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Thesis of Doctorate -1-

Terrorism
In Islam

Researcher : Adel Abdullah Al-Abed Al-


Jabbar

American University in London


2005

http://www.saaid.net/
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Thanks for Allah and peace be upon our prophet Mohamed Ibn
Abdullah and his followers.

Terrorism in Islam

A scientific thesis as other group of scientific thesis s that clarify


the clear Islam attitude towards terrorism. It shows the Sharia'
ruling that forbids the attack and violence against safe people at
their homes and societies. Islam has protected that and prevented
any harm to them even by indication of terror.

Terrorism: International phenomenon from which many non-


Islamic and Islamic countries have complained and suffered.
These countries wish to live in peace and far away from terrorism.
Terrorists commit severe crimes and sins when they kill peaceful
people and destroy properties by tripping vehicles by explosives to
threaten and kill people. They do not consider young, old, sick or
disabled people, but they corrupt life and such acts are hated and
forbidden by Allah.
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Terrorism is bad in whole, resulting in destruction, corruption and


sadness. The terrorist has deviated mind, psychologically
diseased, absent-minded, defeated in his personality, telling lies
and jealous to others. He hates his nation and its development. All
world hated all terrorism operations which do not distinguish
between nation, nationality, religion, scholarship, time, or place.
All feelings refuse and deny terrorism operations which are
beyond the permitted and reasonable limits. They go beyond the
teachings of religions, regulations, and prevailing laws. The word
"terrorism" is limited in the commitment of killing, threatening,
kidnapping, spoilage.

Since the events of 11 Sept. I have the honor to present programs


in the Saudi TV talking about terrorism and the Islamic attitude
towards that. Regretfully we have witnessed some violence
incidents in our country. The blasts harmed and did not benefit,
killed and did not give life. Therefore, I had to spread the right
thing among the people through available mass media. These
scientific researches are a group of thesis s to get doctorate degree
in Terrorism and the Islamic Attitude towards that from the
American University in London.
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This thesis is a human effort which may be subject to rightness


and wrong. I tried to apply scientific research in dividing the
subjects into Section s, chapters, researches, requirements, and
issues. The texts have been documented and referred to their
references and to verses of Quran have been referred to their
chapters. Al-Hadeeth (Prophet Sayings) have been briefly tracked
and documented. If there are any faults and shortages, they shall
be attributed to me. I hope that this thesis will benefit all people
and I ask them to send me any comments and remarks that can be
rectified during printing.
Researcher:
Adel Abdullah Al-Abed Al-Jabbar
Adel_aa100@hotmail.com
P.O. Box 56 Riyadh 11392
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Thesis Plan

Section One: (Al-Sharia and Terrorist

Chapter One: Definition of Terrorism


Research One: The linguistic meaning of terrorism
Research Two: The meaning of terrorism in terms
UN definition
International Law definition
Arab agreement definition
Al-Azhar definition
The Islamic Fiqeh Complex definition
Research Three: Selected definition of terrorism
Research Four: Elements of terrorism
Research Five: Terrorism objectives

Direct Objectives
Indirect Objectives

Research Six: Types of Terrorism


Classification by Washington Conference 1976
Doctrine Terrorism
National Terrorism
Religion, Race, Faction Terrorism
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Sickness terrorism
Another Division: Individual and group terrorism
Research Seven: Characteristics of Terrorism Operations
Kidnapping and hostages confinement
Ambushes
Assassination method
Faction's violent method
Explosives
Research Eight: Characteristics of Terrorism
Research Nine: Characteristics of Terrorist
Research Ten: Reasons of Terrorism
First Requirement: The General Reasons of Terrorism in the
World
Geographical reasons
Psychological sickness reasons
Informative reasons
Economical reasons
Family reasons
Thought reasons
Second Section : (Society and Terrorism)
Chapter One: Society and its Security Demands
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Chapter Two: Role of Society Establishments


Research One: Mosque
Requirement One: Importance of Mosque
Requirement Two: The Mosque is the source of Security and
Safety
Requirement Three: Role of Mosque in awareness of the national
crimes
Research Two: Friday Sermon and its effect on the society security
Requirement One: Factors of Sermon success
Understanding of reality
Necessity to obey the ruler
Mediation and fairness
Care of Youth
Relation with non-Muslims
Requirement Two: Sermon of Makkah mosque and Prophet
Mosque
Sample of Makkah mosque
Sample of Prophet Mosque
Research Three: Scientist and Missioners
Research Four: Terrorism and legal jurisdiction
Importance of jurisdiction
View of jurisdiction towards terrorism acts
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Juristic procedures to investigate terrorists and their crimes


Preventive and remedial precautions for terrorism events
Jurisdiction penalties for terrorism events
Research Five: Family
Requirement One: Islam care for family
Requirement Two: Family function
Requirement Three: Its role in preventing deviation and crime
Research Six: School
Requirement One: Security Role of the School
Requirement Two: Effect of the school in resistance of terrorism,
violence, and extremism.
Requirement Three: Islamic education curriculum
Research Seven: Security Establishments
Research Eight: Local and international forums
International conference for terrorism fighting
The attitude of Islam towards terrorism
Research Nine: Electronic Terrorism
Internet is a safe for the terrorism
Kingdom's efforts to face the electronic terrorism
Factors to preserve the society from the electronic terrorism
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Research Ten: Intellectual security


Preventive means to protect the intellectual security
Remedial means to protect the intellectual security

Section Three (Saudia and Terrorism)


Chapter One: Saudi reviews
Research one: Historical overview of blasts in Saudi Arabia
Chapter Two: Kingdom's efforts in fighting terrorism
Endorsement of terrorism penalty
Spread of mediation and fairness
International participation
Clarify the picture to outside
Security systems
Local level
Intellectual review
Royal forgiveness
Awards
Propagation is continued
Attention to Security men
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Activation of Arab ministers council resolutions


Signing of agreements and covenants
Conclusion
References
Index
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Section One: Sharia and Terrorism


Chapter One: Definition of Terrorism
Research One: Linguistic Meaning of Terrorism
The source of terrorism is "terrify" which means fear.
In the Quran it means fear.
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Research Two: Terrorism


I did not find it a meaning in the Sharia terms of previous Muslim
scientists because the first use of this term was during the French
revolution (1789 – 1794). This means that the source of this term
is from European thoughts, and this rejects the wrong claims
which characterize Islam by this word. The scientists of different
religions in all over the world have not agreed on a meaning of
terrorism. However, there are some definitions from international
organizations.
United Nations definition: Terrorism means the acts that
endanger the innocent human beings souls or threaten the basic
freedoms or violates the human being dignity.

International law definition: Terrorism a group of acts that are


forbidden by the national laws of most countries.

Arab Agreement definition: Terrorism means each act of terrorism


or threatening of such act, whatever the motives or purposes,
implemented for crime project, individual or collective. It aims to
spread terror between people and threatening them or endanger
their lives or freedoms and their security. Also, it includes harm
the environment or facilities or properties (private and public) or
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occupy them and conquer them or endanger any of the national


sources.

Al-Azhar Islamic Research Complex definition: Al-Azhar gave a


definition after the events of 11 Sept. 2001 by saying (horrifying
the peaceful people, destroying their interests and lives, their
freedoms and human dignity and corrupt the life. The country on
which such terrorism occurs has the right to search for the
criminals and present them to jurisdiction constitutions for
judgment).

Islamic Fiqeh Complex Definition: Terrorism: an assault


committed by individuals or groups or countries on the human
being (his religion, blood, mind, money and honor). It includes
types of threat, harm and killing under no right. This includes
rubbery, acts of threatening and violence that implement
individual and collective crime project to horrify people or
threaten their lives or security or expose their lives to danger.
Some of their types are causing damage to the environment,
facilities, private & public properties and expose the national
resources or the nature to danger. All this are types of corruption
on the earth and forbidden by Allah.
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Research Three: Selected Definition of the Terrorism: Fiqeh


