of painting. wall opposite the entrance is occupied by the Annunciation. sense. on the side to the left of the entrance. extremities are short and coarse. 14-17.f Four compartments below contain the Meeting of Joachim and Anna. which is seen to guide them. but a figure of the infant Saviour. representing the Life of the Virgin. celli His chief works in fresco occupy two walls of the BaronChapel in S. instead of taking up where he left off. Francesco. the Birth of the Virgin. of St. and appears in his best works as an interesting and accomplished painter. * See Lasinio's ' Old Florentine Masters. 137 . showing His southern transept of the Lower Church at Assisi. Nevertheless he occasionally shows a purity and artlessness of expression in historical subjects which recall the feeling of Giotto. Assisi.' pi. discernible in any of his surviving works appears among his followers as in the fresco by Giottino in S. is the Expulsion of Joachim from the Temple. His figures are long and it was he who assisted Giotto in the that slender. in some instances. the Salutation. I.Chap. ' f See Ottley's Florentine Scnool. Florence. reverted. and is far too fine to have originated with them. Croce. but it believe.* On the lunette. Nicholas Restoring a Girl to her Parents. he may be said to have returned upon his master's He even steps. When asked. and the Adoration of the Magi. in his latter days. her Dedication and Marriage. The most important of Giotto's scholars was Taddeo Gaddi son of Gaddo GaddL He was born in the year 1300. to name the greatest painter in Italy. The . he is " Art has fallen said to have exclaimed. a subject divided by fine architecture into seven parts. the Angel appearing to the ShepThe female figures herds. and was held at the baptismal font by Giotto. Croce at Florence. to the traditions in art which In the Journey of the WiseGiotto's genius had discarded. and in the lately uncovered fresco of the Procession to Calvary in the sacristy of S. 26. men it is no longer a star.

In the Marriage. and deriving confirmation from the character of certain panel-pictures. hitherto attrievidence. In the History of altar-piece just mentioned. Francis. Taddeo Gaddi may be also studied in a number of panels which adorned the presses of the sacristy at S. also bearded. is by Vasari to represent Gaddo Gaddi. the one the History of the Saviour. In the subject of the Saint Restoring the Young Girl to her Family. is in the sacristy of St.* under a large Crucifixion and Stem of In this composition. with the Saviour and the Disciples ' * See illustration in Mrs. tory to the stereotyped form. The rest. now in the Berlin Museum. Croce. 261. with the pretty incident of the little dog recognising her. with a long beard. the legend of St. looking at her. is Andrea Tafi. i. Jameson's p.138 are MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. man in profile. than those by Giottino. In the Dedication. consisting of two series. to Taddeo. buted to Giotto. Baroncelli Chapel. stated Another altar-piece. also inscribed and dated. which bear date and name. near Poggibonsi. these frescoes are by the hand of Taddeo Gaddi is a fact by Vasari. the other. Nicholas of Bari is introduced above. they have all perished. Book III.' vol. . where the young Virgin is ascending the steps. Two of these are in the Berlin Museum. and the general composition fine. One of these is an altar-piece. were more numerous even Giotto. the painter's and near him. That especially one figure with a diadem. a stated father. The other series is believed to be entirely the work of Taddeo. Croce. The Francis offers more or less repetitions of the frescoes by Giotto in the Upper Church at Assisi. at Berlin. Excepting the above-mentioned in the There is one. Sacred and Legendary Art. Taddeo's frescoes in S. so called. in S. the group of women in attendance is beautiful. that of St. are in the Accademia at Florence. however. Taddeo has retained or returned Jesse. St. is mainly taken from a fresco by Francesco at Assisi. on internal This is a Last Supper. The finest is the subject of the Transfiguration. Peter's at Megognano. next the Virgin. strikingly graceful. the composition. remaining in what was formerly the Great Eefec- now a carpet factory which is assigned.

death. still remains. Croce) generally given to him are of a later date. Crowe and Cavalcaselle to be by the hand of Nicolo di Pietro Gerini. he was employed on the works of the Or San Michele. the frescoes and pictures in the church of the Serviti. The manuscript of a Speculum in They are remarkable for simplicity and dignity of composition and for graceful motives. though far fewer of his works survive. was an The inundation of the Arno at architect as well as painter. He was afterwards called to Arrezzo and to the ceiling. who lived nearly a century later. have all perished. No records of his activity appear after 1366. pieces Stefano del Ponte Vecchio. Casentino. Spirito. the painter of several pictures at Pisa and Prato. side. was engaged. and believed to be the work of his friend Giovanni da Milano. Louis bear indications of Taddeo's less pleasing style. in 1342. and he conducted those of the Campanile after Giotto's. Francis and St. p. He was * Engraved in Galleria delle Belle Arti. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. I. His and cloisters of S. the allegories in the tribunal of the Mercanzia.' 317. like many of his cotemporaries. about which time he is supposed to have died. 139 on one and Judas sitting alone in front. The activity of Taddeo may be compared with that of his frescoes in the convent master. He furnished the plans of the Ponte Vecchio and of the Ponte della Trinita. in 1333. with others. the altarin S.Chap. is now suggested by MM. in the rebuilding of which the painter. f See Wa-igen's 'Kunst und Kiinstler in Paris. where a portion of a series executed in S. buried in the cloisters of S. This is chiefly confined Francesco. . hitherto given to Taddeo. had ruined bridges and houses. Florence. The frescoes in the Einuccini Chapel (S. The fine picture of the Entombment * in the Accademia at Florence. Florence. the Library of the Arsenal at Paris contains one hundred and sixty slightly coloured pen-drawings. which reveal the manner of Taddeo. He laboured also at Pisa. The four Bide pictures from the lives of St. and executed numerous works which have also disappeared.'!' Taddeo Gaddi. Croce. According to Vasari.

and kneels in adoration. the same spot. less grotesque convention . The marriage of the Virgin is stated by MM. (See the Aurea Legenda of the finding of the Cross by the Empress Helena is Crucis. on his deathrecommended to Giovanni da Milano for teaching in and to Jacobo di Casentino for guidance through the The year of Agnolo's birth is uncertain. and with a higher sense of relief than that of Taddeo. and the dedication. in process of time. is the subject of a series of frescoes at Arezzo. becomes. History of Our Lord . including the story of the Girdle. 385. when a certain One should be suspended on that tree. however. however. On his return he finds Adam dead. MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. learns from the archangel Michael. Thomas. and pool of Bethesda. early painters the point of death. a small branch of the tree of knowledge. found such difficulty in adapting it.) The legend well known. ii. Seth receives from the angels. They represent the legends of the Virgin's Life. at her Assumption. on applying for it. when it should bear fruit. Seth. His best and probably earliest works are in the chapel of Holy Girdle (del Sacro Cingolo) in the cathedral of Prato. A fuller account of this legend. and is told that. that the oil can only be obtained after the lapse of ages (the period announced corresponding with the interval from the Fall to the Atonement).' vol. his colouring is bright and transparent. it is then taken out. abridgment of this fable may serve as a specimen of the troubled sources derived their the from which Adam. herited his father's powers.. and serves for the floats on the surface of the water under the rubric De Inventione Sanctae cross. . left a son called Agnolo Gaddi who. desires Seth to procure the oil of mercy (for the extreme unction) from the angels who guard Paradise. and now served as a bridge over a lake.* given in eight frescoes. alarmed. The same story. with some slight variations. he art. Crowe and Cavalcaselle to be one of the finest com- Agnolo still adhered. He had more originality. Adam would recover. which plants the branch flourished till the time of Solomon. -C. was caught by St. Solomon. and on his tomb. buries the fatal wood deep in the earth . The expulsion of her father Joachim from the the temple. which. Book III. Solomon that. that it was thrown aside. the meeting of her parents. in * The whole The following story is to be found in the Aurea Legenda. as connected with art. His works next in importance and in preservation are the series of the History of the Cross. p. who had it hewn down for the purposes of building the workmen. He inworld. and also developed excellences to which Taddeo had not attained. to the false and expressionless type of features. The sapling grew to a tree. being at inspiration. the Immediately before the Crucifixion the tree rises.140 Taddeo bed. sees She informs in a vision the Saviour on the cross. is given in ' Tho in Art. about to cross the bridge. E. instead. positions of the Giottesque school. The Queen of Sheba (the type of the Gentiles). are well composed. by Pietro delta Francesco. . the Ml of the Jewish nation would be near. L.

was also buried within the majestic walls of S. and this painter is Of these an upright chiefly known by two panel-pictures. and bare-footed. carrying the Cross on his shoulder. with the Virgin enthroned. the Magdalen. and with his the choir of S. are stated to have studied the ways of the world. to whom Taddeo Gaddi entrusted the instruction of his son Agnolo in art. and near the gate is. and drinking water from the pool of Bethesda. Agnolo died in 1396. which we have seen. he contributed to the development of art by a sweetness and earnestness of expression.Chap. imitation of nature in form and drawing. and by a more faithful attribute of Giotto. was an Jacobi. This occupation may perhaps account for the absence of all traces of their art in that city. I. Near him. his real long an assistant to and combines something of the warmth of the Sienese school. and Taddeo before him. was born at Milan. according to Vasari. He also studied Sienese examples. 141 One of the most striking that of the sick people lying on their beds. and piece. Engraved in the Galleria delle Belle Arti. apparently once the centre of an altar-piece.* other smaller subjects * . lived for some time at Venice. John. being now opened to his humility. with that Florentine paleness of colour. But all these frescoes are much injured. and mourned senting by the Virgin. This head still exists. and St. Croce. of the subjects is suite. dated 1365. His joint works with Taddeo at Arezzo have perished. in the form of mercantile transactions. which is miraculously walled up . is signed and It is now in the Accademia at Florence. Agnolo Gaddi. in a red hood. Another represents the Emperor Heraclius crowned. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. picture. name Giovanni He was Taddeo. bearing the true Cross. and with a small beard. also signed. reprethe seated on the dead Saviour tomb. Though incapable of advancing the art of composition. and vainly endeavouring to enter the gate of Jerusalem. Croce at Florence. and Giovanni da Milano. which was closed to his pride. the gate. the portrait of Agnolo himself. where he. . the next shows Heraclius stripped to his shirt. A more important work in the Gallery at Prato is an altarwith four saints. Vasari relates.

on Vasari's authority. Croce. leaving the infer- ence that Maso and Giottino were the same man. the fact that certain frescoes in S. and of which contemporary records have retained more records than of the baptismal name. Book III. pronounced to be the work of Giovanni da These scenes from the life of our Lord and of Milano. Chapel S. Spirito at Florence are stated by Ghiberti to have been the work of one Maso. and below. the historian of art is met by many difficulties. by comparison of style. points to the kitchen in the The period distance. that of one Giottino. believed to be by his hand. each comprising two or three painted niches. said of the scene. of Giovanni da Milano's death to the is unknown. In the Magdalen Washing the Feet of Christ. the two Disciples who suspend their eating to listen to the The same may be words of the Saviour. in some instances. but he was admitted freedom of Florence in 1366. are two fragments in the Uffizi. and by Vasari. Of Stefano Fiorenfino. are now. whom Vasari places on a level with Taddeo Gaddi. Another example. And even these familiar appellations have. the disciple of Giotto.142 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. Tommaso di Stefano and further. with saints in couples. however imperfectly. with scenes from the Creation . where the cook and the fire are seen. and medallions above. choirs of martyrs. nothing is known. The frescoes in the Rinuccini Madonna command over the all the greatly damaged exhibit his improved movement of the human figure and his natural and realistic feeling. One of these consists in the familiar appellations given to painters during their lives. formerly. so corrupted from " Arcagnolo. The utmost believed to be known of him being his baptismal name connected with that of his father. the origin of which is lost. perhaps connected with his art. where Martha. and prophets. In attempting. is one whose real name has eluded search." a term perhaps of endearment. are peculiarly natural. been further familiarised. as with Orcagna. The painter Giottino. patriarchs. These . assigned to Taddeo. to trace the school of Giotto. in her desire for the help of Mary. stated by Vasari to have been born in 1324. apostles. and still more than of the so-called surname.

As one of Giotto's contemporaries. as works contributed nothing to the further progress of even of those above adduced. disregard the We shall also. two or more painters are believed to have borne the name of scurity. . in the scenes of the acts of St. as given in the Golden Legend. Florence in a Pieta now in the Umzi . for the Giotto's influence pre- numerous artists of other schools .' pi. The works Giottino. 2J. but with far higher The same hand feeling for composition and truth of detail. Don Sylvester (a Camaldolese monk. Maria in Trastevere in Rome. and. have been preserved. 143 frescoes represent the life of S. It is true he is more known by Vasari's praise than by his own works. His mosaics of the Life of the Virgin on the wall of the choir tribune in S. who flourished about the year 1340. the history of this painter continues wrapped in ob- of such pupils as Vasari assigns to him have perished and. the Konian. and exhibit simple and. The Florentine illuminator. Nicholas. Nicholas restoring a Girl to her Parents * shows the germ of the finest dramatic and realistic feeling. 1. and exhibit the author as his most successful imitator. sent. about 1350). We their art : pass over many scholars and imitators of Giotlo. The fresco of St.Chap. in the Capella del SacraAll of these do honour to the school of Giotto. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. it is also acknowledged. however. is recognised in the crypt chapel of the Strozzi under the Capella degli Spaguuoli in S. may be mentioned Pietro Cavallini. may be best mentioned here. Silvestro. though a few drawings cut out of a missal belonging to the * Engraved in Ottley's ' Florentine School. at Assisi. But at best. Giottino is seen here in the same naturalistic path trodden by Giovanni da Milano. . excellent compositions of fine arrangement and careful execution. in part. in the Lower Church mento. whose return- style was entirely transformed by ing to them in due time when we notice the local schools. none equalled their master in greatness of conception. Maria Novella in a fresco representing the expulsion of Walter de Brienne on the staircase of the present Accademia Filarmonica in the Via del Diluvio. according to the latest investigators.

the perpetual remembrance of which the Corpus Christi Festival is intended to celebrate. being so contrived that the different movements and incidents are not separated from each other. and now in the Liverpool Instituof London. Convent degli Angeli formerly in the collection of Mr. and in great measure identified with the school of Giotto. . Above on the hill. coming out of the city. Underneath. who is turning round to her. tion show that the illuminators of the school of Giotto were in no way behind the period in dignity and expression. and may possibly owe their composition to Taddeo Gaddl. statement. is walking dejectedly behind the Saviour. perhaps Ahasuerus. Book III. On the left is the procession to Calvary. the authorship of these frescoes has been divided between Taddeo Gaddi and Simone Memmi (Martini). among them is a figure in a yellow mantle. who fly in all directions . Buonamico di Lapo Guidalotti. The subjects are arranged above and on each side of the small apsis in a peculiar manner. with the women in a grandly treated group on one side. is the Crucifixion. On the altar wall opposite the windows is the subject of the Passion. though it has not at present led to anything more positive regarding these works than that some of them are Giottesque. while others bear a Sienese character. On is not represented fainting. The science of in this instance originating criticism. but with a mixed expression of anguish the other side are horsemen. One of the most imposing monuments of the early part of the fourteenth century. The : Virgin. who died before the Hitherto. here represented as that event upon which the Christian Church is especially founded. driving back the people. improved with Rumohr. Maria Novella chapel was founded for the celebration of the then newlyinstituted festival of the Corpus Christi by a rich Florentine citizen. The Virgin looking up at the Cross and resignation. has discarded this assertion. is the great chapter-hall called the Capella at Florence. and their execution to another hand.144 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. and winding round the hill windows and roofs are swarming with spectators. with the other women. Young Ottley. This degli Spagnuoli in S. adapting Vasari's paintings were completed.

At inscription from the I prayed. owing to the windows According to Vasari. The demons are lurking behind a door of rock." Angels hover above him on each side are five seats. the teaching vocation of the Dominicans. The subjects on the wall opposite. as well as that of the resuscitais still discernible. The episode of the Saint represent the life of St. Moses. St. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. Thomas is here made to typify the dominion over this wisdom and knowledge.Chap. Paul. here invested The splendour with which St. occupied by prophets and evangelists. 145 on the right of the apsis. I. Thomas is seated in solemn tranquillity beneath a rich Gothic canopy. are expressed grandly. and the spirit of wisdom came to me. and to the circumstance Besides this. of the composition is St. Thomas is may be ascribed to the zeal with which he festival. preaching tion of a damsel. 8). and without any vehemence of impatience. The forms of the patriarchs. her mother. " Wherefore and understanding was given me I called upon God. foremost among whom are Daniel. In other words. here in the grandest of their sacred edifices. is the descent of Christ into Hell. promoted the Corpus Christi of his recent canonization. so to represent the apotheosis of their favourite Saint as to rival that by which St. St. world's St. are almost obliterated. holding a book on which appears this Latin Book of Wisdom (vii. through which the spectator enters. with every sign of fear. it was the object of the Dominican order. which he has set free. : . L . I preferred her before sceptres and thrones. Francis of Assisi was usually honoured. John the Evangelist. and esteemed riches nothing in comparison of her. Thomas Aquinas enthroned between the prophets and saints. as opposed to the contemplative vocation of the Franciscans. who are seated on each side. Dornenick. In contradistinction to that Saint. 7. is here meant to be expressed. who turns with gestures of amazement to The fresco which adorns the left wall of the chapel (as seen from the entrance) contains an allegorical representation In the centre and upper part of the Wisdom of the Church. who appears under the form of a mystical comparison with Christ. they having been originally open. and St.

L. is a male figure of early or latter times. his feet are three books. while below. While on the wall just described the Church is seen in tranquil study. . Augustin Damascus. giving them a certain stamp of grandeur and tranquillity. in fact. Peter Lombard Law. who excelled in that study. Tubal Cain . Astronomy.146 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. Beneath men with : vanquished slaves this row of figures are seated fourteen female figures. Civil Law. are standing a group of scoffers. The scene occurs in an open gallery. Hope. Atlas . contemplative countenance of Boethius. John of Euclid a fine figure mending his pen Practical Theology. It is. seated writing at her feet. whether lower. holding a scroll. Ehetoric. the opposite wall is devoted to a representation of her external activity. groined roof. to the left. Arithmetic. and Averrhoes. Sabellius. . Book III. . Arius. a scorpion. Pope Clement V. is style. Canon Speculative Theology. Faith. C. . . is represented the Descent of the is Holy Ghost. Profound reflection and enthusiastic inspiration are happily expressed in each of these figures. to which . in the Italian Gothic representation of the cathedral of See also his explanation of the * In Rosini's engraving. Thus Grammar. in crouching attitudes like they represent the most prominent heretics. These figures were grievously repainted at a now distant period. with a serpent under her veil. must be attributed the three hands of Cicero which perplexed the Abbate Mecatti writing in 1737. Justinian. are both On the triangular space of the especially remarkable. over these paintings. a a large cathedral-like edifice. Dionysius the Areopagite . has Donatus. intellectual head Zeno below her accompanies Cicero. and teaching three children.* has Music. and the melancholy. Geometry. figures. with a globe in her hand. a step the portrait of some person. Abraham (?) Charity. Boethius . the relation of which to the general subject expressed in the inscription on the book which St. fying the Virtues and Sciences at the feet of each. In the lower part. Thomas Aquinas holds. celebrated for excellence in that particular virtue or science. while the Seven Virtues with their symbols hover over the scene. . who has a finely Logic. . The intellectual head of Cicero. St. L. personi. before the closed door.

solemn. Church especially belongs. attacked by wolves. L2 . seen the door which leads to heaven St. bear a Giottesque According to the legend. Peter opens it to the Blessed. is also represented under the form of a flock oi sheep feeding before the feet of the Pope. and then the conversion and repentance Above the church is of men fettered in earthly pursuits. The treatment of the whole picture is extremely animated the costume. are represented the joys and follies of the world. Many names of cotemporary personages have been handed down. whose portraits are said to be in the : . as has been said. the mother of the Saint. before his birth. while the dogs defend it. higher in the picture. U7 Florence. but in this instance it is (Domini canes). dignified figures. and is here to be understood as the symbol of the spiritual Church. globe. the same composition which Giotto had executed in mosaic in Rome. and permits them to enter Paradise. Before it are seated a Pope and an Emperor.Cftap. as was here required. with ecclesiastical and temporal rulers near Instead of the imperial them. partly of the poor and infirm. is throughout that of the time. These groups consist partly of celebrated men and women of the The community oi time. The dogs are all spotted black and white. according to the original design. to the right. as typical of the perishableness of all earthly power. the Emperor is holding a death's head in his hand. the Faithful These are entreating pardon and burning their books. dreamt that she brought forth a dog. when compared with that of the eternal Church. Near him the flock is again introduced. Further. as the highest guardians of the Church. On the same side. as customary. and guarded by two dogs. where Christ appears in glory with choirs of angels on either side. is seen St. 1. The sents the ship of the painting on the triangular space above repreChurch (the Navicella) on a stormy sea. Some * of these frescoes. groups of the Faithful stand and kneel. and thus allude to the dress of to whom the defence of the the Dominicans * picture. On each side. and in several of the heads there is a happy attempt at individuality. Domenick preaching against the heretics. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. dances and the like. and converting some of them.

The whole of the walls from top to bottom were afterwards adorned with large The east chapel was painted in the commencepaintings. vades the representation of the Passion . and others a Sienese. it appears that they were executed before the middle of. enclosed by high walls. on the left on coming out of the chapel. and are besides much painted over. To the latter belong the character. his Eesurrection. . however. Compare Rosini's ' Descrizione delle Pitture del Campo Santo di Pisa. Lasinio figlio. in execution. They are ascribed to a certain Buonamico Buffalmaco. and opposite to them on the This space is said to have south are the two entrances.' Firenze (after disegnato da G. the Campo Santo.* or cemetery. been filled with earth brought from the Holy Land in the The building was beginning of the thirteenth century. it is evident that the four walls of the Capella degli Spagnuoli are by the same hand. Book III. Thomas Aquinas. and surrounded on the inside with an arcade. The most ancient of the existing frescoes are those on the east wall. however. there are now no remains. is now confirmed by the discovery of his name. a space of about four hundred feet in length. P. subscription price). in the register of the ' * C.' (Smaller edition. and Ascension .148 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. if the frescoes at Pisa.the fourteenth peculiarly grand and imaginative character percentury. Lnsinio. ment of the fourteenth century . of Pisa. Pitture a fresco del Campo Santo di Pisa. On the east side is a large chapel . large fresco of St. Buonamico Cristofani. particularly where Christ appears to the A The pictures are rude disciples and they touch his wounds. though. G. They represent the Passion of Christ. Pisano son of the before-mentioned Niccola. Pitture a fr. and one hundred and eighteen in width. can be proved to be by Andrea da Florentia. It can be shown. whose existence though once doubted. by Giovanni. his Appearance to the Disciples. 1832). erected in the course of the same century. di Pisa. We namely. that it is not by Simone Memmi. on the north. assigned to that painter. two smaller ones. the others are serious and solemn. of the works it contained. now turn to a place which is important above all others in the history of the art of the fourteenth century. Rossi. ' at twelve scudi. del Campo S. ed incise dal Cav.

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queens. son of the Florentine sculptor. . 387. full of the deepest meaning. She swings a scythe in her hand. a corruption of Arcagnolo. who has succeeded in representing his conception of Life and Death in a painted poem. kings. who. Crowe and Cavalcaselle do their best to claim it for the Sienese brothers Giovanni and Pietro Lorcnzctti. or Orcagna.Onap. Their souls rise from them in the form of i. it skill places not that the very subordinate degree of his technical him far below the perfection of Dante's terza- Andrea. and the more effective from this direct union between the representation and its import. . All the pleasures and joys of earth are here united. On the a fearful-looking left. called Orgagna. A host of corpses closely pressed together lie 'at her feet by their insignia they are almost all to be recognised as the former rulers of the world warriors. woman. large bat's-wings and indestructible wire-woven drapery. claws instead of nails. in 1351. and is on the point of mowing down the joys of the company. by their falcons and dogs. i. vol. The and first (see woodcut). princes. The mind of this artist rises indeed above Giotto. Leath approaches with rapid flight . . The large pictures which follow on the north wall are more imFlorentine company of painters. company of ladies returned from the chase. Modern research has not done much to settle the question of true authorship. troubadour and a singing. cardinals. note. * See Crowe and Cavalcaselle. p. and might be compared to the poet of the Divina Commedia. has hitherto. appear to be They sit under orange-trees. of these pictures is called the On the right is a festive Triumph of Death. though MM. They belong to the middle of the same century. Cione. 149 How far he is really the author of these early works has not been proved. on the authority of Vasari. &c. were rirna.* portant.girl amuse them with nattering A songs amorini nutter around them and wave their torches. with wild streaming hair. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. yet requiring neither symbol nor allegory to express the ideas contained in it. whose steps he followed. and are splendidly dressed rich carpets are spread at their feet. bishops. and are the work of a profound and imaginative artist. been considered the author of these grand works. cavaliers.

and has rock separates this scene from already hastened away. the angels ascend to heaven with those they have saved . personages in these pictures are portaits of the temporaries. angels and demons are ready to receive them. is evidently borrowed from Petrarch's di Morte. stands a monk. heights are several hermits. who. them to three .' The first part of the allegory." They speak princes. squirrels play about him . hunting party. the demons have new-born infants the semblance of beasts of prey or of disgusting reptiles. where the remains of the mighty are mouldering Tradition relates that among the distinguished away. in a life of contemplation and abstinence. Book III. in extreme old age. with the peculiar female ' Trionfo personification of Death. and a The path has led train of horsemen with falcons and dogs. another sits and reads . turning to the " memento mori. and a third looks down into the valley. the legend corresponding with the subject here described is quoted in Douce's ' Dance of Death. are almost like gay butterflies in appearance. their sorrows: who with outstretched arms call upon Death to end but she heeds not their prayer. the highest term of human existence. while the demons drag their prey to a fiery mountain. artist's con- ' * Intended for St. visible on the left.' C. here again are richly attired princes and dames on horses splendidly caparisoned. . descending the A mountain by a hollow path. in different Close by. her On the mountain graceful countenance full of sorrow.150 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. . and hurl the souls down into the flames. the souls of the Pious fold -their hands in prayer. One queenly lady alone. rests her head on her hand.* who. L. Next to these corpses is a crowd of beggars and cripples. open sepulchres in the lie left corner of the picture in them stages of decay. and one of them holds his nose from the horrible smell. have attained. They contend with each other for their victims on the : right. in contrast to the followers of the joys of the world. deeply moved. E. second in which is a another. and sup- ported on crutches. the bodies of three princes. points to this bitter apparently with indifference of the circumstance. The angels those of the Condemned shrink back in horror. Vita di Orgagna') . One of them milks a doe. Macarius (see Vasari.

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at Rome . hover over under them is a group of angels. Angels. . is third representation. The Virgin is seated in glory on the right of the Saviour. 1. where men armed angels direct them to the left. who whilst he rises right seems doubtful to which side he should turn here a hypocritical monk. raising. and pointing with the other hand to the wound in his side. as signs of mercy to the rising Dead. the Apostles and other Saints next to them. directly succeeding the forethe Inferno. who summon the two blow the trumpets. It is inferior to the preceding in . The second produces a powerful general varied and above. in his celebrated Last Judgment. and demons already seize them by the drapery. the flames of hell rage upon them. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. in the gestures of the latter are all the torments . he stands far below the dignified grandeur of the earlier master. his right hand to show his wound. which. The attitudes of Christ and the Virgin were afterwards portraits borrowed by Michael Angela. conceals himself in his drapery. glory. whom another angel leads away from the Condemned to the The Blessed and the Condemned rise on opposite groups. apparently shuddering at the awful spectacle. a third dead from their graves Christ and the Virgin strictest : the . Lower down is the earth. It is said that there are both sides many of cotemporaries among the Blessed and but no circumstantial traditions have reached us. Condemned. Later painters have also taken this arrangement of the patriarchs and apostles as their model. In the composition of this work a symmetrical and almost architectural severity prevails. sits effect.Chap. On both sides sit the Fathers of the Old Testament. whom an angel draws back by the hair from the host of the Blessed and a youth in secular costume. are rising from the graves . of despair. in symmetrical arrangement. severe. dignified figures. 151 representation is the Last Judgment (see woodcut). Christ in an almond-shaped and yet leaves room for In the centre. but notwithstanding the perfection of his forms. The going. Here is seen and Solomon. . according to traditional usage. however. holding the instruments of the Passion. solemn. spirited motives in the detail. particularly Fra Bartolomeo and Raphael.

It is a well-filled picture. howas the termination of a grand cycle. this composition is constructed in the ancient form (such as we find. etc. Book III. in this instance the talons may have been suggested by the form of the Sirens. but always to be recognised by his claw feet.| As a whole. in the mountain. This design. . Beside him. considered as a continuation of the scene of the Hermits in the Triumph of Death. and Paradise. whoever he was. paint a Paradiso (probably like that in the Strozzi chapel). sometimes the wilderness sometimes alluring. J The representations of the Tempter in early works of art are generally to be traced to classic sources .* Next to the picture of Hell. up. E. divided into four compartments rising one In the midst sits Satan. in which the calm life of contemplation is represented in the most varied manner. Hell is here represented in the old form prescribed by the Koman church before Dante was born. from their holy employments he appears but twice in his well-known serpent form he is generally disguised as a even into . L. hew wood. * The composition in its original state may be seen in an old engraving Morrona's ' Pisa Illustrata. But the Tempter follows the spirit of man in various forms.152 execution. in the different compartments. a seducing woman. The whole lower part of the picture was badly painted over in the sixteenth century. in its place is the Life of the Hermits in the Wilderness of the Thebais this may be . in which imagina- tion degenerates into the monstrous. was not executed . catch a number of hermits are seen on its who are still subjected to earthly occupation they fish. and even in the composition. . in C. he seeks to divert the pious frightful. had intended to above the other. in which sinners are consumed or crushed. serpents and demons torment the Condemned. Death. In front flows the Nile shores. disputing philosopher.' This would have completed what theologians call the "quatuor t " novissima (the four last things). Hell. etc. where the hermits dwell in caves and chapels. in the Campo Santo.f ever. carry burthens to the city. . >C. L. . MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY.. a hideous monster himself a fiery furnace out of whose body flames arise in different places. E. Judgment. they are more and more estranged from the concerns of the world. Higher . composed of a number of single groups. it appears that the painter.

but also ruder style of the pictures in the Campo Santo is compared with the finish and grace of those in S. and his hand is considered to be traceable in the two Into these surmises. that the three upper pictures of the legend of St. the three lower ones that of Antonio da Venezia. and that of SS. and three the lower half of the wall. I. has been attached to numerous works of forgotten parentage.' Jan. The picture thus fails. These last frescoes show a far higher feeling for beauty and precision of form than those above them. 109. vol. j See the Acta Sanctorum. Between it and the second are represented the story of S. i. are executed with much grace and feeling. the Orcagna is entirely dismissed from the honours of Santo. pp. ascribed to one and the same hand. the single representations. on the other hand. are now. vi. it has been ascertained by a receipt of payment. executed the fresco of the Hermits is historically known. Campo but because is it evinces a Sienese rather than a Florentine Lorenzetti. 997. . GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. i. 483.* not only because the style of these frescoes does not correspond with that of his known works. as a matter of course. in perspective and general effect . 451. successively described. in Byzantine art) tions rise above each other. like that of Giotto.' p. Maria Novella.| Each story compartments three occupying the upper. The fresco of the hermits adjoins the first entrance to the Campo Santo. p. p. : 153 several series of representafor instance. the upper and more distant being of equal size with the lower. 753. E. we others. about the year 1386. f Crowe and Cavalcaselle. the patron Saint of Pisa. These three after frescoes. careful investigation. vol. Eaniero. but as the artist makes no pretension to this kind of excellence. ' C. whose name. the spectator is unconscious of the defect . in support of this view. Eaniero were the work of one Andrea da Florentia. and Pietro misnamed by Vasari Pietro That this painter suggested in his place. Efeso and Potito on the south wall ' * See E. character. After having been for centuries ascribed to Simone Memmi. Laurati. L. Beitrage.Chap. Efeso and Potito. Forster. consists of six dated 1377. where. Crowe and Calvacaselle. The histories of SS. however solidly founded. the freer.j need not enter.

with his angels. After the usual ascription to Giotto. a Pagan by birth. when the Lord appears to him and forbids the enterprise. The series begins from the top. the Saint appears as a captive before the Pagan Prator of Sardinia. p. possibly name is inserted in the Florentine guild in 1341 at all . The Saint. One of the most striking of the subjects a horned monster with the wings of a bat is that of Satan and hoofs of an ox pleading before the Almighty (see woodInjured and restored as all this series is. turns his arms against receiving a banner of victory (here inscribed with the arms of Pisa) from the Archangel Michael. long settled in Pisa. events. accordthe unconverted Sardinians. from the evidence of records. is seen before the Emperor Diocletian. and is finally decapitated. The west wall exhibits only inferior works of a later time. . near the western entrance. painted by Spinello occupies the upper portion. and is condemned to the flames. it is evident cut). this portion is now. accompanies him to the fight. who. Efeso. and animated treatment. work was commenced on the 4th is painted in a double course. Subsequently. * Crowe and Cavalcaselle. now greatly cut into by the Algarotti monument. a work of one Francesco da * and Giottesque painter. believed to have been the Volterra. March 1392 (according The history of Job (see woodcut) occupies a third part of the south wall at the eastern end. who promotes him to a high command against the Christians . while shepherds and herds are grouped around. and a facility for imitating the appearances of nature and the forms of animals.154 (the MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTUR5T. The records of the Campo Santo prove that Spinello to present completed these works in reckoning in 1393). i. with the subject of Job feasting with his friends and feeding the poor. it is certain that the The story divided into six large compartments. ingly. lower half being almost Book III. entirely obliterated) were in the story of S. 392-3. Francisco da identical with Maestro whose Giotto. that the master possessed no small power of expression. and showing a grand and August. 1371. He escapes these by a miracle. vol. Efeso Arezzo da 1391.

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. a fresco in the Campo p.SCF-NE FROM THE HISTORY OF JOB Santo at Pisa. by Francesco daVolterra No. . 151. 2.

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and the Deluge they evince a serious feeling in holy subjects. For a description of the imperfect fresco-painting previously. see Comestor. master's queen of Sheba. bearing the Globe of the World . * We shall reach Benozzo Gozzoli in twenty-one in the chrono- logical progress of art. . Some of Cain. Hottinger. particularly for an of colour. Orientalis. the Death of these. as represented by the early Italian painters. These executed in last ten. 24. 'Hist. and perhaps ' Materials for a History of Oil Painting. the Death of Abel. and represent the history of the Old Testament from the time of Noah this to the visit of the a thronged and overflowing series. above mentioned. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. L. on the same wall.* ascribed formerly to Buffabnaco. properly so called. 28. to be the earliest examples See E. was not till progress of the the second half of the fifteenth century that the embellishments were continued. at the same time. 'Hist.Chap.' anciently in use. c. years century.f circumstances hindered It the works in the Campo Santo. and.'." 142. E. in which. Santo of Pisa. ' Beitrage. when the whole north wall. gives its source. the Creation of Man . C.' p. on good grounds. E. natural treatment of the circumstances of life. the Death of Cain. is also by this urtist nical merits.' p. L. however. f The name of 1'ictro di Puccio d' Orvieto represents an epoch in the His works. of fresco-painting. was embellished with These the large and splendid frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli. over the door of the second chapel. of the the fourteenth paintings. son of Puccio of Orvieto. Scholastica Gen. as usual. 155 On the north wall are subjects from the Creation to the Deluge. p. but now known to be the work of Pietro. are considered. were executed between the year 1469 and 1485. A : little more than the design is now visible. a grand and enthusiastic character is still to be Political recognised. Forster. They form a continuation both in situation and subject of the works of Pletro. They are also remarkable for techits : harmonious arrangement Coronation of the Virgin. are apocryphal For a description of this subject. for example. they number. in the Campo technical history of painting. I. 220. in These richly illustrate are peculiar powers. see Eastlake's 1847. . represent the First Person of the Trinity. with the exception of the portion occupied by Pidro di Puccio. the Fall and consequences . C. a cheerful.

least important or Book III. Giovanni. while upholding the great Giottesque maxims of truth and simplicity. all a name afterwards corrupted to that of Orcagna. articles in gold the Florentine goldsmith done except the silver altar-table of the Baptistery of S. His most eminent son was Andrea. Orcagna is believed not to have known Giotto. session of those and. and an architect tradition also makes him a poet . yet even at Florence the amount of money in circulation fell occasionally far below the demand. Not the numerous class of artists in the fourteenth century were the goldsmiths. in that art. so that in all great enterprises of war or piety the melting or pawning of plate and jewellery was the common resource. was originally Or San Michele corroborates. as the posconditions which tended to the general progress of art. From the school of Florence he derived his sterner qualities. a sculptor. in the execution of which he This Clone was the father of several sons who worked as architects. Thus it is that but few specimens of the goldsmith's art have descended to us. or painters. According to Vasari. .156 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. from that of Siena the tenderness which tempered them. Orcagna was at once a painter. Like Giotto. The date of his birth is unknown. he introduced that softer religious sentiment which found its culminating point in Fra Angelica. whose works adorned the altars of churches and the banquetting tables of princes But it is in the nature of things that and silver should elude preservation. Maria Novella. and nothing remains to represent the skill of and wealthy citizens. but records prove that his wife survived him in 1376. The Florentines were bankers to the majority of European princes. who executed works in bronze and marble from the tabernacle in Giotto's designs an assertion which Thus through him Orcagna may be said to have been inspired by Giotto His immediate master in painting is unknown. known in his time as L'Areagnolo took a part. though the mantle of the great master seems to have fallen more directly on him than on any of Giotto's pupils. This is not so much intended as indicating any identity of style. The choir of S. in Florence. sculptors. Orcagna received his teaching in sculpture from Andrea Pisano (da Pontedera).

