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**Waves: Origin of the Gravitational Interaction
**

Fran De Aquino

Copyright © 2014-2017 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved.

**Besides energy, the electromagnetic waves transport linear momentum. Then, if this momentum is
**

absorbed by a surface, pressure is exerted on the surface. This is the so-called Radiation Pressure. Here

we show that this pressure has a negative component (opposite to the direction of propagation of the

radiation) due to the existence of the negative linear momentum transported by the electromagnetic

waves. This fact leads to an important theoretical discovery: the velocity of the electromagnetic waves in

free space is not a constant. In addition, a generalized equation of the Newton’s law of Gravitation, is

deduced starting from the concept of negative radiation pressure applied on the Gravitational Interaction.

Key words: Gravity, Gravitation, Electromagnetic Waves, Radiation Pressure.

1. Introduction 2. Theory

**Electromagnetic waves transport The energy of a harmonic oscillator is
**

energy as well as linear momentum. Then, if quantized in multiples of hf , and given by

this momentum is absorbed by a surface, E n = (n + 12 )hf n = 0,1,2,... (3)

pressure is exerted on the surface. Maxwell

where f is the classical frequency of

showed that, if the incident energy U is

totally absorbed by the surface during a oscillation, and h is the Planck’s constant

time t , then the total momentum q transferred [2]. When n = 0 , Eq. (3) shows that

to the surface is q = U v [1]. Then, the E 0 = 12 hf . This value is called energy of the

pressure, p (defined as force F per unit area zero point. Thus, the energy of the harmonic

A ), exerted on the surface, is given by oscillator, at equilibrium with the

F 1 dq 1 d ⎛ U ⎞ 1 (dU dt )

surrounding medium, does not tend to zero

p= = = ⎜ ⎟= (1) when temperature approaches to absolute

A A dt A dt ⎝ v ⎠ v A zero, but stays equal to E0 .

whence we recognize the term (dU dt ) A as In the particular case of massless

the radiation power density, D , (in watts/m2) oscillators (photons, for example), E0 does

arriving at the surface 1 . Thus, if v = c the

not correspond to the lowest value of the

radiation pressure exerted on the surface is

energy, which the oscillator can have,

p=

D

(2) because, when temperature approaches to

c absolute zero the oscillator frequency

Here we show that this pressure has a becomes dependent of the temperature T , as

negative component (opposite to the show the well-known expression of the

direction of propagation of the photons) due thermal De Broglie wavelength (Λ ) for

to the existence of the negative linear

massless particles [3, 4], which is given by

momentum transported by the photons. This

ch

(4)

1

fact leads to an important theoretical Λ= 1

⇒ 1

2 hf = π 3 kT

discovery: the velocity of the electromagnetic 2π kT

3

**waves in free space is not a constant. In Then, the lowest value of the energy 12 hf , in
**

addition, a generalized equation of the Newton’s

law of Gravitation is deduced starting from the the case of the photon, for example, will be a

concept of negative radiation pressure applied on fraction of the value 12 hf correspondent to a

the Gravitational Interaction. critical temperature Tc very close to absolute

. zero. The mentioned fraction must be only

related to the frequency f , and a frequency

1

This value is also called of Poynting vector. limit, f g , whose value must be extremely

2

large. Just a simple algebraic form, the Equation above shows the existence

quotient f f g , can express satisfactorily the of a bipolar linear momentum transported by

mentioned fraction. Thus, according to Eq. the electromagnetic waves. For f < 2 f g the

(4), we can write that resultant momentum transported by the

⎛ f ⎞ 1 photon is positive, i.e., If this momentum is

1

2 hf ⎜ ⎟ = π 3 kT

⎜f ⎟

(5) absorbed by a surface, pressure is exerted on

⎝ g⎠ the surface, in the same direction of

Above Tc , the photon absorbs energy from propagation of the photon. These photons are

well-known. However, Eq. (7) point to a new

the surrounding medium 2 [5], and its energy

type of photons when f = 2 f g . In this case

becomes equal to hf . Therefore, the energy

absorbed by the photon is q = 0 , i.e., this type of photon does not exert

pressure when it incides on a surface. What

⎛ f ⎞ means that it does not interact with matter.

