# The Bipolar Linear Momentum transported by the Electromagnetic

Waves: Origin of the Gravitational Interaction
Fran De Aquino

Besides energy, the electromagnetic waves transport linear momentum. Then, if this momentum is
absorbed by a surface, pressure is exerted on the surface. This is the so-called Radiation Pressure. Here
we show that this pressure has a negative component (opposite to the direction of propagation of the
radiation) due to the existence of the negative linear momentum transported by the electromagnetic
waves. This fact leads to an important theoretical discovery: the velocity of the electromagnetic waves in
free space is not a constant. In addition, a generalized equation of the Newton’s law of Gravitation, is
deduced starting from the concept of negative radiation pressure applied on the Gravitational Interaction.

Key words: Gravity, Gravitation, Electromagnetic Waves, Radiation Pressure.

1. Introduction 2. Theory

Electromagnetic waves transport The energy of a harmonic oscillator is
energy as well as linear momentum. Then, if quantized in multiples of hf , and given by
this momentum is absorbed by a surface, E n = (n + 12 )hf n = 0,1,2,... (3)
pressure is exerted on the surface. Maxwell
where f is the classical frequency of
showed that, if the incident energy U is
totally absorbed by the surface during a oscillation, and h is the Planck’s constant
time t , then the total momentum q transferred [2]. When n = 0 , Eq. (3) shows that
to the surface is q = U v [1]. Then, the E 0 = 12 hf . This value is called energy of the
pressure, p (defined as force F per unit area zero point. Thus, the energy of the harmonic
A ), exerted on the surface, is given by oscillator, at equilibrium with the
F 1 dq 1 d ⎛ U ⎞ 1 (dU dt )
surrounding medium, does not tend to zero
p= = = ⎜ ⎟= (1) when temperature approaches to absolute
A A dt A dt ⎝ v ⎠ v A zero, but stays equal to E0 .
whence we recognize the term (dU dt ) A as In the particular case of massless
the radiation power density, D , (in watts/m2) oscillators (photons, for example), E0 does
arriving at the surface 1 . Thus, if v = c the
not correspond to the lowest value of the
radiation pressure exerted on the surface is
energy, which the oscillator can have,
p=
D
(2) because, when temperature approaches to
c absolute zero the oscillator frequency
Here we show that this pressure has a becomes dependent of the temperature T , as
negative component (opposite to the show the well-known expression of the
direction of propagation of the photons) due thermal De Broglie wavelength (Λ ) for
to the existence of the negative linear
massless particles [3, 4], which is given by
momentum transported by the photons. This
ch
(4)
1
fact leads to an important theoretical Λ= 1
⇒ 1
2 hf = π 3 kT
discovery: the velocity of the electromagnetic 2π kT
3

waves in free space is not a constant. In Then, the lowest value of the energy 12 hf , in
addition, a generalized equation of the Newton’s
law of Gravitation is deduced starting from the the case of the photon, for example, will be a
concept of negative radiation pressure applied on fraction of the value 12 hf correspondent to a
the Gravitational Interaction. critical temperature Tc very close to absolute
. zero. The mentioned fraction must be only
related to the frequency f , and a frequency
1
This value is also called of Poynting vector. limit, f g , whose value must be extremely
2
large. Just a simple algebraic form, the Equation above shows the existence
quotient f f g , can express satisfactorily the of a bipolar linear momentum transported by
mentioned fraction. Thus, according to Eq. the electromagnetic waves. For f < 2 f g the
(4), we can write that resultant momentum transported by the
⎛ f ⎞ 1 photon is positive, i.e., If this momentum is
1
2 hf ⎜ ⎟ = π 3 kT
⎜f ⎟
(5) absorbed by a surface, pressure is exerted on
⎝ g⎠ the surface, in the same direction of
Above Tc , the photon absorbs energy from propagation of the photon. These photons are
well-known. However, Eq. (7) point to a new
the surrounding medium 2 [5], and its energy
type of photons when f = 2 f g . In this case
becomes equal to hf . Therefore, the energy
absorbed by the photon is q = 0 , i.e., this type of photon does not exert
pressure when it incides on a surface. What
⎛ f ⎞ means that it does not interact with matter.
U = hf − 12 hf ⎜ ⎟
⎜f ⎟
(6) Obviously, this corresponds to a special type
⎝ g⎠ of photon, which we will call of neutral
photon. Finally, if f > 2 f g the resultant
momentum transported by the photon is
negative. If this momentum is absorbed by a
surface, pressure is exerted on the surface, in