It consists of five compartments. Maria Novella. and the keys to St. The ' Paradiso' what remains of art. He painted on the three principal walls the Last Judgment. Thomas Aquinas on the right. except the tradition that they were damaged by A. century later their disfigured remains a storm in 1358. The Last Judgment has the usual traditional arrangement. but the figure of our Lord shows so far an S. were covered by Ghirlandajo's great work.Chap. all the early great painters Orcagna is seen to more advantage in his frescoes than in his panel paintings. on entering the northern portal of the Cathedral at Florence. and the Inferno ' ' The two angels is It is completely repainted. This repre- . The advance in the liberty of art that it is not confined within the limits of an aureole while in the figures of the angels he even attempted foreshortenings which place him at the highest level attainable without the knowledge of perspec. and dated 1357. These two frescoes are are especially grand and graceful. The picture is signed. may be traced the germ of those graceful figures which charm us in Fra Angelica's conceptions of tive. the painter engages to finish the picture in a year and eight months. surmised that these works were completed previous to 1354. date of Orcagnas frescoes in the Strozzi chapel. much defaced by damp and restorations. preserved in piece in the same chapel. is equally uncertain. proving that he did not fulfil that condition. No record of their date remains. The principal subject is our Lord enthroned within a glory of seraphim and cherubim. Peter on the left. the Paradiso. which is the date of the contract for Orcagna'a altarBy this contract. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. in which that master is believed to have introduced some of Orcagna's incidents. The hand of the painter is again recognised in a picture which Like hangs on the first pilaster on the left. it is full of interest for the student of at the foot of the throne. 157 decorated with frescoes by Orcagna. the Strozzi family. the History of the Madonna and of the Baptist. though little more than outlines remain. playing dawning on musical instruments. with a predella in three divisions. I. the Blessed. giving the gospels to St. and the Inferno. In the group of female dancers.

Two pictures in figures of the Fathers of the same chapel. and the light and graceful proportions of the stone-work. is . The discovery that the frescoes in the Campo Santo are by another hand than that of Orcagna equally refutes Vasari's statement that Bernardo assisted in them. in 1369. scattered in Florentine churches. the son of done. for the front of the building. Croce is It is in four compartments. sents S. enthroned. representing the Assumption of the Virgin is especially remarkable for a vigour of character which points to the vicinity of the sculpture on the Campanile and on the bronze gates of the Baptistery. are also possibly by his hand. the patron saint of the city. the feeling which culminated in Fra Angclico. Piero Maggiore. though Vasari also states him to have been Orcagna's collaborator there. That and not least. fame as a sculptor rests upon the tabernacle of Orcagna's Or San Michele. at Florence. though certain " works signed " Bernardus de Florentia suggest a possible identity between the painter and Bernardo. formerly in S. Book III. The last record as yet discovered relating to him is his enrolment in the guild of St. with SS. He is known to have died in Florence. The tabernacle in all its parts was designed by Orcagna. in Florence. Luke. thus signed. same the of predella. Most of the painter's characteristics are traced in its numerous parts. and also his sense of a whole. Zanobio. Bernardo Clone was the elder brother of Orcagna. and even the beauty of the iron railing. The inscription shows that it was completed Orcagna was employed in an architectural capacity in the works of the cathedral at Orvieto he also executed a mosaic . Crescenzio and Eugenio kneeling at his side also with : Another picture in the Medici chapel in S. No pictures indeed exist which can be with certainty ascribed to him. all combine to attest his varied powers. with the class. is now in the National Gallery.158 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. The altar-piece by Orcagna. The bas-reliefs on this monument may be said to be the finest produced in the fourteenth century. who thus signed himself A tryptich. the Latin church. Nor is there any appearance of a second hand either in them or in the frescoes of the Strozzi -chapel. and others. in 1359.

hitherto spired by exist. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWERS. Francesco Traini is stated scholar of Orcagna. in 1349. executed in 1371. " Puccio few and they aiford no clue to one supposed to be inScenes from the life of our Lord. . stands in lieu of a baptismal register namely. a Crucifixion with eight Saints. in the lower church of Assisi. The latter especially the shows a painter of merit. in the case of many an Italian painter. Puccio Capanna is a name which Vasari designates as that of a pupil and fellow-labourer of Giotto. in obscure frescoes. 159 in the Academy at Florence identified. tics. similarly convent of the Ognissanti a third work. evidently by a pupil of Giotto. the other the history Domenick. and it has been con- The art jectured that he was his pupil. by whom a tryptich exists Abbate at Naples. Giotto. with more of the Sienese than This altar-piece was completed Florentine feeling. by Vasari to have been a has been contested by other The only writers. Mary of Egypt. Davenport Bromley's collection. in the church of S. and therefore possibly by Puccio. furnish no sufficient . ascribed to Puccio. meanwhile Puccio. in the Academy of Arts. have been ascribed to Buffalmaco. da Fiorenza. in 1346.Chap. and Pace da Faenza." he reports to have been inscribed on a crucifix in S. with other reputed scholars of Giotto. That he is not a mere name is proved by evidence which. and Tommaso di Marco are both placed by Vasari in the school of Orcagna. and whose signature. Catherine. Bernardo Nello di Giovanni Falcone. Thomas Aquinas triumphing over the here- of St. Ottariano. in S. was in the late Mr. I. guild. No work by either is now traced. works by him preserved at this time are two altar-pieces at This fact Pisa the one St. is in the a Virgin and Saints. are now claimed for Giotto himself scenes from the lives of the Magdalen. Guglielmo da Forli. Domenico at Pistoia. by the entry of his admission into the Florentine Of his reputed 'works. The removal of whitewash may bring to light works of more positive identity. exhibits some resemblance to that of Orcagna. and St. but no certainty has been arrived at. Antonio of Niccola Tommasi. .

* materials for present study. above Florence. da Arezzo. most interesting specimen of his hand is the altar-piece with the life of John the Baptist. where the coarseness of colour and absence of all grace and feeling are redeemed by a certain energy of action. Spinello not recorded. vol. The fact also that the Guild of Painters at Florence was founded by Jacopo da Casentino. the successors of Jacopo da Casentino represent in some measure the decline of the Jacopo became acquainted with Taddeo Gaddi when that painter was engaged in decorating the chapel of the church of Sasso della Verma. and on three tabernacles. In Arezzo also relics The of him are found of the same unattractive character. may be studied in the sacristy of S. originally erected by the Romans. but known that he died at 80 years of age. namely. in Casentino. on which occasion he built the fountain. There he is recorded to have worked on the walls and ceiling of Or San Michele. works of a Giottesque type at Forli and near Faenza are now identified by records as belonging to painters hitherto unmentioned in history to a certain Baldassare da ForTi. or * Crowe and Cavalcaselle. and followed him to Florence. and others too insignificant to dwell upon. This is further by Vasari's statement that he was employed in Arezzo in 1354 to restore a conduit. i. Jacopo da Cassentino has been mentioned as sharing with da Milano in the education of Agnolo Gaddi. called the Fonte Guinizelli. who represents of his school.160 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. Miniato. but while Gio. shows an energetic character in other respects. The vestiges seen in Or San Michele show a weak and coarse Giottesque hand. now in the National Gallery. He is also celebrated for one scholar attested the spirit of Giotto at the close of the fourteenth century better than any other painter of the time. common to Pietro da Rimini. da Milano may be classed among those who led up to Gio. Benedict in it is Spinello Aretino. in the predella. . of a Ghibelline family which had taken refuge in Florence. 376-385. p. Masaccio and Fra Angelico. in the Life of St. in 1349. The dates equally of Jacopo's birth and death are who redeems the decline da Arezzo. as seen school of Giotto. Book III On the other hand.

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His son and scholar. with the church they decorated. of which but few dates have been preserved. and died at his native place at the comfortable age of ninety-two. was a painter of whose art. in two chapels of the Carmine. Maria Novella at Florence. while his feeling for fine action and composition and breadth the Campo Santo Potito. it will not reward research. Maria Maggiore. there are abundant frescoes. In the Farmacia attached to Stanza S. on an altar to the left of the entrance in S. I. Two figures of SS. These frescoes show the extensive employment of pupils. in the histories of SS.* The story related by Vasari. is now overturned by the fact that the painter lived many years after the repiited vision. Like Orcagna. are fine specimens of his powers. he is seen to greater advantage in his frescoes than in his panel pictures. been recently destroyed. he combined the Sienese with the Florentine element. In Florence. He is believed to have died in 1418. he painted in the choir of S. belong to the Right Hon. a room called the ' delle Acque' exhibits frescoes illustrative of the Passion. James and Philip. though . Also a colossal Trinity in a tabernacle above the door leading to the Compagnia della Misericordia at His frescoes at S. the history of Lucifer and the Fall of the Angels (see woodcut) are most associated with his name. As is the case with most of the early Florentine painters. In Casentino and Arezzo he also undertook extensive works. GIOTTO AND HIS FOLLOWER'S. Efeso and and in the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena. in Arezzo. and in other churches. Maria degli Angeli at Arezzo. He lived a long and active life. all of which examples have yielded to various forms of destruction. and since repeated and handed down by every historian of art of Spinello's having died of fright from an apparition of Lucifer himself. Domenico. proved to have been executed by Spinello in 1405. Layard. A. unfortunately. M . and have. H.Chap. having been preserved in Italy calculated to throw light on inferior painters than relics more on those of a higher class. Parri Spinelli. of drapery followed in the steps of Giotto. 161 at Pisa. Arezzo. who called him to account for painting him too black. and were exhibited at Manchester. * Three heads from this fresco. transferred to canvas. when he was nearly eighty.

such as it was. p. and Adoration of the Magi. however. and finds its highest period. now advanced more than a century since Giotto's first appearance as a painter. and dated 1440. Bicci di Lorenzo. In other masters it already degenerates into insipidity. nor diminishes the characteristic and dramatic animation for which it is distin- guished. and Nero di Bicci the last dying in 1486. Forsch.* All that is chiefly development in Orcagna''s Paradise. who repeated the types of Giotto in forms of prolific medioof the Florentine school exhibits to us the crity. they are only an additional testimony to the influence which Giotto exercised over this Spinello. and even his greatest followers. this diligent. was taken up by the family of the Bicci. His son Lorenzo di Niccolo was a weak edition of his father. and especially to the long-protracted in his dependence of the pupil upon the master. We and limits . Virgin. 400. is new in the productions of his successors confined to that beauty of heads and mildness of expression which begins with the Gaddi. endeavours to show that development was owing to those associations in which formerly united themselves. Giotto. in no way affects the spirit of the school. given to that church. vol. He has left an altar-piece with predella. according to it. . for the souls of themselves and their progenitors. in its true greatness. There are examples of Niccolo di Pietro Gerini was also a scholar of Spinello. by Cosmo and Lorenzo di Medici. : meritorious painter at Pisa and at Prato his last work at Pisa bears date 1401.162 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURA Book III. Jthe Domenico at Cortona. This aim. in the Coronation of S. this slowness of artists ' Ital.'. * Rumohr. ii. His mode of viewing life his conception of forms -pervades their works and great and rich as these works may be. Orcagna have not essentially progressed beyond the which he reached. an inscription on This art. consisting of three generations Lorenzo di Bicci. A retrospect genius of its have founder. and in some respects.

Crowe a"nd Cavalcaselle observe. though dismembered of parts. For the back of the panel was equally the field of Duccio's labours. richly covered with ornaments in gold.* This series. L. have already mentioned the name of Duccio di Buoninsegna as one which holds a high position in the annals of early Italian art. Rome. 11 2 . and embodying principles of dramatic action and expression which may be said to have endowed The figures here are several generations of his followers. was completed in 1310. 1847. TUSCAN SCHOOLS. he infused into them a grace peculiar to himself. and sawn asunder in thickness. SIENESE MASTERS AND THEIR FOLLOWERS. the life of our Lord. * Published in outline by Dr. are for Duccio what the chapel of the Arena at Padua is for Giotto. the first great painter in Siena. in a series of twenty-six scenes from. and with four bishops kneeling in front. from the studio of the painter to the Cathedral of Siena. There it still remains. 14 feet wide by 7 feet high. DUCCIO. representing the Virgin and Child enthroned. bearing the impress of a vigorous reform in art. II. E. in Some of his conceptions of sacred which he has retained the choicest traditional be said never to have been surpassed. At all events it is certain that in 1308 he undertook the execution of a large panel picture. and which continued school. He was the son of a Sienese citizen.Chap. According to some accounts he was an established painter in Siena in 1282. with numerous saints and This work. to be the characteristic of the Sienese subjects. Braun. and though influenced strongly by Byzantine examples. and WE He was his career begins after both Cimabue and Giotto. like that by Cimabue. 163 CHAPTEE TUSCAN SCHOOLS. and carried in pomp. angels. C. II. E. as MM. The date forms. may of his birth is unknown.

The characteristics of Duccio which the Siencse school more especially retained were a certain grace and sweetness. or been so entirely modernized as not to be identified. and portions of it still exist in the possession of the Rev. Dticcio's career closes in 1320. Another. and the series commences with the Entry into Jerusalem (see woodcut). is remarkable for the angels which. surround the upper part and by their dramatic gestures of sorrow the most touching and natural manner the fact But the comthat the Great Sacrifice was consummated. Croce This picture passed. near Enfield. second only to the altar-piece at Siena. John Fuller Russell. . are also scenes of peculiar interest. Vieri. partaking of the character of a miniature. Ugolino ' del Santo Corporale. is that of the Angel at the Sepulchre with the three Maries approaching (see woodcut). and of Duccio's application of it. a composition of great animation. St. which occupies a larger space in the centre. according to early usage. while pictures described as by his hand have either perished. shrine. is in the collection of the A late Prince Consort. of the cross. into the Ottley collection. since dispersed. a Crucifixion. But the name best known is that of Ugolino di Prete Ilario. after which no record has been discovered of him. and Christ before Pilate. Book III. light colouring devoid of relief. after customary vicissitudes. executed the silver elicited . a gay. convey in position most illustrative of classic tradition. 'A Virgin and Child between SS.The style of these portions forms a transition from the severer forms of Duccio to the softer feeling of Simone Hemmi (Martini). Peter denying our Lord. work by Duccio. a goldsmith.' in the Cathedral at Orvieto. at Florence.164 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. Domenick and Catherine is in the National Gallery. with other subjects. The Crucifixion. and a feeling for elaborate ornament which degenerated into mere mechanical labour. several Ugolinos belonging di Pietro painted there in 1324. to Modern research has One Ugolino Siena. about nine inches high. Ugolino da Siena is a name attached to an altar-piece executed in the beginning of the fourteenth century for S.

1. 164.CHRIST'S ENTRY INTO JEKDSAL1 large altarpiece Compartment from a by Duccio of Siena p. No. .

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L. formed on the manner developed by Duccio. Fino di Bonajuncta. p. a Crucifixion.Chap. Mona (Madonna) A" anna is on the left behind. her husband. " Ugolinus pictor di Urbe veteris" (Orvieto). C. . Sonnets Notwithstanding his friendship for Simone. exists. Castiglione It represents the Virgin principal specimen of the master. Petrarca. It is worthy of remark. TUSCAN SCHOOLS.* who further pays " I have Rime di Fr. is He married the Simone Martini. in- for believing that he was Giotto's pupil. same tribute from Petrarch. as heading the school of Siena. Paul is in the Sienese Academy. on which his signature " Hoc opus pinxit Segna Senensis "- A has discovered. E. S. i. . is in the National Gallery. One specimen. and dated 1364. the names being inscribed under each figure. in the Segna is the name of another early Sienese who adhered to the older forms without infusing into them sufficient life and originality to advance the cause of art. 1834. Goro di Fino Mona Miglia on the right behind. either in the life or style of Simone. Niccolo di Segna has a signed picture of a Crucifixion in the Academy at Siena. 165 Corporale who painted the frescoes in the chapel of the same cathedral. recently been and Child. to Francesco Vecchio di Carrara. and with four donors. who was a strictly Sienese painter. for which no evidence. II. which are signed. with saints and angels. . the sovereign of Padua. facts which are supposed to account for the vestigator name Memmi given him by so easily satisfied an Nor are there any grounds as Vasari. 12mo. that of Simone Martini receives the homage * See 49. . Petrarch seems to have had a still higher admiration for Gictto. Another inscribed picture by the master his name on the sword of St. 57. Jlilau. 1283. that while the fame of Giotto is enshrined in the verse of Dante. a painter. but he assumes no further One importance. ' to both the great painters in his letters. this appears from the terms in which he bequeaths a work by that painter. Second to Duccio. exists in the church of not far from Arezzo. born at Siena.' vol. and forms the Fiorentino. father of Lippo Memmi. daughter of one Memmi di Filipucdo. as a valued possession. These exhibit Sienese art of an ordinary stamp. 50. picture.

and ending with the word " Symone. talented both. Beitrage. which are distinguishable. the colour of the faces white dolls.' p.^ subject is the Madonna and Child. and at the In the centre corners. above and below. a partly obliterated inscription of four " who was supposed to have executed it in 1289. The is now believed to be an early work by Simone. 166." beginning with the date. known two of the lower border lines.166 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. Book III. eight of the heads required to be cut out and repainted. in his native city. under a great canopy borne by citizens. t See E. v. . corroborate the belief that the same hand executed the whole are work. The medallions in the centre. The actions of some of the kneeling figures are good." This fresco has hitherto been attributed to an obscure painter. 17. but flat and effect. ii. &c. is mille tre cento e quindici. Simone painted. Epist. and The red. One preserved two on the Spedale have perished. lib. painters. ' p. and excellent. Forster. like a magnified miniature. are also filled with sacred subjects. by name Mino. a fresco representing the equestrian figure of a military commander. years later. In addition to the evidence of the inscription it is now proved that the present walls of the building did not exist at that time. with numerous saints and angels attending. * ' two frescoes by him on the Duomo and Opera. and that this operation was executed by Simone. The character of the work shows that aim at grace and tenderness in the female heads which in the Sienese school was strongly contrasted with the gravity of the male heads. It is without known that six years after its completion. in the Sala del Consiglio. Simone of Siena." * The large and elaborate fresco in the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena. and whose Florence. 725. and the composition lacks the fine distribution of the Florentine school. These eight heads. which shows his power in the concep- Many now These are the only tion of a portrait. enclosed in a border of medallions and armorial shields.' vol. though the causes that led to it unknown. with spots of carmine on the cheeks like execution is minute and careful. Giotto of fame amongst the moderns is great. in 1328.

Elizabeth of Hungary. studied. Catherine's. Martino. and ending with his death and obsequies. of the Virgin and Child is his signature. Sirus. Another signed picture. are now. is ascribed to the master. others in the Pisa Academy. made a journey to Paris." The graceful and tender type of this painter. with S. his cardinal's hat on a balustrade behind him. " Syinon de Senis. it is at Assisi that Simone must be in his frescoes. This is much injured. This now exists in several portions. The and St. for Cardinal Gentile. These works are fine in intention. especially that of the Saint leaning his head on his hand. crowning his kneeling brother Robert of Naples. of about the same time. . entirely the In hand. and . TUSCAN SCHOOLS. Louis. Domenico at Orvieto. Chiara. as opposed to the masculine vigour of Giotto. In the portrait character. . Anthony and Francis. kneeling before the Virgin with attendant Bishop This was one of the few archaic pictures which Saints. and was returned at the Peace. while a figure kneels before him. was executed for S. But Giotto. to his vaulting of the arch by which assigned S. Under the central group Pisa. II. Archbishop of Toulouse. the chapel is entered are eight saints in niches. SS. and is now in the " Fabbrica " of the cathedral. is peculiarly remarkable in this work. Above the door is seen Cardinal Gentile in frock and cowl. with St. Lorenzo Maggiore at Naples. Louis of Toulouse on one side Catherine of Alexandria. where he comes into immediate comparison with frescoes in the chapel of S. though unsigned. Martin beginning with the episode of the Saint on horseback cutting off part of his garment for a beggar. is in the same place. St. executed on internal evidence.Chap. a double course. It represents Trasmundo. for the high altar of St. and the Magdalen and St. 1G7 Of his panel pictures the earliest of note was painted by him. Simone is known also as the author of a picture in S. Catherine at Pisa. in 1320. Martin from his kneeling position. Another altar-piece which. and represent the history of St. Eex. on the The subjects commence on the left of the entrance in other. He is being raised by St. of Savona. some of them in the library of the Seminario Vescovile of old St.

1342. enjoyed the friendship recorded to have painted the Other much-injured frescoes still remaining in the Cathedral. It has been seen that the frescoes in the Campo Santo at Pisa. It represents the Virgin and " Joseph with the youthful Saviour at that moment. ii. the Annunciation. flat execution of perspective which characterizes small panel picture with name and date. in Duomo at Siena. to transfer his residence to the Papal Court at Avignon. In 1333.168 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. According to Vasari this removal was attributable to Pandolfo Malatesta. He. thy. Simone completed for the altar of the S. Ansano. is are not discernible in this picture. added to his own. and in two chapels of the palace long ascribed to Giotto are now pronounced affectation. and is portrait of Laura in a fresco of St. father A and I have sought thee sorrowing. is in the Liverpool Institution. In 1338 he was induced. Behold. p. George and the Dragon. and in a hall. the name of Lippo Memmi. though much injured. 94. are by another and far inferior hand. As two hands his brother-in-law. however." The heads are of touching expression. simple action of these two figures Simone is seen to more advantage than in the greater complication of the other subjects. proved by records to have only been commenced His alleged thirty years after Simone's death. moreover. now no longer existing. grace. The figures are.' vol. ' Lettere Senesi. acquired competence by his successful industry. and the execution as delicate as the period was capable of. with a total lack Simone. now preserved.* and careful. Book III. to paint the por- trait of Petrarch. and. . with his wife and brother. participation in the Capella degli Spagnuoli is now equally He lived chiefly at Siena. who sent the painter to Avignon expressly all events. which gives the date. at of the poet at Avignon. and is known to have set aside. once in the poiiico of the Cathedral. hitherto attributed to Simone. In the inscription. shorter * For description of subject see Delia Valle. it is supposed that the ornamental gilded portions were the work of Lippo. to bear the manner of mixed mildness. in the Uffizi.

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-. -J)l ^J.. in the ' Royal Institution.(. a picture by ^imone Martin:._^__-_-_:__^ . thy I-'acher and I bav sought thej sorn v FOCTNT) IX THE TEMPLE.-.. . ... . 16s . Liverpool 1 p. .- -.1 - ^_ Bahold.-.- . ....

the latter representing the our Lord from the Annunciation. Mino dei Tolomei. inscribed his name and the date. 169 and more overladen than was usual with him. Kunstw. Lippo Memmi died in 1356. whose name with the date ' * See Waagen. is signed. as some infer. and the kneeling It is inscribed with figure of the donor. with saints on each side. It has the further interest of Gozzoli. disputed. A According to Vasari. ii. 390. Barna | was a painter of Sienese extraction and style. EARLY SIENESE MASTERS. flatness relief. Gemignano still survive. picture of the He Madonna and painted also at Orvieto. f Simone died at Avignon in 1344. now in the Berlin Museum. In the Crypt of St. where a large Saints in the chapel of the SS. Simone. Museum Lippo ascribed to him Two pictures in the Berlin are believed to be by Lippo Memmi. Maria del Portico (a half-length Madonna) also by Simone. to the " purport that Lippo. 1467." small altar-piece of the Virgin and Child once belonging to Hofrath Forster. the chief of which is a gigantic fresco in the the Virgin and Child enthroned Palazzo del Podesta under a canopy. if it be true that Simone painted miniatures from Petrarch's sonnet. ii. . vol. and in the patient labour at S. plate 16. his manner is believed to be recognised in a MS. however. Peter's at Rome (the so-called Grotte Vaticane] is the altar-picture of the chapel of S. native of the pleasant Siena painted us. II. brother-in-law. The date is. his name and the date. Barna is supposed life of to have been killed by a fall from a scaffold in 1381. p. 109. by whom some greatly damaged frescoes at Arezzo and S. 1317.' vol. Corporale bears a Latin inscription with his name.. p.Chap. Gemignano show choral books of the Collegiate miniatures which are probably by The Lippo's hand. Memmi laboured in the same Bottega with his He also executed works at S. Luca di Thome. j Rumohr. Forsch. t Engraved in Rosini. in a corner to the right.* (See woodcut. Ital. This work partakes of the manner of Simone Martini in the and absence of bestowed on the dresses. und Kiinstler in England. Virgil in the Ambrogian Library at Milan.) In conclusion. Gemignano. having been restored by Benozzo who has also.

sometimes called Pietro Laurati. He known signed almost altar-piece is dated 1328.170 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. This picture. Other painters of a Sienese character have left works The reader need not equally doubtful and frightful. The strong individuality of these frescoes. outside the Pispini Gate of Siena. such as in the Last Supper. in the little church of S. be troubled with conjectures regarding their names and histories. representing the Marriage of the Virgin. which occupy the side and end walls. existed up to the year 1720. the vehemence frequently the ugliness of the motives though otherwise bearing evidence of a Sienese character . feeling for light and shade. better known than himself. signed A is but not dated an altar-piece in compartments with pinnacles This is a fair specimen of his in the Pieve of Arezzo. Book III. with two fragments in life-size." dated picture inscribed 1340. 1366. is believed to be a pupil of Barna. the Siena Academy. with his brother Ambrogio. That work was dated 1335. " Petrus Laurentii de Senis. Ambrogio Neither the date of his birth or death are known. was born towards the close of the thirteenth century cotemporarily with Simone Martini for he is recorded to have laboured in Siena on a now perished picture called " La Tavola dei Nove " as His earliest early as 1305. These represent the history of our Lord. is inscribed on a Crucifixion in the Academy at Pisa. between SS. beginning with the entry into Jerusalem. great work executed by A Pietro in conjunction. the realistic episodes. Another. is in the Uffizi. with four angels. show a painter of an energy rivalling the Florentine school. sometimes Laurentii or di Lorenzo. It is a Madonna. in better preservation. according to a recorded signature. and energy of line. was the eldest brother of the Sienese painter. Anthony and Nicholas. and eight small panels in the Museo Cristiano of the Vatican. on the Spedale at Siena. Ansano. Pietro Lorenzetti. Lorenzetti. As respects that originality and power which overleaps conventions Pietro Lorenzetti is most characteristically seen in a series of frescoes in the north transept of the lower church at Assisi. and the ceiling.

Peace. which hitherto. both in Siena and Cortona. In the Hermit fresco especially his feeling for nature in the actions both of men and animals is of a high order. A line of figures representing the Charity. have been given to Pietro Cavallini. and moved from the wall into the second chapel of the same church. . The first of the three is mutilated by male a door which cuts into the right corner. Siena." in the three vast frescoes in the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena. hover Faith. and Hope. with more grand efforts of dramatic force. known. and Prudence. which give no real estimate of the master's powers. always known as his. Above. Ambrogio Lorenzetti From 1337 was engaged on This consists of his chief work. including that of the Hermits on the south wall. 171 all combine to assign these works to Pietro Lorenzetti. " Sala delle Balestre. EARLY S1ENESE MASTERS. no longer exist. 1324. The works in the Campo Santo already described (p. Here. an enthroned figure. Temperance. 149). Two small predella panels in the Uffizi are all that remain of an altar-piece representing the legend of St. on Vasari's authority. Other works of an important character. which represent by rather complicated allegories. Of this great painter. assisted by inscriptions. Francesco at Siena. Magnanimity. The only Among relics of them are two fragments recovered from whitewash. symbolizes the Government of Siena. are the crowning evidences of Pietro's genius. which happily still exists. executed in 1331. to 1339. II. Ambrogio Lorenzetti. The first record of his life belongs to the year his earliest productions were the frescoes rethe life of a Saint which covered one side of a presenting cloister in S. sit on one side. Little more than the outlines are seen. on the other. He is known to have resided chiefly in and to have been married. and Justice. and it is surmised that the plague of 1318 ended his life as well as that of his brother. which is known to have borne his signature and the date 1332. Fortitude. but little is Neither the date of his birth or death have been ascertained.Chap. holding a sceptre in one hand and a large seal in the other. the results of Good and Bad Government. recorded as by his hand. Nicholas. ascribed until now to Orcagna.

side. with Tyranny pre-eminent. is the inscription " Ambrosius Laurentii de Senis me pinxit utrinque. but so much injured and restored that the signature and. a busy scene which shows the arts and trades. graceful figures of dancing girls are in the centre of the foreground a lady and gentleman on horseback some are hawking. The figure of Peace. A the remains of which have lately emerged from whitewash." On the third wall are the signs of Bad Government." On the second wall. who executed works in S. treading on Justice. that of Fortitude is also good. All . who is again connected by the rope with Men on horseallegorical forms above her (see woodcut). and a graceful genius flying " by the entrance tower is inscribed Securitas. and the figure apparently of a donor Captives are seen on the right hand. It is a glimpse of life in the fourteenth The tailor is seen in his shop the teacher with century. Francesco. now in the Accademia at Florence. 1382.* These frescoes. the business and pleasures of old Siena. are connected by a rope which is held by the enthroned personage on the one hand. declares prosperity and peace. scription giving his name * A drawing of these frescoes of Count Fieri at Siena. In 1342. but is too much ruined to reward study. his class . place the art of Ambrogio on a high level for his time. he completed the picture of the Presentation in the Temple. Book III. Descent from the Cross at Montalcino also exists in the sacristy of S. become the most interesting Bartolo di Maestro Fredi is the name of a Sienese painter S. viewed as a whole. This bears the remains of an and the date. are the results of Good Government. others shooting with the cross-bow. back are on each holds a tower. is full of On a narrow border grace. when in a better state is in- in the possession . Agostino at Gemignano. and evidently of a portrait character.172 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY". date have part. and by a graceful figure of Concord on the other. This is assisted by numerous inscriptions. her foot on a helmet and shield. and surrounded by all the evil passions which bad governors entail. twenty-four Counsellors.

These have been lately relieved of their whitewash. 173 is another Sienese born 1332 who worked named. descending miraculously through the air. as Taddeo di it appears. Taddeo is found at Siena. about 1362. This the Louvre. Catherine of Siena. however. in the chapel of St. Donna Datuccia.Chap. chiefly dedicated to the life of the Madonna. They are Palazzo Pubblico. revealing These frescoes are inscriptions which give the above facts. signed and dated 1390. where from 1400 to 1401 he undertook considerable works in the These have perished. the Dominican Nun. II. The earliest example of his art is an altar-piece the Virgin and Child enthroned. out of twelve small panels. are full of animation and fine action. and though much injured and colourless. he filled a small space with better success than a large one. show spirit and originality. In the Visit of the Apostles to the Virgin a legendary event the figures around recorded to have happened at her death are who and those her. though he did not He was born it above the standard of the Lorenzetti. equally uninteresting in each. Andrea Vanni last with the by him Siena. After these works at Pisa. Taddeo laboured also about tin's time at Montalcino and at . Nine. EARLY SIENESE MASTERS. Paolo of Pisa. painters of all times. the man being. by painting the walls of the same chapel for one the representative of the Sardi family. Francesco at Pisa. with a glory of seraphim painted for S. In 1395 he completed an altar-piece of the Virgin and Child and saints for the Sardi and Campigli is in Chapel in in 1397 He followed up this work S. A colossal Crucifixion now in the female ward of the Spedale of Siena corroborates the last remark. and stands much upon a par with him in the rude and tasteless imitation of the comparatively A remnant of a fresco great masters who preceded them. Like most interesting for their animation and fine drapery. Recent researches is Vanni have elicited more records of his life than of his art . illustrating the sentences of the Creed. Domenico at is known as the correspondent and adorer of St. Catherine in S. Bartolo was a painter who supported the raise Sienese school by his energy and ability. still exist in the 'Opera' of the Duomo.

first imagined. statesmen. to which this hall led. These works belong to Taddeo's prime. L. They represent. where a large altar-piece in a Gothic frame. so that a favourable day is necessary to do any justice Seven years later Taddeo painted a hall to these works. still exists in the Duomo. known sincerity of feeling pervades this series. especially that of the Death of the Madonna. and quite come Memorandum bv Sir C. Agostino. Book III. ries are in good style. pinxit following inscription " The expressions of the Madonna and Child hoc. 1411. attended by Seraphs. also signed. where he executed a Virgin and Child with two angels and St. where Christ. and writers of antiquity. nevertheless." : and of all the Saints. The works are. Eastlake. . for which it was painted. consisting of numerous pieces all on a gilt ground. A Descent of the Holy Ghost. are very fine * and solemn. annexed to the chapel with the heroes. Bernard S Gemignano. and dated 1403.t 174 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. dark. " an oppressed sensation is well figures under life-size. In 1403 he was painting at Perugia. It is to destroy all that he paintings previously existing was bound to execute the commission within a few weeks. while he receives her soul The chapel is unfortunately very in the form of an infant. and authorized there. though much injured and restored. The heads in the mentioned have great depth of expression and the drapeIn the Descent of the Holy Ghost. Meanwhile he had laboured at Volterra. as at Pisa. signed and dated now in the Accademia of that city. In the Palazzo Commune of the last place are two altar-pieces by him. the Life of the Madonna. Perugia. is still in the church of S. A deep . in illustration of the qualities supposed to preside over the administration of Justice in the Sala del Consiglio. imposing in character. 1856. On the capital of an inscription with the name of Bartolo and the respective dates 1407 and 1414 of each portion of the work." * In 1406 he was engaged by his fellow townspeople in Siena to repaint the chapel of the Palazzo Pubblico. It bears the one of the arches inside the chapel is " Taddeus Bartolus de Senis. descends and takes her by the hand. standing in niches. originally executed for the Cathedral.