Islamic Complex of the Islamic World League is considered to be
the best definition in defining the Islam prevention of attack,
violence and horrifying the secured people. It has been issued from
the strongest complex representing Islam and Muslims. It
includes all types of fear, harm, threat, killing with no rights and
what is related to Al-Hirabah, threat and cut of road and any act
of violence or threat that come as an implementation of individual
or collective crime project. It aims to cause fear among people and
harm them, and expose their lives, freedom, security and
conditions to danger. Some of its types are causing damage to
environment or any private or public properties, and endanger of
national or natural resources. All these are pictures of corruption
which are forbidden by Allah Who has put the penalty for
terrorism, assault and corruption and considered that the same
like fighting Allah and His prophet. There is no human law which
gives such a severe penalty due to the danger of this assault which
is considered as fighting against rules of Allah. The complex
confirms that the types of terrorism include state terrorism, and
one its clear pictures and severe types is the terrorism practiced
by the Jews in Palestine. Also, the practice of Serb in Bosnia,
Hersek and Kosova. The complex considered that this type of
terrorism is one of the most dangerous types on peace and
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security, and facing it is a type of self-defense and Jihad for the


sake of Allah. This definition indicates that terrorism has no
specific religion, country or nationality. It affects all as it does not
have geographical borders and it may occur any place in the
Globe. There is no specific shape of the terrorism. It may be
hijacking airplane, diverting its route by force, or destroying it, or
taking its passengers as hostages or killing them. It may be in the
shape of exploding buildings, occupying certain places and using
toxic gases. In conclusion, it is any assault on persons by killing,
or attack of money or any means of transportation. No doubt that
the current scientific development in the world has increased the
danger and complexity of terrorism, either by making the
communication between terrorists easier or by assistance in
invention of advanced means of crimes or by increasing the
number of criminals which increased the terrorism on all levels
and it becomes one of the most important risks that face the
international society. By thorough review, the fighting of the
people under foreign occupation for the sake of freeing its occupied
lands and obtaining their rights and independence are not
considered terrorism as per the UN code and resolutions.
Defending the nations is inherited in the human beings and they
practiced this right during the old ages and they are still
practicing it now and they considered that as one of their duties
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even if they loose their lives. Those who are defending themselves
do not need a resolution from a commission to defend their
nations. The human laws and the heaven laws have confirmed
this right and ordered people to practice that whatever the price
that they will pay. Islam has confirmed that and ordered its
followers to defend their countries and considered that as fighting
for the sake of Allah and a way to paradise. The Quran and
Hadeeth have ordered Muslims and urged them to fight and
defend their nations and considered that as obligatory for all able
men and women. The Arab Agreement signed by Arab Ministers of
Interiors for fighting terrorism has stipulated in Article two: that
the armed struggle against the foreign occupation and aggression
for the sake of freedom as per the international law 22. The
Islamic World League has confirmed in Makkah statement issued
by the Islamic Fiqeh Complex conferred in Makkah during the
period from 21-26/10/1422H fighting covenant that all have the
right to defend their countries and honor against occupants and
that this right is allowed by all heaven regulations and human
laws. There were contradictions between the terms terrorism as
some are general and others are specific. It has been found that
the work "Irhab" in Arabic is a translation of the word "terrorism"
in English which is wrong linguistic translation. Fear from killing
or injury or destruction is a materialistic fear expressed in horror
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and not "rahbah" since this word in Arabic language is used for
fear mixed with respect and not for fear resulting from
threatening by materialistic or creatural or natural force.
Therefore it fear and horror and its is not "rahbah". The correct
meaning for terrorism is horror. However , the Arab Linguistic
Complex approved using "Irhab" as it is widely used in Arab world
and understood for terrorism.

Research Four:
Elements of terrorism:
(1) Power
(2) Violence
(3) Fear
(4) Weapons
(5) Mass media

Research Five: Objectives of Terrorism:

a. Direct Objectives: They are the objectives announced by the


organization during implementation of the terrorism
operation. They are represented in the following:
1- Obtain funds to finance the organization activities, and
recruit new personnel to work with it.
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2- Release prisoners in jails, either they are politicians or


members of the organization and they have been caught
during previous operations.
3- Implement killing operations to opponents either as
disclosed or concealed operation.
4- Secure the escape of the persons who implement the
terrorism operation after the end of the operation in achieve
the last stage of the operation to succeed.
5- Perform necessary propaganda for the organization.

b. Indirect Objectives: They are unannounced objectives but the


organization tries to achieve. They may be more important to
the organization than the direct objectives. They are
represented in the following:
1- Weaken the government authority and show it as disabled
due to its inability to discover the operation before it occurs
and its inability to face the situation resulting from the
terrorism operation.
2- Obtain official recognition from the targeted country of the
existence of the organization or obtain international
recognition due to announcements of statements that
organization mandated announcement.
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3- Oblige the country to implement works directed against the


citizens who result in loss of confidence in the government
due to its inability to achieve security for citizen and face the
terrorism organization to overcome.
4- Create supporter from the citizens of the targeted country
and work to overcome the ruling regime or achieve the
organization objectives.
5- Attach tourism, economy, security and the sources of power
that give country the legality such as religion, economy and
security.

Research Six: Types of Terrorism: 24 , In Washington's


classification in 1976 the terrorism was divided into four types:
1. Doctrine terrorism: This includes leftist, communist, rightist
extremists, Zionism and Hindu terrorism.
2. National terrorism: It includes operations targeted to expel
occupants, destroy their machinery and interests, kill their
representatives
3. Religion, or faction race terrorism: such as operations
implemented by Tamil against the Srelankan government
and Seek operations against Muslims in India.
4. Sickness terrorism: It is caused by mental or psychological
malfunction.
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Another Division: If we look at terrorism with respect to the


one who implement the violence and extremism, it can be
divided into two types:
1. Individual Terrorism: violent acts implemented by one
person or several limited person.
2. Group Terrorism: It comes from religious or national faction
against another one, or against other people, or one nation
against another. It has two shapes: National group's
terrorism and doctrine group terrorism.

Research Seven: Characteristics of the Terrorism Operations:

1. Hijacking and retain of hostages: It is based on the concept


of retaining one or more persons in a secret place. Hijacking
may occur to an aircraft with all its passengers.
2. Ambush: It a type of sudden attacks whereby the aim is
conquered away from its own protection or guard that are
provided to it at his place of residence and work.
3. Method of killing: The known method in terrorist violence
and it usually executed to politicians, media men, officials,
some Sheikhs, scientists and Doa objecting the thought of
the terrorists.
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4. Method of faction violence: It is the attack of some groups to


some citizens and their properties. Also attacking mosques,
churches and temples.
5. Blasts: They usually occur to temples, places accommodating
person who are considered enemies or citizens of enemy
country or representing enemy countries although they are
victims of certain policies and peaceful and innocent people.
These blasts may carry a message to the country whereat
the explosions occurred for political, religion, or financial
abuse (‫ )ﺍﺒﺘﺯﺍﺯ‬or for the purpose of facing the ruling regime at
that country. There are some other operations such as
sniping, threatening of terrorism, and psychological war by
using false terrorism announcements.

Research Eight: Characteristics of Terrorism:

Terrorism is distinguished from other violence works by the


following:
1. Violence or threatening and it lasts for long time causing
terrorism
2. Organization linked to violence and as it continues it causes
terrorism
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3. The purpose is illegal although it is clear that it tries to curb


the political authority.
4. The act is not from acquired acts and it has been given a
name as crime that is ruled by jurisdiction so that no mix
shall be made between international crimes.
5. A symbolic limited act that goes beyond the scope of action in
order to make wider and comprehensive effects of fear.
6. Terrorism is an act that means several political indications
and it aims to affect decision making or diverting it.
7. Terrorism acts does not mean military counter acts. It is
limited in terrorism severe tactics, secret and unforeseen
implemented by political elements opposing the authority
and the ruling regime and it specifically selects its objectives
and has specific requirements.
8. Use of power, violence, or threatening by that which is
considered the main role to achieve the objectives.
9. The terrorism act is limited by boundaries or geography and
its plan is implemented in a place that achieves the
objectives.
10. Terrorism operations attract the attention, and
therefore, its operations occur to international objectives or
super power countries in order to spread its news to serve
the objectives. Therefore, its objectives have two dimensions:
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Emotional dimension and mental dimension and it is


characterized by extremism and has no mediation.

Research Nine: Characteristics of the Terrorist:


Terrorists have some characters or personal common features
distinguishing them regardless of their loyalty, identification or
organizations to which they belong, countries associated with and
operations implemented by them.
1. Most of them are married males (95%) more than females
and they have no children.
2. If there is a role for women in the terrorism organization, it
is limited in intelligence, information collection, keeping
weapon, provide safe accommodation for terrorists, nursery,
publicity, supply and falsification.
3. They are fictions and heroes of their stories and they try to
rectify the world by violence and they have their own
philosophy.
4. They are full of secrets and they are characterized by
harshness, carelessness and insistence to achieve objectives.
It is difficult to make understanding with them.
5. Some of them takes awaking drugs to increase their motives.
6. They are extremists, aggressive and easy to excite. This is
why the young youth are targeted because they are unable to
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think about the results and consequences of terrorism and


violence actions.
7. There body growth is complete but their psychological
growth is not complete.
8. In some psychological studies, some terrorists have feminine
characteristics and the resist this feminine and pretend
muscularity by violence which push them to kill and terrify
especially in the non-Muslim societies. In the Muslim society
the terrorist may be uncovered by woman dress to achieve
his shameful acts under the name of the countries traditions
and religious reserve values.

The above are ten characteristics we witnessed in the life of the


terrorists who spoil the security of societies. There are other
characteristics which depending on the targeted society based
on changes on all over the world.

Research Ten : Reasons of terrorism:

Requirement one: The general reasons for the terrorism


phenomena in the world
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Geographical reasons:
The wide area of the country borders makes it difficult for the
armed forces and security systems in any country that have
weakness, factions usually make it difficult to secure that and
impose control on the borders. This encouraged terrorists to
penetrate through borders to inside the country to achieve
objectives and perform their operations. Some countries or
places have certain terrains that are suitable as shelters for
them facilitating terrorism operations. Undeveloped random
areas forms a dangerous challenge to security and stability of
the nation and citizen. In addition to the geographical reasons,
hot areas are considered more suitable than cold areas for
spread of political reasons. Similarly is the aggression on
personnel and raising riot. For example, it has been found that
there is increased number of terrorist and it is easy to attract
many youth such as in south of Egypt. It is found that very cold
weather prevent criminals and kill them if they fortify in
mountains and their high tops.