( )
the opposite direction of propagation of the
1 f
2 hf fg hf photon. This special type of photon will be
denominated of attractive photon.
photon The quantization of gravity shows that
T =Tc photon the gravitational mass mg and inertial mass
T >Tc mi are correlated by means of the following
Fig. 1 – Above Tc , the photon absorbs energy from factor [6]:
mg ⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎤⎫
2
the surrounding medium, and its energy becomes ⎛ Δp ⎞ ⎪
equal to hf . χ= ⎢
= ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1⎥⎬ (8)
mi 0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎝ mi 0 c ⎠ ⎥⎪
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭
The absorbed energy is that thrust the photon
r where mi 0 is the rest inertial mass of the
and gives to it its velocity v . Consequently,
the momentum q transported by the photon particle and Δp is the variation in the
r
with velocity v will be expressed by particle’s kinetic momentum.
Another important equation obtained
⎛ f ⎞ in the quantization theory of gravity is the
hf − 12 hf ⎜ ⎟ new expression for the momentum q of a
⎜ f ⎟ ⎛ 1 f ⎞ hf
r U
q= r = ⎝ g ⎠ = ⎜1 − ⎟ = particle with gravitational mass M g and
r ⎜ 2 f ⎟ vr
v v ⎝ g ⎠ velocity v , which is given by
r r
q = M gv (9 )
⎛ 1 f ⎞ hf ⎛ c ⎞ ⎛ 1 f ⎞ hf ⎛ c ⎞
= ⎜1 − ⎟ = ⎜1 − ⎟ =
⎜ 2 f ⎟ vr ⎜⎝ c ⎟⎠ ⎜ 2 f ⎟ c ⎜⎝ vr ⎟⎠ where Mg = mg 1−v2 c2 ; m g is given by
⎝ g ⎠ ⎝ g ⎠
Eq.(8), i.e., mg = χ mi .
⎛ 1 f ⎞ hf r
= ⎜1 − ⎟ n
⎜ 2 f ⎟ c r
(7 ) By comparing Eq. (9) with (7) we obtain
⎝ g ⎠ ⎛ ⎞
v=c
hf ⎜1 − f
⎜ 2f

(10)
M gc2 ⎝ g ⎠
2
In order to provide the equilibrium the harmonic Mass–energy equivalence principle states that
oscillator absorbs energy from the surrounding anything having mass has an equivalent amount
medium. of energy and vice versa. In the particular case of
3
photons, the energy of the photons, E = hf , has a ⎛ f ⎞⎟
corresponding equivalent mass, M g , given by its PA = N A hf ⎜1−
⎜ 2f ⎟
2f (14)
⎝ g ⎠
energy E divided by the speed of light squared c²,
⎛ f ⎞⎟
i.e., PB = N B hf ⎜1−
⎜ 2f ⎟
2f (15)
M g ≡ E c2 (11) ⎝ g ⎠
or where N A and N B are respectively, the number
M g c 2 ≡ hf (12) of attractive photons emitted from A and B ,
Considering this expression, Eq. (10) can be during the time interval ≅ 1 2 f .
rewritten as follows Equations (14) and (15) can be rewritten as
follows
⎛ ⎞
v = c ⎜1 −
⎜ 2f
f ⎟