Chap. not of this picture. of conception proper to the Sienese school as seen in the chief painters described may be characterized The mode of composition. to close. known by the name of Gera. Martino di Bartolommeo. Volterra. and others of still less note. now perished. He died in 1422. in a convent at Perugia he appears as a weak and unattractive painter. but who appears to have been unrelated to him his real name being Domenico Bartolo Gliezzo da Asciano In a few inscribed and dated panels Academy colour. With Taddeo di Bartolo the fourteenth century may be said The influence of Siena is strongly seen in Pisa. adopted son of Taddeo di Bartolo . whom Domenico di \Bartolo. which are far inferior to this in truth of ex* pression and action. nothing existing 'in either place can be identified as his. erroneously called the nephew of Taddeo di Bartolo. EARLY SIENESE MASTERS. one of 1433. He is known to have covered the Sacristy of the Duomo at Siena with frescoes. another of 1438. L. . though the painters produced there were of very secondary rank. as remarkable for depth of feeling rather than for originality The expression of grace and tenderness was even exaggerated to affectation. by . belongs to the Sienese school of the fifteenth century. Eastlake. Upon the whole." There is little in public galleries that can be with certainty ascribed to Taddeo. Venice. Turini Vanni. in the of Siena. 1857. fifty years later pictures More than were produced in Florence. 175 up to Kumohr's description. appear in the Academies of Pisa and Siena as feeble imitators of Taddeo di Bartolo. . but of other early works remarkable for depth of feeling. II. Pisa claims no native painters of any power her sole title to a place in the chronology of art being derived from her early sculptors. of Lucca. and elsewhere. deficient in balance and perspective whose name is given to a number of works of the same tasteless type found in public and private collections. while in the overladen ornament and antiquated motives the school adhered to traditions of Byzantine art. * Memorandum by Sir C. . an inscribed picture exists in the Louvre Jacopo di Michele. and although he is reported to have painted at Arezzo and at Padua. a Sienese Gregorio Cecehi. .

more known as Sassetta. released from whitewash. variety of handicraft. He belongs to the fourteenth century. in the Palazzo Pubblico and in the Sacristy of the Hospital. was scarcely more than a trade with various branches. are seen at Siena. recently his cotemporaries. interfered with their productiveness. and his art would be hardly worthy of record. Vecchietta was also an architect and an engineer. a fact hardly compatible with any but the most mechanical habits of art. in all of which the apprentice was expected to be equally well versed. adorn the high altar of the Spedale. or. more truly. His principal scholar was Ansano di Pietro Mencio born 1406. and while the painters were as numerous as they were mechanical. for he was little better than a tame repeater of worn-out types. to keep art at a low level. had he not been so overpoweringly . dated 1479. con- tributed. These. however grandly represented by a few gifted men. did he not lead to men of more note. There can be no doubt that this that much came within the range of the overpraised readiness to undertake any work bottega. no great man arose to shake oflf the trammels of traditional errors. excellence. He practised almost all branches of the arts. Two statues by him. and he is still seen in the much-injured Works of Mercy in " at Siena. most of the Hospital " di S. in inferior hands. sufficiently show the low place he known occupies. or workshop. Book III. Lorenzo di Pietro was a cotemporary of Domenico di Bartolo. Maria della Scala in 1444. for his designs and models of fortresses.176 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURA. died 1481 who. takes us back to an earlier time in Sienese art. one in the Loggia della Mercanzia. and exhibits a type of decrepitude in his figures and faces which may account for the name of Vecchietta given him by Remains of frescoes by him. belonged to those periods when art. and a bronze Christ by his hand. and even in the persons of the most gifted. chiefly illustrating the total decline of all The history of the republic of Siena in the fifteenth century was not favourable to the development of art. This versatility of power. his last works. Stefano di Giovanni. These are heavy and tasteless which were completed productions.

long inscription. N . is an interesting example of his art. and is unrivalled in the delicacy of his patterns and glories. II. are surrounded with angels bearing vases filled with snow. 1856. tine cotemporaries. Inscribed * Memorandum by Sir In the predella. is the most important of his works. L. executed for the brotherhood of The Madonna^ that name. kneeling. St.Chap. Eastlake. called Matteo da Siena born about 1435. at the base. Peter and St. called the Madonna della Neve. dated 1479. while others higher up are making snowballs. for while his are as flat and tapestry-like as those of Simone and Lippo Memmi. Lorenzo (of fine character) and St. 1477. Nevertheless. EARLy SIENESE MASTERS. The pavement is in good perspective . ' ' Child. of the higher science of art. is very pleasing. inscribed " Opus Sani Pietri de Senis fresco of the Coronation of the Virgin. Catherine of and . with pale and delicate colour his female saints are pleasing. Siena. died 1495 was considered the best Sienese painter of his time. he falls immeasurably short of his FlorenHis expressions are solemn and sweet. and his delineation of the Infant Saviour may be called beautiful. In the absence. Matteo di Giovanni di Bartolo. for which the religious sentiment pervading the Sienese school supplied. A in a room on the ground floor of the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena. however.the subject of the snow falling (in August) " Opus Matei di Senis. The altar-piece at Siena. A Virgin and Saints now in ' ' the Siena Academy. ends with his name and the date 1445. There are no less than forty-seven pictures by Sano di Pietro A Academy. an increasingly inadequate substitute.' a legendary subject. he improved on the types of his predecessors in the softness of his expressions. the most successful of which is an Assumption of the Virgin." is by his hand. action of the Madonna and of some of the angels is very agreeable. in the Sienese ."* C. standing S. the Siena.' both fine in character. His works are scattered over the Sienese territory and are to be found in most public and private collections in England and on the continent. the name of the Angelico da Siena usually given him is only relatively true in his position as compared with the works of some of his cotemporaries. 1443. John Evangelist are below. as time progressed. 177 prolific. frescoes might have taken a higher place.

is also a favourable specimen. Madonna subject in the A Sienese Academy. assigned to Gentile da Fabriano. and SS. Catherine and Magdalen standing. Siena first . most known. Barbara enthroned. belonged almost masters. Book III. picture at 'Empoli. the colouring clear and har* t See ' Engraved in Rosini. The large size : of Herod's figure was a traditionary practice. however. Siena . surrounded with angels. is in S. 175.' 1840. with her tower. oy Gaye. both exclusively to Florence. The date of his birth is unknown. pi. One is on the altar of a chapel Concezione. Both. though not most favourably. The execution is very careful. A later picture.f of the Virgin. that the first may be almost said to be predominant in their works. This class of the actions are subject lay entirely beyond his powers violent and ill-understood. The lunette in the Concezione picture is one of those quiet compositions which do justice to his merits. by his pictures of the Murder of the Innocents a subject which he repeated several times. Benedict.* No. The one is the Camaldolese monk. of the year 1414. and on each side the acts of St. of St. called resided in the monastery ' degli Angeli at Florence. is an altar-piece in the abbey of The subject is a Coronation Cerreto. Don Lorenzo. His chief work. 2 Notice of Lorenzo. H Monaco. . who has ' A now been pronounced the work of Lorenzo.178 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. and the expressions grimacing. and with several rows of kneeling saints upon a gold ground. a second in the The two' a third in the Naples Museum. though that of Herod is successfully cruel. but who so combined the intensity of expression and the idealizing aim of the Sienese school with the conception of form belonging to the Florentine. 58. Agostino. who. not far from Certaldo. Siena. bearing date 1404. of the same year (see woodcut). although cotemporary with the great innovations of Masaccio. Domenico. At the close of this group it we introduce two monks. adhered in essential points to the types of the fourteenth century. mentioned are different compositions. in S. is true. The predella pictures contain an Adoration. : Kunstblatt. This painter is. with attendant angels. No. The works of Matteo are numerous.

" was born at Vicchio. like spring flowers. In the landscape background. but departs from it in the soft mode of execution. surnamed the Angelica. The pictures of the predella are similar in con- A Descent from the Cross in the Florception and subject. and examples in holiness were always his aim. and thence to Cortona. and he sought to invest the forms in which these were given with the utmost beauty and purity. Trinita at Florence exhibits. FRA ANGELICO. only founded in 1406. and it may be assumed that he had passed his apprenticeship in art before joining the Order. and the drapery slight and conventional. Fra Giovanni da Fiesole. and in the tender and mild expression of the heads. we fifteenth century. inspired his pencil. and a profusion of golden ornaments lavished over the work every auxiliary within the range of his art being 2 . which he changed for Giovanni on entering the Order The convent was of the Dominicans in 1407 at Fiesole. 179 monious. are of less importance. in 1387. An Lessons in faith. and designated by Lanzi as " un Beato dell' ordine Domenicano. a in the of Mugello. II. that widely adopted form of composition which had almost become a type of the subject. but the nude very defective. The other painter and monk to whom we have referred is one whose name is suggestive of the holiest ideas and gentlest forms that religious art has bequeathed. it is true. see a compliance with the style of the though the principal picture still retains the old and solemn arrangement of a more ideal school. unprecedented in this form of expression before or since. and in the more real and natural conception of the subjects. whence they returned to Fiesole in 1418. The most delicate and cheerful colours. and was soon involved in religious disputes which drove the monks and novices first to Fuligno. His baptismal name was Guido. and other pictures. from intensity of religious feeling. No record remains of Fra Angelica's instructor. are selected for the draperies. territory village the birth-place of Giotto. In the predella pictures there is much to remind us of Taddeo Gaddi and Spinello. In considering the art of this great master it is apparent first to that an unvarying principle guided his career last. also. entine Academy. An Annunciation in S.Chap. not far from Vespignano.

Such scientific qualities as breadth of light and shade. but would not. He shunned the worldly and duty towards his neighbour. viz." He is said never to have commenced his work without by tears prayer. more His personal sanctity is than a hundred years later. rapidity of movement. point to this But in truth the language of his art was early practice. that . he is therefore timid and weak in all deor form of art. and that he who would depict the acts of Christ. Florentine recorded to have been entirely consistent with the tenor of his art. must learn to live with Christ. and also the flatness of his style. clear. In his own path he was as extraordinary a painter as ever lived. Book III. He might have enjoyed dignities.180 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. too easily seen and criticized. employed to give fresh charms to these sacred subjects. and though he had faults. saying that obedience was easier. and ventures on none of to scrupulously With a deep the innovations already becoming familiar in art. but would never lay his hand to any but a sacred subject he might have had wealth : . the benefit of the world. sweet colour. afBrming heaven. drew his picture in words rarely " The life of this really angelic father bestowed on man was devoted to the service of God. and less liable to error. yet the style of the Frate is entitled to that definition which characterizes excellences in whatever stage it suggests no want. and to have been frequently interrupted while representing the sufferings of the Redeemer. he adheres traditional types. respect for prescriptive authority. .. and the odour of it must have lingered tenaciously in Florence when Vasari. it. and during his pure and simple life was such a friend to the poor that I think his soul must be now in heaven. and the exquisite finish. in all things. suited to his aim. that the only dignity he sought was to avoid hell and gain He was wont to say that the practice of art re- quired repose and holy thoughts. but he scorned content. . He painted incessantly. Fewer defects would have derogated from his special beauties. He saying that true riches were to be found in might have ruled over many. and accuracy of anatomy were not given to or sought by him. but disdained them. Fra Angelica's first efforts are believed to have been in the illumination of religious books.

and graceful proportions of the figures in the Strozzi chapel find their counterpart in those<f Fra Angelica. subjects Domenico. however. There is a certain affinity between his works and those of Lorenzo Monaco. while he robbed them of As far therefore as internal their grandeur and severity. Movable is The earliest altar-pictures still remain in S. who were nearly cotemporaries. 181 termined action. large picture of the Annunciation. II. The Virgin and Child enthroned. the Frate's education may be said to have been derived from Masolino on the one hand. and in beauty of drapery. works of the master were executed in Cortona. Domenico. as we have said. with four saints and two angels on each side. for while pre-eminently the father of expression he also excels equally in harmony of lines in composition. most calculated to assist his spiritual aim the science of the varieties of human to feel expres- sion he may be said to have been the first and to develop. who endowed them with his exquisite refinement. though showing characteristics which bear witness to Fra All the his local propinquity to the works of Orcagna. sweetness of that early Florentine.l Chap. who. and such as were in the form of frescoes perished by the hands of the French with the convent walls they adorned. and both issuing from the school which arose under Antonio The intensely subjective character of Veneziano. and defective in knowledge of the human structure. a subject peculiarly congenial to his feeling. form and technical process is observable between Fra Angelica and Masolino da Panicale. Here the landscape with the expulsion of is in the Gesu. and often repeated by him. is in S. and numerous medallion in the architectural frame. and from Orcagna on the other. was carried to The slender its extremest purity by the Dominican monk. who has been conjectured to have conBut a greater identity of tributed to the Frate's education. essentially fail in any of the great principles of art. evidence may be accepted. but that finer science. to no exclusive master or school. Angelica's art points. and in the church of the Gesu (at Cortona). combined the Giottesque and Sienese feeling. A . while his own mind furnished that which independent of influence. Nor does he and of colour. FRA ANGELICO.

These and another predella series of the Life of St. a retention of an earlier practice. Two circular medallions of the Annunciation are especially attractive. " in 1433. also in the Gesu the Life of the Madonna is full of his most refined characteristics. formerly inserted in the frame of this picture. C. translation. one of those pictures of which a writer. Ernst Forster. is too delicate to bear But this series has been atrociously injured. supposed that the eight panel pictures containing the thirty-five subjects which ornamented the presses of Annunziata. Eastlake. Abbilduiigen. and several of them are evidently not by his hand. even of an evil kind. traced from the originals. They represent the life of Christ. Several smaller works. The accom- panying woodcuts give a fair idea of four of the subjects. " Mit 22 . the others playing on musical instruments This was the Corridor of the Uffizi. were executed at Fiesole. Book III. of one Fiesole has yet been ascertained. Domenick is here especially'fine." The expressions and actions of the numerous figures are the most Angelica. In the Judas receiving the Money the master's power over expression. The names the figure of St. according to Sir " perhaps the best existing by the painter. says * Ses Noechi's Outlines. has been discovered. are in the sacristy of the same church. Domenico in Perugia. of the saints are here inscribed in their glories. 1859. now in the Accademia at Florence. Domenick. No chronology of the Frate's works after his return to The date. picture of the Madonna and Saints in S.* The Accademia also contains the Descent from the Cross. and Linaiuoli executed for the company of the with its predella and wing pictures forms perhaps the most " exquisite It is work by his hand.'. L. Adam and Eve in the upper left corner is." A long predella in seven compartments. of his best known pieces.Von Dr. were doubtless executed in To the same period belongs the Cortona before 1418. the Virgin and Child surrounded with an arch of twelve angels two of them in attitudes of now in praise. also in the Gesu. t 'Leben und Werke des Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole. however. Regensburg. t speaking of Fra They make us forget that they are art.182 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY.

C JIATION by Angelico da Fiesole. 182. 1.7 nuVMIVOCABF NOMIN tlVSCMANVL.PIHESVMLVCE. No.I. : One cf the panel compartments from the presses formerly in SS.CCCEV1RCO CONCrPICl tPARIL.G TROtR)\RIESFIUVMtVOCABI5NOMENE. VSA^Vi. . Annunziata. p.

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2. one of tie panel compartments from tbe presses formerly SS Annunziata. :R2. p. by Angelico da Fiesole in tbe . . No.THE FLIGHT INTO EG'SPT.

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Panel compartments p. 182. 3.JODAS RECEIVING THE MONET. Annucziata No. by Angelico da Fiesole. . firom the presses formerly in tha S3. CHRIST'S ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM .

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sixth Last Judgment. p. II. more repugnant of necessity to the true painter than even to the spectator. one angel even gracefully jocund. see Spc'th. A C. was lost at sea in 1860. which is considered the finest. As for the horrors of the other side. L. the work of a subordinate. only partly by his hand. . i. 'Die Kunst in Italien. which is foreshadowed as much as told in the countenances and actions of the Blessed. By no other hand are these * On the previous vicissitudes and acknowledged merits of this picture. whether we consider the dignity of the Judge and of the Celestial hierarchy with which tradition has invested the scene. The Last Judgment was a subject to which the master especially devoted himself. note. Nor are the still human conditions of the Redeemed omitted. however. It is questionable. in the Berlin Museum and one. A with smaller pictures bust and full-length figures of saints. and vol. formerly in the Fesch Gallery. There are several examples of it.' 1819.* No painter has been so fitted to cope with this great theme . vol. pious art prescriptive ideas of the Roman Church. is now in the possession of Lord Dudley. which are the purest type to which imagination has consented. . 214. Peter and Paul may be instanced. whether he profaned his hand by taking any part in their execution they were probably. Eastlake at Ravenna. Kome one. friars angels lead the long-tried denizens of earth Nowhere has a painter so touchingly illustrated the mourner's watchword " meet again. iii. of small dimensions. among which SS. Two are in the Accademia. or the conception of that ineffable bliss." The first glance of the rising Dead falls on those near and dear who have gone and greeting looks and gentle caresses do all that may do to reconcile the apparent mystery of ardent human hearts and spiritual conditions.Chap. as it heads the dance with arm gently a-kimbo. as with Orcagna and others. Florence . Fra Angelica only obeyed the before. one in the Corsini Palace. Genuine " airs from Heaven" pervade that happy side where chiefly poor in harmonious measures. . 133. . 183 appropriate and therefore touching with which painting has Gothic Italian frame is richly studded invested this subject. We must say a few more words upon the subject of Fra Angelicas angels. FRA AXGELICO. discovered by Sir p.

Book III. von Schlegel. Domenico at Fiesole may be supposed to have been executed while the Order remained An altar-piece of there. and still serve their original purpose there.' . It has been cruelly damaged and repaired its : chief distinction consists in the predella formerly attached to it our Lord in Glory. It was so little valued equally by plunderers and plundered that the Tuscan Government grudged the expense of its restoration to Florence. Domenico at Fiesole. between 1418 and 1436. gez. walls of S. or isolated. and martyrs now one of the chief ornaments of the National Gallery. with four male saints. offering nothing for the imagination to fasten on. But we must follow the master to his convent of S. * voii ' refectory. prophets. or singly. in the guardians of man. they have invariably what may be called an angelic propriety and individuality which take the feelings captive. s also painted for S. as in the predella in the National Gallery. W. beings of another sphere depicted so genuinely as the gentle Whether seen. Maria Krbnung und die Wunder des heiligen Domenicus nach Johann Fiesole . mit Text von A. This was among the pictures abstracted by the French. and the French Government banished it to the Garde Kobe. chapter-house. guest-room. The works which decorated S. as described. surrounded with angels.184 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. Ternite. where the Order were finally installed in 1436. The Coronation of the Virgin (see woodcut) now in the Louvre* w. The figure of our Lord here is a specimen of the paralysis which befel the pious master's hand when saints like dealing with a subject beyond all human conception. corridors. It is a vacuum in the picture. and where the mind of the artist is best understood in works which remain in the positions for which they were The designed. or surrounding the Lord in glory. viz. where it was ticketed as a " coloured drawing." It is now acknowledged to be one of the prizes of the Louvre collection. as in little two exquisite panels in the Turin Gallery. Marco are a very museum of Fra Angelica in fresco cloisters. von W. Marco in Florence. Last Judgment. as in the Uffizi picture before mentioned. is still in that church. Virgin and Child.

. now in the Louvre. 134. p. DOMINIC.CORONATION OF THE VIRGIN AND MIRACLES OF ST. A picture by Angelico da Fiesole.

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representing the Adoration of the Cross. in an upper corridor. a scene divided into two by a centre column. surrounded with an arched framework with medallions containing heads of the chief members of the Order. Christ being nailed to the cross. who . subjected to the utmost neglect and injury. 185 and not less than nineteen or twenty cells. Bearing of the Cross. one in each humble cell prominent among which are the Transfiguration. St. which were seen and described by Vasari. with St. . Some fine frescoes by him have even been destroyed to make serve little room A for later painters of legendary subjects. Only the most remarkable can be mentioned. with our Lord's arms extended the Agony in the Garden. over a door where pilgrims of old were welcomed. The large Crucifixion. the Coronation of the Virgin and the Adoration of the Kings the last. with St. in one of the cells supposed to have been built for the use of Cosmo de' Medici. but with the Maries (with a feeling no other . All these works have been. below. and several now more than to illustrate the fact that the feeling which flowed from the mind of the saintly monk clings indelibly even to the faintest shadow of his original work. and never so ideally given . Domenick embracing the cross on the wall opposite the entrance to the stairs. with finger on lips expressing the obligation of The Pilgrims at Emaus. II. bear witness and leisure alike obsolete. with an arched arcade and garden. two magnificent scenes. in a lunette over the door leading to the sacristy. The Annunciation. FRA ANGELICO. similar fate befel the frescoes executed by the master in the transept of the church of S. contributed munificently to the erection of the convent. and twenty-five figures of saints and prophets. In addition to these and many more. Domenick and the Virgin attending. and destroyed since. Peter Martyr. a reminiscence of an earlier age. The painter has had for them) seen within a room. are the touching and edifying compositions with which a long succession of lonely monks have consorted. Crosses. Maria Novella. praying. The Crucifixion. with the three silence. with the Disciples horizontally sleeping. and finally.Chap. in the Chapter-house. .two Dominicans detaining the Saviour under garb of a pilgrim. to a skill church. till a comparatively recent time. life-size.

church of the Minerva. Stephen occupying the upper course. Brizio in the cathedral three triangular compartments containing the Saviour with angels. may be thus rendered " Let me not be praised that 1 was another Apelles. Benozzo Gozzoli. Fra Benedetto. da Fr. and the work was completed by Luca In 1447. where. plate 145.. others for Heaven The flower of Etruria's cities bore me. Angelica's powers of expression and colour. may still be seen. intended for the upper part of a Last Judgment. is still covered with whitewash. This church. Stephen and Lawrence.' See D'Agm. Pope Eugenius having meanwhile died. and show that in his 61st year he was in the frescoes evince a dramatic vigour of his art. But that I gave all gains to the children of Christ. A Descent from the Cross by the master. afterwards demolished by Pope Paul III. In 1445 our artist undertook a journey to Eome by invitation of Eugenius IV. Our woodcut gives an example of two of the Scenes subjects. Giovanni. opere del Beato Gio. dis. f His epitaph. that of St. which is in Latin. in the last century. Ang. was Lis pupil here. ed inc.. Signorelli. Nicholas V. These from each life power hardly exercised by the master before. Book III. Giangiacomo. 1810.186 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. retains . the master was recalled to Eome. ' : court. of whom we shall speak further.* This chapel was for centuries consigned to oblivion. however. Some works are for Earth. with the lives of SS. where he executed in the present chapel of the Madonna di S." : . Fra Angelica died at Eome in 1455. made his entrance by a window. also of the * da Le Pitture della Cappella di Nicolo V. where his recumbent epitaph. saints and prophets. Roma. The death of Eugenius seems to have set the painter free to repair to Orvieto. and was buried in the effigy. where he painted the chapel of the Sacrament in the Vatican. the door not being disHere the coverable. have also been engraved by the Arundel Society. Fiesole. employed him to decorate the chapel in the Vatican that bears his name. story of the two Saints are seen in a series on three of the walls. above the altar.| with The ' brother of Fra Angelica.three reliquaries which reon a small scale the very quintessence of Fro. so that Bottari.

p. in the Vatican Chapel of Nicolas V. 186 No . a fresco by Angelico da Fieuole.STEPHEN PREACHING .

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a frfsco by AugeHco da Fiesol--. S.VHEKCE . 186. p. .. No. in the Vatican cEapel of Kicolas V.

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(' Ch' alluminare & chiamata in Parisi. Marco." Purgatorio.' xi. was an industrious . a more or totally we now observe less animation of the expression of the the figures. EARLY BOLOGNESE SCHOOL. as in Tuscany. Soon. where a transition from Byzantine restraint a certain feeling for nature is seen in the first half of the fourteenth It has been usual to attribute the origin of this century. 187 same Order.Chap. movement to one Franco Bolognese. This inscription is now pronounced to be false. however. Coeval with the forms of the Gothic style feelings. mentioned in Dante's ' ' Purgatorio believed to a Lucchese commentator on and now. Such portions therefore as are inferior may have been the work of Fra Benedetto.) The reputation of Franco Bolognese has rested hitherto on a dated and signed picture in the Ercolani gallery at Bologna. the Giotto began to act upon them. impelling the schools of Upper Italy to efforts on which the impress of his influence of mind is clearly exhibited. III. He had been for three years superior of the Domenicans at Fiesole. and a new and dramatic mode of treatment. have been a pupil of Oderisio of Gubbio. on the authority of Vellutello. whom (xi. to An originally independent school presents itself in Bologna. and also in the cathedral at Florence. books in SCHOOLS OF UPPER ITALY. a new tendency in art commenced with the fourteenth centiiry. where not restored. who died in 1448. Marco.miniaturist. 83). The choral St. Dante of the sixteenth century. IN Upper Italy. which bears a certain similarity to that of his brother. " The style of the picture. belongs to . It has been surmised that he assisted Fra Angelica in the frescoes at S. are by his hand. The first appearances of these novelties in art local may be considered as and independent developments. Dante denominates " 1'onor di quell' arte.

noticed by Vasari on the arch above the portal of S. visible until 1859. Book III. with the inscription "Lippus Dalmasius. though her by a * Memorandum by Sir C."* henceforth.Dalmasio. pinxit.. He is a painter of soft and tender aim. f. be More is known of the works of the Bolognese Vitale. E. of " dalle Madonne. f Ibid- . " de Bononia natus Andreas But no work by him appears in Bologna. The Ursuline nun. and like Signorelli" f One of his best works is a fresco his will is dated 1410. engraved by first. . circle. the the second. obtained the name Two works by him. is adorned with miniatures certain Niccolb da Bologna. in S. from his frequent pictures of the Virgin. believed to be by him. and the other 1345. A missal of the year 1374. 1861. National Gallery. Another signed " Vitalis de Bononis. fatus. long existed in the Ercolani Gallery. pinxit The gold embroideries 1407. now in the Bolognese Gallery D' Agincourt (plate 127)." the one 1320." Another follower of Vitale more worthy of record. unless a genuine left out of account. but of second-rate power. Petronio. Franco Bolognese must therefore specimen be discovered. Sixtus and Benedict. about the year 1400. Umbrian A follower of Vitale's manner. Lippus Dalmasius. who obtained the same surname of " dalle Madonne. Bologna. in the Munich Library. 1372.D. Bologna. L. near Macerata. and is now in the It represents the Madonna and Child in a and is distinguished by great tenderness of action " the brown half-lights and whitish lights in parts are This painter was born about 1376." is in the Museo Cristiano of the Vatican. Beata Caterina Vigri.188 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. is one Andrea of Bologna." has been lately whitewashed. In a picture of rude execution of the Virgin and Child in the church del Sacramento at Pausola." A specimen with a genuine " inscription. Bologna. is by some numbered among the scholars of Lippo . who. was the Bolognese. Lippo di Dalmasio. A. Another fresco. . in the manner of the early school. have come to light. and profusion of ornaments in all these painters shows the influence of the Sienese and Umbrian schools." but undated. he signs himself. Procolo at Bologna the Virgin and Child between SS. signed and dated.

Vitale. is The name of Petrus Joannis attached to a fresco of pi. representing St. is in the chapel 'della Croce' in S. Ursula. " Jacobus Paulus. A panel with Crucifixion and Entombment." on signs himself the upper course of a large altar-piece in the S. and a Crucifixion in the public gallery at Ferrara. Other works of the same character. " Xpoforus fecit." is in the Costabile Gallery at Ferrara.' with Biblical frescoes according to Vasari. 189 works belong to the middle of the fifteenth century." feebleness. also signed. was cotemporary with Simone. is Venetian who in character. Maggiore in Bologna the other. his figures are masculine. and inscribed with name and date. Cristoforo da Bologna. EARLY BOLOGNESE SCHOOL. Jacobo degli Avanzi is known by a Crucifixion in the Colonna Gallery. originally called Casa di Mezzo. * See engraving of altar-piece by Cristoforo. and heavy. Stefano. This is a third-rate artist. CrisAvanzi are recorded to have decorated toforo. completed is He Most of the artists just ' 1404 of which fragments only exist. Another Jacobo must be mentioned. The galleries of Bologna and Venice each contain specimens of her art. f. is kept under glass in the fourth church of S. Bologna. 160. . mentioned.* They may be generally said to bear the impress of Bolognese art at the close of the fourteenth century. They are pleasing but weak performances of a Sienese character. The influence of the second-rate followers of Giotto is seen in the productions of Simone da Bologna. Simone.Chap. called " dei Instead of the somewhat affected delicacy of the Crocifissi" artist jitst named. Croce Chapel of S. and Jacobo degli a church at Mezzarata. so called. if only to distinguish him from the Jacobo degli Avanzi just recorded. which. Bologna. Giacomo Two of his crucifixes remain . coarse. and dated 1370. also in that collection. signed "Jacobus de Avacius de BonoThis shows a painter of great exaggeration and mia. recognised also in the Bologna Academy. and those not of a character to repay much interest. signed . one inscribed with name. in other respects. III. make it probable that he belonged to that city. Eome. D'Agincourt. f. and far superior. Giacomo.

Wenceslaus and Palmasius. to decorate the castle of Carlstein. Bologna. pi. was conA half-length Virgin and Child temporary with Tommaso. fig. of mild expression. A went to Prague. Barnala da Modena. is inscribed " Barnabas de Mutina 1367. one is in the Bologna Academy.* This list may be closed by the name of Micliele di Matteo. with painter. In 1457. Vienna Mutina half length figures. 17. belonging to the fourteenth century. by the fact of his signature. in the Sta'del Institut. SS. pronounced to be a Modenese. Catherine's Chapel at Carlstein . is also considered the work of this painter. where he was employed by the Emperor Two Charles IV. one a pictures on panel.' v. Frankfort. is a second-rate picture in six parts in the gallery of Modena is so damaged and overpainted. p. a later Bolognese. which bears the inscription Lianoris. " Petrus According to Lanzi. 1453. Tommaso da Mutina (Modena) is. 5." t D'Agincourt. Another Modenese artist. He all the defects of his time. at the same time his art may be called a mixture of the Bolognese and Gubbian School. with a curious inscription including his name. the A very carefully executed Vera Icon. I.! To this same Tommaso da be ascribed with much probability a picture in the altar-recess of the St. . with blue * ' Storia Pittorica. some Domenico." " This is uglier than Cimdbue.190 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. in the Cathedral of Prague. or Micliele Lambertini. No other work is known by his hand. the head of which partakes more of the Sienese character. especially as regards the principal figure. may Madonna between an Emperor and Empress a picture of great sweetness. a certain Lianori subscribed himself Johannis. is now in the Belvedere Gallery. or 7. still in the chapel of the castle Ecce Homo with a number of small much-injured figures A Virgin and Child between in the frame. A picture in the gallery at " Petrus Bologna. are by his hand. attraction in the court of the convent of S. Book III. He is the first painter of any note who arose there ." does not at all coincide with the style of the above-mentioned frescoes : it is hard and severe. Tommaso that little opinion can be formed of it. 133. by whom inscribed pictures of little interest exist . dated 1422. p.

are fixed by an inscription on a Coronation of the Virgin in the Cathedral of Modena. for the decoration of which the highest artistic power was called into requisition. 3 to 17. D'Agin133."* scribed work a Virgin and Child is in the Berlin Museum. are names attached to decaying frescoes mostly of a low Giottesque character. He is believed to have lived a great part of his life in PiedS. and to have been derived from a Greek painter settled in that city.. he must also be con* Memorandum by Sir C. Ferrarese school surmised to have taken As even offer certain regards the school of Pistoia the early annals scarcely names. Padua was at that time governed by the Carraras. and to an article upon Giimto Padovmo in the same. though the principal means of its encouragement may be traced to the church containing the body of St. its rise The cotemporaneously with that of Venice. . EARLY PADUAN SCHOOL. court. Gelasio di Niccold. 191 and remarkable lights in flesh. 1385. apparently projecting from violence of gradation.f Francesco at Serafino de' Serafini of Modena was a weaker artist than the foregoing. No. He adhered more to the Bolognese school.Chap. 1841.^ At the same time it must be admitted that this older school of Padua was essentially an offset from the Florentine. Incomparably more important in the history of art are the group of painters who flourished at Padua in the fourteenth Indeed. 36. and two of his altar pieces are in Pisa. J We are indebted for our information on this subject chiefly to a series of treatises by E. f See for specimens both of Tommaso and Barnaba da Modena. affording little more than a is list of antiquated names. Early painters of Ferrara are scarcely entitled to mention. Forster in the Kunstblatt. tion of Tuscany.' 1837. pi. half-tints . mont. like excrescences in this respect Another incontrasting with the flatness of early works. with the excepcentury. ' . it may be truly said that. and Laudadio Rambaldo. 1858. Anthony. a race distinguished for their love of art. no city or district of Italy possesses such excellent wall-pictures of that period. III. Frankfort. Nos. L. E. Antonio Alberti da Ferrara. If Giotto be the great leader at Florence. His name and period.

the symbolic arrangement of subjects usual in edifices dedicated to this rite is seen here in great perfection. This picture. upon the completion of the frescoes in the chapel just mentioned. where he is represented by one of his grandest works the frescoes in the chapel of the Arena. whose style of conception is here united with great softness of forms. first place it is very doubtful whether Giotto. powerful shadows. The hisafter 1303. In the cupola we perceive Christ with the Virgin. Then. the Annunciation. or executed by Giunto alone. the Fathers of the Church. Other works hitherto ascribed to Giunto have been now assigned to two painters called Giovanni and Antonio da Padova. the events of the Old Testament to the time of Joseph . were the joint work of the three. prophets and martyrs. patriarchs and apostles. the history of the Virgin to the time of her marriage with Joseph. Nothing certain. Coronation of the Virgin. all alike indebted to Giotto.192 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. Nativity. no other common In the feature can be said to characterize the school. His followers here were also not all natives of Padua cerand they differ so tainly not the most distinguished of them much among for which they were each other in style. left any immediate scholars in Padua. tory of Paduan art is silent from that time till the period of Giunto Padovano. with five circles round them. founded about 1382. in a lower circle beneath the cupola. angels with musical instruments. consisting of cherubs. and who was besides a Florentine by birth. whose only authentic picture bears the date 1367. and Crucifixion the outer side. with angels and saints the inner side of the wings. and the question whether the great frescoes in the baptistery of the Cathedral at Padua (founded 1380. sidered the same here. and a fuller arrangement of drapery. that beyond the foundation. described in Crowe and Cavalcaselle as Giusto di Giovanni. must remain open. in the possession of Prince Friederich von Ottingen Wallerstein. Book III. Luke's Chapel in the Santo (church of S. by Fina Buzzacarina) and those in St. of the Menubuoi family of Florence. As regards the Baptistery. is a small the centre picture containing the altar-piece with wings . Antonio). and lastly a numerous body of saints. however. is known of them. The whole indicates a follower of Taddeo Gaddi.

in 1376. and that consistent distribution of shadow which also pervades the frescoes of the Baptistery. in 1377. who executed an Adoration of the Kings. however rude in point of artistic feeling. animation of single figures. in the pendentives of the cupola the four Evangelists and upon the walls of the church. already mentioned. they contain many good and lively motives. the . a well-understood group of plebeian assailants. The Crucifixion of St. and those of the Cappella S. The paintings in the chapel of St. histories of Christ and character. with the exception of Orcagna. with various fantastic But the painter or representations from the Apocalypse. These were the frescoes of a chapel of the church degli Eremitani. in Padua with Giovanni and Antonio. who. (probably somewhat older) fellow-artist Aldighiero da Zevio. At all events. who. or Jacobo cTAvanzo. lies near Verona. now in the Pisani palace at Padua. Aldighiero s birthplace. III. must be considered as the worthiest follower This was D'Avanzo Veronese*. in several pictures. an insignificant and mechanical artist. Luke (a canonised monk) are better. we may reckon this work as one of the most inferior attempted by Giotto's followers. chiefly referring to the legends of this saint and of the Apostles James the Less and Philip. Antonio. who. Giorgio lead to the supa circumstance position that Verona was the birthplace of l/'Acamo which must not lead to the second mistake of confounding him with a certain Jacobus of Verona. But of an in the the remains inscription Cappella S. Philip near Hierapolis contains. by a series of portraits of . and in point of picturesque composition. for example. in the church of S. Augustin Cotemporary. in With the works of the space before that church. which has perished. formerly ascribed to Giunto.Chap. EARLY PADUAN SCHOOL. had now arisen that painter. Zevio. 1 O . representing the Liberal Arts under the figures of those individuals distinguished for them . however. Felice. and of the Baptist. the Vices. deserves mention for the subject's sake. having been confounded with Jacobus Pauli. began the decorations of the Cappella S. with his of Giotto. drawing. ending with a circle of pious monks. with some figures better clad. Giorgio. 193 finally. the masters before mentioned the authors of the works just those noted for their practice * D'Avanzo has been hitherto mistaken for a Bolognese. are throwing stones. were to the not painters equal undertaking. A third work.

a decision. formerly S. In admiration of the art of S. Giotto's dramatic spirit. reprefrom the legends of St. with the utmost advancing energy to anathematise the fiends. in front of a castle. Jacobo. all The Capella the architecture. the various scenes of the listening crowd. As respects the chapel of S. An angel is holding the rudder of the vessel (see woodcut). with many others of the same kind. and the aim at a more complete system of modelling . it appears from documents that the payments for the wall-pictures were made to Aldighiero. These are compositions full of life and expression. for instance. final destruction where James of these latter by fiends. And thus the narrative continues to unfold itself with a clearness. Felice connoisseurs are unanimous. in that. Giotto. of the plotting magicians. James on the Spanish coast. . and a plastic completeness. scenes senting in three divisions on the principal wall. Felice contains a series of frescoes. and of the picture. are debated points with connoisseurs. surpassed by no other examples of the school of fourth picture is especially fine St.* S. and rich in characteristic is motives. Felice. though they have spared no pains in the attempt. and. while the Jews are seen conspiring together to effect his overthrow. In the absence of greater certainty. the excellent description by Kugler has been adhered to.194 described MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. for instance. otherwise they stand to them in the relation of artists to artisans. a large Crucifixion. * The respective claims of Aldighiero or of D'Avanzo to the highest and the right adjustment of their works. succeeded in the most In these pictures the painter has difficult artistic efforts . Crowe and Cavalcaselle have not solved the question. are combined in In the next scene the Saint is the most masterly manner. resulting from the form of The seven first pictures appear to be by the hand of Aldighiero. James the elder. much is In that instructing those who have been led away by the magicians. laid The the landing of the body of The body of the Saint is upon a stone on the sea-shore. Messrs. these last have nothing in Book III common beyond the general groundwork of style. mode of conception adopted here with St. while every action of the attendants bespeaks the deepest respect and sympathy. of representing a knight plunged in a river and attempting in vain to climb the high shore. of powerful and decided drawing. place. arranged in a peculiar manner.