Media Reasons
The criminals use the mass media as a means to reach their
objectives. Terrorist organizations in the world conduct
terrorist operations to attract the attention of the world public
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opinion to their cause which they defend in order to oblige the


aired party to surrender to their demands. Some researchers
that mass media programs that are shameful and hurt the
honor and spread the sin and sarcastic of the values and
principles leads to creation of environment suitable for
terrorism to face these countries and the dangerous role of that
mass media, and the deviated ideas and view that contracting
to the Islamic principles. The resulted in negative reaction by
the Muslim youth who are affected by the media attack. Some
of them try to compromise and they go extremely in
understanding Islam. Others have blocked minds and in both
cases the reason is the misunderstand of the Religion and
sharia. Some are affected by some bad imported scholarships or
they blindly follow some misleaders who are trading in religion.
Sometimes they is lack of religion which is not filled because
mass media is involved in programs far away from the Muslim
situation and different from the ambitions of the youth and
their needs and does not discuss their problems and spread the
correct religious awareness and as such it fees the feeling of
extremism and terrorism.

Economic Reasons
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The economic problems of the undeveloped countries are some


of the dangerous reasons for terrorism in the world. The
scientific and technical development of the world banking
systems have facilitated the transfer of money between the
terrorist networks.

Also, individuals in the third world countries suffering of the


economical countries related to housing, debts,
unemployment's, and poorness, inflation in prices,
communication, and health are factors that may lead the youth
to be extremist and terrorist and provide the opportunity to the
terrorism organization to utilize the economic conditions of the
youth to achieve their objectives.

Family Reasons:
Family loose relations, and the lack of supervision of the
parents on their children and the mistreatment of the parents
or the negligence and the lack of dialogue between the children
and their sharing in taking the decisions specially if they are
directly related to their future such as education, work and
marriage.
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Intellectual Reasons:
The Islamic world suffers of the sharp intellectual division
between different currents:
Secular current that calls for secular life away from religious
traditions and customs and social values so that the society will
develop and reach the civilization. On the other side there is
extremist current away from intermediate and fairness that
rejects the current civilization and any thing associated with
the civil development and they reject that under the pretext
that this civilization cause corruption of morals, dismantling of
family, frozen social relations and as such each side refuses the
thoughts of the other party and look at him doubtfully without
scrutinizing and evaluation to reach the right and basic
principles. This caused some Muslim extremists to be under a
state of attraction between both currents which led at the end
to follow terrorism approach which is not approved by religion
and contradict with the civilization path.

Requirement Two: The apparent special causes of terrorism in


the Islamic World:
1. Lack of religious education in some Islamic societies
2. Bad methods of education to provide religious culture.
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3. Ignorance of religion and requirements of the current


age make youth issue fatwa and provisions
contradicting to the texts without reference to the
specialized individuals in the Sharia religion.
4. Developments on the Islamic world, and political, social
and economical changes.
5. Lack of religion with youth and their involvement in
religious contradicting and branch issues.
6. Lack of understanding to the order of doing good deeds
and preventing bad things and the one who is
authorized to do that.
7. Full obedience to the terrorist leaders in some Islamic
societies and also to fulfill their material needs.
8. No positive participation in the social life.
9. No observation of the five necessities provided by
Allah.
It is hard to specify all reasons but they can be concluded.
Although there are reasons of current terrorism, there is
something more dangerous that reasons. This is the consequences
of terrorist which adversely affect the Islamic society for long
years suffering from them and the next generations. These results
can be concluded in the following:
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1. The terrorism operations occurred in some Islamic countries


by the hand of those who pretend that they are Muslims
have contributed in giving dark image about Islam and
Muslims and linking between terrorist and Islam.
2. The terrorism operations are considered risks that
discourage the traders and businessmen to expand their
trading and commercial deals with countries suffering of
terrorism.
3. The general climate of investment will be discouraging for
attraction of capital from outside.
4. The terrorism interrupt the tourism activities which are
considered as a source of the national income for many
Islamic countries
5. The terrorism and the its consequences of non-stability of
security and economy leads to setback of the economic
activity. This creates another type of hidden economy which
is trading of weapons and explosives.
6. The terrorism take dangerous dimensions that may harm
the budget of the country in which terrorism occur in two
aspects:
1. The state expenses will be increased on terrorism
fighting.
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2. Increase the country's burden of payments to the killed


persons and treatment of injured people, repair of what
destruction and damage resulting from terrorism.
There are routes and many causes of terrorism. Some are religious
fed by doctrine or belief. There are purely psychological reasons
aiming to attack attention to the doer, or discharge psychological
charge or jealous against the party to which the crime occurs.
There are social routes such as people, tribe, party, class or others
which may lead by those who have been suppressed to rebel by
making operations called holy operations while it is called
terrorism. The most dangerous type of the terrorism is called the
extremist religious belief where youth are recruited to commit
suicide operations seeking by it to enter paradise and gain the
acceptance by Allah while they are committing acts that Allah
does not accept.

Research Five: The reality of religion terrorism: These terrorists


are blindly following orders given to them which indicates that the
they have simple thinking. All terrorism attacks implemented on
this land have been committed by persons carrying diverted
believes and want to impose them on others by committing
terrorism in the Muslim society which adopted Quran and prophet
sunna and observe the public interest of the country, citizens,
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residences and dealing with the changes in the current age which
can't be ignored in order to maintain the interest and build the
future for the generation. Most of those who exploded themselves
and destroyed others or those captured before they practice their
terrorism who are young and diverted in their believes, have been
attracted and deceived by criminals in spreading terrorism and
killing of people and destruction of public and private properties.
They washed the brains of the youth by holding meetings in their
cells or by distribution of suspicious books and cassettes. The
extreme thinking is one of the main reasons of terrorism and its
routes in Islam, especially the extremist which does not accept the
other opinions. This type of extremism claims that it owns the
absolute reality in part and in whole and the fixed believes that all
agree on. Therefore, this type of opinions tries to exclude the other
party who disagree with them. Exclusion has many features the
biggest of it is non-belief. Therefore, this diverted thinking tries to
exclude or cancel the other party and omit him either by be
attracting him or by killing him and try to reach him aim by any
means even if it is terrorism and violence but he does not call that
terrorism or extremism. He call it holy war (Jihad) and teach his
followers of the ignorant youth that what they do of destruction of
properties and killing of human beings is right and it is the path
to paradise and it is the jihad ordered by Allah. Some of the
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features of terrorism is hijacking of airplanes, trains, buses. This


type of terrorism may be performed by one person or group and
the reason for it may be because the terrorist has fled requesting
asylum in another country. Or he may be requesting ransom and
money or he may be requesting freedom of prisoners or to attract
attention, or to disturb the system and peace or etc. As airplanes
are hijacked the human beings may be kidnapped to take ransom.
A child may be kidnapped to get ransom, some politicians may be
taken hostages to put governments in critical situation. Some of
the features of terrorism operations is blasting of the housing
complexes as what happened in Riyadh, or destruction of
recreation centers as what happened in Moscow, Paly and
Indonesia and destruction of metro channels as what happened in
Japan and happened later in Moscow. Some of its types is called
state terrorism where in the ruling is iron fist, closing mouths,
confiscating the freedoms and an example of that is the mass
graves recently discovered in Iraq.

Israel also has practiced this type of terrorism on daily basis


against Palestinians. It destroys houses, removes trees and
damage farms, kills people, and prevents them from living an
honorable life in order to accept its plans. Israel has been
distinguished of its ability to hunt leaders, destroy their houses
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and homes by airplanes. It has won in kidnapping several


politicians to put them in prison or kill them. Previously, it
reached Tunisia and other adjacent and far countries to kill. This
resulted in extremism among some Muslims and
misunderstanding of sharia. Also, it helped to enable non-Muslims
to attack Muslims and their wealth or they may penetrated among
Muslims to separate and differentiate them, get their capabilities
and weaken them to be easy to conquer. This happened in the last
centuries as mentioned above. Therefore, it is clear that Islamic
religion does not have any relation to extremism, violence and
terrorism. Islam is the religion of forgiveness and it is against
extremism and it calls for mediation and peace.