U = hf − 12 hf ⎜ ⎟

⎜f ⎟

(6) Obviously, this corresponds to a special type

⎝ g⎠ of photon, which we will call of neutral

photon. Finally, if f > 2 f g the resultant

momentum transported by the photon is

negative. If this momentum is absorbed by a

surface, pressure is exerted on the surface, in

( )

the opposite direction of propagation of the

1 f

2 hf fg hf photon. This special type of photon will be

denominated of attractive photon.

photon The quantization of gravity shows that

T =Tc photon the gravitational mass mg and inertial mass

T >Tc mi are correlated by means of the following

Fig. 1 – Above Tc , the photon absorbs energy from factor [6]:

mg ⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎤⎫

2

the surrounding medium, and its energy becomes ⎛ Δp ⎞ ⎪

equal to hf . χ= ⎢

= ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ − 1⎥⎬ (8)

mi 0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎝ mi 0 c ⎠ ⎥⎪

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎭

The absorbed energy is that thrust the photon

r where mi 0 is the rest inertial mass of the

and gives to it its velocity v . Consequently,

the momentum q transported by the photon particle and Δp is the variation in the

r

with velocity v will be expressed by particle’s kinetic momentum.

Another important equation obtained

⎛ f ⎞ in the quantization theory of gravity is the

hf − 12 hf ⎜ ⎟ new expression for the momentum q of a

⎜ f ⎟ ⎛ 1 f ⎞ hf

r U

q= r = ⎝ g ⎠ = ⎜1 − ⎟ = particle with gravitational mass M g and

r ⎜ 2 f ⎟ vr

v v ⎝ g ⎠ velocity v , which is given by

r r

q = M gv (9 )

⎛ 1 f ⎞ hf ⎛ c ⎞ ⎛ 1 f ⎞ hf ⎛ c ⎞

= ⎜1 − ⎟ = ⎜1 − ⎟ =

⎜ 2 f ⎟ vr ⎜⎝ c ⎟⎠ ⎜ 2 f ⎟ c ⎜⎝ vr ⎟⎠ where Mg = mg 1−v2 c2 ; m g is given by

⎝ g ⎠ ⎝ g ⎠

Eq.(8), i.e., mg = χ mi .

⎛ 1 f ⎞ hf r

= ⎜1 − ⎟ n

⎜ 2 f ⎟ c r

(7 ) By comparing Eq. (9) with (7) we obtain

⎝ g ⎠ ⎛ ⎞

v=c

hf ⎜1 − f

⎜ 2f

⎟

⎟

(10)

M gc2 ⎝ g ⎠

2

In order to provide the equilibrium the harmonic Mass–energy equivalence principle states that

oscillator absorbs energy from the surrounding anything having mass has an equivalent amount

medium. of energy and vice versa. In the particular case of

3

photons, the energy of the photons, E = hf , has a ⎛ f ⎞⎟

corresponding equivalent mass, M g , given by its PA = N A hf ⎜1−

⎜ 2f ⎟

2f (14)

⎝ g ⎠

energy E divided by the speed of light squared c²,

⎛ f ⎞⎟

i.e., PB = N B hf ⎜1−

⎜ 2f ⎟

2f (15)

M g ≡ E c2 (11) ⎝ g ⎠

or where N A and N B are respectively, the number

M g c 2 ≡ hf (12) of attractive photons emitted from A and B ,

Considering this expression, Eq. (10) can be during the time interval ≅ 1 2 f .

rewritten as follows Equations (14) and (15) can be rewritten as

follows

⎛ ⎞

v = c ⎜1 −

⎜ 2f

f ⎟

⎟

(13) ⎡ ⎛ f ⎞⎤

⎝ ⎠ PA ≅ ⎢2 N A hf ⎜1 − ⎟⎥ f = E g ( A ) f =

g

⎢⎣ ⎜ ⎟⎥

Equation (13) shows that the speed of the ⎝ 2 fg ⎠⎦

electromagnetic waves in free space is not a

⎛ ⎞

constant. Thus, also the speed of light is not a ⎜ 1 ⎟

constant. ≅⎜ ⎟ M g ( A )c 2 f (16)

Theories proposing a varying speed of light ⎜ V ⎟

2

⎜ 1 − A2 ⎟

have recently been widely proposed under the ⎝ c ⎠

claim that they offer a solution to cosmological ⎡ ⎛ f ⎞⎟⎤

PB ≅ ⎢2 N B hf ⎜1 − f = E g (B ) f =

⎜ 2 f ⎟⎥⎥

puzzles [7 , 8].