Anvtony's Church ! .S. Felice of St.

.

p. The other pictures are less distinct and successful in composition. considered separately. in some respects. was now recognised as possessing an independent interest. James is being carried into the castle of the Countess Lupa. 195 While Aldighiero. It is remarkable to observe how hitherto. like the other followers of Giotto. in part.Chap. which for more than a century had been covered with dust and consigned to oblivion. a thorough carrying out of We observe. exhibited that totally new direction of thought which soon led to a thorough transformation of the school which Giotto had formed. were brought to light.t * For the legend of St. by Dr. and we here trace new and animated motives. on the other hand. and also. Jameson's 'Sacred and Legendary Art. D'Avanzo. nature with that which This transition is analogous in perceive in the cotemporary school of Cologne. James the Elder see Mrs. in three compartments divided by pillars. which had we under a generalised aspect. soft and beautiful forms.* Here the actions and gestures of the people crowdsubject. only taken its place as part of a whole. the predilection for individuality of character now began to keep pace with the attention to the general conception of the and perhaps. is But It'Avanzo's style of conception is seen to incomparably more advantage in the frescoes of the Cappella S. afforded the artist ample field for the exhibition of his peculiar gifts . owing perhaps to over. is ing round the vehicle are given with the utmost minuteness of detail. on the one hand. EARLY PADUAN SCHOOL. This immediately apparent in the next picture. where the body of St. i. f These frescoes. remarkable as he was for a decided similarity to the style of Aldighiero. Giorgio. 2" . vol. over-painted. The general conception is not particularly grand or poetical. on the other. though ascribable to totally different causes. easy movements and positions. an admirable understanding of character. III. the unfavourable form of the spaces. adhered still more than that master to the general appearances of life and character. 208. Every figure. in 1837. and abovp all. The large Crucifixion. outstripped it. One novel feature the group of spectators returning from the Crucifixion.' 1848. morethese qualities into the minutest details. E. and indulged to a greater extent in the hahit of individualising. especially in the expression of sorrow and anxiety.

196

MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY.

Book

III.

pictures, representing the the of the Virgin, the of Coronation Christ, history youthful Crucifixion, and the legends of St. George, St. Lucy, and St.

These consist of twenty-four large

Catherine.*

Formerly the roof was also decorated with the

Aldighiero's portion in this series is figures of the Prophets. contradictorily described by the various authorities, and can-

The principal not be pronounced upon with any certainty.* considered to have been be however, may undoubtedly part,
the work of D'Avanzo.

Upon

the whole,

we may
first

consider the painter of these

works to have been the

among

his cotemporaries for

fulness of dramatic power, though he aimed less than they at Giotto and his followers looked scenes of violent action.

upon the surface of
filled

with the utmost possible variety of

their pictures as a field requiring to be life ; and as the

higher understanding of landscape and architecture

in short,

as the artistic completeness of the subject to be represented by means of outer accessories was beyond their power, they
instinctively endeavoured to supply it by accompanying the chief personage with a numerous retinue of figures, who, by
their interest in the subject, helped to explain
it.

_D' Avanzo's

understanding of landscape and perspective is far more matured. At the same time he retains the Giottesque mode of conception, but animates it afresh with a depth and variety of
character

crowded with
action, is

In his compositions most peculiar to himself. figures, the principal idea, the moment of
;

was

in this he always clearly and forcibly developed by a gift of expression and a knowledge of form such as no painter had ever previously combined. The
assisted

picture of the Crucifixion (on the altar-wall) is superior in every respect to that in the chapel of S. Felice, displaying in its separate groups a modification of the various modes

by which a

participation in the principal event is usually expressed, such as scarcely any other Crucifixion picture exForster, who,
assisted

them.

See

'

Wandgemalde der

' Life of Vittore Carpaccio ') is not entitled to the least respect. Among other mistakes, he makes out Aldighiero and Zeoio (' Sebeto ') to be two different painters.

Forster, with 14 plates. Berlin, 1841. * Vasari's authority on this subject (see

by the proper authorities, cleaned and restored S. Georgen Kapelle zu Padua,' by Dr. E.

Fresco

by D'Avanzo.

m Si. Gaor&e'f Chapel, Padua.
p. 137.

No.

1.

Cnap.

111.

EARLY PADUAN SCHOOL.

197

hibits.

The head of the dead Saviour is especially fine here the painter has aimed far more to give the expression of divinity than that of the languor of death. Among the pictures on the entrance wall, the Adoration of the Kings is
the composition most distinguished as combining the greatest richness with the discreetest regularity. In the Flight into

Egypt, the smiling countenance of the Virgin, with the Child looking gaily upwards, has a peculiar charm. Here, as in the same subject by Giotto, the scone is enlivened by

The legendary subjects on the sideseveral other figures. wall contain also a perfect treasury of new and animated The baptism of the heathen king and his people features.
combines again the greatest fulness with the clearest unity. The Saint is baptizing the monarch, while his family kneel around with an expression of eager expectation. Fresh to the are and even a hurrying spectators spot, couple of children are trying to find a space behind a pillar where they can witness the scene. In the succeeding pictures, St. George forms an excellent contrast to the magician his persecutor, who stands lurking by, while the saint, with a
cheerful countenance, empties the cup of poison. The subThe Saint ject of his martyrdom is also admirably given. lies in prayer, extended upon the wheel, the iron bars of
all present, in

which have just been broken by two angels to the terror of whom the varieties of expression are power-

The scene takes place in the fully given (see woodcut). court-yard of a palace. The four pictures containing the legends of this saint are in a bad state of preservation, and
were probably executed by some assistant, though the invenThe finest is the parting between tion may be D'Avanzo's.

two philosophers condemned to death. On the other hand, the pictures which represent the history of St. Lucy are well The second of them preserved, and of the highest order. represents the miracle of several soldiers and six oxen trying Here the sinin vain to move the Saint from her place.

mode of

is forgotten in the great merits of the representation the Saint is standing looking up to heaven in the attitude of the grandest repose, surrounded by a crowd of excited spectators, some of whom are appealing to

gularity of the subject

:

198

MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY.

Book IIL

the praetor, while the others exhibit the greatest alarm and perplexity of mind.

In both these cycles of pictures the subject did not allow the master the exercise of that grandeur of allegorically expressed thought which inspired Giotto and Orcagna in their Nor is the painter to be compared highest productions.

with either of those in higher poetical conception, in power,

and fulness of idea. On the other hand, he equals them in unity and roundness of composition, and surpasses them and every other cotemporary in all that belongs and this in so remarkable a to picturesque completeness degree, that he must ever be considered a most extraordinary painter for the fourteenth century, and as one forming an He it was who early transition to the style of the fifteenth.
elevation,
;

(with Fra Angelica) first arrested the forms of special expression without departing far from the general and the ideal on
the one hand, or degenerating into portraiture on the other. Devotion, resignation, wonder, and terror he expresses with equal perfection, and that not only by the play of the features,

but by the whole attitude by the hands and the position of the knees. In the expression of malice only he has not been successful, as we see in the Crucifixion in the chapel of S.
not that he degenerates into caricature, like other masters of the time, but subsides rather into something unmeaning and insipid. The heads of his holy personages are
Felice
;

all of a grand style of beauty ; and if, in respect of knowledge of the human form, and in the disposing of drapery, he made no particular progress, the century is, at all events, indebted to him for that power of modelling and gradation of

one and

tones which may be considered as his second great excellence, and which D'Avanzo alone in those times so developed. For though it was not till several years later that Masaccio defined

the true principles of these qualities in art, yet, by a happy empiricism, D'Avanzo brought the thing itself to light, while
the other followers of Giotto continued to be satisfied with
a

mere general

indication.

Endowed

witli this

power of individuality, and
art, this

assisted

with hia improved modes of
step which places

him

painter now advanced a far beyond all his predecessors. In

Chap.

III.

EARLY PADUAN SCHOOL.

199

first attempts at optical illusion, and important point at which he was joined by the later Paduan school of Squarcione and Mantegna. This, it is evident, had long been the of his thoughts and object

his

works are seen the

this is the

In the Crucifixion in the chapel of S. Felice, and in we have named, we recognise partial and The last attempts experiments in this department.
efforts.

many

of the pictures

picture, however, in the history of St.

Lucy

of Syracuse

is

the

first

would

in which he attained any great result, and this alone have served to throw off the forms of the Giotto

school, had the efforts of D'Avanzo been followed by those of The picture contains, like many any immediate successors. others of his, a double representation of the subject. In the vestibule of the church, behind, we see the mortally wounded
saint in the act of receiving the Host, while in the foreground

the body lies

men and women.

upon a decorated bier, surrounded by sorrowing Here the drawing is not only more correct, the colouring finer and more lively, and the execution more
finished than in

dividualizing
tive, also,

is

carried further.

the other pictures, but the power of inThe architectural perspec-

more care than

which, in his other productions, is treated with in any other cotemporary work, is here the figures are rightly to a certain completeness brought softened according to their degrees of distance, and those
;

standing behind are divided from those in front by a slight tint of air.

Other works by D'Avanzo, in which perhaps his new may have been more fully developed, have now perished for instance, two symbolical triumphal processions " in in the palace of La Scala at Verona, and some " Sposalizj
tendency
;

the house of Count Serenghi, also at Verona, which are reported to have been full of contemporary costumes and
portraits.

no evidence to show that D'Avanzo exercised any Hubert van Eyck, who upon his fellow-painters. in 1377 was still a boy, and Masaccio, who at that time was
is

There

influence

not born, were left subsequently to re-discover those secrets in art which he had already practised. Least of all was he
imitated or studied by the Paduans themselves.

We

need

200

MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY.

Book

III.

quote only two large works of the beginning of the fifteenth century which repeat the style of Giotto in the most vapid

manner. One of these consists in the frescoes which adorn the
cupola and walls of the colossal saloon, or Sala della Eagione, at Padua. Formerly, the invention of this work was assigned to
the celebrated magician, Pietro di Abano, and the execution to Giotto ; now, however, there is reason to believe that the whole

was painted
is

after 1420,

one of the most

difficult

and by a certain Giovanni Miretto. It works of art existing to explain.

Nothing but a correct knowledge of the astrological systems of the fifteenth century could furnish the key, and much, even under these circumstances, must remain for ever incom-

Here we find the influence of the stars upon prehensible. the seasons and upon the aifairs of men symbolized in a row
of nearly 400 pictures, arranged side by side, or one above the other, and in no way divided into any surveyable order of arrangement. Various human achievements and events are thus treated, from their very nature, in the true genre
to the style of Giotto.

manner, although the mode of representation adheres strictly Besides the allegorically personified
Virtues, a colossal St. Mark, and many are throughout general and insipid, and better figures, as for example the Apostles, are

months, planets, &c., we also perceive the figures of the
Apostles, others.*

of the

The forms

even the

mere repetitions of well-known types.

Every part

also has

been repeatedly over-painted. The second work alluded to are the wall-paintings in the choir
of the church of the Eremitani (Padua), believed to be by one Guariento 1330_ to 1336 a native of Padua, who spent

much of
side
;

his time in Venice.

Christ

is

Judge of the World, with the Apostles, three and
tories of the Apostles Philip

here represented as the three, on each

then the Fathers of the Church, the Prophets, the his-

and James the Less, four subjects from the legends of the Augustine Order, with many others, all of inferior artistic value, and most of them over-painted.

The best preserved are the figures of the planets in chiaroscuro along the walls below, which here, as in the Sala, are con* For a further account of these strange pictures, which we cannot enter upon at greater length, see E. Forster, 'KunstbJ.', 1838, No. 15.

. Zeno.* . agreeing more or less with In the frescoes by Stefano the Florentine principle of style. in the now gallery of the Council Hall at Verona. 201 nected with the affairs of human life in some inexplicable way. He is sup*posed to have flourished as early as 1316. in S. 1793. da Zevio (over a side door of S. altar-piece." and represents the Trinity. for example. 1373.t He is also the author of some curious frescoes of family groups in the costume of their time in the Casa Borromeo. with the Coronation of the Virgin and various saints on the sides. Aldighiero and D'Avanzo were probably natives. 1360. . 81. those in the Presbytery of S. p. or. . Bergamo. possesses a considerable number of wall-paintings of the fourteenth century . Bernardino. III. Verona. Fermo) warmth of colouring is comA similar style is displayed in an bined with some grace. as we have already stated. and in other places chiefly figures of saints of a statuesque character. Michele di Honco and MicJielino are names of Milanese artists which Vasari seems The former lived between 1366 and to have confounded.the latter belongs to the fifteenth century. He shows no trace of Giotto's influence. A Crucifixion by Guariento exists in the Pinacoteca at Bassano. indeed. of which. &c. Michelino was noted for representations of animals. " It bears the inscription Opus Turoni. Other cities of northern Italy have been searched in vain for early works of any interest such vestiges as survive show generally a very low stage of taste. of whom only one work has survived. A later Milanese. signed with his name and a long inscription. di Morelli. Nazzaro. Anastasia. Milan. Eufemia. bore the name of Leonardo di Bissuccio. of the revival of art even under Cimabue. behind Anonimo Tassi. in S. A book of drawings of animals by him is recorded as belonging to the Casa Vendramini at Venice.Chap. This specimen consists in the paintings of the octagon monumental chapel of Sergiani Carracciolo (seneschal and lover of the younger queen Joanna). and in a recess on the outer wall of S. and to have been buried in S. . SCHOOLS OF UPPER ITALY. Vite. and that in Naples.

but the heads is Fragments of wall-paintings in the vaulted ceiling of the transept of the cathedral at Cremona are by a rude hand. Everything' in this peculiar city bore so Oriental a character that it is easy to understand how her people adhered to that which the dawning taste of other parts of Italy had thrown off. Beitrage zur Geschichte der alten Malerschulen in ' Kunstbl. and following numbers.202 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. She been. both enfolded in the arms of the First Person of the Trinity. 66. and surrounded with angels. an Annunciation. hand is seen in an elaborate and curious fresco in the church of Venzone. Antonio. the choir of S. to the left. on a colossal scale. the portrait of the Seneschal naked. especially angels. which are . may be said to have a Byzantine colony. as regards art.* essentially Giottesque. Chris- The same topher. and several single figures of saints. They are assigned to one Polidoro Caselta. No. in a circular form. Giovanni a Carbonara. Above the entrance-door is seen. signed Maguta Nicolaus now destroyed. assigned to that painter. * See Passavant. Christ crowning the Virgin. In Parma also the walls of the Baptistery are covered with rude productions to which the name of Bartolino da Piacenza is attached and in Piacenza itself there are wall paintings.' 1838. inscription leaves no doubt . Below. In the Province of the Friuli the fa$ade of the Cathedral of Gemona was covered with frescoes of the life of St. which recall Fra The portraits are individual in character. Venice now claims attention. five miles from Gemona. The whole style is form and expression of the the of sweeter. and next the door. An der Lombardei of the name and origin of the master. and a picture in eight compartments in S. Book III. Thus established and fed for Venice continued to keep up her she offered a strength of opposition relations with the East to the new no other parts of tendencies in art such as they had encountered in From the middle of the fourteenth Italy. who lived 1345. but curious as regards costume. the Angelico. arrangement of the whole simple and grand. are several members of the Carracciolo family. built 1433. as he was found after his murder. Other parts of the chapel contain scenes from the Life of the Virgin.

Mark's (at the end of the left transept. We begin with one of the few works of a monumental character. a large altar-piece consisting of many compartments the Coronation of the This consists of fourteen Virgin by Niccolb Semitecolo. His productions correspond somewhat with those of Duccio. canopied compartments and divisions. though he shows but little of its dawning qualities. and is signed and dated 1351. Sebastian. not without grace. of inferior order. was first manifested in the fifteenth century.Chap. EARLY VENETIAN SCHOOL. scenes from the life of Christ (the centre picture by a later hand). Another altar-piece by him. The subject is a Madonna with the Child. now divided. The especially in the smooth and almost Sienese drapery. however. in point of character. formerly in the Manfrini collection. and many a motive are still directly Byzantine. III. though without his excellence. None of those grand allegorical subjects. namely. are to be found here even . . He is known to have lived till 1400. and with them the tranquil position of single figures. while the altar-pictures retain longer than elsewhere the gilt. Further examples of this kind are to be found in the Venetian Academy (the Belle Arti) . Isidore in St. now exists in the Belle Arti. and the form of art which the school was subsequently to attain. executed 1350). with the mosaics of the chapel of S. in the Chapter House of the cathedral at Padua. they combine with careful execution an awkward and unimaginative form of composition. could no longer be impeded. He is the first re- presentative of this early school. though under different forms and combinations. the historical representations are. for instance. The principal features of the Gothic style predominate here almost exclusively. 203 century. though not accompanied either with the poetic grandeur or the solemn beauty of the better followers of Giotto : on the contrary. It is a question whether Niccolb Semitecolo is not identical with another Niccolb by whom a picture. with the history of St. olive-brown complexion. none of those profoundly pensive poems with which the school of Giotto decorated whole buildings. The development which attended these beginnings. while the gold hatchings. and little angels playing on musical instruments. is dated 1367. the partial introduction of these innovations.

shows a further progress. which pervades folds. the carnation unusually soft and warm. The last-named belongs shall notice later: to the family of the whom we the first. A third altar-piece. the colouring deep and transparent. Giovanni and Antonio da Murano (one of the Venetian islands). the pictures of that time. Another tendency may be traced in Venice about the first half of the fifteenth century. and transition period. and now in the Venetian Academy. the Madonna with is much more in the character of the time. painter in Venice. though of a very severe style. with the Crucifixion and the and the history of St. one of whose works.204 artist MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. however. with the date 1434 (in other respects a picture of no interest). with delicate and a light carnation. a Madonna. painted this work in the year 1394. but not of any character. this tendency is seen in The same may be said of Jacobello most decided character. almost an anticipation of the later excellences of the Venetian school. is in the Manfrini and easy lines Gallery at Venice. still retains The something of Byzantine greenness in the shadows. " has given the place of his dwelling Niccolo. from the . The drapery is in those long which we see in the Tuscan pictures of the fourteenth century. now to Michele Mattel da Bologna (Lambertini). As early as in a beautiful altar-piece by Michiel Giambono (who painted at that time in Venice). Another altar-piece. the son of Maestro Pietro. del Fiore. Book III. countenances are delicate. which. residing at the entrance of the Paradise Bridge. not deficient in dignity and earnestness. by Lorenzo Veneziano. some respects we here detect an immediate influence of the Tuscan School. is more indicative of the It bears the date 1357 or 1367. the heads have a soft expresIn sion and the draperies fall in round and easy folds. But the worko in which we see this tendency most com- pletely developed are those of the two conjointly painting artists. This is a peculiar melting softness. formerly ascribed to Micliele Onoria."thus showing the kind of artist life in a rich commercial city. with the Coronation of the Virgin in the centre. This Evangelists above. The centre picture represents saints. Vicarini. representing a Christ and four saints. Helena below.

III.Chap. but the four saints. appears to have been a German. Cappella della The other piece. The colouring is glowing and brilliant. Annunciation. in whose beads we perceive the ideal type of the Gothic style. higher principle which formed the style of the older mosaics is here no longer observed these being merely historical paintings of a very . Several fine pictures by both these dated 1445. the walls of which exhibit the Birth. mingled with signs of individual character. Fosca. with the Madonna four Fathers of the Church at her side. holding the instruments of the Crucifixion around are seated numerous saints. as in the works of Giambono. with many figures . Mark's one of It is true that the its greatest architectural triumphs. Two excellent pictures by both are in the The one dated 1440 is a gallery of the Venetian Academy. EARLY" VENETIAN SCHOOL. Mark's. enthroned is said to be in S. though of dignified character. are all without grandeur. side by side other. and commenced about 1430. and Death of the Virgin and the waggon roofs the circular . dated 1446. it was destined to attain here in St. are to be seen in the inner chapel of in Venice. Presentation. A Finally. representing the Madonna picture enthroned. Among them the artists. beneath a canopy sustained by angels. among them some beautiful boys of earnest expression. somewhat in : the manner of Meister Stephan of Cologne (an early repetition of this picture is in S. the beauty and : . is Here the Madonna very graceful. is particularly well preserved. Venetian School the Cappella de' Mascoli in pictures of the Virgin and two prophets . Pantaleone at Venice. we must mention as a masterwork of this old St. enormous of dimensions. They are of higher and milder expression than those we have described. is a di Loreto). transposed into neat and fine mosaics but at the same time the order of the arrangement. on account of its inability to meet the higher artistic requirements of the time. had almost ceased in other parts of Italy. Coronation of the Virgin. 205 frequent addition of Alamannus to his name. all executed in mosaics by the hand of the same Giambono just mentioned. While this species of art. left. S. and somewhat prosaically conceived. Zaccaria on the and one above the altar-piece Madonna with figures of saints. developed kind.

in an inscription. in a portable form thus preferring the domestic altar. but in a slighter . miniatures.* How state of the early Venetian school. Chiesa Ducale di S. alle Pitture di Musaico della an appendix to his work. who. perhaps. We recognise the influence of the school of Giotto. In respect to the peculiarities of the school. the most distinguished of whom stand in closest connection with the Venetian School. The depth and transparency of separate colours observable in the early Venetian school had been long a distinguishing element in the Byzantine paintings on wood. and the splendid which have the merit of being architectural backgrounds raise this work not only above all correct in perspective the other mosaics in the building. died about 1450. There was something. da Mwand). under similar conditions.} We must now call the reader's attention to the painters of the March of Ancona and the adjacent districts. L. 566.' 1771. now in the Royal Library at Paris. or from the North through that of Johannes Alamannus (Gio. The cotemporary Flemish paintings. or the votive picture. but assign to it a high The artist. form of execution.206 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. 321. expressly declares himself a Venetian. if possible. executed about 1400. described by Waagen. and may be therefore traceable to this source without our assuming an influence on the part of Padua. gradually assuming a new character. exhibit analogous results. place in the historical painting of the day.' p. p. Marco Delia Pittura C. . Notizie intorno. with Venetian See t prayer-book. und Kiinstl. through the channel of D'Avanzo. however. in Paris. in the nature of a rich commercial aristocracy of the middle ages calculated to encourage that species of art which offered the most splendour and elegance to the eye and this also. Veneziana. : ' . expression of the forms. Book III. Nothing * is clearer than the fact that the Umbrian school ' Compare Zanetti. the brilliant colours. E. arrived at this do not here development remains still uncertain. Kuiistw. to those great and solemn works which contain a whole world of events and thoughts. we are tempted to regard them in connection with the social condition of Venice itself. but rather the types of the Gothic style.

and attended by several saints. died about 1345. Dante's knowledge of him is supposed to have 7. shows the type which developed itself subseis quently in Perugia. and in is 1295. born 1280.' canto xi. Anthony by him are seen on an outer wall of S. 79. This partakes of the character of the Lorenzetti.Chap. Francesco at Cagli . A list of painters recorded in Gubbio. of St. Rome in A large fresco is Commune in the upper chapel of the Palazzo del an important example of this school of the first It represents the Madonna half of the fourteenth century. No certain works by him are occurred between 1285 in the Archivio de' Canonici are miniatures but there known. This is explained by the geographical position of Gubbio and Fabriano. cotemporary of Giotto and Dante. which bore at the same time the careful In Umbria the pracfinish and flat brilliancy of miniatures. * Gubbio had also a school of ' mosaicists. Peter's at Rome. Guid'y Palmeruccio is another early Gubbian painter. A smiling gaiety gave charm to their works. Yestiges of a St. now damaged and frescoes in the crypt of S. Prettiness was their chief quality a characterdestined to contribute by its development in Perugia and Urbino to the greatness of Raphael. . which are presumed to be by his hand. Purgatorio. v. Vasari our authority that Giotto and Oderisio made acquaintance in Rome. 207 took its rise from Sienese examples. Maria dei in S. and rescued from istic . wash to the left of the entrance of S. and Child. where he is said to have died in 1299. Oderisio is known by records oblivion solely by that poet. PAINTERS OF THE MARCH OF ANCONA.* to have been at Gubbio in 12(54. Anthony Another fresco recently freed from whiteMaria Nuova a St. which accounts for the Laici. III. Maria de' Laici at Gubbio. at Bologna in 1268. but they have little internal interest. with an aged Gonfaloniere kneeling below. while the temper of a race more akin to the mercurial Sienese than to the graver Florentine further favoured this origin. but in Gubbio tice of painting dates from the remotest times it would be difficult to assign any name older than that of Oderisio. disand of the the affectation tenderness art to position exaggerate A of Siena marks the Gubbian painters and their neighbours at Fabriano.

signed.^. ii. is now in the Cristiano in the Vatican Romoaldo Fornari at Fabriano. p. dated 1369. A third. dal Marchese A. His grandfather. his residence from Gubbio to Urbino in 1420. where Book IIL We we are met by the Tuscan in- fluence in the person of Gritto da Fabriano. Maria Nuova at Gubbio. Cav Ricci. His earliest work is in the Museo at Florence in 1346.' Macerata. 196. other pictures believed to be by him. a wall painting by him of the Madonna painter in Gubbio. Another altar-piece is in the sacristy of the Cathedral at Macerata. and though life of the Madonna.208 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. Cartegg. A with saints and numerous angels is preserved under glass in S.' 1846. and dated 1403 This is a gay mixture of unsubstantial (see woodcut). Gaye. the Palazzo del Governo. da Fabriano between 1360 and asserted to have been a scholar of Allegretto di at but if really a scholar of * See Crowe and Cavalcaselle. in Foligno. 130. dated 1372. . scr. Nothing is known of him after 1444. ' t See Kunstblatt. ' J See Elogio del Pitt. It is possible that in his manhood he derived some useful lessons from Ottaviano Nelli. his father.* show the connection between the schools of Gubbio and Fabriano collection of Signor with which leads up to the superior art of Gentile da Fabriano. Gentile da Fabriano. 59 . p. turn to Fabriano. Martino. now identified This painter appears on the Register as Allegretto di Nuzio. di Niccolo di Giovanni Massi. 1829. vol. Allegretto is supposed to have died about 1385. signed and dated 1365. with graceful heads. a small altar-piece with Virgin and Child and numerous attendant figures. No. was probably born 1370. and his works appear also in what was formerly the Trinci Palace. in a series of the His powers were mediocre. Ottaviano di Martino Nelli f belongs to this district. tradition asserts that Gentile da Fabriano worked on some occasions with him. otherwise Gentile Fabriano. Mattiolo. 1. was a sculptor. He is known to have changed like a magnified miniature. and is Nuzio. whose style seems naturally linked with Allegretto's . These. figures on a blue diapered ground. Gentile. yet no surviving picture by Ottaviano now Nelti is of a class to corroborate this idea.

Michael Angela is reported by Vasari to " aveva la mano simile al nome.Chap. His manner has an affinity with that of Fra Angelica. A childlike delight in splendour and gold ornaments. which led to a friendship between them. His labours in the Ducal Palace is : known." Gentile are like Fra Angelica and gifted by . while on the other he excels him in a freer conception of the ordinary the last events of life. compare the pictures of Gentile to the poems of the Minnesingers they seem to breathe the joys of spring they have an air of inexpressible serenity. are sometimes laid on so thickly as to be in relief a practice for as no kind of modelling consistent with the nature of such decoration in light and shade is possible in gold. III.* Of Gentile's life not much His first patron was Pandolfo Malatesta. where he spent some chapel. though on the one hand he has not the deep devotional feeling of that master. and subsequently in the Craglietto collection. pervades all his works. Gentile held his first child at the baptismal font. like those of most of his cotemporaries. Jacobo Bellini there entered his atelier as a scholar. Lord of Brescia and Bergamo. clouded by no doubt. both highly most refined and amiable feelings but the one became a monk. The year in which Gentile settled at Florence is approximately defined by his entry into the Guild of the Barber Surgeons in 1422. * The gold decorations of Gentile. A painted for the Zen family. An Adoration of the Kings but is heavily over-painted. the effect of such could only be : attained by these means. which in his pictures are both embossed and We : . for which. are supposed to have terminated before 1422. solitary Virgin and Child in the Venetian Belle Arti bears his name. however. It showed at least the influence which Gentile exercised over the opening Venetian His residence at Venice is marked by the fact that school. is now in the Berlin Museum. have said of Gentile. for whom he decorated a He next removed to Venice. and. no anxiety. it was necessary to view the P . picture in one particular light. incised. when Jacobo married. and with other works all of which have perished. where it bears or bore the name of Antonio Vivarini. both full of the two brothers. years adorning the great hall of the Ducal Palace with frescoes from the life of Barbarossa. GENTILE DA FABRIANO. nature. the other a knight. 209 named lie quickly outstripped him.

In the same year (1425) Gentile was called to Orvieto. who died 1431. From Orvieto Gentile was called to Home by Martin V. and Antonio da Fabriano. a follower and by some supposed to be a son of Gentile. though in its actual state not an attractive specimen of the master. now under glass. by which he is now prinfor the church of the Trinita. Nicholas scenes from the Passion are given with exquisite minuteness. in Paris. Florence. upwards or downwards. with SS. The saint on the right has the best head. probably also a follower.. At Fabriano there are pictures attributed to him in private houses. however. Over the arches which enframe the picture are smaller subjects. but has disappeared since. and the predella comprises the Nativity. Flight into Egypt. are full of highare not successful. in the Accademia. The centre has disappeared. John Lateran He also executed a portrait of the Pope with portraits of ten attendant cardinals. which existed in the sixteenth century. and in the fulness of the composition and delicacy and richness of treatment we see the poetic naivete with which the feeling of the period The heads are eninvested this event (see woodcut). the Adoration of the Kings. Niccolo. gaging bred grace. and in S. with a Malatesta kneeling before them. Gentile still in Florence. In 1423 his signed and dated picture. The figures. On the cope of St. Book III. Maria Nuova) he represented the Virgin and Child. Miindler. Francesco Komano (formerly S. Pictures attributed to him are scattered in various galleries. A pleasing little picture.210 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. the Virgin and Child. though the attempts to foreshorten the faces. belonged to the late Mr. cipally known. Francesco Gentile da Fabriano. In 1425. will be noticed in the ranks of the . He from the life of the Baptist. but none of sufficient excellence or so well preserved as to do -him credit. where he painted a Virgin and Child on the wall to the left on entering the Cathedral. Joseph and Benedict. painted a series of frescoes in St. but the side panels representing four saints still remain there. where a picture so dated was executed for one of the Quaratesi family. and recorded as being in the was church of S. and the Presentation. and the features well understood. was executed This is his best work extant.

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which. with the exception of some graceful heads and motives. a marriage of St. Chiara. Giovanni Battista at Urbino with incidents from the life striking the Baptist. No. belonging to the Cistercians of S. still existing. and further. IV. SCHOOL OF NAPLES. Catherine. such as Jacdbo Bellini and Benedetto Bonfigli. Sixteen years later Lorenzo. 1839. decorated the oratory Marriage of of S. 211 Paduan school under Squarcione* scholars Other and more eminent of Gentile. bears an inscription which shows Lorenzo to have been twenty-six years of age in 1400. He here signs himself Second. seen as a whole. will also be mentioned in their places. p 2 . to Naples.Chap. where he left j. A Laurentius II. and others elsewhere which have That he exercised a certain influence in the GIOTTO. 426. Severino.'. are dated respectively 1481 and 1483. we have already told. Two examples of his art. * See Gave. near Macerata. f A second Lorenzo da S. Severino. further developed the germs of grace seen in his predecessors. ' Kunstbl.' ' in f See Passavant's Rafael. assisted by his brother Jacdbo. in 1330.he fine work in S. who flourished later. the other a fresco in the collegiate church of Sarnano. SCHOOL OF NAPLES. A totally ruined St. p. A third. i. forms a link between those two painters. is " now in the National Gallery.' vol. though. originally at S. was summoned by King Robert. CHAPTER IV. Catherine. the one in the sacristy of a church at Pansola. as perished." apparently meaning Lorenzo the picture is recorded to have been painted by this Lorenzo as late as 1496. Lorenzo. ' Zur Kunstgeschichte. the elder and more distinguished. the neighbours of Ottaviano Nelli and Gentile da Fabriano . Severino. Lucia at Fabriano. 21. create a impression. there is little merit in the com- of position. More interesting are the earlier artists. Lorenzo and Jacdbo da S.

representing St. Great obscurity prevails as to the early Neapolitan painters. the " Symon de Senis me following inscription has come to light. that his personal influence may almost be concluded. is in keeping with the date. is standing before the king. it would be rash to dwell on works of a more obscure kind reputed as his. has been The art of the work. see." fame of Simone Napolitano has hitherto rested. as a weeping female.212 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. 149. p. Louis of Toulouse enthroned. ' Kunstw. Neapolitan territory is evident. however. an altar-piece. assigned to him. and agree with the school of Giotto in the mode of expressing allegorical subjects. Antonio too indiscriminately invoked. . Simone Napolitano is one to whom works are attributed indicating a rude imitation of Giotto. representing St. 1438. Anthony attended by four saints. are clearly expressed. the figures of the seven liberal Arts kneeling before We Pegasus.' vol.* executed by order of King Kobert. An immediate connection with the style of Giotto is only recogletter nisable in the illumination of a manuscript in the British Museum. the same monarch who invited Giotto to Naples. Abbate in S. Such being the class of evidence on which the pinxit. found upon it. The fourteenth century was there characterised by no works of note. for instance. Lorenzo Maggiore at Naples. but there. the actions unusually Of especial beauty is the piece in which seven angels are binding the demons. Lorenzo Maggiore. he bequeathed his art to inferior men who followed the more than the spirit of the great master. The emotions lively and speaking. Book III. beneath whose hoof gushes forth the fount of song . und Kiinstler in England. placing a crown on the head of his brother Kobert. dignity. while Italy. and beauty. But his name has been In the chapel of S. On another and more important work. The illuminations are of a symbolical import. as in other parts of Italy. The careful execution of this work reminds us so much of Giotto. attributed to him. i. And this leads us to mention another painter till lately The name of supposed to have been his cotemporary. Here we see the happiest aim at grandeur. Colantonio del Fiore has been invested with the more interest from its supposed connection with the early use of oil * See Waagen. in S.

and some of them are identified by modern In the connoisseurship as the work of later painters. The fact of his having married the daughter of Colantonio name which has been attached del Fiore is not confirmed by any reliable record. pi. as given by native historians and repeated by latqr Italian authors. the other 1455.! Among Zingaro 's scholars are classed two half brothers.' Napoli. at Naples. a very rare accompaniment to Italian frescoes. Andrea Solario of Milan. and inconsistent in date. L. now in the Naples Gallery. E. 1846. and period.Chap. is one series of the marvellous in fact. Petersburg he is confounded with his namesake. 213 This has been deduced from a picture in oil painting. simple and clever compositions. Pietro and Ippolito Donzelli. representing St. are by Zingaro. of this supposed master can be given. di S. da Stanislao d'Aloe. Jerome extracting a thorn from the paw of his lion. this picture is certainly not by him. such a master ever existed. if convincing reasons assigned to the Flemish school. The pictures assigned to him at Naples and elsewhere are too diverse in period and style to have been the work of the same hand. Benedict. But. is another Neapolitan H to such pictures surviving in Naples as bore a Flemish impress. Leuchtenberg Gallery at St. Severino.* Antonio Solario. Severino. the one born 1451. They are stated to have assisted Zingaro in some of the frescoes in S. His history. No certain works. But it is now ascertained that both brothers laboured in Florence. and not to be found in such perfection elsewhere at this early These paintings unhappily have suffered much. called Zingaro. where Ippolito * D'Agincourt. ' f The series has been engraved : Le Pitture dello Zingaro nel chiostro C. IV. as no certain facts. but it is believed that the frescoes in the court of the monastery of S. 132. of which there is no present It is now upon proof. with no very grand type of heads. the manner of which shows nothing to refute the tradition. . but of delicate modelling and good colouring. in modern times have been barbarously retouched. Severino in Napoli. They are particularly distinguished by the fine landscape backgrounds. attributed to him. SCHOOL OF NAPLES. They consist of twenty large pictures from the history of St.

and their dates extend vicinity. Amatrice. but to have been detained in Eome by his admiration for Raphael's productions. or Filotesio. served his apprenticeship to Nero de Bicci. 1352. and to have assisted in the S. Gio. Severino frescoes. Michael weighing decidedly Flemish character.' p. and the artist's Though feeling is delicate. and having been struck with the pictures by Perugino there. the style of Giotto found entrance. 1 Book III. they are all too diverse in style any standard. He will appear among the followers In Sicily. the proportions are long and meagre. the actions significant and graceful. He is believed to have studied art in Naples. and others. und Kiinstl. The souls between two kneeling donors. is a painter of a superior class. Kunstw. but. Simone Papa the elder is also believed to be a scholar of Zingaro. 319.* now in the Royal Library at Paris. the figure of . are painters of importance. otherwise Andrea da Salerno. and led to further development. from 1513 to 1543. . * ' Waagen. attended saints.214 MASTERS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. reputed of Neapolitan origin. Ammanato. of Raphael.the y Archangel is by their patron apparently taken from Memling's Last Judgment at Dantzic. to have started for Perugia. which is adorned with miniatures. the heads are animated. also. Silvestro de Buoni. is a dry painter. to afford pictures assigned to him in the Naples Museum have a In a St. This is proved by the deed of the foundation of the Order of the Holy Ghost. Andrea Sabbatini of Salerno. who laboured chiefly in Ascoli and its Cola dell' still less His pictures are signed. Various panels in the Naples Museum are assigned to them. in Paris. as with those attributed to Zingaro.

his own mind and feelings came he had become forth in free and self-productive energy . with which the new aim was followed up. In the second period. The imitation of nature. with a true and artless conception of characteristic moments and circumstances. the persevering consistency. its acquisition during the two former periods had been very limited. In this instance again. conscious of his own powers. toward the end of the century. guided by the study of nature. INTRODUCTION. its various appearances. 215 BOOK IY. fettered as they were by prescribed types. it was the aim of the artist to represent the sacred subjects which had been handed down from an earlier age in a lively and impressive manner. but. for the perfection of art one element was still wanting the correct delineation of form. period of reviving art. as the preceding periods had been of its internal life. MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY AND THEIR FOLLOWERS. THIRD STAGE OP DEVELOPMENT. had been successfully attempted in ward familiar acquaintance with the general respects only. and even exclusive predilection. extending from the fifteenth to the beginning of the The progress that had been made tosixteenth century. extending to all its minutest details. of his own privileges . as regards essentials.Book IV. INTRODUCTION. and IN the first fifteenth to enlarge the range of such representations in the same spirit. The attainment of this element characterizes the third period. . was still retarded by the prevailing modes of A laws of form in representation. The third period is the sera of the emancipation of art in its external relations. were calculated to produce peculiar and important results.

are recorded by Vasari as having belonged to the Bartolini family at Gualfonda.* Born in 1396. battles. one in **Pietro detta Francesca of perspective. near Florence. TUSCAN SCHOOLS. he was apprenticed to Lorenzo Ghiberti the sculptor. however. believed to have been the founder of linear perspective. In these respects Paolo Uccello. on panel. may be first mentioned.216 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. architecture and sculpture. drew with a hardness of line which reveals a Four pictures of familiarity with the modes of sculpture. Uccello. who from the old to the new manner. shall consider the painters belonging to this new period in the detached groups which present themselves in different And first we turn to Florence. CHAPTER WE I. first still invite attention in the beginning of the fifteenth century. century attained the zenith of her power. by this master. the intellectual as well as material interests of the republic attained their highest splendour. and a more correct delineation of form. Three of these survive one in the Uffizi. may be supposed to have led to the profounder study of perspective and foreshortenings which distinguish his former " We are not informed who taught garzone de botega. but his works point to the same source whence Masolino and Masaccio derived instruction. however inappropriately applied in his backgrounds and reliefs. Especially they show an increasing they unite with the study of nature and a sense of the true science of perspective. which in this parts of Italy. Poetry and philosophy." Paolo Uccello. prevailing type of the preceding periods some indications of modelling. Book IV. may be said to have been the real founder . whose maxims of perspective. advanced with the art of painting toward the same perfection. mark the transition A few Florentine artists. under the auspices of the enlightened family of the Medici. his real name being Paolo Doni. and where.