Islam calls for self review to look for defects and return to the
right path. This is an advantage and therefore, some Islamic
groups need to review themselves to find that there is a mistake in
the religious Sermon represented in lack of moral dimension. It is
an aggression against Islam and Muslims to refer to them as
terrorism because of their religion. There are many terrorist
gangs, presently and in the past, practiced more violence and
disrupted the life and they did not know Islam or had any relation
to Muslim. Red flags in Italy, Red Army in Japan, Bask national
movement, Ireland Republic Army, Tamil Tigers in Srilanka,
Thesis of Doctorate - 35 -

Baderminhouv in Germany, Students for Democratic society and


Black Tigers in America and other terrorism groups have
practiced violence, terrorism and blackmailing without being
associated with any region. This is right because all religions call
for good and avoid bad with some variance. Islam is the leader of
their religions as it is the final religion and is good for any place
and time. Therefore, we should go back to the Quran and Sunna to
subtract our needs of texts the educate human being to be in love
and mercy and fairness and respect of human rights. If we include
that in our religion Sermon we will see how the situation will
change and peace will spread on the ground and Islam return to
its superiority.

Section Two (Islamic Society and Terrorism)


Chapter One: Society and need for security:
Security is an urgent necessity for Islamic society by which the
good life for individuals is realized and the society will develop to
be close to advanced countries. Therefore, Islam has given this
aspect the utmost attention and annotated that in its provisions in
the Quran and Sunnah. The meaning of Allah saying: "Those
Believers who do not mix their belief of unfairness will have
security and they are on the right path".
Thesis of Doctorate - 36 -

Also "When he leaves he endeavors to corrupt on the earth and


damage cultivation and life and Allah does not like corruption"
Those who are only interested in killing and destroying are
considered criminals because security is a main pillar in society on
which the human life is based. It is the basis for innovation and
creativity of human beings. It is an objective that all individuals
and groups intend to achieve and governments and countries
would like to realize. Society would like security when there are
disasters, riots and disturbances. Islamic society is distinguished
by its provisions to control security and its regulations which are
taken from its pure doctrine and core of its Sharia. It is united and
associated regardless of the various races, nationalities and levels.
If we refer to the prophet sayings, we will find that they call for
security. Therefore, when prophet entered Makkah he said his
famous Sermon (The one who enters the house of Abu Sofian will
be secured). He concluded his life by establishing them principle in
Hijat Al-Wada in front of people (Don't go back after me
unbelievers killing each other).
Islam ordered and put penalties to the one who violates this
principle.
(Those who fight against Allah and his prophet and corrupt will be
awarded of being killed, or crucified or their legs and hands are
cut or dismissed from the land… ". This is because their practice is
Thesis of Doctorate - 37 -

aggression on the rightness and fairness that should spread in the


society. The penalties in Islam are established to punish those
who violate these principles. The mosque, home, family,
university, juristic institutions shall maintain and keep security
as it is and important basis for life and feeling of stability for all
society members. Security is great gift and it is created by love,
loyalty, respect of others rights, perform hospitality to non-
Muslims in the Muslim society and give them all their legal and
security rights. That is considered worshiping and compliance by
Muslims to Allah teachings.

Chapter Two: (Role of Society Institutions)


Research One: (Mosque).
Requirement One: The importance of mosque: Islam has a special
and important look towards mosque is it is a wide field in which
Allah is worshipped and obeyed. Therefore, it has been given
unique advantages and distinctive characteristics is it is the
source of the propagation to Allah. Islam gave the mosque the
highest level and established its as a sacred place. Allah added it
to Him when he said (mosques are for Allah and don’t call with
him any one else).
Thesis of Doctorate - 38 -

In the mosque Muslims purify themselves, the souls are united


and the Muslims worship Allah. The mosque has a comprehensive,
variant and multiple message that organizes different fields to
spread the Islamic values and good ethics. It presents the value of
the human being and maintain him and rectify his behavior. It
provides the psychological and spiritual calmness which ease the
burden of their lives and conquer their desires and establish the
good relations between the people. It spreads security and
stability in the society.

Requirement Two: Mosque is the source of security and safety.


The mosque has a special sacredness in which the verses of Quran
are recited to clarify and purify souls and feed them by spiritual
awareness and right path. As long as the Muslim goes repeatedly
to the Mosque he increases his love to Allah and he question
himself and prevent the aggressive and criminal motives.

The individual strengthen his relation to the mosque and that


affects the whole society when it gets in the mosque the meanings
of virtue and the Islamic meanings which spread the calmness and
put the Muslim to the right path and prevent him from the path of
extremism and terrorism. The worshipping leads to be the source
of mediation and balance in the prayers selves and it become a
Thesis of Doctorate - 39 -

path for Allah spirit and the Quran method. It helps the society to
bring his individuals to the right path and create a feeling of
security. Therefore, the mosque has a vital role in establishing the
pillars of security, establish the basis of stability in the society.
The praying has direct effect on rectifying the behavior individual
and it is an effective means to protect from deviation and crime.

Requirement Three: The role of the mosque in the awareness of


the security crimes
The mosque is the safety valve for the Islamic society and without
which the life in the society will not be go straightforward. The
mosque also secure the society from deviated ideas and acts, so it
fights the bad behaviors and social corruption. In this regard the
Islamic sharia is distinctive by the basic principles of workshop
and dealing and maintain the social life to achieve the security
and fairness between people. It maintains the freedom of
individuals and the collective public rights. This role of the
mosque has not been away from other social institutions. It has
been giving these institutions and establishments the light of the
rightness. When we review some of the effects of the mosque on
these establishments we find that it has positive effects on them
by teaching people the rightness without extremism.
Thesis of Doctorate - 40 -

Research Two:
Friday Sermon and its effect on security of the society:

Friday Sermon is the source of light for security, peace and


rightness. It is role in the society is clear and established as it is
the first support and great pillar to achieve social security. It
deepens the unity and eliminate the differences. It feeds the
society with social and mental orientation. Although these
meanings have effective meanings in the Friday Sermon, its role is
not effective if the one who performs it does not convey the
meanings effectively of it and show its effective role in the life of
the individual and society.

On Friday, many prayers attend the Sermon of and they need


some one to remind them and draw their attention and direct
them to the right way, solve the society problems, contribute in
rectifying the public life, return the individual to the religion and
its principles, spread the soul of love and good relations among
people. The person who conveys the Sermon and the Imam of the
mosque is more effective and have more impression on the crowd
than any other means that affect the society.
Thesis of Doctorate - 41 -

The speaker uproots the wickedness from the criminal and make
him afraid of Allah. He makes him like the rightness, accept the
fairness, cooperate with people, rectify the souls, awake the
emotions in the people and educate them to do the good things and
cool down the selves. He takes the directions from the book of
Allah and from sunna of prophet Mohammed PBUH. In order to
be effective, the scientists took care of it and mentioned factors of
its success and benefits:

Requirement one: Factors of the Sermon success:

(Understand the situation) the speaker will not succeed in his


mission unless he attracts his listeners in a good effective method.
He should be aware of the current situation and the fluctuation in
the environment. He should rectify the wrong concepts in Islam
and face the bad ideas be presenting the correct Islam and its
advantages of forgiveness, comprehensiveness, balance, depth and
positive ness. To achieve the object of the Sermon it should be
linked to the events of the society and the human beings situation.
It should concentrate on treatment of society problems, provide
solutions. It should fix the Islamic brotherhood and resist the
racism and differences.
Thesis of Doctorate - 42 -

(Urge to obey the ruler) The speakers should concentrate on the


security of the society, its stability, spread of peace, and relieve it
from differences and motives of sin and difference. They should
urge the prayers to strengthen their faith and fear of Allah and
his punishment. They should call them to observe Allah orders
and good conduct, get the benefits of the current life and the
judgment day. Islam will establish security in the society and
taking care of the human being and the social life and prevent
society from riot and violence and prevent the criminals from
doing their acts.

Obeying the ruler and respecting his personality is very important


to avoid differences and riots. The wise people understand these
meanings and know the consequences. They know that they have
to yield to the provisions of Islam. It is a sign of unity when the
people obey the rulers and gather around their leadership. This
will be the way for their progress and development and that
provide protection of the society against wickedness. The
suspected criminals shall be reported and it is the responsibility of
each Muslim to protect the country from wicked people and avoid
the country of riot and disruption.
Thesis of Doctorate - 43 -

(The Islamic Unity and Faith Brotherhood) The speakers in the


Mosque shall establish the unity meanings in prayer selves,
establish the warm relations between themselves. Islam accepted
the brotherhood as the base of social unity and family tidiness
should concentrate on the security of the society, its stability,
spread of peace, and relieve it from differences and conflict. In
case of conflict, a lot of dangers may occur resulting in horrible
incidents and instability of the society. The key role of the Imam is
to solve the problems between the people and remove the conflict
between themselves and establish the good relations. Therefore,
the main role is remind the people of their unity and they should
be united as prophet Mohammed PBUH has instructed by saying
"the believers in their mutual passion and mercy are like the one
body when one organ complains the rest of the body will suffer of
fever).
Thesis of Doctorate - 44 -

(Mediation and Fairness): The call of Islam for mediation and


fairness is one of the important things that should be explained to
the people. He should explain to them that they should feel that
Islam concentrates on fairness and balance. Some people
especially youth may become extremists due to their ignorance of
Islam and they call others as unbelievers or secular and this has
bad effects on the society.