It is known that the interactions are ⎢⎣ ⎝ g ⎠⎦

communicated by means of the changing of

“virtual” quanta. The maximum velocity of these ⎛ ⎞

quanta is a constant called maximum velocity of ⎜ 1 ⎟

propagation of the interactions. Currently, it is ≅⎜ ⎟ M g ( B )c 2 f (17 )

⎜ V2 ⎟

assumed that this velocity is equal to the velocity ⎜ 1 − B2 ⎟

of the electromagnetic waves in free space (c ) . ⎝ c ⎠

This is the reason of the constant c to appear in where E g ( A ) and E g ( B ) are respectively the total

the relativistic factor (Eq. (10)). However, Eq. energies of the particles A and B , given

(13) shows that the velocity of the respectively by: Eg( A) = Mg( A)c = mAc

2 2

1−VA2 c2

electromagnetic waves in free space is not a

constant. In addition, Eq. (13) shows that for and E g ( B ) = M g ( B ) c = mB c 1 − VB2 c 2 [6];

2 2

**f > 2 f g the velocity of the photon is imaginary.
**

V A is the velocity of the particle A in respect to

This means that the attractive photons are virtual

photons. the particle B and VB is the velocity of the

Now we will apply the concept of negative particle B in respect to the particle A .

radiation pressure, here developed, to the Obviously, V A = VB .

Gravitational Interaction. Thus, if r is the distance between the

According to Eq. (7), the resultant mentioned particles, then the power densities of

momentum transported by the photons with the attractive radiation in A and B are

frequency f > 2 f g is negative. If this momentum respectively, given by

is absorbed by a surface, pressure is exerted on ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞

PA ⎜ 1 ⎟ Mg( A)c f ⎜ 1 ⎟ Mg( A)

2

⎟ξ0 2 (18)

the surface, in the opposite direction of

DA = 2 =⎜ ⎟ =⎜

propagation of the photon. 4πr ⎜ 1− V2 ⎟ 4πr2 ⎜ V2 ⎟

1− 2 r

Now consider two particles A and B with ⎝ c2 ⎠ ⎝ c ⎠

gravitational masses m A and m B , respectively.

⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞

PB ⎜ 1 ⎟ Mg( B) c f ⎜ 1 ⎟ Mg( B)

2

If both particles emit attractive radiation

( f > 2 f g ), then the powers PA and PB emitted DB = 2 =⎜ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ξ0 2 (19)

4πr ⎜ 1− V2 ⎟ 4πr2 ⎜ 1− V2 ⎟ r

from A and B , according to Eq. (6), are ⎝ c2 ⎠ ⎝ c2 ⎠

respectively given by where V = V A = VB ; ξ 0 is expressed by

4

2 In the case of the forces produced by

ξ0 =

c f

(20 ) the action of attractive photons emitted

4π

Let us now show that the gravitational reciprocally from the particles A and B, their

attraction between two particles A and B is expressions can be deduced by using the

generated by the interchange of attractive same argument previously shown in order to

photons (virtual photons with f > 2 f g ) , obtain the expressions of the electric forces

and magnetic forces. That is, the force

emitted reciprocally by the two particles. exerted on the particle A (whose

It is known that the electric force on an gravitational mass is M g ( A ) ), by another

electric charge A, due to another electric

charge B is related to the product of the particle B (whose gravitational mass is

charge of A (q A ) by the flux density on A, M g ( B ) ) is related to the product of M g ( A ) by

r r

( )

due to the charge of B, DB = q B 4πr 2 , i.e.,

the flux density (power density) on A, due to the

(

mass M g ( B ) , D B = PB 4πr 2 . See Eq.(19 ) , )

FBA ∝ D B q A . By analogy, the charge A r r

exerts an opposite electric force on the i.e., FBA ∝ D B M g ( A ) . By analogy, the particle

charge B, which is related to the product of A exerts an opposite force on the particle B,

the charge of B (q B ) by the flux density on which is related to the product of the

r r r r

( )

B, due to the charge of A, DA = qA 4πr 2 , i.e., mass M g ( A ) by the flux density (power