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Paolo Uccello took great pleasure in the delineation of armour and costume. attention of Benedetto de' Medici. his portrait is seen under the figure of Shem in the Drunkenness of Noah. he showed that . S. He is known to have spent part of his life in Spain. I. he to Uccello. where. expressed (see woodcut). the Creation of the World and History of Noah. according to Vasari. Andrea dal Castagno was born 1390. His partiality for the and studied animals with success. still buried in representation of birds is the origin of his name. He adheres to tradition in showing it. showing much truth of action and movement. He is said have painted the other and weaker scenes in the series by No other recorded works by him survive. Maria Novella at Florence. where Noah welcomes " but the raven " which returned not feeding on one of The Sacrifice of Noah (see woodcut) the floating bodies. began * On making a return of his worldly goods in later he knew not even the maiden name of his mother. in another compartment is remarkable for the foreshortened figure of the the spectator. and an orphan from tender years. He wap The name of Delia is associated with Paolo Uccello in friendship. He attracted the to trace rude figures on walls.* he tended the flock of a cousin at Castagno. meeting an itinerant painter.Chap. life. Here his mastery over perspective appears in unmistakable excellence. so that where not absolutely defaced they offer nothing more than greenish under-paintings. in the National Gallery. and living in Florence in 1469. and two foreshortened figures show his pleasure The fury of the wind is also finely in that novel art. in the Louvre. not only the dove returning to the ark. are full of naturalistic incidents. though ruined by weather and neglect. This last i a work interesting more for its novel attempts than for its success . and. these frescoes were executed about 1446-8. in the cloisters of S. and finest. to believed that He was is known have journeyed to Urbino in 1468. Almighty descending with the head from It is which was a startling innovation. who sent him to Florence. His fresco works. and one of the earliest aims at strong foreshortenings. FLORENTINE SCHOOL. The scene of the Deluge is comparatively best preserved. Maria Novella. The son of a peasant. the Campana Gallery and the . 217 third.

is also his work. This connects Andrea dal Castagno with an unjust accusation. He proceeded evidently from the same school that produced Paolo Uccello. Andrea died in 1457. that he waylaid and foully murdered him. except that he suffered great poverty. Andrea dal Castagno must also take his place as one who studied the nude. He assisted too in the decoration of the Portinari Chapel in S. These represent single figures of heroes some remnants of which have now in the Guarda Roba of the Uffizi. and was buried in Send. An equestrian portrait of Niccolo di Tolentino in chiaroscuro imitation of sculpture in the Cathedral of Florence. Yet it is evident that he was versed in the true principles of art. which prove that the victim outlived his murderer nearly four years . and by his possession of the secret of oil-painting so excited the jealousy of Andrea. six years intervened between the end of Domenico's labours and the commencement of Andrea's . .218 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. ' Maria dei Uomini Celebri. Croce. repeated for centuries and only recently disproved. the Book IV. * See engravings. however unpleasingly he sibyls. Domenico Veneziano laboured simultaneously with Andrea in that same chapel. Maria Nuova (Florence). in which neither form nor colour offer any attractions. that it is very doubtful whether Domenico that. whence he earned the name of Andrea degli Impiccati. The refutation of this story is simply supplied by the registers of their respective deaths. and. and are rendered it . He is recorded as having painted the fallen leaders of the Albrizzi and Peruzzi conspiracy on the walls of the Podesta in 1435.' Andrea dal Castagno. been transferred to canvas.* which constitute his chief claim to notice. far added possessed the secret of oil-painting at all to which subject S. as. we shall return. in his fresco of the figure of the Baptist in 8. and his works display a harsh and coarse energy. firstly. for example. larger and than life. and secondly. According to Vasari. it may be from having painted simultaneously in the Portinari Chapel. as a further example of Vasari's reckless inaccuracy. Of commencement of his career as a painter little is known. as successfully seen in the decorations of a room at the Villa Pandolfini at Legnaia.

219 Of Domenico Veneziano. between the years 1439 and 1445. His name has been chiefly recorded as one of the painters of the Braucacci Chapel * See Crowe and Cavalcaselle. Annunziata. Thus the . and for his attempts to improve the methods used in wall-painting. It possible that these very experiments may account for the fresco by him still paucity and the state of his works. and two heads of saints in the National Gallery. Lucia shows the mingled influence of Fra Angelica and of Andrea dal Domenico Veneziano died in Florence. in 1461. iii.Chap. and is believed to have owed his in- struction in painting to Stamina. Lucia de' Bardi at Florence. gained a name for the minuteness of his details. in is A the Uffizi. Venezia. the records of which show that his nected with the fortunes of the Medici. exists in the church of the SS.. I. where he appears con- He painted next in Florence. . in possession of Prince Pio. p. Alesso Baldovinetti died in 1499. nor mode of education are known. in S. The picture in S. hitherto so unhappily connected historically with Andrea dal Castagno. in tempera. exposed to wind and weather for centuries. Masolino da Panicale. and now existing in detached pieces namely. vol. at Florence. Alesso Baldovinetti is one of whose art few certain specimens He was born in 1422. These works are no longer in existence. He was born in 1383. with angular draperies. apprentice was Pietro della Francesco. the Virgin and Child. FLORENTINE SCHOOL. and survive. 315. originally on a tabernacle on the Canto de' Carnesecchi." but his works belie any connection with Venetian He is first heard of at Perugia. and a transferred fresco. in the Portinari Chapel before mentioned. and the only surviving specimens of his art are a pleasing but feeble altar-piece. for a record of 1439-40* as " Maestro Domenicho di Bartolomeo da art. neither birth. showing a manner related to that of the Pollaiuoli. and his labourer Bicci di Lorenzo. birthIt is possible that place. little we possess by his hand gives no evidence of his having been an oil-painter. These works are dry. and a muchinjured picture of the Virgin and Child with six saints. Castagno. and those much injured. he belonged describes to a him Venetian family. whose real name was Tommaso di Cristoforo Fini. is another link in the development of art.

" signed with his name. upon good grounds. a careful study of nature. Catherine of Alexandria. It was reserved for one who is supposed to have been the scholar of Masolino to work out those higher -principles of composition.220 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. and realistic features were beginning to be attempted which weakened that unity of composition which had 'been the great characMasolino died in 1430. not far from Milan. and of . executed for the Cardinal Branda Castiglione. executed for the Cardinal Clemente. He was born Arno. between Sarono and Varese. represent incidents in the life of the saint of that St. according to local tradition. or Tommaso da S. Fra Masolino also Angelica. may be said to have grasped all those true maxims of art which his cotemporaries were variously aiming at. teristic of Giotto and of Orcagna. 1402. in his time. and in tenderness of expression and simple grace of lines show that affinity to his cotemporary. to which allusion has been made. Though they They name. and extremities. and to have codified and defined them at for the benefit of succeeding generations. They represent the history of the Madonna. Art. pinxit. robbed him of this credit. Giovanni. They adorn the space surrounding the high altar. Book IV. but modern researches have. " Masolino da Florentia. These have come to light in the church of Castiglione di Olona. however. On the other hand. dresses them in caps and turbans and tight-fitting dresses which somewhat detract from the solemnity of character. the votaries of which appear but seldom. for the traditional costume of Scriptural personages. he is now known to be the author of a series of frescoes. life decorated the adjoining baptistery of Castiglione with the These frescoes show of the Baptist (see woodcut). and are believed to have been completed in 1428. which have been recently freed from a coating of white- wash. His surviving works of note are the frescoes in S. in and. displayed an inclinad' Val tion for the arts of design earliest from his tenderest years. between Florence and Arezzo. especially in the heads and though the type of composition is still that of He has. Clemente at Borne. Masaccio. was truly in a transition state. little regard the fourteenth century. in the Carmine (Florence).

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. a fresco by Masacoio. Rome p. 201. CATHERINE . in S Clemente.ST.

Before we consider these frescoes more closely. which is pronounced to from 1423 We be entirely due to the hand of Masaccio certain portions only being subsequently added by Filippino Lippi. in 1428. showing the relative position of these works. a. Catherine is seen detached from that of the enthroned Maxentius (see woodMasaccio is surmised to have returned from Home to cut). Ground-plan of the Chapel. have succumbed to the common they still preserve characteristics which tell a youthful hand of remarkable power contending with the first difficulties of a great undertaking. Florence he was The then only eighteen years old in 1420. lot of injury 221 and repaint. in the Florentine Guild of Painters. 3 Pll. . and a certain sense of atmosphere. an inspection of the subjoined plan. In 1424.Chap. I. and it is supposed that Masaccio laboured on the Brancacci frescoes the highest monument of his powers to the date of his early death. as in the manner in which the figure of St. consecration of the church of the Carmine took place in enrolled 1422. MASACCIO. may facilitate the explanation of the several paintings on the walls and two projecting pilasters of the chapel. Correct drawing and perspective are already visible here. have stated already that Masolino da Panicale is now excluded from all participation in this work. Wall A.

The 8. Resuscitation of the King's Son . is probably intended for Simon Magus. In No. here accompanied by John. 2. We observe that in this instance the aim of the artist is not so and represent correctly a particular event. as above described in a portion of No. No. Peter and John Distributing Alms. as well as Masaccio. 8. Martyrdom of Peter (Filippino Lippf). 2. (a small portion. where the " youth is merely described as adolescens uobilis propinquus Caesaris. Fall of Adam and Eve (hitherto assigned to Masolino). 11. 9. behind the kneeling Apostle. Peter Baptizing. Some writers on art seem to have attributed all these frescoes indiscriminately to Masaccio . Healing of the Cripple at the Beautiful Gate. and in No. is more probably intended for the Sick and Deformed Cured by the Shadow of Peter (Acts v. by Filippino'). others have considered the best portions to be his: the accuracy of German investigation has perhaps finally settled the distribution as above. 2. 3. and which. Simon had Peter and Paul Magus challenged presented is the following to restore a dead person to life . 9. the observations of Reynolds (Discourse 12) respecting Raphael's imitation of some of these figures would only prove that the great painter thought Filippino Lippi and Masolino worth borrowing from. According to this. 6. so often referred to by the historians of art.222 1. Peter in Prison (Filippino Lippi). . Four of these compositions (Nos. the sorcerer first attempted this. has been improperly variously described. No. in the centre of the picture. . 8 is sometimes the subject erroneously called Eutychus Restored to Life (Acts xx. 10 is sometimes called the Ananias a dead figure lies at the feet of the apostles. 15). and the Historia Apostolica of Abdias. and Cure of Petronilla. and 11) are almost double subjects. Peter is represented. The Tribute-money. Peter and John Healing the Cripple. Preaching of Peter (hitherto assigned to Masolino). 5. denominated the Calling of Andrew and Peter. even to the time of Raphael. 7. &c. Expulsion from Paradise. have been The Tribute Money. (one of the subjects of No. formed the school of the artists of Florence. Liberation of Peter (Filippino Lippi).") The bearded figure lifting both hands. ' ' Legenda. 11 the subject of Peter and Paul accused before Nero of despising the idols (sometimes improperly called Paul before Felix) occupies nearly half the space : in the background Paul is also seen led to martyrdom. 5). . nor to manifest his own feelings through the medium of the in this forms and expressions with which he has to deal to seize . (See the 'Aurea of the incantation). 5. No. L. 2. No. 44. E. much * These works. for a long period. 12. 9) The apocryphal incident reis also incorrectly named by the author. No. MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 10. : . Book IV. and failed (the skulls and bones placed on the ground are part of the machinery The apostles raise the youth. C.' chap. 8 the homage or dulia to St. 5 contains two subjects.* These were the works which were the means of introducing a new and marked improvement in the history of art. different moments of the same event are represented . called by the author Peter and John Healing. 4.

EVE.:no Lippi. Florence.ine. del Caicr. . :s in THE EXPULSION OF ADAM AND Church of S. the U. by Masactac.

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ST. PETER BAP'l . in the Church o ~orence. . A fresco by r.'asiccio.

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while in the Eesuscitation of the Boy (No. In this respect. again. for the first time. in beauty. not taking a very lively interest in what is passing. we remark a peculiar style of composition. we find a well-grounded and graceful delineation of the nude. which in the Resuscitation of the Boy. the figures appear in perfect reality before the spectator. for the first time. according to tradition. The art of raising the the the flat surface. though still somewhat constrained in the figures of Adam and Eve (No. Domenico Ghirlandajo. and preserves the expression of proportion and in or the of an harmonious motion. who. 8). last. 2). in each figure we read number of a worthy fulfilment of the occupations and duties of life. but at the edge of the figures . supposed to be Masaccio's last picture. . formed an epoch in the history of Florentine art. and dependent only on the form underneath. exhibits itself in successful mastery in the Youth preparing for baptism (No. I. so well. Among the commissions recorded to have been undertaken . MASACCIO. therefore. many parts are hard and stiff. frgm figures modelling of the forms. repose developexpression ment of the powers of the human frame. for in the (No. Lastly. The event itself includes few persons . 223 instance. these pictures exhibit Tribute Money beginning and a successful progress. serious manhood . in short. the aim is the study of form for itself. 1). hitherto only faintly indicated. which. Moreover. In these works. a large spectators are disposed around.Chap. merely present a picture of earnest. will be found very remarkably displayed in the works of a later Florentine. exhibits a powerful feeling for truth and individuality of character. we find a style of drapery freed from the habitual type-like manner of the earlier periods. at the same time expressing dignity of movement by broad masses and grand lines. that the first while the were copied by Raphael for the Loggia of the Vatican. here begins to give the effect of actual at once a life. the study of the external conformation of man. With such an aim sees is identified a feeling which. the strongest light is not placed in the centre. in both. 4) . The high poetic completeness of which this circumscribed and seemingly subordinate aim in composition is capable.

Two fine portraits in the The younger portrait is now believed Uffizi bear his name. Donatella. a portion of such a subject has been brought to light in the cloisters. Brancacci. are described to have been among them. has been surmised to have been taught by him but the instruction would seem rather to have proceeded from Masaccio's . The heads A mystery overhangs the of the donors. Masolino. Ancona. representing a procession of figures on occasion of the consecration of the Portraits of Brunelleschi. It is not known that Masaccio had any scholars. works. it no longer retains even such preservation as Vasari had left. Having been sawed from the place where it belonged always a most perilous operation and moved to a place close to the entrance. Fra Filippo Lippi. by Masaccio during the progress of the Brancacci Chapel. John. to be the work of Filippino Lippi. or of his residence in Naples where he is stated to have landed on return from captivity has been found. was a fresco in the church of the Carmine. Fra Filippo was born 1412. from recent No evidence of his stay in documentary investigation. and no clue to the manner of his death has been discovered. long covered by a worthless work by Vasari. By two years of age he had lost both father and mother. but in some respects a refutation. has also been disclosed.224 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. leaving his last fresco in the Brancacci Chapel incomplete. which is pronounced to be by the hand of Masaccio. Becently. however. which he quitted in . however. Nothing certain is known of any easel pictures by Masaccio. of his capture by Barbary pirates at that place. and died 1469. Another work on the screen of the nave of S. and other artists and patrons. building. The account given by Vasari of Fra Filippo's romantic and scandalous life receives no corroboration. Maria Novella. This fresco has been long under whitewash. are imperishably fine. Nor does his withdrawal from the Carmine convent. The Carmelite friar. Book IV. and a male and female donor on each side. and in 1420 the name of the young boy appears enrolled in the Community of the Carmine. He disappeared from Florence in 1428. end of Masaccio. ten years his junior. It represents an Italian Trinity with the Virgin and St.

whatever the manners of the time. seem to have involved his abandonment of the frock." bable. and in 1457 rector of S. 'Carteggio d' Artisti. and finally. and his own pictures. yet youthful expression. both in form and colouring. though as often rude. and his whole treatment devoid of the ideal. depend on him. his own 1432. but he compensates for this deficiency by a reality of human feeling which is sometimes tender and in expresgraceful.' vol. The style of Fra Filippo is peculiarly his own. are signed Frater Filippus. His figures are less grand in conception than those of Masaccio. The type of his heads is short. that a monk of scandalous habits should have been appointed in 1452 chaplain of a nunnery in Florence. and even boisterous * See Gaye. who entirely rence .* his Whether the is friar own earnings another question. was a good dispenser of He seems to have been that reason not famed for We may now turn to his art. Quirico at Legnaia. Under such circumstances we may give Fra Filippo the benefit of a doubt regarding the story of Lucretia Buti and the paternity of Filippino Lippi (believed to have been an adopted son). the more especially as the picture now in a Nativity. extend" over ing many years. and probably for punctuality in the fulfilment of commissions. with wide jaws. 225 On " years later as still a Frate ." In one of them. representing him with the tonsure.Chap. cotemporary documents mention him many " portrait is included. FEA FILIPPO LIPPI. almost anticipating Titian. I. in which he is asserted to have the depicted Virgin under the features of Lucretia Buti has long been considered by connoisseurs to be by a different the Louvre hand. and his drapery finely cast and of fascinatingly broken tones. which is very pleasing. the record of his death is entered in the register of the Carmine convent as that of " Fr. The circumstances also of his life seem to have been unpropitious to much self-indulgence for he writes that it has pleased God to leave him " the poorest friar in Flo" the charge of six marriageable nieces. i. His colour is golden and broad. and a solemn. p. Nor is it proFilippus. . both of which facts are now established. involved in debt. 141. the contrary. a Coronation of the Virgin in the Accademia.

Domenico of is in Another altar-picture. (Canonicus Baldanzi. B. and surrounded by fine male figures. and on the wall where the window is. .226 sion. where he adorned the apsis of St. Catherine with frescoes from the life of the Madonna the Annunciation.) See 'Kunstbl. the Assumption Madonna. high-spirited These peculiarities. Fra Filippo was employed at Spoleto. on the right that of St. which lean to the side of common boys. MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. Joseph adoring. boy and his parents on his departure for the desert and the dancing of Salome. George and Domenick. was executed before the frescoes just described. portraits of the time (see 'woodcut). render his style very attractive. Stephen stretched on a bier bewailed by two women who sit right and left in front. is very remarkable. The Elizabeth on the bed birth of the Baptist with the fine figure of the farewell between the young . also in the Cathedral at Prato. An altar-piece the Nativity. Stephen.* On the left wall he represented the History of St. relazione Pmto. with the group of two whispering women in the right corner. On the opposite side. 1835. F. are all worthy of close attention. His angels especially are like great. 1836. compilata dal (7. with the Virgin and St. Bernard. who drops her girdle for St. 90. Towards the close of his life. and may be called inferior to them. where a especially peculiar sense of reality is combined with the utmost grace of lines. with SS. combined with a stately form of composition. at the S. Fra Filippo's the choir of the most important works are the frescoes in Duomo at Prato. Fra . one over the other . several figures of Saints. John the Baptist .' Filippo Lippi nel coro della Cattedrale di Prato. * ' Delle Pitture di e de' loro restauri.'. shepherds and angels was one of the chefs-d'oeuvre of the master. defaced. The death of St. No. but is now much Prato. Margherita at Prato. nature. in several compartments. the body of St. The fascinating powers of the Frate are seen here in the history of the Baptist. Death of Virgin in lower row. Book IV. Thomas. It is in the Refectory of S. and Coronation surrounded with angels and saints above. St. These do eminent Nativity.

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is called a Diptych . . and displayheads of fine study and character. the Virgin adoring the Child. but more frequently semicircular picture the flat frame was generally painted with arabesques and with heads or single figures the top of the altar was lastly. Jerome writing in the recess of a wall.of two panels. and on the inside commonly contained he portraits of the donors. He had and assistant in the person of in the Fra Diamante. the Madonna with an elaborate head-dress of transparent mahis peculiar . with numerous figures. terial. FLORENTINE SCHOOL. somethe chief picture was often surmounted by a lunette. he will rarely be mistaken. is seen also to advantage in the Berlin Museum. C. who stood towards same capacity as Mariotto Albertinelli to him apparently Fra Barto- lommco. from the Solly collection. : The last form and treatment. Fra Filippo's scholars included Sandro also a scholar Botticelli and Filippino Lippi. and when once manner is known. in the early Flemish and German altar-pieces. with two doors (or three panels). such. Fra Diamante. adoring the grand. I. L. It appears that Fra is not recognisable. who thus knelt on each side .Chap. His panel pictures are tolerably numerous. and consequently consisting. was painted when the master was only twenty-six. Fra Filippo died in Spoleto. * The altar decoration was sometimes composed of a variety of subjects. a Triptych. a smaller. in 1469. times rectangular. which was completed by his scholar. are almost universal A picture with one door. Sometimes the principal picture had doors. the basement or step (gradino. as the torn paper and the pen under the table. generally three or five in number. An excellent picture in the gallery of the Uffizi. who held up to her by two laughing boy angels. and witn many. less common in of the principal subject. 227 justice to the painter of the frescoes at Prato. Italy. and excellent drapery. St. The grand picture in the Louvre of the Virgin standing and holding the Child. which could be closed upon it these doors or wings were painted inside and out. by which we see how early his He peculiar style in expression and colour was developed. predella) on adorned with small pictures. Q 2 . The Frate did not live to finish this work. a Polyptych. as said above. for little instance. chubby Child. Two interest* ing lunette pictures are in the National Gallery. the frescoes at Spoleto. E. He though his hand completed. The large picture in the Accademia is full of his beauties and A smaller work is in the corridor of the Uffizi his defects. approaches the cotemporary Flemish style in the mode of treating accidental accessories . Too much has been restored by a very indifferent hand. is with folded hands.

This is an Italian Trinity encircled by a glory of heads of seraphim and cherubim. Nicholas is in the A Gasa Buonarroti at Florence. much confusion has existed. as Pesello. Francesco di Stefano. at a time when that period of years embraced a most important development in art. The researches of Messrs. fine predella picture of the legend of St. the The statement of second. L. and to have painted the predella for one of the Frate's altar-pieces. Eastlake. Florence. owing chiefly to the errors of Vasari. Diamante under the censure of his order for some offence. . both bearing the name of Pesello. a long picture in the Uffizi. The head of the First Person is without exception the most remarkable example of the period at which it was executed. is corroborated by no evidence. 1863.228 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. born in 1367 . Pesellino was frequently employed in decorating the Cassoni of this time. Giuliano . to whom we may now confine our attention."* He is reported by Vasari to have excelled in the representation of animals an excellence which is observable in the younger Pesettino. in 1423. It is quite possible that the inaccurate Vasari may have made a mistake. Giuliano's having laboured conjointly with a hand fifty-six commonly known years younger than his own. is left. No certain work by the elder but if the Adoration of the Magi. As regards two painters. is the picture formerly in the Ottley collection. though his life and works are also involved in some obscurity. " The faces are red and darkly outlined. Crowe and Cavalcaselle have proved the existence of grandfather and grandson the first. fell Book IV. Two pictures formerly thus applied * Memorandum by Sir C. He is supposed to have been the scholar of Fra Filippo Lippi. be by either. d'Arrigo. but though the horses are scarcely better than those by Paolo Uccello. and now one of the chief treasures in the National Gallery. hands often badly drawn. But the work which must be considered the master-piece of the painter. though the younger has been distinguished as Pesettino. and which entitles its author to one of the highest places in the ranks of the fifteenth century. some large dogs in the left corner are drawn and modelled with great truth. and laid his sins on the shoulders of Fra Filippo. it may be ascribed to Giuliano.

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. 229 the Dffizj. in the Gallery of p. Florence. WITH ANGELS .MADONNA AND CHILD. by S Botticelli.

of . . Like Fra Filippo his angels take the form of masculine. and well preserved. I. He appeared at a time and was in a position to take advantage of those efforts for the development of art which sculptors and painters had equally exerted. which are (tondi) characteristics in his works. are ascribed to him. and to Michael Angela. is an example of this class. though more noble in character than the In the tondo in boisterous conceptions of the Frate. often finer in attempt than in performance. Sandro Filipepe. numerous. SANDRO BOTTICELLI. and a passionate imagination in expression which render him the most dramatic painter of the school. the Uffizi (see woodcut) they are believed to represent some youthful members of the Medici family. and are equally akin to Pollaiuolo or Benozzo Gozzoli. died 1515 was the scholar of Filippo Lippi. Also the Allegory of Spring in But his chef-d'oeuvre in the representation the Accademia. 229 at Florence. but a strong individual character takes the lead of all other In vehemence and impetuosity of action.Chap. in the Ufiizi. borne upon the sea and driven to the shore by the Winds. Sandru Botticelli was peculiarly qualified to illustrate the mythological and allegorical tendencies which the revival of classic literature developed in Italy during the fifteenth century.his hand in this line. a vehemently intertwined group of wonderful power. What may be called the Titanic force of some of his creations allies him to Luca His circular pictures Signorelli. combined occasionally with great grandeur. combining beauty of male and female figures with the pomp and splendour of architecture and costume. No signed work has yet been discovered. in 1457. called Botticelli born 1447. in the Palazzo Torrigiano the Triumph of David. Many works attributed to Pesello or Pesellino bear only the stamp of his time. He especially developed a power of movement. though apprenticed first to a goldsmith. he stands alone. and Madonna Child with of the angels. Pesellino died at an early age. grand youths. and introducing a variety of animals both of African first-rate and European races. These are also works. The imagination readily consents to the creations His Venus. are supposed to belong to his earliest time.

and a small one in the corner to the right of the altar.230 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. also in the' Uffizi (see woodcut). which is devoted to the church service. protected by an iron railing. The space under the windows is divided horizontally into two portions . its length is nearly 150 feet. a Florentine architect. In his Coronation of the Virgin. Among the most important monuments of Botticelli's art are his frescoes in the Sistine Chapel." after Lucan's description of a picture of that subject by Apelles. and its breadth one-third of that extent it has two entrances. intensity of feeling communicated even to the four human Saints A still more poetic embodiment of angelic is seen in the grand Coronation of the Virgin. Few painters have succeeded in making every part of a work so tributary to the leading idea. the upper contains the subjects from the life of Moses and Christ.' t Exhibited at Burlington House.* the angels dancing above are wild with the excitement of celestial rapture. 1873. over and on each side of the altar. to the The of the larger portion leading Pope's apartments. Sandra's treatment of religious subjects partakes almost equally of the vehemence of his character. the lower is merely painted with imitations of hangings. A description of these may not be out of place here. The principal entablature.. unbroken. a principal one opposite the altar. Book IV. by Baccio Pintelli. at a considerable height from the pavement. six on each side . is divided from the rest by a balustrade. of course. Between this gallery and the springing of the is. of Allegory as well as the choicest specimen of his passionate " poetry is the small picture called The Calumny of Apelles. The very statues in the niches Such a picture as this is a far are enlisted in the service. round three sides of the chapel the end wall. Fuller Maitland. 1871. juster revelation of the violence and fiery spirit predominant in Florence than any which the literature of the time has bequeathed. in the Accademia. all afterwards destroyed to make room for the Last Judgment : : . where Michael Angela's Last Judgment is. some of which is standing below. chapel. on the wall opposite the altar are two painted windows to correspond. executed previous to 1484.i An opposite example of the excitement of despair may be instanced in a Pieta in the Munich Gallery. In the attraction offered by Michael Angela's ceiling * See ' Galleria delle Belle Arti. were three frescoes by Perugino. On the end wall. This chapel was built under the auspices of Sixtus IV. j Exhibited at Burlington House. in Hamilton Palace.f and in the truly exquisite picture of the Nativity belonging to Mr. forms a narrow gallery. vaulted roof are the windows. where the Maries around the body of the Saviour are frantic with grief. in 1473.

.

.

.

H ^ joyl IB . M$&ai>* g$& M .

The Sacrament of Holy Orders. various appear as spectators of the scene. the Moses and Zipporah by Signorelli. or Christ giving the Keys to Peter 5. teems with his exuberant power. ' Bunsen. knowing the taste of the Pope. 2 The Temptation. Moses giving the Commandments from the Mount [Cosimo Rosselli}. 7. 31) [Sandro Botticelli]. Sandra painted also twenty-eight figures of Popes between the windows. his Holiness expressed himself best pleased with Cosimo's ' Descrizione del Vaticano . in this Virgin. like the first-named. The Calling of after the Passage of the Red Sea [Cosimo Sossellf]. 231 these grand works have been much overlooked. iv. aspired. or Christ Overcoming the Power of Satan [Sandra Botticelli]. ii. to the priesthood 6. Moses and the Israelites 3. and all are remarkable for the crowds of portrait-like spectators. Joshua [Luca Moses before his Death Giving his Last Commands to 6. bears away the Body of Moses (Jude 9) [Cecchino 7. L. Beschreibung der Stadt Rom. Christ Preaching on the Mount : [Cosimo RosselK]. named pictures on each side of the principal entrance were materially injured by the sinking of the architrave. to have a typical reference to the corresponding representations on the right. 4. Temptation of Christ and the Story of Korah. while members of the family of utmost individuality and dignity. various Apostles (Peter. Moses Overcoming the Egyptian. 1. [Perugino]. Christ in the Manger the by Michnel Ani/elo. Moses and Zipporah on their way to Egypt. The Punishment of Korah. Dathan. kneeling on the left of this was Moses in the Bulrushes . and were afterwards badly repaired. executed for the Medici. Six subjects arc on each of the side walls. E. Andrew. The Resurrection [Domenico Ghirlandajo]. for to this category must be assigned his Adoration of the Magi. who 5. The history of Moses. on the right. Victorious over Satan. 3. 17) [Sandro Botticelli]. Michael. more or less well preserved.' C. The Baptism of Christ 2. and two on each side of the principal entrance. was introduced. The best are those by Sandro. James and John) from the Lake of Gennesareth [fiomenico Ghirlandajo]. and the Holy Orders by Perugmo. and displays great grandeur of The two other frescoes are the landscape (see woodcut). The Last Supper [Cosimo Rosselli]. the heads nobly modelled against a light ground. and. in which the aged Cosmo kneels before the Virgin. uncalled. See Taja. The master's command over portraiture was also remarkable. from the life of Christ. the Shepherds who hindered the Daughters of Jethro from Drawing Water (Exod. the Circumcision of their Son (Exod. 4. other paintings still exist. The subjects from the life of Moses on the left are all intended. Signorelli]. given in a series of incidents in one fresco. and again. and Abiram. to the dismay of the other painters. (Numb. in imitation of Masaccio. covered his paintings with gold (even the lights on the figures are sometimes thus heightened). SANDRO BOTTICELLI. I.Chap.' and Plattner and performances. Driviug away [Perugino]. 24) [Luca Signorellf]. Cosimo fiosselli. xvi. 11. now in the Uffizi. : . The two lastSah'iati]. The order and relation are as follows 1. Many of these compositions contain more than one moment of time. The subject over the altar was the Assumption of the Pope Sixtus IV. .

a figure of ineffable charm. known to have been commissioned of the painter in 1480. We * See Rosini. ment. yet the type both of mother many and child is always more or less of a grand and tragic them kind. bears token of riper excellence than pertains to the age of twenty or twenty-one. of the Vision St. plate 59. is too late. Fra Filippo member One of the finest works by his usually given. Madonna pictures were much multiplied. however. and are botlega works. qualities are especially seen in the first-mentioned These work in unrivalled in the charm that dis- tinguishes Filippino. Bernard. the pen is about to drop from his hand. It appears. Above the Saint's head. Filippino seldom do him entire justice." The time is evening . on a stone. but a far higher grace and standard of beauty may be pronounced to have been natural to the the Badia. is seen an inscription " Substine et abstine. the landscape extremely fine against a light sky. This work is one of the finest by the master. where the relations of a resided. scholar of the master's name was too afford already shown reason for doubting the paternity The adoption by the common at the time to any proof of a nearer relationship. though it is believed that the year 1460. The impetuous character of Sandro is occasionally seen in the works of Filippino. Nowhere has the realising tendency translated heavenly personages into earthly forms of more charming character. in the Badia at Florence.* The subject is the Virgin appearing to St. which is latter. followed by a train of cherubs till. and it is possible that he may have been of the Frate's family. The instruction of Filippino Lippi was assigned by Vasari to Botticelli. . hand. The Saint is when he seated writing in the open air the convent behind him is surprised by the apparition of the Madonna. Bernard. in his astonish. with a beautiful action of the right hand. that Filippino belonged to Prato. The date of his birth has not been ascertained. Book IV.232 Sandra's of MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. We have hitherto assigned to Filippino Lippi. Other easel pictures by must mention. and a closer resemblance is traced between the works of these two masters than between those of Filippo and Filippino.