(Care of Youth) The speaker has effective role in directing the


people especially the youth to comply with the right path and
follow the Allah instructions and strengthen the religious
incentives and purify the self, show the privileges of being straight
and the bad effects of the deviation. They should fear Allah and if
a criminal escape from punishment in this life, he will not escape
from the punishment of Allah in the day after. The five necessities
of Islam should be explained. They are the protection of religion,
self, mind, honor and money. Islam warned of spoiling and
assaulting on these necessities. Islam has put penalties for
violation of these necessities in order to prevent aggression on
them. These punishments have been approved to overcome the
terrorist gangs which threaten the peaceful people and spread fear
among them.
Thesis of Doctorate - 45 -

The speaker bears a major responsibility in instructing people


especially the youth of the security controls that stipulated by the
Islamic jurisdiction to protect the society from the crime, protect
from deviation, fight of terrorism acts and bad conducts which
seek violation of the public system and breaching of the security
and killing and robbery of properties and money, stirring of
conflict and differentiation between Muslim groups. Any violation
of the Islamic jurisdiction is considered aggression, violation of
these rules.

(Relation with Non-Muslims)


The speaker shall explain from the Mosque to the people the
superior Islamic values, the fair situations, the Islam view to non-
Muslims in the Islamic society. The existence of non-Muslim
groups living among Muslims is an evidence of forgiveness of
Islam and avoiding differentiation and discrimination. Islam
spreads love, security, calmness and coherence between all people.
Some of the Islamic society advantages, is the coherence and
living between all community individuals. This principle was the
first one that Prophet Mohammed was interested to establish in
the first Islamic state in Madinah to establish combined security
system with all groups of the society. He considered that the
provision of security is one of the most important requirements.
Thesis of Doctorate - 46 -

The society included other groups in addition to Muslims. Islam


put provisions and rules that regulate the relation of Muslims
with other non-Muslim societies throughout the generation and
during all times.

Islam approved the secured social living with peaceful residents in


the Islamic State and permitted to eat their food and slaughtered
animals. It approved marriage with them and prophet Mohamed
PBUH recommended to keep the rights of other believers,
maintain their blood and money and not to assault against them.
Abdullah Ibn Amru Ibn Alass said that the prophet Mohammed
PBUH said (if someone kills the covenant person he will not find
the smell of paradise).

This indicates the soul of Islam and its justice. This soul is for the
whole human being to spread mercy and security and strengthen
the human relations. Islam strengthen the relations between all
elements of society and respects the covenant and agreements and
does not accept betraying.

Requirement Two:
Tracking the Sermons of the Two Holy Mosques see clearly the
attitude of the speakers in understanding the current situation,
Thesis of Doctorate - 47 -

follow up the first event including fighting violence, terrorism and


bad acts. The terrorism events that happened in our country are
considered crimes. We are happy that Makkah mosque Sermon is
broadcasted directly by satellites via Saudi TV (channel one) and
Madinah mosque Sermon is broadcasted via channel two. Also
Saudi broadcasting stations of the general program in Riyadh and
second program in Jeddah participate in this broadcasting and
that give the sermon more importance and attention in the
Islamic world.
Thesis of Doctorate - 48 -

Research Three : Scientists and Propagators. Allah has honored


this Ummah by the scientists and propogators whose core of work
is to call people and guide them to the right path and to justice
and good deeds by being easy, wise, and have full knowledge of
Quran and sunnah. In implementing wisdom to convince others
there was a gradual method in dealing with others. In Quran
there are principles that should be considered and observed by
scientists and propogators which include three steps of
propagation starting from wisdom which is very important and
should not be neglected while dealing with others. Therefore,
extremism is not right and if it is not solved it may lead to
negative impact on propagation for Islam.

In this case the scientists shall exert all efforts to subscribe the
right effective medicine for this disease. They are entrusted to be
inherent of prophets. They should teach those who are involved in
such acts and discuss their ideas and their psychological status.
Scientists are assigned to bear responsibilities to order bring
happiness for the nation in its presence and future. All are united
to overcome terrorism and eliminate this phenomena.
Thesis of Doctorate - 49 -

Scientists are required to perform their duty to stand against this


phenomenon and protect the society from corruption by those
deviators who want to destroy the society and break its unity and
security.

One of their first objectives is to fight the terrorism conduct and


protect the interests of individuals and society. This is objective is
that for all other previous religions. There the fives necessities
that should be protected: maintain religion, self, mind, birth and
money.

Scientists shall explain their five matters and stand in front of the
one who tries to violate any of them. The terrorism conduct shall
be overcome by discovering the reasons for this misconduct. The
persons who practice such acts shall studies and their
personalities shall be verified to know their ideas and review their
forums in the modern means of communications and know their
leaders and how they think.

Scientists shall explain the religion and the danger of these


extremists. They should activate the national loyalty of the
country and the people and the principles and valued
fundamentals which identify their behavior. For example the
Thesis of Doctorate - 50 -

youth shall be encouraged love Makkah, Madinah and Palestine


and try to defend them. The bad conduct of terrorism has bad
effects on our religion as in the view of non-Muslims it will be
considered as it is religion of terrorism. This what is now spread
in the mass media by the offenders of Islam. Therefore, we should
overcome such behaviors of terrorism and shall show patience and
good ethics.

Research Four : (Terrorism & Legal Jurisdiction). Jurisdiction is


one of the main mandatory after belief in Allah. It is ordered by
Allah and He sent his prophets PBUH to execute that and then
their follower took that role.

Terrorism in its wide recent concept means the acts related to


aggression made by criminals and aggressors to frighten secured
people and kill them, cause instability to society security either by
act, saying or procedure and this what is called by the Sharia
scientists (corruption on the earth). This term is used now a days
for such acts and it is considered a crime and the one who commit
it shall be punished as per legal jurisdiction.
Thesis of Doctorate - 51 -

The Jurisdiction View to Terrorism:

First: The Sharia texts stipulated that corruption in the earth is


forbidden as mentioned in Al-Hadeeth Al-Qudsi.
Also, in the verses of Quran he says (Don't corrupt on the earth
after rectifying it).
Also, old Muslim scholars such as Ibn Katheer and AlQurtibi
explained that Allah called for no corruption.

Second: Terrorism acts takes the shape of violence and fear for
those living in the society. Therefore, the terrorist does not care to
terrify peaceful people or fighters as he does not differentiate
between women, children and old people. Therefore, he attacks
residential compounds where women and children live as well as
hospitals and education institutions. All society resources are
subject to terrorism attacks and that is considered by the
jurisdiction as aggression on the country's capabilities.

Third:
The terrorism acts deformed the picture of the Islamic society and
harmed the nation because the Islam is accused of terrorism. The
reason that some extremists who pretend Islam conducted bad
behavior considering that as part of Islam. No doubt that the
Thesis of Doctorate - 52 -

terrorism acts made some people who hate Islam to accuse it of


terrorism, and they were keen to make people hate to become
Muslims.

Jurisdiction Procedures to investigate terrorists and their crimes.


1. Obtain assistance from the experts to give their opinion
in matters related to investigation.
2. The investigator should go to the place of the crime
immediately when it is reported to make inspection
before evidences are removed.
3. Search the houses where the terrorist lives and also
search his body.
4. Listen to the sayings of the witnesses unless the
investigator deems that there is no need for listening to
them.
5. Question the accused person, confirm his personality,
inform him of the matter accused of and face him with
other accused persons or witnesses.
6. Retain the accused person after investigation if it is
found that there are enough evidences to charge him,
or for the sake of investigation he shall be uphold.
7. If the evidences are enough against the accused person
they will be presented to the court where he shall
Thesis of Doctorate - 53 -

attend after investigation. After proving the crime and


following rules shall apply:
First: The juristic principle which show the crime, and
identify the penalty.
Second: The Crime purpose: to qualify for imposing
penalty.
Third: execute or start its stages. The person who is
accused will be subject to penalty to preserve the
society and its interests.

The preventive and remedial precautions for terrorism incidents:

1. Spread the awareness and knowledge among people so that


the citizens will coordinate to have the perfect method and
strongest way to support.
2. Take care of the rehabilitation aspects of the person
committed the crime because cutting the reasons of crime
will prevent their occurrence.
3. Direct the penalties through the best way that defend the
crimes and eliminate them.
4. Impose proper penalties for crimes even if they are small
and not related to terrorism incidents, because crimes and
violations may lead to others.
Thesis of Doctorate - 54 -

5. Enforce penalties on the crime incidents if they are combined


by terrorism.
6. Find penalties that the support the basic penalties as
required such as announcement.
7. Impose precisely and accurately the juristic penalties for the
crimes because Allah has decided that to rectify the affairs of
the people.
8. Develop the juristic and security organizations which track
the crime before occurrence. It proposes the juristic
recommendations and proper social and scientific remedies.