(13) ⎡ ⎛ f ⎞⎤
⎝ ⎠ PA ≅ ⎢2 N A hf ⎜1 − ⎟⎥ f = E g ( A ) f =
g
⎢⎣ ⎜ ⎟⎥
Equation (13) shows that the speed of the ⎝ 2 fg ⎠⎦
electromagnetic waves in free space is not a
⎛ ⎞
constant. Thus, also the speed of light is not a ⎜ 1 ⎟
constant. ≅⎜ ⎟ M g ( A )c 2 f (16)
Theories proposing a varying speed of light ⎜ V ⎟
2
⎜ 1 − A2 ⎟
have recently been widely proposed under the ⎝ c ⎠
claim that they offer a solution to cosmological ⎡ ⎛ f ⎞⎟⎤
PB ≅ ⎢2 N B hf ⎜1 − f = E g (B ) f =
⎜ 2 f ⎟⎥⎥
puzzles [7 , 8].
It is known that the interactions are ⎢⎣ ⎝ g ⎠⎦
communicated by means of the changing of
“virtual” quanta. The maximum velocity of these ⎛ ⎞
quanta is a constant called maximum velocity of ⎜ 1 ⎟
propagation of the interactions. Currently, it is ≅⎜ ⎟ M g ( B )c 2 f (17 )
⎜ V2 ⎟
assumed that this velocity is equal to the velocity ⎜ 1 − B2 ⎟
of the electromagnetic waves in free space (c ) . ⎝ c ⎠
This is the reason of the constant c to appear in where E g ( A ) and E g ( B ) are respectively the total
the relativistic factor (Eq. (10)). However, Eq. energies of the particles A and B , given
(13) shows that the velocity of the respectively by: Eg( A) = Mg( A)c = mAc
2 2
1−VA2 c2
electromagnetic waves in free space is not a
constant. In addition, Eq. (13) shows that for and E g ( B ) = M g ( B ) c = mB c 1 − VB2 c 2 [6];
2 2

f > 2 f g the velocity of the photon is imaginary.
V A is the velocity of the particle A in respect to
This means that the attractive photons are virtual
photons. the particle B and VB is the velocity of the
Now we will apply the concept of negative particle B in respect to the particle A .
radiation pressure, here developed, to the Obviously, V A = VB .
Gravitational Interaction. Thus, if r is the distance between the
According to Eq. (7), the resultant mentioned particles, then the power densities of
momentum transported by the photons with the attractive radiation in A and B are
frequency f > 2 f g is negative. If this momentum respectively, given by
is absorbed by a surface, pressure is exerted on ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
PA ⎜ 1 ⎟ Mg( A)c f ⎜ 1 ⎟ Mg( A)
2

⎟ξ0 2 (18)
the surface, in the opposite direction of
DA = 2 =⎜ ⎟ =⎜
propagation of the photon. 4πr ⎜ 1− V2 ⎟ 4πr2 ⎜ V2 ⎟
1− 2 r
Now consider two particles A and B with ⎝ c2 ⎠ ⎝ c ⎠
gravitational masses m A and m B , respectively.
⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞
PB ⎜ 1 ⎟ Mg( B) c f ⎜ 1 ⎟ Mg( B)
2
If both particles emit attractive radiation
( f > 2 f g ), then the powers PA and PB emitted DB = 2 =⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ξ0 2 (19)
4πr ⎜ 1− V2 ⎟ 4πr2 ⎜ 1− V2 ⎟ r
from A and B , according to Eq. (6), are ⎝ c2 ⎠ ⎝ c2 ⎠
respectively given by where V = V A = VB ; ξ 0 is expressed by
4
2 In the case of the forces produced by
ξ0 =
c f
(20 ) the action of attractive photons emitted