.

.

.

ST. Carmine at Florence p. From a fresco'^by Filippino Ijppi. 233. in the . PETER IN FRTRON. PAUL ADDRESSING ST.

full of new features . Cardinal Olivieri Peter is. most clearly recognised in the following works. and a picture in the Berlin Museum. Maria sopra Minerva. and The latter subject donna. and the " Noli me tangere. Filipino's peculiar however. As mention a tabernacle over-painted. in which he successfully approaches the seriousness and genuine truth of Masaccio. Delivered was destined to contain the Glorification of the Mathat of St. although he never equals In point of beauty of conin simplicity and repose. which interested the painters of the fifteenth century more on account of their decorative character than on any principle of antique form. Maria Novella at Florence. These figures are of the deepest respects Filippino's other smaller works. a youthful work of 1485. Francis. historical painters In his larger works Filippino appears as one of the greatest of his century. we here see a consistently . Two small pictures of much refinement by the master. the Crucified Saviour with the Virgin and St. he painted the Cappella Carafa in S. Christ and the woman of Samaria. such as a Madonna enthroned with four saints." are preserved in the Seminario at Venice. The rich ornamental decorations which he everywhere introduces in his architecture and other accessories were the result of his study of the Eoman antiquities. in the vicinity of S. an Adoration in the same gallery. compositions with which the fourteenth century decorated S. FILIPPINO LIPPI. in the Uffizi Gallery . which. the and action Son just raised from death King's ception is not inferior to Masaccio's figures. I. best and most finished historical works are those in the Brancacci Chapel. The work is much injured and also expression. may Margherita. a few exceptions. but the few heads still preserved are of the highest grace and sweetness. with angels and saints on each side. Instead of the large symbolical occupies the right wall. and in na'ive reality him the same may be said of the sleeping guards in the subject of aim from Prison. Thomas Aquinas. in the Carmelite church at Florence. Having been summoned to Rome about 1492. representing the Madonna and Child.Chap. according to the intention of the founder. Carafa. Among Filipirino's. we at Prato. 233 however.

E. while the Apostle. Maria Novella. and mortification. L. i. the greyThe Ecstasy of headed Arius. C. efforts.234 sustained MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. exorcises the monster in the foreground. with a grand On the gesture. 138. The altar-piece contains an Annunciation. however. ' Poetry of Sacred and Legendary Art. Book IV. who. Among them is Sabellius in a red mantle. is raising herself upon the bier. it is true. grief. after St. are those of the teachers of on each side in the foreground. in S. in which St. false doctrine. Thomas appears the manner of the new enthroned. while his left touches Drusiana. Thomas is presenting the kneeling figure of "Cardinal Carafa to the Virgin. the higher ecclesiastical meaning. The Resuscitation of Drusiana by St. cherub forms. tendency. however. of dramatic action.' vol. who display the most varied expressions of shame. His feet rest upon a prostrate heretic several The spectators are looking down from a gallery above. The bearers are fleeing in terror. * See Mrs. but appear less animated with devotion than with astonishment at the miracle.* John is. of emotions. is stealing a glance at the lifted curtain shows a angel entering on the other side. Jameson's p. with the most marvellous expression of returning life. A shelf of books and writing materials. Filippino painted the histories of the Apostles John and Philip upon the side walls on the chapel Filippo Strozzi. St. but a number of graceful female figures remain in trembling attention. Thomas in the lunette above is of inferior value. The Disciples looking upwards from the open grave are in excellent action. with the four under a rich architecture decorated with . and of real life. cardinal virtues. Having returned to Florence. and two richly-clad boys. most remarkable figures. one of his highest The Apostle is pointing upwards with his right hand. omitting. human interest. On the wall beside and above the altar is the Assumption (now greatly over-painted). Scarcely less excellent is the Apostle Philip exorcising the Dragon. though in prayer. These are greatly marred by injury and Here he distinguishes himself as a painter over-painting. . their frightened children clinging to their knees. The priests of the heathen temple are advancing resentfully down the steps. who.

and became assistant to Neri de Cosimo's Bicci. and the . and holding their hands before their faces at its pestilential breath. signed. shuddering at the monster. Subsequently he appears to have stood in some relation to . Michele Bisdomini in Florence. a master not calculated to develop talent. is in the chapel of the Tolani family in S. in the possession of M. FLORENTINE SCHOOL. lieizet.is somewhat mannered and conventional. forms throughout full of life only the drapery. Communion of St. Filippino died in 1505. whom the dragon has killed. Sebastian is also noble in character. Filippino's large altar-pieces show his complete command over the arts of colouring and composition. Francis in Ecstasy. whose family for three generations had followed the profession of the arts. Also a small work. His Adoration of the Kings in the Uffizi consists of no less than thirty figures. and was buried in S. little angels. each holding a. 235 right. collected round the body of the king's son. execution. Genoa. is a finely expressed group of courtiers on . the The figures are executed with peculiar energy and women are beautiful. St. lighted candelabrum. ease .Chap. Catherine. Jerome and Francis. Domenico in Bologna. with four Saints. is a specimen of his minuter execution. The National Gallery has a work of grand execution. Paris. His Marriage of St. earlier works incline to the manner of Fra Angelico. with half-length figures. Jerome in the Balbi Palace. This is in fine preservation. of admirable colour and grand Conspicuous for beauty are the figures of six on the varying heights of the entablature. Another. is a gem. the Madonna and Child with SS. and a Last Judgment in the Berlin Museum is assigned to Fra Angelico and Cosimo Bosselli in common. The St. though almost colourless. two-and-two A Filippino's small pictures are very precious in character. and developing the several branches of progress in the Florentine school. another large picture. He was born in 1439. I. Another Florentine employed under Sandra Botticelli on the walls of the Sistine Chapel is Cosimo Bosselli. and dated 1501. with Angels. the left are standing other figures. the men dignified. all contributing to the effect of the whole.

236

MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.
His best work
is

Book IV.

Benozzo Gozzoli.

a large fresco* in a

very dark chapel in S. Ambrogio, at Florence, painted in 1456 it represents the removal of a miraculous sacramental
;

cup from the church of S. Ambrogio, to the bishop's palace. Here, as already remarked in the instance of Masaccio, the
greater part of the composition consists of mere spectators among these we find pleasing female heads, and dignified The costume, which is that of the time, is male figures.
;

finished with remarkable precision.

Among

Cosimo's best

a Coronation of the Virgin, in S. Maria Maddalena de' Pazzi, at Florence. There is also an
pictures

may be mentioned

excellent altar-piece by him in S. Ambrogio, the Assumption of the Madonna, with angels and saints at her feet. Cruci-

A

fixion

surrounded by saints and angels, of a noble and animated character, was formerly in the collection of Mr. Ottley.

Of his Mount
Tables

frescoes in the Sistine Chapel the Sermon on the The three (see woodcut) is .the most successful.

Red Sea, Moses Delivering the of the Law, and the Last Supper, are tame and devoid of interest. He died after 1506, the date of his will,
others, the Passage of the

which contradicts Vasari's assertion that the pursuit of alchemy had ruined him, for the will proves him to have been in good circumstances. Benozzo di Lese di Sandra, known as Benozzo Gozzoli, was born in 1424. He was a scholar of Fra Angelica, and followed him to Rome and Orvieto, in which latter place we have alluded to him as working under the Frate. Except in his light and cheerful colouring, he has little affinity to his master. Indeed, in every other respect he presents the greatest contrast to him, for of all the Italians he is precisely the painter who seems to have been first smitten with the beauty of the natural world and its various appearances. His pictures overflow with the delighted sense of this beauty he was the first to create rich landscape backgrounds, with with rivers and richly-cultivated cities, villas, and trees valleys with bold rocks, &c. He enlivens this landscape most agreeably with animals of all kinds, dogs, hares, deer, and large and small birds, which are introduced wherever there
; ; ;

*

Engraved

in Lasinio's Collection

from the old Florentine masters.

','

^-

-k=r %\/

Chap.

I.

BENOZZO GOZZOLI.

237

is

room.

When

cities or dwellings,

the incident takes place in the interior of he displays the richest fancy for archi-

tectural forms, representing halls with open porticoes, elegant arcades, galleries, balconies, &c., all in a beautiful Florentine

In the representations of the human figure, we find style. gaiety and whim, feeling and dignity, in the happiest combination but in this instance again, the artist, not satisfied
;

with the figures necessary to the action, peoples the landscape and architecture with groups, and generally surrounds
the principal actors with a circle of spectators, among whom are introduced portraits of the painter's cotemporaries, to whom he has thus raised a memorial. In movement and
cast

of drapery, Benozzoe, figures, taken singly, are often
graceful,

very

although

marked by an almost feminine
;

timidity of gait and gesture ; the heads are very expressive the portraits true to nature, and delicately felt. Among the earlier works of Benozzo may be mentioned

the pictures of the Apostles and the Martyrs, executed after the year 1447, which form a portion of the glory in the Last Judgment, commenced by Fra Angelica in the chapel of
S. Brizio, in the

cathedral of Orvieto.
S.

-Also several paintings
S.

in

the churches of
little

Fortunate and
far

Francesco*
is

at

Montefalco (a

town not

from Fuligno), executed

1450, in which the resemblance to

Fra

Angelica

evident.

During, or before 1479, Benozzo returned to Florence in order to decorate the walls of the small chapel in the Palazzo
Medici,

now Eiccardi. Here we see him first entering that led him entirely away from the forms proper to which path his master. This chapel is made the scene of the Journey of the Three Kings to Bethlehem, represented in a sumptuous progress of knights, squires, and pages, with dogs and
hunting leopards,
all seen passing through a rich country. walls next the altar are peopled with quires of angels in a landscape, some kneeling, others plucking flowers,

The

rendered with

much poetry and feeling. From Florence Benozzo proceeded to S. Gemignano in 1463-4, where he completed a series of works in S. Agostino, illustrating the
life

of St. Augustin, in which his cheerful fancy
* See Rumohr,
'

is

more

Ital.

Forschungen,'

ii.

p 257, &c.

238

MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

Book IV.

completely developed.* These works, like all others of the highest value in Italy, have suffered, being in part obliterated, He was assisted in them by one in part over-painted.
Giusto

d Andrea.^
is,

The master
labours in the

Campo Santo

however, seen to highest advantage in his at Pisa, which he undertook in

1469, and where, with the exception of the works of Pietro di These frescoes occupied Puccio, he covered the north wall. him till 1485. They form a continuation, both in situation and
subject, of the

works of
to

Pietro,

and represent the History of

the Old Testament from the time of

Noah to

the visit of the

Solomon, in a thronged and overflowing series. These have suffered greatly from damp and neglect, yet they still offer one of the most interesting monuments of The limits of this work do not art of the fifteenth century.

Queen of Sheba

permit any adequate description of subjects treated with such fulness of fancy and redundance of natural beauties as these display. Benozzo is in his element here sometimes, as
;

in all his works, approaching the exaggerated and fantastic, never really abstract or grand ; but always revelling in the
truly picturesque, whether of nature or art
flowers, fruits,
;

in architecture,

and animals, with gorgeous peacocks perched on marble basins, and pergolas laden with grapes, and every form of jocund life that could be made consistent with the There are twenty-one frescoes in the subject in hand. Campo Santo by his hand.| He was assisted in them by
Zenobio Macchiavelli, who copied his execution of this mighty work gave so
style

much

The feebly. satisfaction to

the Pisan authorities in its progress, that as early as 1478 they presented the painter with a solid though somewhat

novel testimony of their regard in the shape of a sarcophagus, * St. Augustine preaching at Rome has been engraved in chromolithograph by the Arundel Society. f A letter of Benozzo's dated S. Gemignano, 1467, is published in Dr. Gaye's collection, together with an extract from the journal of Giusto di Andrea, one of the painter's assistants in S. Agostino. Giusto particularizes all the parts done by his own haud. Three other interesting letters, addressed by Benozzo to Pietro de' Medici in 1459, also published by Dr. Gave, relate to the Adoration of the Magi, in the private chapel of the
Medici.
C. L. E. J C. La.xinio, 'Pitt, a fresco del to 49.

Campo Santo

di

Pi.sa.'

Ottley, pi.

4fi

Chap.

I.

DOMENICO GHIRLANDAJO.

239

destined for his ultimate repose within the precincts of An inscription recorded their gift, the Campo Santo.
date of which, 1478, has misled biographers as to the time of Benozzo's death. Records have lately come to light

the

which prove that he died as late as 1496. Easel pictures hy Benozzo are rare, and like other great masters he is not seen to such advantage in this form as in his frescoes. A specimen is in the Louvre St. Thomas Aquinas in glory, seated on a prostrate heretic, between Plato and
Aristotle. The master is also seen in the National Gallery a Virgin and Child, with saints and 'angels. This displays a certain energy and reality, though by no means an attractive
picture, but it receives

servation

of the

execute

it.

an adventitious interest from the preengaged the painter to In his minuter works Benozzo returns more to
contract which

the manner, though not to the spirit, of Fra Angelica. The " Rape of Helen," in the National Gallery, is a beautiful example. The illuminations also of a MS. Virgil in the

Biblioteca

Riccardiana

at

Florence

recall

the

style

of

Benozzo.

now come to a painter whose name is one of the great landmarks in the history of Florentine art, and who carried to perfection what Masaccio had conceived and begun.
Domenico Corradi, called Ghirlandajo was born in 1449. His Tommaso Corradi di Dafo Bighordi is believed to have been a jeweller of repute. It is said that the garlands which he manufactured for the Florentine women* were so much in
father
Most of the great Florentine artists, sculptors and architects, as well The editors of the last editions as painters, were originally goldsmiths. and translations of Vasari enumerate Orgagnct, Luca delta Jiobbiti, Ghiberti, It has Urunelleschi, Verrocchio, Andrea del Surto, Cellini, and others.
been remarked that the style of relief which is suitable to the precious metals (but which is unsuitable to marble or bronze) may have had its influence in forming the general taste of the Florentines in sculpture. The " " garlands above mentioned were probably silver ornaments (see Vasari, ' Life of Ghirlandajo '). In a severer age these ornaments wei-e forbidden in the extracts from the Archivio delle Riformagioni di Firenze,' published " Quod nulla by Dr. Gave, (Carteggio d'Artisti), we read (March, 1307) mulier presumat deterre in capite coronam auream vel argenteam." A fashion alluded to in another prohibition of the same date explains the " item long trains of the women in the early Florentine pictures quod nulla mulier audeat portare vestes trannantes (sic) ultro quod unnm brachium per terrain de retro." C. L.
; '
:

We

*

.

240

MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

Book IV.

favour, that he thence obtained the surname of Ghirlandajo, which descended to his son. The latter was also originally

intended for a goldsmith, but early showed his talent for painting in the striking likenesses he drew of the passers-

His first teacher by, whilst yet a boy in his father's shop. was Alessio Baldovinetti, a comparatively unimportant artist
of the fifteenth century, already mentioned.

The

direction

which Art had now taken was carried to a perfection of a the aim of the peculiar kind by Domenico Ghirlandajo artist in this instance was no longer external form for itself, no longer a beautiful and true imitation of the circumstances of nature in the abstract it was a predilection for particular forms, for particular circumstances, and especially for grand and important relations of life; for the glory and dignity of his native city, which, as we have before remarked, had
;
:

attained at that time the zenith of her greatness. The portrait, in the largest signification of the word, is the prominent
characteristic

in

the productions of GMrlandajo.

Thus,

we find the motive which in earlier masters appeared more the result of accidental observation- in him
above
all,

completely and consistently followed out.

He

introduced

portraits of cotemporaries into his historical representations, thus raising to them an honourable memorial ; not, how-

them as the holy personages themselves, was the practice among the painters of the Netherlands, and in Germany. Simple and tranquil, in the costume of
ever, introducing

as

their time, these personages stand by, as spectators, or rather and frequently witnesses, of the holy incident represented,

occupy the principal places in the picture. They are generally arranged somewhat symmetrically in detached groups, thus giving to the whole a peculiarly solemn effect
:

in their relation to the actual subject of the picture they

be compared with the chorus of the Greek tragedy. Ghirlandajo, again, usually places the scene of the sacred event in the domestic and citizen life of the time, and introduces, with the real costume of the spectators, the

may

architecture

of Florence in

the

richest

display and

in

complete
fantastic

degenerating into those combinations which we find in Benozzo Gozzoli.
perspective,

without

.

in the Ojnissami. Ghirlandajo.Freaco by D. Florec .

especially in the outlines . and especially of antique drapery this study is to be In the execution of the traced in accessory female figures. the In the background and the Baptistery. a fresco on the left of the nave at a desk. But these frescoes are far from displaying the excellence he afterwards attained. derived from a parstudy of antique motives of a light and animated kind. however. than life. are six single figures of from Roman history. He appears to GJiirlandajo's powers were of slow growth. since called the Sala degli Gigli. Two other works by him. it can scarcely. also in chiaroscuro. The forms are perfectly well imitated. and surrounded with object of still life. exhibits an unsurpassed of fresco Ghirlandajo management finish. and a lunette with the Virgin and Child of a beauty and grace seldom seen in illustrious characters . Jerome. The other work is a Last Supper in the Refectory. be called a defect. A third element is moreover apparent. This consists of a grand and very elaborate design in the renaissance or revived classic style.Chap. Domenico is next studied in the fresco of the Sala del Orologio. with two other Saints. have passed the age of thirty-one before he undertook the frescoes in the Vespucci chapel in the Ognissanti at Florence. ticular : details a certain degree of severity is still observable. is here seen. An effort at that variety of expression which culminated in Leonardo da Vinci. and the In the technical peculiarities of nature successfully caught. treated in the traditional and severe figure seated every imaginable form with Judas seated alone on the nearer side of the table. Two city. not without reminiscences of the style of the fourteenth century. 241 The saints also retain their well-known ideal drapery. Zenobio. where the portrait of Amerigo Vespucci is reported to have been introduced. in the Palazzo Vecchio. are seen the all larger Duomo. a patron saint of Florence. with the figure of S. from a Florence flask to his cardinal's hat (see woodcut). DOMENICO GHIRLANDAJO. are preserved in the same church. The subject of the is a grand St. I. Campanile. bearing date one 1480. enthroned. however. and which were covered with whitewash in 1616. lions in chiaroscuro bear the armorial standards of the Above.

his own. in the Miracle of a Child of the Spini Family. in cap and mantle. porary portraits appear: that of Lorenzo de' Medici. in the Sassetti chapel in the Trinita In the in which all his varied powers attained maturity. in the subject of the Calling of Peter and Andrew. as Mozart in music. The Eesurrection by Ghirlandajo. Filippino Lippi. Book IV. to take precedence of his fellow-labourers on the same walls (see woodcut). and are introduced to give richness and reality to the composition. Layard. not as actors in the event. were reserved for his native Florence. Francis. Fina with creations worthy of his hand but his greatest triumphs . where. Ghirlandajo in fresco. with others. Here again cotem. H. that Ghirlandajo was called by Pope Sixtus IV. and Perugino It was from this busy competition contributed to adorn. Ghirlandajo found time to decorate the chapel of S. close of It appears that at the 1485 he had completed the frescoes representing the works life of St. looking out of the picture. Both these frescoes are of the utmost beauty .212 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.' by Right Hon. Francis presenting his rules to Pope Honorius III. in the subject of St. and decorative. which is on the right of the entrance. and the last: * See for the ' Domenico Ghirlandajo. printed Aruniel Society. is always within the range of human sympathies both masters elevating them to their highest exercise by means of exquisite feeling and profound science.. to exercise his powers in the Sistine Chapel.* This is one of the architectural strictly wall-paintings still surviving in a hall which the chief painters of the day. by the general advance of the qualities of composition and expression. the noblest realism combined with inimitable dignity supplies the place of the ideal. The whole composition is Ghirlandajo's Holy Families. Geniignano. has been greatly injured repaired. and badly On the road between Rome and Florence. Botticelli. at S. abundant incidents and characters which this subject afforded. portraits of cotemporaries who of the figures and in the many of which represent contemplate the scene with solemn interest. the master may be said. The influence of Masaccio is evident in the arrangement noble individuality of each head. A. .

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243 mentioned contains one of those groups of high-born women. + While justly admiring the simplicity and nature displayed in the Death of St. Layard. and expression. Trinita and S. right and left.* Our woodcut tells the talcThe writer mentioned in our better than any description. Maria Novella with damaged works. Croce. and only reflects honour on the artist who could openly clothe great forerunner's ideas in the garb of a more advanced art. ticularly the assistance of scholars is very evident. . by Orcagna. The work was * Ghirlandajo' & paintings in S. DOMEXICO GHIRLANDAJO. H. The most interesting of the series are those in the lower courses nearest the Our woodcut gives an idea of the graceful nature eye. This adoption of a successful type is as old as the Greek sculptors.' by Right Hon. the work above quoted (see woodcut) points out the fact that the composition is strictly imitated from one of the same subject by This may be seen in the Bardi chapel of S. are literally repeated. The chief subjects are from the life of the Madonna and that of the Baptist. The very wealth and perfection with which he endowed these since-neglected walls forbid all attempt at description. The simple. and one of the few really historical works by Ghirlandajo. already mentioned. solemn arrangement of the whole . But the fresco of the death of the Saint is the most remarkable.! dwelling on the intense grief of the brethren environ- ing the body. the paintings in this chapel are not all of equal merit in those on the left wall par. f See Domenico Ghirlandajo. I. dignity.Chap. in which Ghirlandajo stands unrivalled. but the groups. though with greater life and truth. rendered in every new series of frescoes in place of the form of beauty. note. the artless. of the groups and of the grandeur of the background which invests the Eirth of the Virgin.^ Ghirlandajo had scarce completed this great undertaking when he was engaged to cover the choir of a S. exquisite examples of Italian Art. ' :i R 2 . Not only the general arrangement is the same. calls attention to the^satire conveyed in the figures of the Bishop and his attendants. A. recently freed Giotto. from its whitewash. 'Maria Novella are engraved in Lasinio's collection of the works of early Florentine masters. unaffected dignity of the single figures the noble. redolent with staid modesty. who are cold and indifferent to what is passing while they mechanically repeat the prayers for the occasion. Francis. For the rest. and on the more sober sorrow of those farther off. manly expression of sorrowing sympathy the perfection of the execution combine to place this picture among the most .

Francesco Granacci. The one. An excellent Visitation.* in the parish church of the town of San Gemignano. including that of the beautiful Ginevra de' Benci. and a kneeling A St. is peculiarly happy in his delicate conception of character. when his brother Benedetto entered on the guardianship of his family. where an antique sarcophagus serves as a crib. The work was Sassetti. and assisted him in his works. Among them. and other families. is in the Berlin Museum. both remarkable for very sweet and graceful Madonnas. especially at Florence. Madonna. these cannot. Two admirable pictures are in the Florentine Academy. especially among the accessory figures. 1491. * Rumohr. and less than twenty-one portraits. and especially by an inharmonious red. if not equal to Domenico in the management of colour and in modelling. lay claim to equal merit with his frescoes : he disturbs us also by a certain gaudiness. Book IV. as seen in the figures of various Saints . Forsch. Jerome of especial grandeur of form and expression. in a nimbus. are introduced. ' Ital. In the church of the Innocenti (belonging to the Foundling Hospital) is a beautiful Adoration of the Kings. which do not frequently occur in the works of Ghirlandajo. we find some very distinguished works. his best works are in the chapel of the Beata Fine. Another Adoration (a circular picture) of the preceding year is in the gallery of the Uf&zi. but it may have taken place earlier. however. is now in the Louvre. . as did his brother-inlaw Bastiano Mainardi . dated 1488.' ji. with several from the Medici. of the year 1485. The death of Domenico Ghirlandajo is said to have occurred in 1498. The peculiar beauties of this painter's style are not so 'much developed in his easel pictures. with four Saints. who. uo executed for the Tornabuoni and Tornaquinci families. also. in which appear some excellent heads from nature. is the well-known Adoration of the Shepherds. completed in 1490. in general. The Ghirlandajo family are said to have laboured here also.244 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. also one of the scholars of Domenico. his birthplace. An Annunciation in the baptistery of the same church is by Mainardi alone. Ghirlandajo' s brothers Davide and Benedetto imitated his manner. 286.

where a series of small pictures. as well as Domenico's son. from a lady's jewel to the design for a crucifix or an altar chasse. in gold. belongs to the succeeding period. Michael Angela Buonarroti. without. who. and the painter being in many instances carried on together. There are good works by him in the Pitti and Uffizi Galleries at Florence . In these forms Antonio soon showed great mastery over design. Their father was a goldsmith. included every form of costly ornament. Pictures by various masters of this school are in the transept of S. Antonio is also recorded to have rivalled Maso Finiguerra in niello-work. brothers Pollaiuoli Antonio and Pietro were artists of this multiform class. THE POLLAIUOL1. a plurality of arts that of the goldsmith. but there is no question that the accuracy of modelling required The in plastic workmanship acted favourably on certain painters. and became eminent in an art which. with a deeper study of anatomy than had hitherto characterised this class of workmanship first artists . It may be doubted. attaining the unites with his master's style a lighter grace. I. the brothers being recorded by Vasari as the practised dissection. Apollonia. and there is no doubt that the development of this power was materially assisted by the practice of the plastic arts which in Italy considerably preceded that of This was a time when individuals dealt often in painting. whether this practice was beneficial . equally in relief and in the round. may At a later time Granacci inclined be particularly noted. Eidolfo Ghirlandajo. the sculptor.Chap. silver. representing the Martyrdom of S. and bronze. while their knowledge of the recently-discovered examples of antique sculpture is who . in a limirious and wealthy age. also several in the Accademia. more Spirito at Florence. We have seen that the representation of the nude had been more particularly attempted by Paolo Uccello and Andrea dal Castagno . howsame life and energy. and Antonio was apprenticed to him. considering the length of art and brevity of life. born severally in 1433 and 1448. To return to the ranks of the great religious and historical masters of the Florentine school. the bronze-caster. 245 ever. to the manner of his great cotemporary.

the vehicle of all the painters we have hitherto described. resembles that of the Pollaiuoli. The chef-d'oeuvre of the brothers. Book IV. . accordingly these combined influences. has left his . abounding in ornament and architecture. Sebastian in the National Gallery. pi. and one generally attributed to Antonio. According to Vasari he was "a goldsmith. and the three male Saints executed for S. Pietro is known to have been the scholar of Andrea dal Castagno . the real character of the vehicle used in this altar-piece is still uncertain. Gemignano." a catalogue of gifts which * Engraved in ' Etruria Pittrice.' vol. a sculptor. is the large Martyrdom of St. pi. Antonio in 1498. with much gaiety of colour. considered one of the first in Italy painted in oil . are illustrations of this class. a teacher of perspective.246 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. Miniato al Monte. 53.* where the fine treatment of the archers and the minute rendering of the background seem to unite the Italian and This picture has been Flemish manner (see woodcut). But the chief distinction of the Pollaiuoli is that they first departed from the use of tempera. In considering these pictorial efforts. both pictures now in the Uffizi. but. at all events. of the nature of plastic imitation. The course of Andrea Verocchio. not that of the Van Eycks. it is difficult to distinguish one brother from the other. In the form of pictorial art they display also evident. being. however removed from tempera. a painter. a carver. and a musician . and in Rosini's Storia della "ittura^Italiana. where an exuberance of ornament produces the effect of a piece of tarsia. originally one of the Virtues painted for the Mercatanzia (at Florence). in which a severe simplicity and : the angularity incidental to a worker in metals are obvious. 1432. and overcoming the Hydra. and first availed themselves of the powers of oil mediums. a Coronation of the Virgin. Antonio would seem Their style partakes (in painting) to have been self-taught. Pietro Pollaiuolo only signed work. The figure of Prudence. 24. Pietro died before 1496 in the Pieve of S. born in Florence. An extreme example of the influence of the jeweller's art is the Annunciation at Berlin." iii. This is seen in the small pictures in the Uffizi Hercules strangling Antaeus.

S r. SEBASTIAN .o Pollaiuoli. by Amoir. . National Gallery.

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was apprenticed of his early life. the same difficulty occurs to define what was really by his hand. Nothing. Berlin. The only certain example is the well-known Baptism in the Accademia at Florence (see woodcxtt). Pesello. otherwise called di Ventura. . His Colleoni monument him a on places higher pedestal than the PollaiuoU attained. the foremost angel in which is recorded as the work of Leonardo da Vinci. It passes under the name of Ghirlan-lajo. whose proper name is Luca dEgidio was born at Cortona.* Verocchio died in 1488. 296. In 1484. The drawings attributed to Verocchio are difficult to distinguish from those of Lorenzo di Credi and Leonardo da Vinci. Little is known recorded to have painted in Arezzo in 1472. and in the National Gallery. Verocchio. Frankfort. at all events. The improvement in modelling and drawing contingent on the study of anatomy and practice of sculpture brings us to another great name in the Tuscan school.Chap. 247 his great scholar. and to Leonardo da Vinci . I. Luca da Cortona. but the As a painter. but is believed to be by Antonio Pollaiuolo. and to Pietro della Francesca. Lorenzo di Credi. it is believed in 1441. No. however. Luca Signorelli. Pietro della Francesca. as well as in private tions. the PollaiuoU. associated with a daring vigour. where he made his home. collec- alternately ascribed to Ghirlandajo. and sometimes an ungenial coarseness. LUCA SIGNOKELLI. and which * still retains a few of his The picture in the National Gallery. with exquisite jewellery. showing a combination of science and art link at him with Venice worthy to be carried forward by Leonardo da Vinci. that can be genuinely ascribed to him exists now in is He played later an important part in the Sistine Chapel. he was in Cortona. the Virgin and Child with two Angels. He History of Moses the sober dignity of which stops short equally of his power of action and his exaggeration of attitude (see woodcut). was original in Verocchio. Various works in galleries at Munich. and in Citta di Castello in 1474. overstepping the bounds of nature. thus showing an affinity are of manner both in individuals and schools which points to the common conditions of the period. is an example. style. though represented only by one wall-painting the Arezzo.

and much injured are in Mr. Barker's . works in churches and in private houses. with numerous figures. and SS. and the Virgin and Child and Saints on the other. Benedict. though now too much injured to be done justice to. Cortona. In Siena he further decorated the Petrucci Palace with frescoes of profane subjects. and Coriolanus. where he executed the grand series of frescoes illustrating the life of St.248 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. A Deposition from the Cross and a Last Supper are in the Cathedral. Onofrio himself) with a noble sentiment. with three Saints on each side. Martyrdom of St. in the cathea Madonna enthroned. transferred to canvas. Sir C. A fresco by Luca in the same building has recently been uncovered from whitewash. which are found in Citta di Castello. As He also laboured in Siena. Augustin and Jerome An Annunciation seated below. L. anticipating Sebastian del Piombo in this respect. " which has a grace and grand style of colouring. Niccolo there is composition. especially the Deposition. Urbino. both mythological and historical. In the church of S. in the Duomo is in better The Duomo and preservation and finely coloured. combines in some portions a very harsh naturalism Saints. and the glow of colour. These are both fine examples. Eastlake.f In Volterra fine altar-pieces by his hand still remain. a scene with Cupid. Sepolcro. in the convent of Monte Uliveto. Book IV. Borgo S. and Perugia. is a fine From Cortona Luca Signorelli doubtless supplied several of the neighbouring cities with his works. it may be considered a clief-d'ceuvre of the master. (for instance. which are full of his energy and fancy. " walls of the " Sacra Casa at Loretto were decorated with frescoes by the master. with dral of Perugia (painted 1 484). the Virgin and Child enthroned. in Citta di Castello. The one in S. Penelope at her Loom. 1856. as he also sometimes anticipated Michael Angelo in energy and grandeur of In the Confraternita of S. regards the whole execution. Francesco. Sebastian. Domenico."* an altar-piece with an Entombment on one side. Onofrio. however. is signed and dated 1491. representing Prophets * Memorandum by t Three of these possession. in S. The altar-piece also of the Cappella S.

I. not. Storia del Ottley. with no other change than that of superior treatment. L. including the history of Antichrist. it is true. at length engaged Luca Signorelli to carry on the fresco of the Last Judgment in the chapel of S. where. E. a book or MS. of Orvieto. the figure of our Lord. 1791. 7) also occurs in Signorellt's principal fresco. pi. and when woodengraving was invented. constantly many points ' of resemblance. with angels playing on musical instruments. excepting Leonardo da Vinci. and the attendant hierarchy of Saints and angels and Benozzo Gozzoli had painted the apostles and martyrs. he was appointed to continue the labours of a painter the furthest possible opposed to himself The authorities of the cathedral in manner and character. since a similar work. 52 to 54. Italian and German painters than ' and the usual Scriptural legendary subjects. and theological subjects which appear to have been authorized during the middle ages were adopted by the great These painters. and the lower works almost effaced. remarkable fable of the beheading of Elijah and Enoch in both the illustrations alluded to (apparently suggested by a passage in Ihe Apocalypse. . the same subjects. The block-book. of representations to those in general use.' in the Aurea Legenda. Der Entnot however the first that added this series was about krist. and eight scriptural subjects below.' printed 1470. but with a grandeur which. ejusque visiones Apocalypticse.Chap. illustrations existed originally in illuminated MSS. and sometimes precisely the same designs were repeated. in the sense in which Fiesole had begun it. LUCA S1GNORELLI. C. t The usual Biblical * : Duomo d'Orvieto. general inventions at Orvieto (the frescoes were begun in 1499) from these A sufficient proof may be found in the fact that the or similar sources. and this is but one among author. ' . commenced. The German ' refers to a Compendium Theologiae ("davon stat auch geschrieben in dem Cuch Compendio Theologie ").' appeared more Lu::a Signorelli appears to have adopted his than twenty years earlier. Domini. Brizio. or. 249 and Evangelists. or artist. no master partaking of the realistic tendency of the fifteenth century has surpassed. xj. by a strange destiny.f lie therefore completed the work. But his chief fame rests on his frescoes at Orvieto. the Historia Sancti Johanois Evangelists. probably in the hands See also the rubric ' De Adventu of most monks of the fifteenth century. The chief works are four large representations on the two side walls Engravings in Delia Valle. may have been less known among the being probably of Byzantine origin. after waiting nine years for Perugino. It was now reserved for the fiery Luca to add the great dramatic scene below.* which Fra Angelica had The pious Frate had executed the solemn and quiescent part of the composition namely. The wild mystery called the History of Antichrist may perhaps be less early. Roma. All these are much ruined.

sidered a painter strictly of the nude. and led the way to the He may be conperfect daring of Michael Angela. with decorative subjects in chiaroscuro. as we have seen. only. and expression. Book IV. with circular pictures of those poets who have described the Lower Eegions. and in his single figures a happy imitation The lower part of the walls is occupied of the antique. severe but perfect and consisting chiefly of naked figures. representations of an allegorical and mythical nature. of whom Luca was the immediate predecessor. noble drawing of the nude is observable in these works . here the history of Antichrist is depicted with figures full of character. With the highest development also of plastic power. is true. belonging to the Marchese Corsi. Here is the same subordination of the merely accidental to it the living form. which with the freedom characteristic of the period are mixed up unreservedly with the chief subjects. also the Eesurrection. and Dante all surrounded with numerous smaller such as Hesiod Book of .250 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. Luca Signorelli thus inaugurated a new phase in the science which Paolo Uccello had practised. he applied in the Petrucci Palace at Siena. the anxious striving for mere anatomical correctness is no longer apparent. A picture recently discovered. und on representations of vehement and fantastic action. and Virgil (in reference to the Sixth the JEneid)> Claudius (in reference to the Eape of Proserpine). signed with his name. and Paradise. A and a number of positions in the figures. if not the cotemporary. compositions all replete with meaning. but gives place to a peculiar grandeur and elevation stamped alike on scenes of tranquillity and beatitude. In drapery also Luca exhibits elevated feeling. Hell. are introduced with careful study and success. action. We are in every way reminded of the style of Michael Angela. square and unselect in form. majesty of the purely human not conceived with Michael Angela's almost superhuman grandeur. never attempted in art before. representing the School of Pan (gee . It was* natural that a painter of this class should find congenial subjects in the ancient literature then so ardently studied in Florence. always powerful in anatomy and action. and which. and acamore demical in character.

Otvieto p. 35?. . in tlie Duomo.::om Luca Signorelli's fresco of HELL.