**FAB = − FAB , FAB ∝ D A q B . These density) on B, due to the mass M g ( A ) of the
**

proportionalities are usually written by

r r

(

particle A, DA = PA 4πr 2 . See Eq.(18) ,i.e.,

r r

)

means of the following equations:

r r FAB = − FAB , FAB ∝ D A M g ( B ) . Thus, we can

r r DA qB DB q A q A qB

FAB = −FBA = =− = μˆ (21) write that

r r

ε0 ε0 4πε0 r 2 r r DA Mg( A) DB Mb( B)

where ε 0 is the so-called permissivity FAB = −FBA = μˆ = − μˆ (23)

k0 k0

constant for free space (ε0 = 8.854×10−12 F/ m) . Substitution of Eqs. (18) and (19) into Eq.

Similarly, the magnetic force that a (23) we get

magnetic pole B exerts on another magnetic ⎛ ⎞

pole A is related to the product of the pole r r ⎜ 1 ⎟⎛ ξ0 ⎞ Mg( A) Mg( B)

intensity p A of the pole A by the flux

FAB = −FBA = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟

2 ⎜k ⎟ 2

μˆ (24)

⎜ 1− ⎟⎝ 0 ⎠

V r

density on A, due to the pole intensity p B of ⎝ c2 ⎠

the pole B, ( )

DB = p B 4πr 2 , i.e., For V = 0 Eq. (24) reduces to

r r r r ⎛ξ ⎞ m m

FBA ∝ D B p A . By analogy, the pole A exerts FAB = −FBA = ⎜⎜ 0 ⎟⎟ A 2 B μˆ =

an opposite magnetic force on the pole B, ⎝ k0 ⎠ r

which is related to the product of the pole m A mB

intensity p B of the pole B by the flux =G μˆ (25)

r2

density on B, due to the pole intensity p A of

where G = 6.67 × 10 −11 N .m 2 .kg −2

( )

is the

the pole A, D A = p A 4πr 2 , i.e., Universal constant of Gravitation.

r r r r

FAB = − FAB , FAB ∝ D A q B . Usually these Equation (25) tells us that

proportionalities are expressed by means of ξ 0 k0 = G (26)

the following equations:

r r By substituting ξ 0 given by Eq. (20) into this

r r DA pB DB pA pA pB

FAB = −FBA = =− = μˆ (22) expression, we obtain

μ0 μ0 4πμ0 r 2 ξ c2 f

k0 = 0 = (27)

where μ 0 is the so-called permeability G 4πG

constant for free space (μ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 H / m ) . From the above exposed, we can then

conclude that the gravitational interaction is

5

caused by the interchange of virtual photons In the case of, electrons, for example,

with frequencies f > 2 fg (attractive the number of attractive photons emitted

photons). In this way, the called graviton from an electron N e , can be expressed by

must have spin 1 and not 2. Consequently, means of the following relation:

the gravitational forces are also gauge forces N e = N (me 0 mi 0 ) , where me 0 is the rest

because they are yielded by the exchange of inertial mass of the electron. In this case, the

virtual quanta of spin 1, such as the equation (29) will be rewritten as follows:

electromagnetic forces and the weak and

strong nuclear forces.

⎧ ⎡ ⎫

⎞ ⎤⎥⎪

2

Now consider the emission of N mge ⎪ ⎢ ⎛ Ne hf f

attractive photons with frequency f > 2 f g = ⎨1− 2 1+ ⎜ 1− ⎟ −1 ⎬ =

me0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎜ me0c 2

2fg ⎟ ⎥

⎢

⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪

(gravitons) from a particle with mass mi 0 . ⎩ ⎭

According to Eq. (8) , and considering that

⎧ ⎡ ⎫

⎞ ⎤⎥⎪

2

q = U v , we can write that ⎪ ⎛ N hf

= ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜ (31)

f ⎟ −1 ⎬

1−

⎢ ⎜ mi0c 2

2fg ⎟ ⎥

⎪ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪

⎧ ⎡ 2 ⎤⎫ ⎩ ⎣ ⎭

mg ⎪ ⎢ ⎛ U ⎞ ⎪

χ= = ⎨1− 2 1+ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ −1⎥⎬ (28)

mi0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎝ mi0 cv⎠ ⎥

⎩ ⎣ ⎦⎪⎭ This is exactly the same expression for the

proton (Eq. (30).