Juristic Penalties on the Terrorism Incidents

Juristic penalties can be divided based on the terrorism incidents


to several divisions based on the crime. These penalties may be
stipulated by Allah or estimated by the judge depending on the
crime. Such penalties include:
1. Penalty for planning
2. Penalty for urging
3. Penalty for assistance
4. Penalty for starting the crime and not preventing it.
5. Penalty for execution.
6. Penalty for knowing and not reporting (covering).
Thesis of Doctorate - 55 -

For each act of crime there shall be penalty. The above order does
not mean the order of penalties. A planner may deserve more
penalty that executor. The penalty shall be approved by Sharia
and shall be limited to the criminal and not to any who has not
contributed in that crime.
Thesis of Doctorate - 56 -

Research Five: (Family)

Requirement One: Islam Care of Family

Islam gives more attention to the family and consider it as the


first cell of the society. Islam clarified all details, small or big,
related to the family.

Family is the human umbrella necessary to build the self and


practice the calm happy life. Building this complementary family
of the man and woman is made by marriage to fulfill the inherited
desires and meet the emotional and body requirements. This will
achieve a moderate and fair method that fulfill the desires and
does not spread sexual freedom. Practicing the calm happy life is
through the family which compose a small gathering the make
coordination and build a family that overcomes the living
problems. In this life they spread love, calmness, peace and
satisfaction. The Muslim family is the first forte where the child
grows in Islamic education. The most important objective of the
family is to form the family and apply the Islamic rules. This
means to build the Islamic house which build itself on slavery to
Allah. Therefore, the child will be educated to achieve that
objective by acquiring the Islamic habits of his parents under he
Thesis of Doctorate - 57 -

becomes mature and aware of life. If both the wife and the
husband live together in a mutual respecting and merciful life,
then their children will live in a calm family environment away
from anxiety and psychological sickness which weaken his
personality or create in him the violence and terrorism. Parents
are responsible for education of their sons and protect them from
loss and hellfire that wait every one who does not believe in Allah.

Although the family relations are correlated, we would like to


highlight the relation of parents with their sons. This relation has
been arranged in the Quran verses.

Requirement Two: the Family Function: Family is the basis for


building the human structure, with respect to spiritual,
intellectual, doctrine, body, emotional, and social aspects.
Therefore, we found that Islam was careful to make this structure
to ensure that the new borne are free from inherited diseases
which lead to delivery of disabled new borne. After birth, the
family has the role of building the spiritual and doctrine structure
of the human being after birth.

Islam has stated the provisions for family and indicated the
secrets behind these provisions in many verses of Quran and
Thesis of Doctorate - 58 -

Hadith, such as inheritance, marriage, divorce, and stated the


good relation between the family members. There are limits that
should be considered in order for the family to live happy life and
educate its members to learn the Islamic teachings. This cell will
be good to accommodate good men and women. By this the human
beings know each others and coordinate and have free movement
and travel, trading and other interests between human beings. By
ensuring to have good individuals in the family, the whole family
to trend to good deeds and the reasons for violence and other
crimes in the society will eliminate. However, there are other
reasons for terrorism, violence and extremism in various societies
although the family structure remained the same. The family
contributed in that by exposing its members to some strange ideas
not available before. Satellites and internet penetrated in the
privacy of the Muslim family. Despite our understanding of their
importance and benefits, we know that they have can be harmful
if they are misused because in this case they will lead to bad
results. If they are best utilized they will have great benefits.
Therefore, the parents play a major role to follow up the sons
activities and prevent them from following the deviated paths
which spread corruption. The Muslim family is targeted for
corruption and spoiling of their youth to be extremists and
terrorists being away from the family control which is supposed to
Thesis of Doctorate - 59 -

be fully aware of the movements of the sons and daughters and


their social relations and the parties they contact and get ideas
form. Parents shall watch them so that they will not be surprised
by the change in the habits of their sons by contacting suspected
parties. Disasters may occur in many cases, therefore, the family
should be aware of its role and should work according to the
Islamic Education principles and bear the responsibility towards
each of its members.

Requirement Three: It role in preventing deviation and crime:

There are seven basic functions performed by the family


summarized as follows:
• Produce economic and material and basic
materials.
• Provide the individual his social position.
• Educate the children
• Develop the religion belief among kids.
• Protection
• Renew the activity
• Love
Thesis of Doctorate - 60 -

Although it is possible to protect the child by other social


institutions, the protection of the family is more effective since the
family combines between the personnel favorite response and the
social strong care in the Arab and Islamic societies. The family
function extends to spirit of the human being by teaching and
directing it to the correct direction which matches the nature of
human being. By that combination the individual will be on the
right path and psychologically and socially secured. In addition,
the family's function in Islam is that it is the spring that feeds the
child with the correct doctrine and moderate thoughts from the
Quran and Hadith.

The individual acquire his correct behavior and think techniques


by the social interaction and dealing with others. Parents are the
first persons he deals with, and they socialize the child because he
obeys them and that strengthens the relationship between the
child and his parents. It is clear there is a role of the family in
developing the criminal behaviors of the child since it bears the
first responsibility for his appearance of any criminal conducts.
The family also is responsible for forming the correct behavior
since the children imitate their parents. Also, the problems and
contradiction inside the family may develop this attitude. The
family is the first social institution prepare and develop the child
Thesis of Doctorate - 61 -

as per the society requirements. The family is the first bricks in


the society after the individual and as such it bears a big
responsibility because if the family is good the society will be good.
The family is the only social basis which is organic rather than
functional. Therefore, it gives it the opportunity to loosen the
psychological and material stresses on the individuals.
Accordingly, the family is responsible for direction of the children
to the doctrine, intellectual and cultural principles. We have
mentioned Hadith that the new baby is born on Islam and his
parents make him a Jew, Christian or majosi either by his father
or mother.

The family has a great role in the social security as it is the first
defense line against bad things. However, it cannot play this role
unless its strong in its structure and its internal and external
relations. One of the important aspects that family should take
care of is the social planning for children and their activities and
practices especially during summer holidays in order to utilize
their time. There is a close relation between the misuse of the free
time available for the children with their friends and tribe
individuals and the bad conduct and deviation. Therefore, the free
time should be best utilized by sport, cultural and social activities.
Thesis of Doctorate - 62 -

The family by its attention to have correct social education and


best utilization of free time with other various social institutions
will have valuable contribution in making up the good person in
the society who will provide security to the society now and in
future.
Thesis of Doctorate - 63 -

Research Six : (School)

Requirement One: The Security Role of the School

The student, curriculum, teacher and school environment are


basic fundamentals to plant moderate and fairness or charge the
violence and extremism. We cannot discuss the role of the school
in fighting the extremist thoughts apart from the development
and discovering of our mistakes in teaching and its outputs.
Teaching in Islamic society is based on teaching the student to
memorize the information until he passes the exam. He only
stores this information without understanding it. Therefore, they
will be easy to be attracted by other thoughts which the will be
more stringent to implement without thinking or discussion. They
will be easy tools for practical and mental implementation.
Activation of the school's role to fight deviated behavior should be
based on teaching the students by dialogue that is based on
thinking and innovation and will make the student thinks about
the matters and see the reality from several corners. In this case
he will be preserved from attraction by deviated thoughts which
call for violence and terrorism. The school represented by its
teachers and staff shall identify the targeted parties in the big
society which will be subject to the bad ideas and shall direct them
Thesis of Doctorate - 64 -

and establish special programs for them. The inability to


accommodate the student's needs may lead them to practice the
crime behaviors outside the school and they will be easy hunt for
terrorism groups to implement their thoughts. Therefore, the
teacher represents the core to get the information to the student
and if the teach does not have strong command of the material he
presents to the student he will not be able to give him the
information in a correct way and accordingly the education
process will fail. Teachers are the alternatives for parents outside
the family. Some teachers assist the students to overcome some
defects and problems that affect his understanding, while others
may negatively affect the students. They should be an example to
their students by learning from them the best dealing and
behavior.

Requirement Two: The School role in fighting terrorism, violence


and extremism.

The school bear the main role in decreasing the criminal attitude
of the society individuals. Security is closely linked with education
and teaching. When the noble ethical values are planted in the
society individuals the security will spread and the feeling of
stability is spread. Education is one of the important parties the
Thesis of Doctorate - 65 -

plays a vital and important role to preserve structure of society


and its stability. Education transfer the social values and
standards from one generation to another. Education unites the
society and strengthens the national loyalty and unity among his
individuals. Therefore, the school has a security role to fight
violence, terrorism and extremism despite the claims of failure of
education curriculums to teach the children the positive social
values and standards. There have been positive elements of the
curriculums on the stability of the social and cultural system in
society and they assisted directly on keeping the security in the
past which is not all bad. Present is not necessarily the best.

Requirement Three: Islamic Education Curriculums

It is the best evidence of the success of the teaching curriculums in


fighting violence and extremism. It has an active role in serving
the security for students. Islamic education materials have been
taught all through the academic stages from preliminary to high
classes in all Arab and Islamic countered. These materials
strengthen and establish the Islamic doctrine in the students in
the primary classes. This is reflected on the student and make him
Thesis of Doctorate - 66 -

good citizen maintain the security of his nation. Reviewing the


primary stages of Islamic education we find that it concentrates
on the Quran verses and Hadith that teach the student the good
values and warn him from committing violation, and corruption
in the earth and make him discuss important issues of security
such as the effects of conflict between Muslims.