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for that purpose. among the works still existing are attributable to one Glierardo (if Florence. now occur little genii with garlands of flowers. Of the works of one of the most renowned of this class.Angelesque peculiarities Luca may be known by the squareness of his forms in joints and extremities. His miniatures combine the style of that master. which. who principally patronised the Florentine miniature-painters. Don Bartolommco della Gatta (died The best 1490).. The last great period of Italian miniature-painting is connected with the school of the Ghirlandaj. with an incredible splendour and delicacy of execution. Jerome. now in . the representation The is. the Abbot of S. &c. Besides the family of the Medici. of the nude. The master lived until 1524. with figures of different Saints. in the most gorgeous style of antique ornament. but rather a habit of sumptuous luxury. in the Bible of Mathias Corvinus (about 1490). Clemente. It represented no longer that feeling of devotion which exacted the utmost splendour in the decoration of the Holy Scriptures. no authentic specimen has been preserved. had been brought into connection with Domenico Ghirlandajo. who had been originally appointed by Lorenzo the Magnificent to decorate the cathedral with mosaics. but the precise date of his death is uncertain. and in the fine expression in the manner of the Umbrian School of the Magdalen. and also by the frequent introduction of a brightly-coloured Roman scarf. Some of his works are painted in oil. and in the architecture of the backgrounds. and the numerous ecclesiastical bodies. 251 woodcut). it was Mathias Corvinus. and. galleries or collections north of the Museum In the gallery of the are two excellent wings of an altar-piece. intelligible. Here Luca is seen in the strong contrasts observable in his art in the caricatured St. King of Hungary. I. MINIATURE PAINTERS.Chap. head of the In addition to his larger Michael. allegorical part of the picture is un- Luca Berlin Signorelli upon the whole. rarely found in Alps. shows liberty how ardently he availed himself of the which such subjects gave for. In the gorgeous border decorations. and figures of the gods. and a desire for the artistic enhancement of every object 6f daily life.

' Kunstw. properly speakhand a mass of beautiful and delicate CHAPTER II. an ilhuninated missal. &<. also executed for the King of Hungary by another Florentine.. p. when Fra Giovanni da Fiesole whom we have placed among the artists of the preceding period. part i. in the German translation of Vasari. 365. there are still several authors. ii. isted in Florentine Art in the first half of the fifteenth century. a missal of 1494 is in the Laurentian Gilio. SCHOOLS OF UMBRIA. the library of the Dukes of Burgundy at Brussels . 330. &c. 186. in Florence . IT was quite natural that the efforts at direct imitation which characterised so many important schools. seems to have reached the utmost Various books illuminated by Gherardo possible perfection. 181. und Kunstl. Peintxire.* GJiirlandaj. in Paris.252 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. said to have been executed ing. ii. also in the Vatican. ' D'Agincourt.' p. and which aimed at mere truth and beauty of external form rather than at any spiritual depth of meaning. is in Library . .' plate 76. the dissertation of the Editor. should call forth a decided maniThis contrariety already exfestation of an opposite kind.. It took place to a still greater extent in the latter part of this century in * See. and the notes in vol. Book IV the Library of the Vatican. Also Waagen. p. manuscripts of classic by order of Lorenzo the Magnificent. is obviously by In the Laurentian Library at some Florentine hand. 1 478. Paris. AND MASTERS OF A SIMILAR STYLE. are said to be in the archives of the parish hospital of St. vol. but who flourished at this time appeared as a marked exception to the general tendency of the Florentine artists. part ii. but on the other decorations. a breviary belonging to the Bishop of Graun is in the Royal Library at These works are quite in the style of the and are executed in the highest decorative taste. also p. Attavante by name. The Urbino Bible. Florence. containing but few miniatures. &c.

developed that habit which naturally accompanies an exclusive idealising attention to the expression of spiritual and devotional senti- extending by degrees ment. p.. Saint. Francis . and an abandonment of the whole being enthusiastic tenderness to a pleasing and these are the prevailing characteristics of the school to which we now turn our attention. as the peculiar seat of religious enthusiasm. which must be considered to include those of Urbino. UM BRIAN SCHOOLS. Umbria. St. fervent unearthly longings. The elevation and character of this school is therefore not so much owing to any decided and formal principle as to a and where this is first seen. vol. Perugia. To this may be attributed the comparatively early decline of the school. from which no portion of central Italy The immediate elements was excluded besides the painters of the March of Ancona and of the * See Passavant's ' district of Urbino. of this style appear to have been blended from various sources. was the centre round which the other townships ranged Art followed the current of life here. particular mode of thought there. This region had distinguished itself in the middle ages above all other parts of Italy. .Chap. while Assisi. naturally calculated as it was to foster founded by this such feelings. we recognise the commencement of the school of Thus it was that this tendency of thought. to external forms. predominated. and in many respects permanent characteristics. whatever may have been the education of the individual artist. where the study of classic lore themselves as tributaries.* there were strong Rafael. . Here were found the miraculous here were born and nurtured enthusiasts like pictures . Purity of soul. sunk rapidly into the lowest feebleness and mannerism. i. after earning for itself the eternal glory of having contributed to form Raphaels first. as it did in the commercial cities of Florence and Venice as it did also in Padua. Besides the universal influence of Giotto. which. The external habits and circumstances of life in this retired valley of the Upper Tiber tended to give a spiritual direction to Art. 435 a work which may be . 253 the schools of Umbria. with its Basilica. II.' etc. and the March of Ancoiia.

are still preserved. etc.. 312. Domenico at Perugia. which show a decided aflinity to the style and manner of this painter. the specimens of the Umbrian mode of thought. are decidedly Sienese in characthose of Pietro Antonio. 1411. The frescoes in the little church of S. containing a number of figures A A of Saints in separate compartments. and powerfully return. Ital. Florentine influences imported by Patio Uccello. earliest painted in Urbino after 1484. however. on the side walls of the church. Francis's Miracle of the Roses. are represented in a uniform green colour also the Essays ' . and other subjects. In other buildings in the same place we find paintings in the style of the Sienese masters. in the Confraternita of St. particular school. the little church is not called by the name it generally bears in Assisi. gives us no trace of any It is supposed to have been executed. exterior of this building was embellished by Martinellus in Fuligno ter 1422. which owed its first The impulse to Paolo Uccello the aerial perspective illustrated by Masaccio the architecture of Brunelleschi the changes See accepted as the chief authority for the history of the Umbrian school. But the great Umbrian master whom sider is one we must here affected con- who especially derived much of his development it from the Florentine school.' ii. however. pression. etc. large window in the choir of S. the influence of the school of Siena is undeniable derived in some measure from the labours of Taddeo di Bartolo in Perugia (see page 174). 1837. 83.* of the time of Pinturicchio. * Compare Rumohr. in great laws of composition bequeathed by Giotto the plastic element introduced by the renaissance sculptors the science of linear perspective. where. and Pietro della Francesca. and have a beautiful mildness of ex- fresco next the door shows also a later hand. Antonio di Via Superba) are of the number. where. in a niche on the outside. art. Book IV. Francis. in the Kunstbl.. Forsch. Benozzo Luca Signorelli also Gozzoli. by Fra Bartolommeo da Perugia.254 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. or remains of works. Caterina The (or S. particularly of Tuddno di Bartolo . the interior by Matteo da Gualdo and Pietro Antonio da . We have remarked that at Assisi different works. are more interesting. for example. by Gaye. No. the remains of the paintings of Martinellus. In considering. St. though unimportant as works of .

* The laws of aerial perspective. derived their intermediate improvement from the hand of Pietro. perhaps empirically. His earliest known instructor was. It is also evident that the more or less experimental efforts in oil-painting then prevailing. commonly called Pietro was born at Borgo S. and extended by the Pollaiuoli by all these influences told upon a master as original as any in the nature Pesello just mentioned. were equally developed by one whose feeling for precise calculation went pari passu with that of In this combination of science and pictorial representation. For proofs of his knowledge of perspective and general grandeur of conception. have been assigned to the and and Bramante. Surrounded by the naturalism which then asserted itself it among the Florentine painters. who nevertheless category of the Umbrian school. art he was strictly the precursor of Leonardo da Vinci. was in later years in constant communication with Leonardo in Milan. pittore di Burges. by Paolo Uccello was reduced by Pietro della Francesca to rules which have hardly admitted of subsequent improvement. Sepolcro. a celebrated matheand an intimate friend of Pietro della Francesca. 255 and application of technical processes begun and Baldovinetti. and it known that Fra Luigi Paccioli. style proportion of his architecture. Pietro di Benedetto dei Franceschi. Sketches of edifices by Pietro della Francesco. the proportions of light and shade. if not a higher character. and the position of objects in space. with whom he doubtless came into contact during that master's residence at Perugia. mind gave The knowledge of perspective obtained. matician. as well as the taste of its ornaments.' doubtless a misreading ' late ' * The Herr Harzen Pietro di Burgo (S. the reader is further discovered in the Ambrogian Library at Milan a treatise on perspective by the master. of the harmony of colours.Chap. We thus obtain the view of a new and most original mind.. and afterwards carried to perfection by Leonardo da Vinci. It had lain unacknowledged under the misnomer of Pietro. probably between 1415-20. Domenico Veneziano. his powerful a truer. and under whom he served in the frescoes of the Portinari Chapel. PIETRO DELLA FRANCESCA. as already stated. II. his now well-known signature. ' . strictly belongs to the della Francesco. hitherto not sufficiently acknowledged. are at least equal to those of Doincuico for Ghirlcmditjo. Sepolcro).

meet. The same authority states that he was called to Rome in the time of Nicholas V. . Sigismondo two dogs. and painted two frescoes in the Vatican. traditionally present. in its extreme character. suggested the remarkable effect of light in Raphaefs Deliverance of ' Literature of the Fine Arts' edition. Peter. the anatomy of a figure in the background. however. 196. Seen. can refer at once to a valuable specimen of this rare painter. the rendering of its argillaceous bed. ing eyebrows. figure of our Lord. p. . in a modified form. as in his Madonnas. partakes of the African with broad face. appear in this work. with the finely-foreshortened feet. in the National Gallery. black and white. a class of feature which. St. partially effaced. Also. con- * See surmise that Pietro della Francesco's Vision of Constantine. wide nostrils. Domenico Venezianoand. Life of Raphael. in the Cappella delle Reliquie. the winding of the stream. by Sir C. Here. which was executed in its place.. Book IV. one of the frescoes thus destroyed. he left a remarkable fresco. and thick lips. accompany their master. there is a certain grandeur and solemnity in this type. now. Pietro's pupil. of This represents Malatesta himself course. all show the strong realism combined with the accurate knowledge of a powerfully subjective mind. According to Vasari. afterwards destroyed to make room for Rapliael* At all events it is certain that he was engaged by Sigismund Malatesta to adorn the newly-erected church of S.256 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. his Saints and angels command admiration by singular dignity and appropriateness of character. The type of female heads peculiar to this master does not. Little certain is known of the master's life. 2nd . however. in 1451. kneeling before S. L. Francesco at Eimini. Here the the Baptism of our Lord. The picture has been too much injured to retain more than the preparation of the colours. however lacking in conventional beauty of face. Eastlake. with hair concealed and finely- draped head. PietrodellaFrancescalsibouieA together in the Sacristy of the Santa Casa at Loretto. though the only works which now adorn the walls are those of Luca Signorelli. Above is a large medallion. though slightly in the angels namely. stripping himself for the rite. and the correct perspective of the reflections. the careful grand bearing of the three angels.

.

.

Chap.

II.

PIETRO DELLA FRANCESCA.

257

taining a view of the Castle of Rimini, with an inscription The and the date 1446 (perhaps the date of its erection). truth air of and of Malatesta has portrait great simplicity the hands are fine, and the proportion of the figures to the architecture, which is most elegant in design, are character;

istic

of the master.

On

work

in purest classic style is the inscription,

the lower border of a painted frame" Pietri de

Burgo opus, 1451."

The

frescoes of the History of the Cross, in S. Francesco,

at Arezzo,* gave occasion for the entire display of all the

qualities

which have been mentioned as forming his

style.

Though much injured they have happily not suffered restoraOur space does not admit description of the various tion. episodes of this quaint legend. The Vision of Constantine

may be

singled out for a power of foreshortening in the The (much injured) angel, and for the eftect of light.f to the is of a in the last, Annunciation, pendant Virgin

In the Duomo at Arezzo, a single figure of the Magdalen standing, in a painted niche on the wall near the door of the Sacristy, is also worthy of his hand.
grand character.
Pietro della Francesco, is seen

more or

less

with the same

characteristics in his altar-piece in the chapel of the Hospital

of the Misericordia at Borgo S. Sepolcro the Flagellation with three fine portrait figures divided from the subject by
architecture
;

and in other

fine

works

at

Urbino.

But

another phase of the master must be cited, seen in a small dyptich in the Uffizi. This represents the two portraits of Federigo of Urbino, and Battista Sforza, seen in profile and
executed with the utmost precision of drawing and minuteness and softness of method. On the obverse is a representation of each personage, seated in a triumphal car, with various allegorical figures and allusions which now defy These works are landmarks explanation (see woodcut).

in the progress of art, which here unites itself with minute reality of Antonello da Messina, and through

the

him

* See note. to Agnolo Gaddi, p. 140. f A preparatory drawing of this subject, once in the Lawrence collection, was mistaken for the hand of Corrcggio.

258

MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

Book IV.

with the equally minute but less poetically conceived productions of the

Van Eycks. Pietro della Francesco, is believed to have been in Ferrara, and to have left frescoes, since destroyed, in the neighbouring
palace of Schifanoia, decorated by Duke Borso between 1451 and 1468. Pietro della Francesca is known to have been still
living in 1509. The name of

Fra Carnovale

is

mentioned by writers on art

in connection with

that of Pietro della Francesca,

Modern

researches, however, only prove that this statement rests on very insufficient foundations. stately picture in the

A

Brera, of course

injured, formerly the altar-piece of S. Bernardino at Urbino, representing the Virgin and Child

much

with four Angels and four Saints, and with

Duke Federigo

of Urbino kneeling in armour on one side, traditionally bears The figures have a certain the name of Fra Carnovale.

analogy with Pietro della Francesca, and the semi-dome above is finely drawn. A St. Michael trampling on the dragon, with the monster's head in his hand, now in the National Gallery, is evidently by the same hand.

Another name of more importance connected with Pietro Francesca is that of Melozzo da Forli, of the family of the Ambrosi, who was born at Forli about Besides a certain affinity both in style and in the 1438.
della

difference of age,

science of art, there are circumstances in life, in spite of the common to both. Both are eulogised by

the
'

architecture

mathematician Fra Luca Paccioli in his treatise on both are extolled in terms of friendship in the
; '

Cronaca

of Giovanni Santi

:

" Melozzo a me si caro, che in prospettiva Ha steso tanto il passo."

It is

to Pietro della Francesca

supposed that Melozzo owed part of his education ; at the same time a certain Man-

tegnesque character of drapery suggests a possible connection between Melozzo and Ansuino of Forli, who assisted

Mantegna in the Eremitani frescoes
definite,
first

at Padua.

Nothing more

however, is known of the painter's early life. records of Melozzo begin at Rome under Sixtus IV.,

The who

Chap.

II.

MELOZZO DA FORLI.

25'J

erected the Sistine Chapel, repaired the church of the SS. Apostoli, and restored the Library of the Vatican, then under
the guardianship of the learned Platina. These events occurred between 1475-80. The last mentioned was commemo-

rated by a fresco executed by Melozzo, long an ornament of the wall, but subsequently transferred (to its great damage) to

canvas, and hung now in a dark place between windows in the Vatican. It represents Sixtus IV. enthroned, with Platina

kneeling before him, and attended by two cardinals and two other figures. This work was long attributed to Pietro della
Francesco, and the fine proportion of the figures in space, and the graceful architecture, all point to a worthy representative
of the great Umbrian master. In the tribune of the church of the SS. Apostoli, Melozzo represented the Ascension of our Lord, surrounded with

cherubim.

This

is

one of the most grand and daring feats

of foreshortening that art has bequeathed, and may be considered as the first illustration of that science which Mantegna

and Correggio further developed. The church, or the tribune part, was destroyed in 1711, but the figure of Christ was sawn from the wall, and transferred to the staircase of the
Quirinal Palace, where, though much damaged, it still exists.* Fragments of figures of angels playing on musical instru-

ments and exhibiting the same strong foreshortenings were also preserved, and are placed in the Sacristy of St. Peter's ;f
these have great grandeur of character. Sixtus IV. founded the Academy of St.

Luke, where,

is that of " Melotius pic. pa." (pictor papalis.) In Foiii itself Melozzo is only represented by one work, " and that of a very exceptional class, called the " Pesta Pepe or " Pound the Pepper," being a fresco originally painted

foremost

among

the

first

autograph inscriptions

for a sign over a grocer's shop, representing a figure in violent exertion, wielding with both hands a heavy pestle

over a huge mortar.
*

Here again he has foreshortened
Italian School of Design,' pi. 45, and in D'Agin-

Engraved

in Ottley's

'

court, pi. 142.

t Engraved in D'Agincourt, pi. 142. dell Pittura Italiana,' vol. J Engraved in Rosini's Storia
'

iii.

p. 167.

s

2

260

MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.
It is

Book IV.

the figure as if seen from below.
at Forli.

now

in the Collegio

No

record has been found to prove that Melozzo laboured

in Urbino, though his acquaintance with Giovanni Santi But certain imaginary portraits of renders it probable.

celebrated historical characters which decorated the Palace

which were copied on a small scale into the youthful Raphael's, sketch-book (now at Venice*), have been These works were at a comparatively attributed to Melozzo.
at Urbino, ten of

recent date

divided between the

Roman

families

of the

Sciarra and the Barberini.

The
and
is

the

Campana

collection,

Sciarra portion passed into now in the Louvre ; the

other portion remains in the Barberini Palace. other personages these represent Plato, Solon,

Among
Virgil,

Augustine, Aristotle, St. Jerome, Dante, The two last Cardinal Bessarion, and Pope Sixtus IV. were possibly taken from life. These are most remarkable
works, fully the size of life, executed with great breadth and luminousness, with a free and masterly touch, and a certain grandeur of style. The position of those Carnpana and

Thomas Aquinas,

St.

Duke

Barberini pictures, the latter including one of Federigo of Urbino, with his son Guidobaldo a boy of about seven have facilitated a comparison with the known fresco,
in the Vatican, by Melozzo, of Sixtus IV. and Platina, by which peculiar similarities in treatment have been identified.

Three other pictures, decidedly in oil, two of which are in the National Gallery, the third in the Berlin Museum, each
corresponding in subject viz., an enthroned female figure, with a votary kneeling before her and connected by an inscription on a painted cornice relating to Federigo of
series of seven, are believed to

Urbino and Montefeltre, and known to have formed part of a have decorated the library at These again offer great similarity in character Urbino. with these portraits and with the fresco of Platina. Another picture of the same class, but much injured and restored, and
also containing a portrait of the unmistakable Federigo, is now in Her Majesty's possession at Windsor. certain Flemish

A

* See Photographs of drawings by old masters at Venice.

Chap.

II.

MARCO PALMEZZANO.

261

treatment in all the above-mentioned works has led to the

surmise that they may have been the work of Justus van Ghent (Giusto da Guanto), who worked in Urbino in the time of Federigo. Those, however, who knew the one work at Urbino, The Last Supper, by Justus, repudiate this
surmise, the author of that work being quite incapable of executing those we have described. Their authorship, it can only be said, is one of those questions in the connoisseur-world

which

at present

given in the National Gallery, is

remain unsolved the name of Melozzo, as meanwhile the most worthy
;

and probable suggestion.* Melozzo died in 1494, leaving a pupil who, from his occasionally adopting his master's name
appended to his own in his signatures, has been in his finest works mistaken for him. Marco Palmezzano, or " Marcus de Melotius," as he also signs himself, was pupil of Melozzo da Forll. The date of his
birth is unknown, but his additional signature " Pictor Foroliviensis," shows that he was a native of Forli. He followed
his master,

and is even believed to have gone beyond him, in the study of geometry, and in the working of architectural To this may perhaps be imputed the hardness and plans.

dryness which, with some exceptions, characterise his works.

He
*

appears as a fresco painter in the chapel of S. Biagio in

Among the memoranda by Sir Charles Eastlake are the following remarks on these works, dating from 1856 to 1861. Speaking of the three pictures (two in the National Gallery, and one in the Berlin Museum, " the Conti called by him pictures," from their having belonged to the Conti family at Florence), he says: "The name of Me'wzo da Forli was first thought of from the seeming impossibility of fiuiing among the resident painters at Urbino of the time (1470-80) any other artist good enough for such works. This reasoning applies, however, more particularly to the portraits of celebrated men in the Campana and Barberini collections at Rome, which must have existed before the death of Federigo (in 1483), from which Raphael drew when very young, and which, in some instances, for example, in that of Sixtus IV., are closely allied in style to the Conti pictures. These portraits have also been supposed to be Flemish, and Justus of Ghent (Giusto da Guanto), who actually painted at Urbino in the time of Federigo, may seem a plausible name. Judging, however, from the large specimen by that painter at Urbino (a Last Supper), it is certain that he was not equal to such works."
Further, describing the fresco in the Vatican, the known work of " The Melozzo, Sir Charles Eastlake says : draperies (sleeves) of two figures on the left are quite like some of the portraits at the Marchese Campana's heads, some of them, as fine; hands (nails) same style; accessories, gold ornaments &c. allowing for difference in fresco, the same."
:

MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.
S.

Book IV.

Girolamo

at Forli

the ceiling of which exhibits

that

power of foreshortening, and taste and fancy in architectural forms and decorations, which he inherited from Melozzo,
though in other respects he remains far inferior to him. Frescoes in the Capella del Tesoro in the cathedral at Loretto are also attributed to him. His panel-pictures, all in oil, are numerous, and bear witness to a life of great in the chapel of the activity. His chef-d'oeuvre is an altar-piece Orfanotrofio delle Femine at the Michelline at Faenza, completed by the painter in the year 1500 it represents a Virgin and Child on a throne which is perforated below, with figures a Saint on horseback and St. and landscape seen through
:

;

and on the right St. Anthony This work is finely grasping the hand of St. Jerome. executed, with carefully drawn hands, and with all the master's skill in elaborate and tasteful architecture. Another fine, and robustly-coloured work, St. Anthony enthroned with the Baptist and St. Sebastian, the pig below, and with the master's usual gilt and arabesqued pilasters, is in the Carmine at Forli. A favourite subject with Marco Palmezzano, is our Lord bearing His Cross, of which the finest example was His works are too exhibited at Manchester in 1857. numerous to specify, and many a hitherto anonymous or misnamed picture has been identified as his. They abound in the churches at Forli, and in the Pinacoteca of that place, where his own portrait, by himself, signed and dated 1536, is also preserved, showing an aged white-haired and robust man. Almost all his works are signed. The date of his death is unknown. Giovanni Santi* was one of those who derived light from the brilliant galaxy of talent collected in Urbino by Duke Federigo, including Pietro delta Francesca, Luca Signorelli, and Melozzo, and to the splendour of which he in his turn
Michael are on the
left;

contributed. As father of Raphael, Giovanni Santi has always been an object of interest to historians, but he has hardly
*
'

especially Passavant,

See Elogio storico di Giovanni Santi, pittore e poeta,' Urbino, 1822. r: " Rafael von Urbino und sein Yater Giovanni Sauti,
i.

Leipzig, 1839, vol.

p.

11.

Chap.

II.

GIOVANNI SANTI.

263

His family suffered in from the ferocious property by Sigismund Malatesta, which caused them to remove into the town of Urbino in 1446, at which time Giovanni was a boy. His instructor in art is not recorded, but the fact that Pietro della Francesco,, on being invited to Urbino in 1469, lodged in his house, is a sign that he was already associated with the profession. Giovanni was also known for his love of
received the credit due to himself.
their

ancestral

a

raid

polite literature

Urbino
acts

;

of

a taste also easily fostered at the Court of and a curious chronicle in rhyme, celebrating the Duke Federigo, preserved in the Vatican, has

as a cotemporary record of the not principal painters, only in Urbino and the surrounding The affectionate terms territory, but in all parts of Italy.

attracted

recent

notice

in which he eulogises Pietro della Francesca and Melozzo, as already quoted, show the friendship he maintained with

them.

He

is also

supposed to have known Andrea Manteyna,

who

receives one of his highest tributes ; at all events the correctness of Giovanni Santi's judgment is being more and

more

ratified as the

knowledge of the old masters

increases.

style of" this roaster is simple and serious, and of conscientious finish ; a quiet gentleness characterises his heads,

The

and especially his children's heads, in the loveliness of which he shows himself the true forerunner of his great son. He partakes of the character of the painters around him, and even shows Mantegnesque tendencies, but he fails in the force or depth of the Umbrian masters, properly so called, and his
colouring

has a peculiar light

leaden tone, deficient in

His outlines are also frequently hard. His earlier are pictures generally found in the March of Ancona. For
warmth.
instance, a pleasing but not thoroughly studied Visitation of the Virgin, in S. Maria Nuova at Fano ; a Madonna with

four Saints of a freer grace and grander cast of drapery, in the hospital church of S. Croce at the same place a so-called
;

Madonna

del Popolo, protecting the faithful with her mantle, with a lively, individual, and even almost humorous head, in

the hospital oratory at Montefiore and a Madonna with four Saints, of a serious and mild character, dated 1484, in the Pieve at Gradara, not far from Pesaro. An Annuncia;

264

MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

Book IV.

tion of his early time, harsh in drawing and colouring, and of no great merit, is in the Brera at Milan. Madonna

A

enthroned, with St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Jerome, St. Catherine, St. Thomas the Apostle, and the donor, of unequal style,

and in some respects
in the Berlin

strictly in a

Mantegnesque manner,

is

Museum.

Giovanni's most developed pictures are, however, chiefly those which were executed in Urbino ; for example, a St.

Sebastian and archers
ful foreshortening,

one of

the latter in vigorous and successwhom reappears in the figure
"

" with figures Sposalizio breaking his rod, in Raphaels of the donors, is in the oratory of St. Sebastian at Urbino a
;

Madonna with

Saints of almost Florentine character, of the year 1489, is at Montefiorentino, not far from Urbania (see woodcut) ; also one of his chief pictures, and of the same
year, is in S. Francesco at Urbino, namely, the Madonna with Saints and donors (these latter not the portraits of his own

family, as is currently believed), with two side pictures of Saints, whose drapery clearly points to Mantegna and others.
Finally, Giovanni is seen in his highest beauty in the frescoes of the church of the Dominicans at Cagli (Cappella Tiranni), of the year 1492, representing a Madonna enthroned,

with Angels and Saints; the Resurrection and the First Person of the Trinity, surrounded by cherubs, above also an Annunciation and a dead Christ, with two Saints. His
;

drawing is here not only fuller and more animated, and his colouring fresher, than in his other works, but in the expression of many of the figures he foreshadows the grace of The fresco of the Madonna in Giovannis his son Raphael. own house at Urbino, which has enjoyed the reputation of
being Raphaels earliest work,
the hand of his father.*
is

now acknowledged

to be

by
is

The

teaching or influence of Pietro della Francesca

shown in his correct foreshortenings and perspective. Giovanni Santi worked in that mixed vehicle, very different to pure
tempera, and yet not, properly speaking,
oil,

which in the

* An excellent Madonna with Children and Saints, now in the Berlin Museum, was formerly erroneously inscribed with Giovanni Santas name. It is now recognised as the work of Timoteo della Vite.

MADONXA WITH SAINTS

;

an

altar-pieca

by Giovanni Saoti

at Alor-tefiorenlmo.

.

We must here briefly record the names of a few painters who dot the remoter places of the Apennines. known by a signed altar-piece. accompanied by the seraphim. and affectation of grace bespeak the poorer characteristics of the Uinbrian school. four Fathers of the Latin Church. A Girolamo di Giovanni. to which we shall revert. to which place belongs Matteo da Gualdo. yet contribute to those numerous currents of art which irrigated the centre of Italy. of Camerino. with angels. the Annunciation above. at Monte S. Francesco at Urbino. Pictro Antonio. positive colours. and who. Matteo is seen again in a signed fresco at S. II. Antonio e Jacopo at Assisi. Taking up the stream from S. UMBRIAN SCHOOLS. accounted for by the fact that a signed fresco by Matteo dated 1468. Gozzoli. Martino near Fermo. ornaments. Severino. between SS. an Umbrian physiognomy. . an enthroned Madonna with angels and Saints and . and surrounded with SS. Maria della Circa at Sigillo. and which is licking his hand. occupies a wall in SS. 2G5 hands of the Pollaiuoli had formed a transition between the two. northward. on the eastern slope of the Apennines. signed and dated 1473. dated 1437. and Girolamo di The first is Giovanni. who shows an affinity to Boccati. Giovanni Boccati. in a chapel decorated with frescoes by Benozzo's assistant. peculiar feature presents itself in the dog held in a leash by the Infant This painter bears Christ. with features of a Sienese kind. From Camerino the distance is short. each present a kneeling brother of their respective Orders. the Madonna and Child. and whose profuse patterns. to Gualdo Tadino. Giovanni Santi died in 1494. and was buried in the church of S. The Virgin and Child are seen enthroned between two angels. which claims two painters. has also a picture. which extended along the sea-board of the Marches. Domenick and Francis. also Eeminiscences of the manner of Benozzo appear in Matteo da Gualdo. now in the gallery at Perugia. on the hills outside Gubbio. representing the Virgin and Child.Chap. we come to Camerino. however second-rate. with predella. generally believed to be his son. Thomas This tells the influence of the Vii-arini and Cyprian.

Salvador at Fuligno. early Sienese masters. between Perugia and Todi. Pietro Antonio. endorsed. He is known to frescoes attributed to have studied under Benozzo Gozzoli. who signs himself called S. in Giotto's some of his impressions. which Benozzo had seen and perhaps copied at Rome. is an interesting picture. accompanied and sturdiness than the succeeding by greater fulness Umbrian painters ." is seen in a picture at Asinaluuga. In his delineations of we remark 1458 is preserved upon the high altar of the Franciscan church at Diruta. St. who laboured at the beginning of the fifteenth century. though full of grace and feeling." He may be characterised as uniting such feeling belonging to Fra Angelica as Benozzo could transmit. .* Bartolommeo di Tommaso of Fuligno. displays much the same Umbrian types in a picture in S. just alluded to. a bad imitator of Luca Signorelli. belongs also to Fuligno. This painter leads us to his cotemporary and fellow townsman. frequent. with a native Umbrian tendency two styles which . for Navicella. His Annunciation. " Nicolaus Fulignas. of the year 1466.266 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. for in the Annunciation at Assisi a dog accompanies the Virgin. and him repeat not only the forms of his master but instance. the Infant holds a dog in its arms. * Another Gualdo. and at Sigillo. Niccolb Alunno gave more expression to the gentle type of Madonna and angels hitherto aimed at in this part of Italy. Francis. The Winds. presentations suffering earliest known work a Madonna with Angels and Saints. severe and solemn. the Madonna with a club driving away the demon from a woman with a child. which are but his rea peculiar enthusiasm and violent His are of exaggerated. almost in the style of the. Above. are imitated in a chapel Maria in Campis. and in his male figures he has an had a natural affinity. This master also introduces the same strange feature observed before. among cherubim . in S. Niccolb Alunno of Fuligno. Book IV. is the First Person of the Trinity. who signs himself " Bernardus Hieronitni Gualden pingebat. a short distance from Fuligno on the way to Spoleto. Maria Nuova at Perugia. earnestness of expression.

Angelo. are now in the Frescoes by Alunno are also preserved in S. : and Saints on each side. not far from Perugia. also still exist of the pictures originally belonging to the high altar in the cathedral at Assisi they represented a Pieta. Severino (1468). . " natural- A istic tendency. The head of one of the angels is of great beauty. No record of Niccolo Alunno appears after 1499." of the Castle of S. : they are much Fragments injured. A attempted carefully. S. according to Vasari. a whole-length He figure on a gold ground. Maria . Another. his * Memorandum by Sir C. level of true beauty One of the earliest masters who brought the school of Perugia into notice was Benedetto Bonfigli. Porta at Fuligno and are of no high merit. and in S. Eastlake : Perugia. below. Many other of his works are found dispersed in the March of Ancona. are Saints in prayer. influence also foreshortenings and to Without attributing drew minutely and him much power and he yet held a place destined to be raised to the by Perugino. containing scenes from the Passion. consisted of several pieces. chief compartments of an altar-piece of the church of the Augustins. L. UMBRIAN SCHOOLS. Francesco at Gualdo (1471). pleasing Madonna. is of inferior value. wept so naturally that a last better artist could hardly have been more successful. 1499. similar to this last-named. with the Eesurrectiou above. are still preserved there they include a Nativity. not confined to this specimen. who. with two angels. usage. belongs to the finest works of this master. though at that time almost obsolete.Chap. 1856. at Fuligno (1492). Almost all those we have mentioned. In the absence of all records regarding the early life of this painter. is seen here in the priedieu of the Madonna. which has an open cupboard with * Other altar-pieces by him are in the church books. with the donor and other figures. in La Bastia. The predella pictures. Niccolo. in the sacristy of the principal church at Nocera (not far from The Fuligno). however. the altar-piece of S. II. of highly animated and dramatic character. His known work. &c. is in the Berlin Museum. and which is thus connected with the ultimate culmination of Raphael. i'uori la amounting almost to caricature. according to the early. Louvre.

nor does the character of his art supply the deficiency.268 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. and two Saints. in is ostensibly of the year 1460. in only similarity- between Btnfigli and Perugino consists folds in the eyes.' or peculiar what technically termed 'the drapery. are the earliest records of his art. Book IV. have a charm of their own. 1496. and two paintings on wood Angels with the Instruments of the Passion belong to his more pleasing On the other hand. of the year 1469. A the Academy. They represent the Toulouse and of St. painted probably as a banner for processions). at Francesco. in S. Pietro de' Cassinensi. hard. with a love of detail almost akin to Flemish art. perhaps. is the only clue to the approximate time of Bonfigli''s death. Eastlake remarks. Girolamo and Leonardo. a large picture of Christ productions. in Glory. and a series of eight panels. SS. are stiff. alleged connection with Perugino receives no corroboration. Louis of S. His best work. and The frescoes in the Palazzo del Consiglio Perugia (in the antechamber of the Delegates). in picturesque arrangement and application of his subject. is In the * Sir 0. Bonfigli has a certain Umbrian grace and sweetness of colour. they have naivete of The architectural backgrounds (see woodcut) expression.* He approaches in some respects the character of Pietro della Benozzo Gozzoli. Paduan school is decidedly in advance of him. in S. Ercolano. L. The same may be said of a Madonna with a Dead. Perugia. Bernardino. and though legends of no great merit in action or form. and the Acts of S. usually wearing crowns of roses. who. is assigned to them jointly. and in others that of Gentile da Fabriano. " The 1858. Fiorenzo is believed to have laboured in Bonfigli's atelier. seen in the Academy at Perugia. and portraitlike. in the chapel of the brotherhood of that name (after 1461. Domenico. Bernardino. and in certain to an acquaintance with the refinements in the conception of his forms pointing. Christ. are correct in perspective and delicately executed. of the Life of S. The works of Fiorenzo are rare. Madonna with Saints. The date of his will. an Adoration of the Kings. begun in 1454." . The last-mentioned master is connected with a somewhat younger painter. and his angels.

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Francesco de' Conventual!. now come to the greatest We name associated with Perugia. 269 sacristy of S. . at Arezzo. graceful del Consiglio (over . is a fresco in S. representing a Madonna and Child. This work. the First Person of the Trinity between Romano and Rocco. from his residence at Perugia was born in 1446. which are very careful in execution and in excellent preservation . are two pictures of St. Paul. in the Berlin Museum. dated 1475. Agostino. as well as others. chronicle : " Due giovin par d'etate e par d'amori Leonardo da Vinci e'l Perusino Pier della Pieve ch'e un divin pittore. His early instruction has been assigned to Bonfigli . but it is known that he acted as assistant to Pietro della Francesco. sup. Pietro Perugino. at Perugia.Chap. PIETRO PERUGINO. studying under Verocchio with Leonardo da Vinci and LoTo this time Giovanni Santi refers in his renzo di Credi. was versed in the study of perspective." that Perugino. of a dry character the leads to the supposition that a picture Adoration of the Magi. and two adoring Madonna with Angels is in the Palazzo angels. p. inspired doubtless by Pietro della Francesca. inscribed with the name of the artist and the year 1487. hitherto pronounced to be an early production of Perugino. SS. dated 1481. also the upper portion of a large semicircular picture. Perugino appears in Florence. tion of that He thus laid the founda- works. Pietro Vanned della Pieve (" de Castro plebis ") so called from his birthplace. Academy painter is accounted for up to 1499. II. Francesco at Diruta. Castello della Pieve -or more commonly. in the at Perugia. Vitruv: ub. Umbrian feeling which is never absent from his About the year 1475. and now strangely misnamed a The life of this Ghirlandajo is by Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. Another work assigned to the master. A Madonna on gold ground. shows the dawning influence of Perugino himself. A the door of the Sala del Cadasto Nuovo) another is in a side chapel of S. and he and Leonardo da Vinci are named together for proficiency in It is known that science by a cotemporary writer. Peter and St.* * There is no doubt also Caporali. 16.