In the case of, neutrinos, for example,

Substitution of Eq. (6) and (13) into Eq. (28)

the number of attractive photons, N n ,

gives

emitted from a neutrino can be expressed by

⎧ means of the following relation:

⎡ ⎤⎫

N n = N (m n 0 mi 0 ) , where m n 0 is the rest

2

⎪ ⎛ Nhf ⎞

⎟ − 1⎥⎪⎬ (29)

mg

= ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + ⎜

f

1−

mi 0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎜ mi 0 c 2

2 fg ⎟ ⎥

⎝ ⎠ ⎪ inertial mass of the neutrino. In this case, the

⎩ ⎢

⎣ ⎦⎥⎭ equation (29) will be rewritten as follows:

**In case of protons, for example, the number ⎧ ⎡ ⎫
**

⎞ ⎤⎥⎪

2

of attractive photons emitted from a proton, mgn ⎪ ⎢ ⎛⎜ Nn hf f

⎟ −1 ⎬ =

= ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ 1−

N p , can be expressed by means of the mn0 ⎪ ⎜ mn0c 2

2fg ⎟ ⎥⎪

⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦

following relation: N p = N (m p 0 mi 0 ) , ⎩ ⎣ ⎭

where N is the number of attractive photons ⎧ ⎡ ⎫

⎞ ⎤⎥⎪

2

⎪ ⎛ N hf

= ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜

f

emitted from the particle with mass mi 0 ; m p 0

⎢ ⎜ 2

1− ⎟ −1 ⎬

⎟ ⎥

(32)

is the rest inertial mass of the proton. In this ⎪ ⎢ ⎝ mi0c 2fg ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪

⎩ ⎣ ⎭

case, the equation (29) will be rewritten as

follows:

Also, in this case, the obtained expression is

exactly the same expression for the proton

⎧ ⎡ ⎫

⎞ ⎤⎥⎪

2

mgp ⎪ ⎛ N p hf and the electron. In short, the result is the

= ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜

f ⎟ −1 ⎬ =

1− same for any particle with non-null mass.

mp0 ⎪ ⎢ ⎜ mp0c2 2fg ⎟ ⎥

⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪ Then we can conclude that

⎩ ⎣ ⎭

⎧ ⎡ ⎫

⎞ ⎤⎥⎪ ⎧ ⎡

⎞ ⎤⎥⎪

⎫

2

⎛ N hf

2

⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎛ N hf

= ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜ (30)

f ⎟ −1 ⎬ f

⎢ ⎜ mi0c2

1−

⎟ ⎥ ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜⎜ 2

1− ⎟ −1 ⎬ = a = cte

⎟ ⎥

(33)

⎪ ⎢ 2fg ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪ ⎪ ⎢ 2fg

⎩ ⎣

⎝

⎭ ⎝ mi0c ⎠ ⎥⎦⎪

⎩ ⎣ ⎭

6

In the particular case of one photon, Eq. (33) 2

mi 0 c

gives f ≅ ≅ 10 50 mi 0 (41)

h

⎧ ⎡ ⎫

⎞ ⎤⎥⎪

2

⎪ ⎢ ⎛ hf This equation shows that the spectrum of

⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎜⎜ 2

1−

f ⎟ −1 ⎬ = b = cte

⎟ ⎥

(34) the attractive photons must be above the

⎪ ⎢ m c 2 f

⎥⎦⎪⎭

⎝ i0 g ⎠ spectrum of the gamma rays. Thus, considering

⎩ ⎣ that the highest energy of gamma ray detected is

approximately 3 × 10 13 eV [9] 3 , in terms of

frequency f γ max ≈ 10 Hz , then we can assume

28

Solving equation above, we get

that the characteristic value, 2 f g , in the Eq.(35),

⎛ f ⎞⎟ Kmi20 c 4

f 2 ⎜1−

⎜ 2f ⎟

= (35) in spite to be greater than f γ max , it should be

⎝ g ⎠ h2 very close it, because the spectrum of the

attractive photons should make limit with the

where K is a constant to be determined. It gamma rays spectrum (See Fig.2). Thus, we can

write that

is easy to show that.