The moderate Islamic education teaches the security culture to


the students and take them away from suspected matters. It
discusses some important subjects to them in view of the book and
sunnah during the advanced stages of their age. Those who
develop the curriculums consider to eliminate riot, and extremism
and encourage moderation. Therefore, it is clarified that weapon
even by indication shall not be used to frighten Muslims. Bearing
weapons by Muslims to fight each other is forbidden. There are
some security subjects related to society security and protection
form crime which are contained in the Islamic education,
including penalties, prevention of bloodshed, ordering obey of the
ruler, suicide forbidden, dealing with non-Muslims, controls of
calling non-believer. The Islamic Fiqeh contains many subjects
and writings in the past and now regarding identification of crime,
division, and harmful effects on the society and the penalty for the
one who commits violation on order to prevent him from
Thesis of Doctorate - 67 -

committing that crime. However, in some Islamic schools the


religion education is not strong and it is a minor subject by in
Saudi Arabia it plays a major role in security education to
preserve the society from crime and deviation. This is in addition
to other subjects that plays a major role in this issue. However,
the teacher remains the most important factor of success of the
education process to achieve good results based on the education
policy of the Kingdom which confirms that education of the
faithful citizen is the basic objective of this policy in order to be a
good brick in building his nation and country and defend them as
required. Therefore, the school in the Saudi society plays a vital
role to spread security feeling among the student. Nationalism has
recently become an important matter that should be considered by
the socialists, psychologists and politicians in order to create a
feeling of loyalty to the official authority. The important role of the
school is to confirm the national education where security is
realized when all feel of the responsibility towards the nation.
Nationalism is not a material of teaching but rather it is a
behavior through which interaction is made by all study
materials. Teacher, school and it staff shall set an example in
front of the students to confirm the nationality loyalty concept so
that it becomes a behavior and a practice and not only theoretical
material taught apart from the reality. The modern societies opt
Thesis of Doctorate - 68 -

that the school as a teaching institution shall have social function


goes along with the social developments in life. School is called
small society where students are trained on the local work and on
bearing the responsibility as they accept the meanings of
discipline, and rightness and duty. Some calls the school as an
organization institute that serve the society and study the
environment, resources, requirements and the people's
participation in funding its projects because it is the only
institution linked to all individuals. The school function is a social
institution has developed to participate in big society works after
it was isolated. It allowed the fathers and mothers to enter the
school to discuss the interests of their sons and school. The
expansion of the school calls to understand the importance of this
entity. Home performs his role and duties and send his children to
the school where the education system teaches those children the
good things through syllabus in order to be good citizens in their
future days. It is the factory of youth, male and female, who will
lead the society one day. The danger is to misuse these minds by
giving the students ideas presented as they are the right ideas
although they are subject to rejection. We have a problem of
deviation from the teaching process by some teachers because the
relation between the student and his teacher is not limited in the
classroom, but it goes to other activities whereat strange ideas
Thesis of Doctorate - 69 -

may be planted resulting in violence and extremism. The student


may deviate and tries to impose on his classmates the ideas he
received from his teacher. He does not have the tools for
verification because he is not aware of the subjects of difference
which shall be referred to the Quran and Sunnah. Regretfully,
this group may bear the seeds of violence, extremism and
terrorism. When he leaves the school he faces the society with all
its cultural, educational and religious concepts. He considers
himself right and he rejects all religious teachings which call for
forgiveness and avoidance of extremism. He will find himself
isolated and have to work in darkness to implement his ideas. The
catastrophe occurs when these terrorisms damage the properties
by explosive, considering that part of religion.

The school endeavors to control the student's relation with the


small society in accordance with regulations and systems that
ensure the entitlements and duties. This is a practical training on
practicing control in the big society between the individual and
those around him in work, home and in the state institutions. The
students are given the opportunity to be trained on using their
minds and ideas to abstract the solutions to their problems apart
from violence or terrorism. Other institutions have major effect to
eliminate the difference between the students without
Thesis of Doctorate - 70 -

interference from the superiors. However, there will be a big


danger if they adopt the ideas of other and reject the other party
and try to isolate him, because this is against unity and
forgiveness and fulfillment of commitments. This attitude may be
the first seed that increases the spirit of aggression, violence,
extremism and terrorism.

Research Seven:
Security Institutions: Security is the basis for each organization
because it is the backbone for the human life and basis of
civilization and development in all fields of knowledge, art,
culture, commerce and tourism and omrah performance. The
security agencies are assigned to maintain security for these
accomplishments. Tracking the development of the Ministry of
Interior in the world we find that it includes various dvisions
taking care of security in addition to colleges, acadamies and
technical training activities aims to upgrade the level of security
men. Security activities are known for all and they are to protect
the system, public security, protect lives, honors, and funds.
Security men shall ensure the calmness and stability.

The control conducted by security forces is primarily related to


those who are isolated from society and who cannot be controlled
Thesis of Doctorate - 71 -

unless a policeman is put on each street corner to watch . The


society needs conditions to decrease the violence and disturbance.
These conditions shall be provided within the frame of traditions
and social customs and systems that serve the society and
maintain it. Security forces in the advanced societies are
responsible for the society and serve it. To perform their
responsibilities, security forces shall assume four missions:
1. control of crime.
2. prevent crime
3. organize behavior
4. prepare for service.

The bright history of security work in the Kingdom of Saudi


Arabia makes us understand the important and dangerous role
assumed by these forces which have different skill and training.
However, the last terrorist attacks implemented inside the
Kingdom forced us to think about a mysterious sickness we did
not expect to be among us. The security forces have controlled the
situation and after chasing the terrorists who implemented their
bad deeds, they started to discover planned operations before
implementation and this is hoped by all citizens and residents. I
am sure that our security leaderships are able to dissolve the
terrorism cells and uproot them. Those who are alive will go back
Thesis of Doctorate - 72 -

to his nation after he finds right path and the wrong path. All
efforts, civil and security, shall be correlated to bridge the gap and
unit and foster the defense to face terrorism and curtail it to the
minimum.

The duty of society towards the security forces: security is


necessary for life and one factor of continuity. Security cannot be
achieved without its men whatever the names and functions of
keeping security. Under security honor and properties are
preserved, and life continue by protecting the individuals.
Weakness of security is the first spark for internal fighting
especially that disturbance is much easier than control it. In case
of lack of security, killing, assassination and explosions and other
terrorism acts may occur. The efforts of security forces are very
clear and shall be appreciated since they controlled big quantities
of weapons and explosions by being used such as C4, TNT,
grenades, biological materials, RBG which were presented by the
mass media. One TNT is enough to destroy a building area of 100
meters, PBX is enough to destroy a building of 10 floors. Security
forces have been able to control such operation before occurrence.
They should be supported against these terrorists, because their
work as part of the Jihad and I ask our people to understand their
searching and the long lines on check points for the interest of the
Thesis of Doctorate - 73 -

society. They are standing under climate changes for long time
and bear the insults of some people in order to protect us
especially during these critical times.

Killing of the security men during inspection and attacks of


terrorist places is a bad thing and should be strongly condemned.
The scenes of their dead bodies of security forces shall be
remembered and consider them as martyrs since the protect the
holiest places. They should be patient and track the criminals and
overcome them. Their efforts are appreciated and their activities
are permitted. Investigation includes follow up and retain to find
the truth. Spying is forbidden if it is uncover Awrah and violation
of preserved things for sake of desire and that is not part of
security men activities.

Security men are part of the society and congratulations for


parents, wives and children of the security forces for their being in
this important organization. He performs the great job by keeping
the security of the holy places from the criminals and their work is
part of Jihad and they should support them. It is good for the
security man to see his father, brother or family member
appreciates and support him to face the problems. The wife shall
consider the situation of her husband to decrease its demand since
Thesis of Doctorate - 74 -

his time is not for him but for all especially in this critical
situation.

Research Eight: Local and International Meetings and Forums

It is good to see the decision makers respond and support the


meetings for fighting terrorism. These meetings show the correct
view and stand of Islam towards terrorism and violence and that
it rejects all types of aggression on others or frightening them by
any means especially those who are living in the Kingdom of the
other religion believers. The Kingdom hospitalized two
international conferences about terrorism in 1423 and 1425 and
both conferences had good coverage by mass media from all over
the world. The conveyed the real attitude of Islam in fighting
terrorism. This is in addition to local meetings arranged by
various social institutions.

Conference I: (International Conference for fighting terrorism):

This conference was organized by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs


and held at King Abdulaziz Center for Conferences in Riyadh
under the custody of His Royal Highness Crown Prince Abdullah
Ibn Abdulaziz Al-Saud and direct follow up from His Royal
Thesis of Doctorate - 75 -

Highness the Minister of Foreign Affairs. This conference included


seventy five countries, organizations and Arab and International
union represented by experts to discuss and exchange information
and technical methods for fighting terrorism are a response to the
one who harm the reputation of Islam which is the religion of
forgiveness, moderation and fairness.