Let us now show that the gravitational reciprocally from the particles A and B, their
attraction between two particles A and B is expressions can be deduced by using the
generated by the interchange of attractive same argument previously shown in order to
photons (virtual photons with f > 2 f g ) , obtain the expressions of the electric forces
and magnetic forces. That is, the force
emitted reciprocally by the two particles. exerted on the particle A (whose
It is known that the electric force on an gravitational mass is M g ( A ) ), by another
electric charge A, due to another electric
charge B is related to the product of the particle B (whose gravitational mass is
charge of A (q A ) by the flux density on A, M g ( B ) ) is related to the product of M g ( A ) by

r r
( )
due to the charge of B, DB = q B 4πr 2 , i.e.,
the flux density (power density) on A, due to the
(
mass M g ( B ) , D B = PB 4πr 2 . See Eq.(19 ) , )
FBA ∝ D B q A . By analogy, the charge A r r
exerts an opposite electric force on the i.e., FBA ∝ D B M g ( A ) . By analogy, the particle
charge B, which is related to the product of A exerts an opposite force on the particle B,
the charge of B (q B ) by the flux density on which is related to the product of the

r r r r
( )
B, due to the charge of A, DA = qA 4πr 2 , i.e., mass M g ( A ) by the flux density (power

FAB = − FAB , FAB ∝ D A q B . These density) on B, due to the mass M g ( A ) of the
proportionalities are usually written by
r r
(
particle A, DA = PA 4πr 2 . See Eq.(18) ,i.e.,
r r
)
means of the following equations:
r r FAB = − FAB , FAB ∝ D A M g ( B ) . Thus, we can
r r DA qB DB q A q A qB
FAB = −FBA = =− = μˆ (21) write that
r r
ε0 ε0 4πε0 r 2 r r DA Mg( A) DB Mb( B)
where ε 0 is the so-called permissivity FAB = −FBA = μˆ = − μˆ (23)
k0 k0
constant for free space (ε0 = 8.854×10−12 F/ m) . Substitution of Eqs. (18) and (19) into Eq.
Similarly, the magnetic force that a (23) we get
magnetic pole B exerts on another magnetic ⎛ ⎞
pole A is related to the product of the pole r r ⎜ 1 ⎟⎛ ξ0 ⎞ Mg( A) Mg( B)
intensity p A of the pole A by the flux
FAB = −FBA = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
2 ⎜k ⎟ 2
μˆ (24)
⎜ 1− ⎟⎝ 0 ⎠
V r
density on A, due to the pole intensity p B of ⎝ c2 ⎠

the pole B, ( )
DB = p B 4πr 2 , i.e., For V = 0 Eq. (24) reduces to
r r r r ⎛ξ ⎞ m m
FBA ∝ D B p A . By analogy, the pole A exerts FAB = −FBA = ⎜⎜ 0 ⎟⎟ A 2 B μˆ =
an opposite magnetic force on the pole B, ⎝ k0 ⎠ r
which is related to the product of the pole m A mB
intensity p B of the pole B by the flux =G μˆ (25)
r2
density on B, due to the pole intensity p A of
where G = 6.67 × 10 −11 N .m 2 .kg −2
( )
is the
the pole A, D A = p A 4πr 2 , i.e., Universal constant of Gravitation.
r r r r
FAB = − FAB , FAB ∝ D A q B . Usually these Equation (25) tells us that
proportionalities are expressed by means of ξ 0 k0 = G (26)
the following equations:
r r By substituting ξ 0 given by Eq. (20) into this
r r DA pB DB pA pA pB
FAB = −FBA = =− = μˆ (22) expression, we obtain
μ0 μ0 4πμ0 r 2 ξ c2 f
k0 = 0 = (27)
where μ 0 is the so-called permeability G 4πG
constant for free space (μ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 H / m ) . From the above exposed, we can then
conclude that the gravitational interaction is
5
caused by the interchange of virtual photons In the case of, electrons, for example,
with frequencies f > 2 fg (attractive the number of attractive photons emitted
photons). In this way, the called graviton from an electron N e , can be expressed by
must have spin 1 and not 2. Consequently, means of the following relation:
the gravitational forces are also gauge forces N e = N (me 0 mi 0 ) , where me 0 is the rest
because they are yielded by the exchange of inertial mass of the electron. In this case, the
virtual quanta of spin 1, such as the equation (29) will be rewritten as follows:
electromagnetic forces and the weak and
strong nuclear forces.
⎧ ⎡ ⎫
⎞ ⎤⎥⎪
2
Now consider the emission of N mge ⎪ ⎢ ⎛ Ne hf f
attractive photons with frequency f > 2 f g = ⎨1− 2 1+ ⎜ 1− ⎟ −1 ⎬ =
me0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎜ me0c 2
2fg ⎟ ⎥

⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪
(gravitons) from a particle with mass mi 0 . ⎩ ⎭
According to Eq. (8) , and considering that
⎧ ⎡ ⎫
⎞ ⎤⎥⎪
2
q = U v , we can write that ⎪ ⎛ N hf
= ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜ (31)
f ⎟ −1 ⎬
1−
⎢ ⎜ mi0c 2
2fg ⎟ ⎥
⎪ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪
⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭
mg ⎪ ⎢ ⎛ U ⎞ ⎪
χ= = ⎨1− 2 1+ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ −1⎥⎬ (28)
mi0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎝ mi0 cv⎠ ⎥
⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎪⎭ This is exactly the same expression for the
proton (Eq. (30).
In the case of, neutrinos, for example,
Substitution of Eq. (6) and (13) into Eq. (28)
the number of attractive photons, N n ,
gives
emitted from a neutrino can be expressed by
⎧ means of the following relation:
⎡ ⎤⎫
N n = N (m n 0 mi 0 ) , where m n 0 is the rest
2
⎪ ⎛ Nhf ⎞
⎟ − 1⎥⎪⎬ (29)
mg
= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜
f
1−
mi 0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎜ mi 0 c 2
2 fg ⎟ ⎥
⎝ ⎠ ⎪ inertial mass of the neutrino. In this case, the
⎩ ⎢
⎣ ⎦⎥⎭ equation (29) will be rewritten as follows:

In case of protons, for example, the number ⎧ ⎡ ⎫
⎞ ⎤⎥⎪
2
of attractive photons emitted from a proton, mgn ⎪ ⎢ ⎛⎜ Nn hf f
⎟ −1 ⎬ =
= ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 1−
N p , can be expressed by means of the mn0 ⎪ ⎜ mn0c 2
2fg ⎟ ⎥⎪
⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦
following relation: N p = N (m p 0 mi 0 ) , ⎩ ⎣ ⎭
where N is the number of attractive photons ⎧ ⎡ ⎫
⎞ ⎤⎥⎪
2
⎪ ⎛ N hf
= ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜
f
emitted from the particle with mass mi 0 ; m p 0
⎢ ⎜ 2
1− ⎟ −1 ⎬
⎟ ⎥
(32)
is the rest inertial mass of the proton. In this ⎪ ⎢ ⎝ mi0c 2fg ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪
⎩ ⎣ ⎭
case, the equation (29) will be rewritten as
follows:
Also, in this case, the obtained expression is
exactly the same expression for the proton
⎧ ⎡ ⎫
⎞ ⎤⎥⎪
2
mgp ⎪ ⎛ N p hf and the electron. In short, the result is the
= ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜
f ⎟ −1 ⎬ =
1− same for any particle with non-null mass.
mp0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎜ mp0c2 2fg ⎟ ⎥
⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪ Then we can conclude that
⎩ ⎣ ⎭
⎧ ⎡ ⎫
⎞ ⎤⎥⎪ ⎧ ⎡
⎞ ⎤⎥⎪

2
⎛ N hf
2
⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎛ N hf
= ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜ (30)
f ⎟ −1 ⎬ f
⎢ ⎜ mi0c2
1−
⎟ ⎥ ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜⎜ 2
1− ⎟ −1 ⎬ = a = cte
⎟ ⎥
(33)
⎪ ⎢ 2fg ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 2fg
⎩ ⎣