K≳1 (36) 2 f g ≳ f γ max ≈ 1028 Hz (42)

The energy density D at a distance r It is very unlikely that there are gamma

from the mentioned particle can be expressed by rays in the Nature with frequency much

greater than the aforementioned value, but if

U Δt

D= (37 ) they exist, they would only show that the

S value of 2 f g would be situated above the

value indicated by Eq (42).

Assuming that Δt = 1 f and considering Eq.

(6), then Eq. (37) can be rewritten as follows

U Δt hf (1 − f 2 f g )( f ) 1031

D= = (38 ) 1030 Gravific photons

S 4π r 2 2fg 1029

1028

1027

Substitution of Eq.(35) into Eq. (37) gives 1026

1025

1024 Gamma rays

1023

⎛ Kmi 0 c 4 ⎞ mi 0 1022

D=⎜

⎜ 4π h ⎟ r 2

⎟ (39) 1021

⎝ ⎠ 1020

1019 X rays

1018

1017

By comparing Eq. (39) with equations (18)

and (19), we can conclude that

Fig. 2 – The Gravific Photons Spectrum (above

⎛ Kmi0c4 ⎞ 2 f g ≈ 10 Hz ).

28

⎜ ⎟ =ξ

⎜ 4π h ⎟ 0

(40)

⎝ ⎠

**By comparing this equation with Eq.(20), 3
**

and considering Eq. (36), we obtain The largest air shower detected is from a particle of

around 4 × 10 eV but this is thought to be from a

20

**cosmic ray particle rather than photon.
**

7

References

[1] Henry, G. E., (1957) Radiation Pressure, Scientific

American, p.99.

**[2] Beiser, A. (1963) Concepts of Modern Physics,
**

Portuguese version, Ed. Polígono, S.Paulo (1969), p.

165-166.

**[3] Kittel, C., and Kroemer, H., (1980) Thermal Physics (2
**

ed), W.H. Freeman, p.73.

[4] Yan, Z., (2000) Eur. J. Phys., 21, 625-631.

**[5] Beiser, A. (1963) Concepts of Modern Physics,
**

Portuguese version, Ed. Polígono, S.Paulo (1969), p.

166.

**[6] De Aquino, F. (2010) Mathematical Foundations of
**

the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity, Pacific

Journal of Science and Technology, 11 (1), pp. 173-232.

**[7] Albrecht, A. and Magueijo, J. (1999) j. Phys. Rev. D 59
**

043516, [astro-ph/9811018].

**[8] Barrow, J.D. and Magueijo, J. (1998) J. Phys. Lett. B
**

443 , 104, [astro-ph/9811072].

[9] http://er.jsc.nasa.gov/seh/gamray.html

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- How a Massive Planet can affect Human Consciousnesses when Passing Nearby the Sun
- The Beginning and End of Time in our Universe
- Control of the Gravitational Energy by means of Sonic Waves
- The Gravitational Heat Exchanger
- Method for Obtaining Quantum VacuumQuantum Vacuum
- Gravitational Energy Control
- Improvements in the Design of the Gravitational Motor
- The Gravitational Invisibility
- Quantum Controller of Gravity
- The Gravitational Scanner
- A System to Generate Intense Fluxes of Extremely-Low Frequency Radiation
- Gravitational Generation of Rain
- The Genesis of the Earth’s Moon
- Nuclear Fission by means of Terahertz Sonic Waves
- How Masers can remove the Geostationary Satellites
- On the Existence of Black Holes
- The Origin of the Most Part of Water on the Earth, and the Reason why there is More Water on the Earth than on the other Terrestrial Planets
- Divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann law at High Energy Density Conditions
- Gravitational Condensation of Atmospheric Water Vapor
- Gravitational Tunneling Machine
- How a Strong Solar Coronal Mass Ejection can Eject Dust from the Moon’s Surface to the Earth’s Atmosphere
- The Intrinsic Magnetic Field of Magnetic Materials and Gravitomagnetization
- How a Planet with Earth’s size can have a Gravitational Field Much Stronger than the Neptune
- Quantum Gravitational Shielding
- A New Form of Matter-Antimatter Transformation
- A Solution for Reducing the Pollution of the Atmospheric Air
- How the Thrust of Shawyer’s Thruster can be Strongly Increased
- A New Approach on the Photoelectric Effect
- Russian Sleep Weapon

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