270 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. period. in of the and in the drapery. in the beautiful Florentine manner. that they studied the mysteries of the then new art of oilpainting together. then in the Royal Gallery at the Hague. The dates of Perugino's earlier works are define. in the church of La Calza us decidedly of Luca Signorelli. between 1475 and 1489. in order his share to the decorations of the Sistine Chapel. We numerous groups of spectators. If his early works indicate the prevailing tone of his mind and feelings. Perugino was summoned to to contribute at Florence. They display some difficult to characteristic earlier style. This art Perugino was among the first to bring to perfection tempera. A circular decidedly to his of this kind is in the picture but belong Museum of Berlin. who appears about thirty years of age . the kings and their followers are represented standing together.'' but those remaining the Baptism of Christ and the Delivering the Keys to Peter rentine manner. Many small pictures exist. peculiarities. once in the Corsini Palace at Rome. A picture of the Crucifixion. the arrangement this is are decidedly in the Floapparent in the composition. at the same time he excelled in the art of circular picture at Paris. particularly in Florence. pass over other works of this After Perugino had thus passed through the schools. Book IV. with the portrait of the artist. to which several works There is a proof executed about 1470-1480 bear witness. a Madonna with two adoring angels. reminds In about the year 1480 Rome by Sixtus IV. and if the effect of study appears to predominate in those which . Saints. he returned to his own first manner. During his stay in Florence. evidently executed before he had experienced the influence of the Florentine school. where he was the only artist employed not a Florentine. of this in an Adoration of the Kings in S. with quiet and characteristic. he appears at one time to have rather inclined to the then prevalent taste for direct imitation. this is a beautiful specimen by him of method. Some of these works were afterwards destroyed to make room still " Last for Michael Angela's Judgment . .. Maria Niiova at Perugia. A and now in the Louvre.

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of *no sex. and its restriction to a few and ever-repeated Florentines. intentionally avoided the higher department of dramatic historical painting and all the other painters of his school (Raphael always excepted) remain in this respect considerably behind the . yet became. positions. but also evidences of intrinsic defects. are here represented. Where by degenerating frequently into mere a number of his pictures are seen together. The hitherto unexampled intensity of Perugino's otherwise monotonous expression. His best works were executed between 1490 and 1505. in the warm. it would seem. . characteristic also of Perugino in those rich decorations of his robes and positive mode of viewing and sparkling drapery. draped. and clearness which his intermediate study had taught. its Perugino. according and frequently of super- natural purity and beauty. 271 which he returned to his natural taste. both of the flesh and beauty. generally half nude. though it made amends for other absent qualities. It was at this time he acquired that grace and softness. In accounting for this we must remember the comparative ignorance of anatomical action which prevailed in this school. that tender enthusiastic earnestness. which. in a more real life. would have taken a more subordinate position. in course of time.Chap. point of attainment in this school. he had great and varied merit. so numerous in his pictures. Altogether these works are proofs. the heads especially those ardent are of surpassing and expression depicting youth In the colouring. drapery. which give so great a charm to his and if they sometimes leave much to be wished pictures in force and variety of character. again. the upcast eye and the expression of semi-woeful There is something ecstasy soon pall upon the spectator. a source of failing in itself. "The following are among the most celebrated : The altar-piece painted for the church of S. the period in embodying with it that force . II. not only of the highest follow. The figures of angels. mannerism. and in the well-managed gradations of his landscapes. is necessarily the greatest and most interesting epoch of the artist's life. and which in the Florentine and Paduan school of the fifteenth century appear as powerful to the early taste. bright skies. youths. PIETRO PERUGINO.

entire state. 128. Sebastian standing beside them. with the same date. Saints. Pitti. Another. Domenico and dated 1493. painted for S. in the gallery of the Vatican.' pp.at Penrgia. Chiara. or Marriage of the Virgin. Maria Nuova at Fano Madonna with Saints. perhaps. by Pius VII.^ The Ascension. . the Sposalizio. and the predella five subjects from the Materials for a History of Oil Painting.272 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. painted for and formerly in the Cappella del Magistrate at Perugia. vol. 146-152. the upper lunette . in the Belvedere Gallery at Vienna. Germain 1'Auxerrois at three pilaster Saints are in the Vatican. Pietro at Perugia . five more in S. after having been taken to Paris. t See a curious and amusing account of this picture given by Marotti in 1 Lettere pittoriche Perugine. SS. somewhat similar in subject. the lunette is in S. A picture with the Madonna with two Augustin and James. Another excellent work is an altar-piece of the year 1497 in the church of picture contains the * ' the centre S. dated 1494. at Book IV. No picture. can be quoted containing so many heads it Three sketches for : of exquisitely pathetic expression. Madonna and Child racter and expression in the Madonna. and now. firstly. the execution or completion of four splendid works show not only the perfection of his powers. an Entombment. now in the gallery of the This picture is remarkable for a very refined chaUffizi. once in the Duomo . but The Ascension was taken to Paris by the French in its now exists piecemeal in various galleries. a work much injured by neglect. and the predella. the Pieta in the rapidity of his hand. formerly in S. in the church * Agostino at Cremona. but the These are.(see woodcut). Paris . with the Baptist and St. . ii. in the Museum at Eouen. representing the enthroned. are in the gallery of the Uffizi. The principal centre is at Lyons presented to the Lyonnais . of S." In 1495. but still preserving features hardly surpassed even by his great scholar. Fiesole.' by Sir Charles Eastlake. and now at the museum of Caen in Normandy Thirdly : at Perugia. p. Pietro Maggiore and now in the gallery at Lyons and Fourthly. . Secondly The enthroned Madonna and Child surrounded by the patron Saints of Perugia.

Mer- cury. Venus. the Prophets school. PIETRO PERUGINO. is preserved in the sacristy of St. The ceiling is perfection of colour. Three of them were copied by Raphael. at Perugia. 273 of the Virgin. on an opposite pilaster " anno salut M.D. as those in the Vatican do to that of Raphael. and now in the museum at Marseilles. major and minor) in this picture were copied by Raphael in tempera on a gold ground." The of the rapidity of Perugino 's labour is seen in another work same date (1500) the Vallambrosa Assumption. f The close investigation by Signor Oavalcaselle leads him to surmis* the assistance of Raphael. with the First Person of the Trinity presiding above the Virtues and classic heroes on the left.Chap. . f and the Sybils on the pilasters is which divide the subjects : . The Madonna and the four Saints are among his finest creations. About the same time was painted the altar-piece called the Family of St. Around him are the presiding Saturn. then between sixteen and seventeen years of age. Mars. supposed to have been executed by his pupils from his The master's own portrait is seen on one of the designs. Pietro Maggiore. painted in 1498 for life the Confraternity " della Consolazione in Perugia. II. round whom kneel six figures. perhaps the earliest work by the great master. which belongs to his best time is Another work a Virgin and Child in * This. with the signs of the Zodiac on their chariot wheels. with Apollo in his chariot with four 1500.* The the great work by Perugino the series of frescoes in was completed about Sala del Cambio at Perugia These bear the same relation to the master's fame Here he has represented on the walls and ceiling of the Audience Hall a rich design. Here Perugino is seen in great right. and drapery. and Luna. Two children (SS. formerly in the " church of S. deities of the planets Jupiter. horses in the centre above. now in the Accademia at Florence. while angels hover above. The picture of the Madonna and Child. James. drawing. is in S. Anna. Domenico in that city. They are enframed in arabesques which exhibit the fine taste in decoration peculiar to the Umbrian On the walls are the Nativity and Transfiguration. These predella pictures are very fine. Maria de' Fossi at Perugia.

the Vatican. now in the gallery at Bologna. These are works of represent the martyrdom of that Saint. it is belie ved. the Madonna and Child between SS. for his master. to Rome. for instance. Hence he was summoned. however. by Julius II. he was supplanted by his young scholar Raphael.274 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. Jerome and Francis. the Madonna of the Certosa at Pavia." To about this time is attributed ' . in the church of St. preserved four medallions on the ceiling with representations of the First Person of the Trinity. In youths his attitudes and airs are more appropriate. but are chiefly characteristic as being apparently painted on the dry wall. (S. the Virgin and Child. in women and children quite so. though della Pieve. In 1502 Perugino executed the Besurrection of our Lord This is now in (see woodcut) for S. Those at Citta della Pieve Maria de' Bianchi) represent the Adoration of the Magi This subject has with numerous figures (see woodcut). in a general * Crowe and Cavalcaselle rightly pronounce this assistance to consist more working out of the whole picture upon Perugino's outlines. this as " absurd and antiquated. "The graceful and sentimental old men are generally failures in Perugino. and four saints below. a production the more worthy of note. Francesco of Perugia. It is supposed that Perugino removed from Florence to Perugia in 1506. that this was the period when Michael Angela ridiculed the style of Perugino In one sense. 1861. Sebastian. with all the master's weaknesses.'' picture may be viewed as one of the highest specimens of the reticence and intensity of expression proper to the Quattrocentisti. where. in the method called secco. where it possesses a double interest as being believed to have been partly the work of Raphael. 4 ' . L. t Sir C. The symmetrical composition and delicate tones. Eustiake remarks on this fresco. than in the execution of any particular figure. Glory with angels. if it be true as Vasari says. now in the National Gallery. after working on the walls of the Camera del' Incendio. where he produced a fine work. beautiful parts. however. Citta della Pieve.* To the years 1504-1505 belong the wall paintings at Citta and at Panicale. the chef-d'oeuvre of the master. Book IV.! frescoes at Panicale. now in the Palazzo Penna. from respect. who. about 1507.

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He executed frescoes at Frontignano as late as 1522. Perugia. whose earlier and more type he greatly resembles. with the exception of Cambio frescoes. or the little He was " painter and sometimes. which constitutes so great a part of his merit. and in some respects. 1454 called after his father di Betto or Betd from the lowness of his stature. and his upturned heads. without being re:illy imbued with it. Sebastian. therefore. of which there are many in the churches Perugia and in foreign galleries. the greatest uniformity and repetition of design prevail. His later works are also scattered about the adjacent places. He erected a large studio. According to his conventional treatment of the department of expression. are frequently out of drawing. Properly speaking. Altogether. with of considerable inequality of execution. with a certain sentimental grace which pervades his school. a ill foreshortened and Bernardo Pinturiccltio was the son of Benedetto Biagio barn at Perugia. this city possesses rather the inferior than the better specimens of the master. according as more or His last works are less gifted scholars were employed. it more gifted artist realistic Florentine would appear that he only superficially adopted the feeling His of his colleague. from his deafness. chief quality is his fine luminous colour. chief peculiarity is seen in his varied conception of character. but at the expense of his art. a than Perugino. 275 On Perugino's final return to Perugia. in which he marks the transition from the Umbrian school T 2 . He thus amassed a considerable fortune. may be mentioned as an example. the Martyrdom of S. ' . becoming even weak in colouring. and probably educated in the school of Bonfigli. and worked principally for gain. he is the historical painter of the Umbrian school. to a mere mechanical dexterity. strikingly weak S. BERNARDO PINTURICCHIO. he gave himself up. where he died of the plague. in the Francesco de' Conventuali." the assistant of Perugino.Chap. But he is often tame and conventional. Pinturicchio. favourite feature in his pictures. il Sordichio. II. In his later works. many painters of the time. of the year 1518. Perugino's. like in which several scholars were employed to execute com- missions from his designs.

order of Innocent VIII. Croce in Gerusalemme Frescoes in S. as founded by Raphael. with views of make room By Italian cities. Onofrio. but : and individual life. and are slight and hard in execution. Book IV. and Alexander VI. employed on the works of the Sistine Chapel. and scenes from the Legend of On the other hand t'le Cross are now given to Peruzzi. a Coronation of the Virgin." The former have perished. He was also employed by Innocent VIII. in the Flemish manner. by his school. 1858. he also painted the walls in the Belvedere. now called the Musco Clementino. Layard. John looking at his full of expression pen to see whether it frequently in Pinturicchio. ' * . and the new hall in the Vatican known as the " Appartamento Borgia. Pinturicchio''s best works at Rome are the decorations the first chapel of the Cappella Bufalini in S. to for Giovanni da Udine. and Perino del Vaga. latter doubtless S. St. The date 1494 appears on a cartellino on the ceiling of the fourth room. each with those conventional allusions (for example. Maria Araceli on the right they represent various scenes from the life of St. Augelo. Cecilia in the Trastevere. and before he was thirty he had executed for Cardinal della Rovere and other dignitaries important frescoes in different chapels in S. but of the Vatican suite five rooms are still preserved. H. The Frescoes by Bernardo Piuturicchio in the Collegiate Church of Published by Maria Maggiore at Spello. and others in S. be sharp enough) which recur so Other frescoes of uncertain date and much injured are added to the master's works in Rome -those on the ceiling of the Sacristy of St.276 to the MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. Bernard of Siena. now very imperfectly traceable. " less brilliant and subtle colourist than Perugino less A tender and religious in sentiment he displays greater dramatic vigour and unity in his works."* Of We find the earlier productions of Pinturicchio little is known. Roman.' by Right Hon. him first. The frescoes of the sixth room were destroyed by Leo X. A. Arundel the Society. The four Evangelists are painted in this style on the vaulted roof. as the assistant or colleague of Perugino. in decorating with frescoes various walls in the Castle of S. showing the decay of that spiritualism which especially distinguishes the former. Maria del Popolo. He was soon engaged on independent labours.

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WITH ANGELS AND DONOR Duomo Nuovo.MADONNA AND CHILD. 277. . Chapel cf Sacristy. Severino. p. S. Altar-piece by Finturicchio. .

perhaps. and between a string of beads which hang from the frame are a On a pilaster in the same fresco is the palette and brush. and Child. beautiful in the clouds are two adoring and serious. in the heads especially the character and expression are conceived and rendered with feeling. 501. Pinfnricchio left Rome for Perugia in 1496. and beneath a shelf on which volumes are painter with his signature. it might be doubted whether he had painted there at all. BERNARDO PIXTURICCHIO. sleeps in a grand cast of drapery we may mention de' Palazzo : . the portrait of the * Recently ascribed to Ingegno. more than any other of the Umbrian the peculiarly deep and pure feeling of Niccolb Alunno. lying. that. and now in the Academy. Pinturicchio commenced a series of frescoes in the collegiate church at Spello. but whatever he executed there has been so neglected or injured. on her lap. .' vol. with angels and donor (see fine woodcut). though long forgotten and in no way exempted from the general maltreatment common to all art in Italy. fronting the spectator her large mantle forms the Child. See Passavant's ' Rafael. of the Sacristy in the In 1500. united with a better knowledge of form and a more beautiful manner. They consist of three subjects the Annunciation above. : angels. in the private chapel Duomo Nuovo at S. then in his forty-sixth year. the loveliest attitude . p. now protected by a glass. she folds her hands and looks down. were it not for documentary evidence. executed for S. 1491-2. with the Nativity and Dispute with the Doctors on each side below. quiet. Pinturicchio was called to Orvieto to contribute to the decorations of the Cathedral. where his first and one of his finest works is an altar-piece in several compartments. During his labours in Rome. II. These important works. . Anna. as if suspended from the wall. 277 a Madonna and Child in a chapel of the Conservator! in the Capitol * she is seated enthroned. In the Annunciation a composition with rich architecture is seen. school. i.Chap. Severino. have at all events not suffered the tender mercies of restoration. is Another the Madonna the deepest specimen. and are now rescued from oblivion by the labours of the Arundel Society. This picture displays.

was comas pleted in 1507. 1825. and of a more delicate oval. work. one of which. On the left. sawn from the wall are in the possession of * ' Mr. The master's last authentic Engraved in the Raccolta delle piu celebri pitture esistenti nella citta di Siena. is in the UflBzi. Firenze. The heads The Perugino's some of them very here are of a very different type to beautiful. He is in a long black robe. the remnants of which the History of Penelope and two others.* In some of them Pintuassisted. The master was next engaged on what remains his most important monument. MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. and by Raphael in his ground is to typify the Sposalizio in the Brera. and is characteristic of the place held by the painter between Perugino and Raphael. at all events in design. The Trojolo Baglioni. Nativity is the least successful. theless. the heads. interrupted by many minor undertakings. again in his Sposalizio at Caen. being The angels singing above have Christ Disputing with the Doctors has much dignity and individuality. all Perugino's grace.' . Book IV. by the youthful as proved by still existing drawings. These drawings Neverfeeling than the pictures themselves. which is introduced by Perugino in Christ's Charge to Peter in the Sistine Chapel. the decorations of the celebrated Libreria attached to the cathedral at Siena. Barker. there is much grace in single figures and it is in the general by a profusion of arabesques and architectural ornaments which render the Libreria the most perfect Some of example existing of this class of Umbrian art. These consist of a series of ten historical subjects from the life of Enea Silvio Piccolomini Pope Pius II. and attended by a priest with a purse in his hand. is the portrait of the Prior scattered in composition. in a group of figures. In the back- one of those polygonal domed buildings intended Temple of Jerusalem. Later works in fresco were executed by Pinturicchio for Pandolfo Petrucci at Siena. show the influence of This great Perugino's frescoes in the Cambio at Perugia. and even whole figures. Raphael.278 date 1501. representing the departure of Enea Silvio with Cardinal ricchio was show a higher eifect. the donor. set off Capranico (see woodcut).

Libreria. by Pinturicchio. Siena.LIFE OV ENEA SILVIO PICCOLOMINI . . 278. p.

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the lower church of Assisi. though in no instance founded on signature or other certain Next to Raphael. which alternately predominate. and the Studj at Naples to the system of tempera. by Adone Doni" less weak. but remained true Amongst his pictures on panel are the Assumption of the Virgin. The Sybils in his work. Fra Filippo LippL Upon the whole.Chap. . LO SPAGNA. and modern research has In the words elicited no proof of his existence as a painter. his wife ran away with a lover and left him to die of neglect and starvation. whose influence is seen strongly imOne of Lo frescoes painted as late as 1526-27. Severino . now For is reported that. usually quoted as are much later in date. affinity . Vasari's account of him teems with chronological errors. bear his name. donor half-length figures in a rich landscape in the Sacristy of S. in the Museum. is a Nativity executed for the Convent at Todi and now in the Vatican. and are possibly. and are always carried out with conscientious There is also evidence of his power of finish and delicacy. imitation. painted in in which year his life came to a tragic conclusion. His style is a mixture of the Peruginesque and Eaphaelesque. Pinit turicchio never mastered the use of oil. at Milan. also a large Adora- tion of the Kings. Various pictures. though undated. . a beautiful 279 work 1513 is Calvary. of a Peruginesque class. Another name which has been included among the asand the companions of Raphael is that sistants of Perugino of Andrea Allovisi. cabinet picture. the Procession to in the Casa Borromeo. as certain localities gave him manner of Ghirlandajo's school. There is no record of his birth. Agostino at S. like more or data. he shows the greatest in his to Perugino. on pressed Spagna's earliest pieces. called Lo Spagna. Berlin and a graceful Madonna and Child. adoption. the rest of the frescoes. the most distinguished of Perugino's undoubted scholars is the Spaniard. Giovanni di Pietro. II. of Sir Charles Eastlake. in the gallery of the and the Madonna and Child. being ill. and of of the opportunity. called L'Ingegno. " Ingegno remains a mystery. or of the period when he joined Perugino.

and in fine drawing and colour. Stefano. near Spoleto . Mamigliano at Spoleto. Francesco at Assisi. in the church of that name between Spoleto and Fuligno. In the Stanza di S. Lo Spagna's best picture. and of St. attributed alternately to Lo Spagna and . charming early specimen of his hand in the gallery at Kovigo is called a Perugino. and remarkable for grace and nobleness. for the Franciscans of S. Virgin being the subject most in demand from his hand. he painted a number of portraits of Saints. Thomas Baring's fine gallery to JEusebio di S. An Assumption in the mortuary chapel of the same convent is one of his finest works. in S. and in most respects the same composition. Evidences of his industry appear in frescoed churches at the Coronation of the Eggi and at Gavelli. Some of the latest of these show great feebleness. A Martino at Trevi. Among these Messrs. is in the chapel of S. a Raphaelesque character. in varied action. in 1511. S. especially the head and hands of St. Cecilia. In 1507 he is proved to have undertaken a Coronation of the Virgin for the church of the Eiformati at Todi. dated 1538. Crowe & Cavalcaselle include the tempera and much injured altar-piece called the Ancajani Raphael (see woodcut) in the Berlin Museum. with three Saints on each side. Book ]V. are finely drawn. His death occurred in 1533. of in the church of * Various pictures which have hitherto borne the name of Paphael are ascribed to Lo Spagna.* The name . painted 1516. same church. Catherine of Alexandria. Of great excellence also is an Entombment in the church of the Two canvases in the delle La grime near Trevi. and are redolent of Madonna Raphael. containing the single figures of St. in the choir of the church Degli Angeli at Assisi.280 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. representing the Madonna enthroned. but full of genuine feeling and purity. Giorgio. Catherine. Spagna's chief residence was at Spoleto. Jacopo. now A is signed picture. That which is so attractive in the early pictures of Raphael is here followed out in the happiest manner. of Jacopo Siculo appears as a follower of Lo Spagna he was also his son-in-law. chiefly of the Franciscan Order. scenes from the life of S. He repeated the same subject. The so-called Raphael in is Mr. Francesco. These are grand and severe figures. where he has left numerous frescoes.

Chap. Sepolcro but the picture is too poor an example. 281 Another scholar of Perugino. a" Assisi. called Bertucci. signed. are finely understood. UMBRIAN SCHOOLS. Borgo also seen in an altar-piece in S. while the mother kneels in prayer in Agostino in Borgo S. or power of colouring. Tiberio Sinibaldo Ibi. Francis re- ceiving the Stigmata (1507). in The heads the little Baptist seated in the centre below. Pietro Maggiore at Pistoia. and who has also an aflinity in his gilt architecture and colossal . Fragments of fresco in and about show a warm colourist. Tommaso. dated 1505 or 1506. imitated his manuer. Perugia. consisting of a : clever series of figures. and St. an Annunciation. No later works by Eusebio are known. shows the influence of Piiitnriccliio. Francesco Giovanni Baltani Caporali. Among these may be mentioned Giannicola (Manni) an altar-piece by him. conceived. to serve as dated 1509. . with whose works the churches of Perugia and the neighbouring country overflow. Here may be also mentioned Gerino da Pistoia. the Franciscan church at Matellica. rivalling him in feeling. . in the same town. and dated 1512. and Girolamo Genga may be added to the last. livelily Agostino. and also sometimes emulates Lo Spagna in the imitation of Raphael's early works. Euselio di S. of Berto di Giovanni. modelling and colour. His name and the date 1502 are on a Madonna del Soccorso the Virgin saving a Child from the Evil Spirit. was another painter influenced by Perugino and Pinturicchio. This quality is S. a follower of Perugino and friend of Pinturicchio. The other scholars of Perugino. The names Melanzio. The Adoration of the Kings in the Chapel of the Epiphany in S. is in the Academy at Perugia another is over the high altar of S. however. and Pinturicchio. Giorgio. for instance. without. The predella picture shows a combination of Raphael. This is imbued with the study of Raphael. Giovanni Battista da Faenza. Sepolcro. and full His best work is the altar-piece in of life and grand effect. at Damiano Assisi. S. though ho lived considerably beyond that time. and extremities of all the figures are admirable in drawing. II. Perugino. is powerfully and Two frescoes in the cloisters of S.

Domenico's name was associated in friendship with the youthful Raphael at Perugia. is in the Faenza Gallery. Long * after the death of Perugino. L. It has much merit. and Rocco Zoppo. Faenza. In their later works. in four pieces. the influence of II Rosso Fiorentino. with a in the sketch of the Borghese Entombment at the back. They are found working on a Crucifixion. in our woodcut." Adone Doni at first followed the same general style. inscribed with Rocco's name. f Adone Doni painted some Sibyls in S. Jtaphael imitated them. Pietro at Perugia. L. are of the same class. strongly recal the Orleans Raphael in the late Mr. He and his son Orazio both equally copied the designs of Raphael. 1858. Francesco we find among Perugino's scholars the Florentines surnamed II Bacchiacca. E. . is preserved Wicat Collection at Lille. in which it is difficult to distinguish father from son. but thev were executed long after the great artist's death. signed altar-piece. but afterwards adopted that of the Eoman school formed by of the Kings in his first Adoration graceful Raphael. especially the profile of the little St. the Ferrarese master. manner is in S. into pictures A Ferrarese character is also dis- cernible in Bertucci "and the monkey (bertuccio) introduced by Ercole Grandi. who usually painted small pictures with numerous figures. A graceful and highly finished Holy Family either by Domenico or Orazio is in the tribune of the Uffizi. in the Berlin Museum."]" Domenico di Paris Alfani. until the latter half of the sixteenth century. C. Kogers' collection. Book IV. Lastly. dated 1506. with SS.282 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. Eastlake. in which year Domenico is believed to have died. and the letter to him from the great master. as together late as 1533. An is Adoration of the Shepherds. the painters of Perugia imitated his Memorandum by Sir G. at Assisi. late in the It has been sometimes erroneously asserted that sixteenth century. with whom he was perhaps professionally associated. In this respect the Madonna and Child. A and his son Orazio. Jerome and Apollonia. Francesco. is discernible. John below A with adoring hands. Ubertini. arabesques to Marco Palmezzano. who fled to Perugia at the sack of Kome. whose peculiar hardness reminds us of his relation Marco Zoppo. sug* the gests possibility of Bertuccio having studied with him.

HOLY FAMILY. by Domeuico di Pans Alfam .

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and the portrait of the donor. a Ferrarese painter who frequented Bologna. Jacopo Maggiore. He was apprenticed to a goldsmith in Bologna. to his artists 283 manner and clung intrusion of a modes of conception. formerly in the Zambeccari Collection. affinity exists between him and Perugino in period. in tenderness of feeling.Chap." is to the latest date seldom absent from any of his more important productions. and for him he executed. that he is justly included called II Francia So strong an the Umbrians. but the fact that pictures by Perugino were seen in Bologna towards the close his of the fifteenth century accounts probably for the Umbrian His early pictures. Mantegna also visited Bologna in 1472. though younger than Francia. now in the Gallery of Bologna the beautiful Madonna and Child with Augels. one of tendency of Francias works. painted for is in the Berlin Museum. It is believed that among is . To the period signature between 1490 and 1500 belong the Madonna with six Saints. when the of a naturalistic tendency at once put an end to these feeble remains of a once great and admirable aim. the metallic and polished surface. born at Bologna about 1450. show : the hand of a goldsmith in the clear outline. though never entirely lost. few We Perui/ino must here introduce a painter equal in rank to namely. now at Munich and the Annunciation at the Brera. and became steward to the Goldsmith's Guild there in 1483. died 1517. which Bartolormneo Biauchini the Madonna. in a higher development of pictorial feeling. Francesco di Marco Raibolini. Bartolommeo Felicini. aud surmised to have been pupil. then paramount in Bologna. and minut a of detail. in treatment both of tempera and oil. Lorenzo Custa. Of Francia's education in art. Joseph. Francia was patronised by Giovanni Bentivoglio. Child. . the large altar-piece in the Bentivoglio Chapel in S. FRANCESCO FRANCIA. These characteristics were afterwards modified. in 1499. while his " Aurifex. little known. gave him instruction in the secrets of colour. commonly . and in class of subject. he was master of his art by the time he was forty years old. II. It has been asserted that he turned his attention to painting at an advanced age at all events. and St.

is one of the purest creations of art while the Madonna in the lunette Pieta is a pathetic reality both in age and expression such as no other painter has brought The period of this refined maturity of grace in Francia corresponds with that of the friendship between himself and the youthful Raphael. the Frediano. Cecilia at Bologna. this work by Lorenzo the two painters. Frediano.Felicini. . and Angels musical instruments below. are all examples of his power of spiritual These qualities expression combined with gem-like colour. and fulness of expression. the The As his Costa. Lucca. whose portrait. specify. the grace both of expression and composition increased. representing the Virgin and Child with SS. however un- equal in parts. and further testified by letters which passed between them commenced in 1508. shows his mastery in this walk of art. Francia also transferred all his grace and sweetness into the art of fresco. formerly in the Buonvisi Chapel in S. and in adoration on playing on each side. suggested to have forth. when Rapliael proceeded from Florence to Urbino. like that of Bartolommeo. The little Baptist. in 1505-6. Angels and Saints was also executed for a Bentivoglio. a Nativity in the Museum Forli. attain their utmost perfection in the picture with lunette in the National Gallery. and executed in conjunction with Lorenzo Costa in 1509. throne on which are seated the Madonna and Anna. Book IV. proves the friendship between Francia's productions are too numerous to gallery of Bologna contains a rich series of art matured. Bologna. at the foot of the St. probably taking Bologna on his way. Another masterpiece in the Bologna Gallery Virgin and Child. Florian John Evangelist.284 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. Sebastian one of his grandest. Two of these are by Francia . The predella to Augustiu. pointing upwards. a series illustrating the life of that Saint. This is one of his chefs-d'oeuvre for harmony and depth of colour. The Coronation Assumption at of the Virgin in at S. the only surviving specimens of which are in the oratory of S. The group of the Virgin and Child here forms one of his most beautiful creations. and Sebastian. them. Lucca. Duomo at Ferrara. and the figure of St.

long called a Raphael.* scription. vol ii. * A within the Baptistery of S. sonnet by Gio.not die of envy is sufficiently proved by his unvarying friendly intercourse with Raphael. Engraved for the Arundel Society. and by the harmony of lines and colour. See Malrasia ' Felsina Pittrice. 285 marriage with St. 54. 353. That Francia did . even in his heads of youths. The story given by Vasari that his death was caused by envy and mortification at the sight of Raphael's St. like too many by the inaccurate proved to be devoid of truth. J Respecting this much-disputed question. Crowe and Cavalcaselle assign the man of about forty years of age in the Lichtenstein Gallery. Vienna.tri. in no is one of the characteristics of the way impairs the beauty of his type. His power of rendering the tenderest and pearliest female complexion is unsurpassed. shows feelings of an opposite kind. p. 46. See same volume. and a delicate carnation given to the eyelids. days of 1518. long admired as a Raphael. Giovanni Evangelista in Brescia. The much A in the Turin Gallery bears date 1515. or rather is decaying. bears his latest date. He died in the of Francia's charm is still seen here. which hand. Pieta injured signed small Madonna and Child in the collection of Baron Much first Speck. Cecilia. on the arrival of that picture in Bologna historian.Chap. see the German translation of Vas. is highly Peruginesque. Cecilia's ment. p. Francia is also recorded to have excelled in female portraits. in the Louvre. The whole series have been subjected to neglect and injury of the most sordid deSt. We The have alluded to Francia's power over portraiture. 1517. Lutschena. near Leipsic.J A sonnet addressed by Francia to Raphael. 1514-16 is.' vol. i. and her entombThese are readily distinguishable from the rest by their exquisite purity and nobility of feeling. colour Saints adoring the Trinity is preserved. t Calvi. FRANCESCO FRANCIA. Another. portrait fine of Vangelista Scappi in the Uffizi. as well as from the enthusiastic sonnet he addressed to him. scholar of Francia in 1491 To Francia also Messrs.! tine portrait of a No painter certainly has given greater sweetness and beauty to his Madonna heads. Valerian. and supposed to represent Timoteo della Vite is now adjudged to the master. Cano. p. . p. weetest composition and beautiful specimen of 350. II.

with other influences. more The in the first school of Siena.* Its sweetness. insipidity. in these itself. now received an impulse back again from that school. but later an assistant of Raphael. is less resembles him. with shepherds conversing Palazzo della Viola at Bologna. His brother Guide Aspertini An Adoration of the Kings Bologna. believed to have been Francid's pupil. Lucca. and not all the works ascribed to him in collections were really by his own hand. . was frequently imitated by his scholars. but never equalled him in beauty and dignity. is an agreeable picture. . which. Book IV On the other hand. Valerian and Tiburtius in the series of frescoes in S.286 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. 1825. is in the of his pictures are Museum. had acted upon the Umbrian. but wild. may be mentioned they continued to practise the manner of the master. also. by him. and other places. He also contributed the subject of the decapitation of SS. Amico Aspertini. it is easy to believe a saying imputed to Raphael. another artist from the school of Francia. was a capricious and fantastical painter he united the manner of his master with that of the A pleasing fresco by him. ' * See Raccolta delle piu celebri pitture esistenti nella cittst di Siena : Firenze. led to its partial revival about the beginning of the sixteenth century. in the Gallery at though somewhat fantastical. which are almost obliterated. Bologna. Cecilia. Among his best scholars. pages. which. his cousin and son. Giulio and Giacomo Francia.' . will be given under the Ferrarese masters Of Timoteo della Vite. undoubtedly influenced by Mantegna. Frediano. that Francias Madonnas were the most devoutly The master's type of the Madonna head beautiful he knew. Endymion. Diana and school of Ferrara. nor in depth of expression. and mechanical tendency have been set forth In its later phase it remained true to never throwing off the trammels of its local character. a scholar of Francia. He also painted frescoes in S. An account of Lorenza Costa. the Gallery at Bologna. before its total decline half of the fifteenth century. will be said under the school of the great master. Numerous pictures by them are in the Berlin Museum. also in the Berlin Two in front.

A characteristic insipid. as well as several pictures in the Academy. 287 art though showing the influence of the general development of in the great centres of Italy. Siena. and the impress of individual painters. where he is influenced by Perugino in . are attributed to him. which. peculiar their blue His type of Madonna head is male heads and his dry and poor. and even of that of Fra Bariolommeo. which effectually conceals the Sienese type. but the similarity of their art has assisted to keep up the mistake. of the master is the heaviness of his hands at the fingers' The Coronation of the Virgin in the church of the ends. Bernardino Fungai is a Sienese painter who.Chap. He is not only confounded by historians with Gimlamo del Pacchia. in the Sienese Academy. partakes of the character of Mariotto Albertinelli. The Coronation of the Virgin in S. Siena. The Madonna and Child between SS. SIENESE PAINTERS. is an average example of He the painter. than of his works. In 1518. more or less More is known of his life. is known to have been early in Rome. He also . and the works believed to be his bear a strong They are chiefly Rafaelesque. An Ascension in the Carmine. Paul and Bernard. Del Paccliia took part with Beccafumi and Razzi in the frescoes in S. and even Florentine impress. Bernardino. Del PaccJtia. in flatness. Siena. is an example of his tendency towards the Rafaelesque school. Vivarini. found in and near Siena. Sienese artists also travelled to foreign parts. and use of gilding. Spirito. showing that mixed character which precluded the formation of a consistent stylo. partakes of the school. Madonna di Fonte Giusta. We give a specimen in our woodcut. recal Pinturicchio. II. is also numerously represented in the Fungai sometimes slightly resembles the He died in 1516. also faint in his landscapes. Giacomo di Bartolommeo Pacchiarotto. is another painter of mixed character. born 1477. died 1540. But he is rather pleasing in his children and angels. absence of chiaroscuro. which was a troubled one. born 1474. yet no infusion of foreign elements ever entirely sufficed to wear out the Sienese type. Sienese Academy. grafted on the Sienese stock. though distance.

Book IV. After this time a new tendency ensued the person of Gianantonio Razzi. who stands on a far higher level. with the dead body of S. The is third of the series. The Virgin .288 MASTERS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. an agreeable picture with Sienese characteristics.and Child in the National Gallery. is another name of Sienese period about 1520 to whom an altar-piece in the in Sienese art in Academy is assigned. who is represented journeying to Monte Pulciano to visit S. Andrea Puccinelli del Bresciano. hitherto given to Pacchiarotto. Catherine of Siena. . the most remarkable. Agnese. and will be described further on. illustrating the story of St. commonly called 11 Sodoma. is now assigned this to Del Pacclda. Agnese. contributed three frescoes to the church of S. Caterina.

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