⎭ ⎝ mi0c ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪
⎩ ⎣ ⎭
6
In the particular case of one photon, Eq. (33) 2
mi 0 c
gives f ≅ ≅ 10 50 mi 0 (41)
h

⎧ ⎡ ⎫
⎞ ⎤⎥⎪
2
⎪ ⎢ ⎛ hf This equation shows that the spectrum of
⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜⎜ 2
1−
f ⎟ −1 ⎬ = b = cte
⎟ ⎥
(34) the attractive photons must be above the
⎪ ⎢ m c 2 f
⎥⎦⎪⎭
⎝ i0 g ⎠ spectrum of the gamma rays. Thus, considering
⎩ ⎣ that the highest energy of gamma ray detected is
approximately 3 × 10 13 eV [9] 3 , in terms of
frequency f γ max ≈ 10 Hz , then we can assume
28
Solving equation above, we get
that the characteristic value, 2 f g , in the Eq.(35),
⎛ f ⎞⎟ Kmi20 c 4
f 2 ⎜1−
⎜ 2f ⎟
= (35) in spite to be greater than f γ max , it should be
⎝ g ⎠ h2 very close it, because the spectrum of the
attractive photons should make limit with the
where K is a constant to be determined. It gamma rays spectrum (See Fig.2). Thus, we can
write that
is easy to show that.
K≳1 (36) 2 f g ≳ f γ max ≈ 1028 Hz (42)
The energy density D at a distance r It is very unlikely that there are gamma
from the mentioned particle can be expressed by rays in the Nature with frequency much
greater than the aforementioned value, but if
U Δt
D= (37 ) they exist, they would only show that the
S value of 2 f g would be situated above the
value indicated by Eq (42).
Assuming that Δt = 1 f and considering Eq.
(6), then Eq. (37) can be rewritten as follows

U Δt hf (1 − f 2 f g )( f ) 1031
D= = (38 ) 1030 Gravific photons
S 4π r 2 2fg 1029
1028
1027
Substitution of Eq.(35) into Eq. (37) gives 1026
1025
1024 Gamma rays
1023
⎛ Kmi 0 c 4 ⎞ mi 0 1022
D=⎜
⎜ 4π h ⎟ r 2
⎟ (39) 1021
⎝ ⎠ 1020
1019 X rays
1018
1017
By comparing Eq. (39) with equations (18)
and (19), we can conclude that
Fig. 2 – The Gravific Photons Spectrum (above
⎛ Kmi0c4 ⎞ 2 f g ≈ 10 Hz ).
28
⎜ ⎟ =ξ
⎜ 4π h ⎟ 0
(40)
⎝ ⎠

By comparing this equation with Eq.(20), 3
and considering Eq. (36), we obtain The largest air shower detected is from a particle of
around 4 × 10 eV but this is thought to be from a
20

cosmic ray particle rather than photon.
7

References
[1] Henry, G. E., (1957) Radiation Pressure, Scientific
American, p.99.

[2] Beiser, A. (1963) Concepts of Modern Physics,
Portuguese version, Ed. Polígono, S.Paulo (1969), p.
165-166.

[3] Kittel, C., and Kroemer, H., (1980) Thermal Physics (2
ed), W.H. Freeman, p.73.

[4] Yan, Z., (2000) Eur. J. Phys., 21, 625-631.

[5] Beiser, A. (1963) Concepts of Modern Physics,
Portuguese version, Ed. Polígono, S.Paulo (1969), p.
166.

[6] De Aquino, F. (2010) Mathematical Foundations of
the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity, Pacific
Journal of Science and Technology, 11 (1), pp. 173-232.

[7] Albrecht, A. and Magueijo, J. (1999) j. Phys. Rev. D 59
043516, [astro-ph/9811018].

[8] Barrow, J.D. and Magueijo, J. (1998) J. Phys. Lett. B
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[9] http://er.jsc.nasa.gov/seh/gamray.html