Conference Objectives:
• Explain the reasons for appearance of this
phenomena
• Watch the historical and intellectual
developments of this phenomena.
• Know the organizational aspects and the
terrorism organizations and their structure,
method of process and fight the organizations
which call for violence in extremism.
• Study the relation of terrorism and money wash.

Conference Topic:
• routes of terrorism
• relation between terrorism and drugs
• culture and terrorism thoughts.
Thesis of Doctorate - 76 -

• Relation between terrorism, smuggling of


weapons and money wash.

Recommendation of the Conference


One of the most important is:
• agreement to establish international center for
fighting terrorism.
• Consider the united nations as the main place
for uniting the international cooperation in
fighting terrorism.
• There should be agreement on comprehensive
agreement of (terrorism)
• Urge countries to take all necessary precautions
to prevent terrorist from obtaining mass
destruction weapons.
• Call to reinforce international and regional
bilateral coordination to identify and remove the
financial line for terrorism.
• Support national reformation efforts to face the
conditions that foster the terrorism and
extremism.
Thesis of Doctorate - 77 -

• Call all countries to adopt national active


comprehensive and united strategy against
terrorism.
• Encourage establishment of national and
regional centers specialized in fighting
terrorism.

Conference II: (Islam Attitude towards terrorism):

This conference was organized by Imam Mohamed Ibn Saud


university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A group of opinion
leaders from several Arab, Islamic, European and American
countries. Studies and discussions made in the conference have
been distributed in five languages being Arabic, English, French,
and Spanish and Persian languages. These can be reviewed at the
website prepared for this purpose www.islamstand.org

Conference Objectives:
• Find the routes of terrorism, violence and
extremism and that it is the result of deviation
from the Islam teachings.
Thesis of Doctorate - 78 -

• Clarify the mediation of Islam and its fairness


and its call for dialogue and conversation in a
good method.
• Clarify the legal opinion based on evidences
regarding the last incidents.
• Contribute in defending the Kingdom
scientifically and intellectually and expel
outside rumors and lies about its attitude.
• Submit scientific, educational, psychological,
and social suggesions to the concerned agencies
to contribute in providing the required remedy.
• Clarify the stand of Imam Mohamed Ibn Saud
Islamic University about deviation and then
repel accusations of the Kingdom.
• Participate with other sectors in the protection
and secure of the internal front.

Axis One : The Nature of Terrorism, Violence and Extermism


• concept and differences of opinions
• roots
• concepts and shapes
Thesis of Doctorate - 79 -

Axis Two: Terrorism, Violence and Extremism evaluated by


Jurisdiction
• Quran and Sunnah
• Stands of Sahabah and Tabi'een
• Scientists stand presently and in the past.

Axis Three: Terrorism, Violence and Extremism (History, reasons


and results)
• History
• Reasons (intellectual, economical, political,
social, psychological, educational .. etc).
• Results : (intellectual, economical, political,
social, psychological, educational .. etc).

Axis Four: Dealing with Terrorism, Violence and Extremism


• The function of the scientists and propogators
• Function of family
• Function of school
• Function of the social institutions
• Media organizations functions
• Security organizations functions
Thesis of Doctorate - 80 -

Axis Five: Moderation, Forgiveness of Islam and its call for


dialogue
• Islam mediation
• Islam forgiveness
• Call for dialogue

Axis Six: The Kingdom's stand towards terrorism, violence,


extremism in present and the past.
• Basis on which the Kingdom fights terrorism,
violence and extremism in the past (internally
and externally)
• The Kingdom's efforts in fighting terrorism,
violence and extremism in the present.

Recommendations of the Conference:


• Confirm rejection of terrorism which is
represented in aggression either by individuals,
groups, or countries. Terrorism is a crime not
accepted by heaven religions and local rules. It
is international phenomena not related to
religion, culture or race.
Thesis of Doctorate - 81 -

• The importance of international agreement to


identify the accurate concept of terrorism to
refer to in case of dispute and contradiction so
that the term will not be subject to pretexts and
ambiguity.
• Importance of the university and other
educational institutions in conducting meetings
and seminars periodically to discuss this current
phenomena in which local and international
societies are interested.
• Emphasize the bad results of extremism,
aggression and terrorism as it is not part of the
religion and causes destruction of the nations,
and it contradicts with the meaning of
forgiveness of sharia and requesting the
scientist to explain to the Muslims and others
the Islamic sharia and consider the rights of all
human beings.
• Write books and researches specialized in
terrorism, extremism and violence and translate
them to international languages.
Thesis of Doctorate - 82 -

• Emphasize treatment of extremism reasons and


roots by spreading education and realize justice
and remove injustice from the societies and
respect the human rights and peoples privacy.
• Be interested to fortify and protect the youth
and protect them from following violence and
extremism through ways such as:
a. Dialogue and convincing
b. Utilize the free times of the youth in some
thing beneficent to them that develop their
skills.
c. Confirm the concepts of forgiveness and
avoid extremism by the teaching
curriculums and mass media and education
means.
d. The necessity to differentiate between
terrorism that is rejected by the Islamic
sharia and all other heaven religions and
local rules and the legal resistance to
liberate from foreign occupation.
• Emphasize the reformations called by Sheikh
Mohammed Ibn Abdul Wahhab as it is the
Thesis of Doctorate - 83 -

Islamic propagation based on Islam principles


away from extremism and terrorism.
• Establish a center for Current Islamic Studies
and dialogue between cultures aiming to study
the factors that affect the relationship between
civilizations and what hurdle the relation
between them such as negative impacts of
terrorism, extremist and violence.
• Emphasize and foster the communication and
mutual visits between scientist and intellectuals
from the Kingdom and other western scientists
to contribute in fostering the dialogue and
remove misunderstanding about many issues.
• Confirm the importance of the scientists efforts
exerted to increase intellectual contacts with
youth through extensive meetings and dialogues
about terrorism and violence.
• Emphasize the importance of the mass media,
audio and video, in respecting the values, ethics
and public conduct.
Thesis of Doctorate - 84 -

• Publish the conference researches and


discussion in a scientific record and translate
that to other languages.
Thesis of Doctorate - 85 -

Research Nine : (The Electronic Terrorism)

Terrorists found a wide space to spread their false ideas and call
for their bad principles in the internet where they freely launch
their activities under false names through their sites and their
audible or video forums and even the chatting rooms called pal
talk that becomes one of their targets to feed the terrorism ideas
and attract many youth and supporters and get from them
financial and moral support by various possible means under
names of (Tafjeer.com) and (Takfeer.com). Such sites have taught
the methods and means to perform terrorism operations by
establishing sites to teach how to manufacture explosives and
ways of assassination and burning of critical establishments and
the best ways to kidnap and clean the small arms and the first
aids and how to attack policemen and also spread all methods to
destroy and access sites and e-mails and how to enter barred sites
and how to spread viruses.

Internet is a secured place for meeting: Although the meetings of


terrorists and criminals in a certain place to learn terrorism and
crime methods are difficult be held on nature, the internet has
facilitated that because several persons can meet at a certain time
and exchange the talk and listen to each other on the internet.
Thesis of Doctorate - 86 -

The may get supporters by spreading their ideas and principles


via internet sites, and dialogue forums and the chatting rooms.
Although it is difficult to establish TV and broadcasting station as
mass media, it is easy to create internet site, utilize the dialogue
forums to serve the terrorist objectives. There are thousands of
sites for terrorism organizations to ensure wide spread so if some
sites destroyed others can be reached.
Terrorists found these digital means and information revolution to
be their best means in the electronic terrorism.

The Kingdom's efforts in fighting terrorism.


The Kingdom is distinguished by depending on Quran and
Sunnah as a ruling in all life affairs. Therefore, dealing with the
information technology as other fields of life are subject to Sharia.
In view these provisions the respective agencies set forth bylaws
stipulating the rights and duties of all parties. The government
issued some bylaws and regulations and instructions to face the
electronic assault and terrorism. These regulations stipulated
penalties for violation of these rules such as the resolution of the
minister's cabinet No. 163 on 1417H which provided rules and
controls to use the internet and subscribe in it, including:
Thesis of Doctorate - 87 -

1. Prohibit access or try to access to any computer


systems connected to internet without permission from
the owner or those who have the ownership rights for
such systems, information and resources.
2. Prevent sending or receiving coded information without
permission from the service provider.
3. prevent access to other accounts and try to use them
without permission.
4. prevent others from participation in using others
accounts and inform them of the pass word of the user.
5. comply to respect internal regulations for local and
international networks upon access to.
6. prevent from exposing the intranet to danger by
opening security gaps in it.
7. abandon extensive use of the network to get busy so
that others may not make use of it.
8. comply with the instruction issued from the internet
service unit at King Abdulaziz City for Science and
Technology with controls and policies to utilize the
network.
9. The resolution stated formation of permanent
committee chaired by Ministry of Interior and
membership of Ministries of: Defense, Finance, Culture
Thesis of Doctorate - 88 -

and Information, Telecom and IT, Commerce, Islamic


Affairs, Planning, High Education, Education,
Intelligence Headquarters, King Abdulaziz City for
Science and Technology to discuss fields of control and
utilization of internet and coordinate with other parties
especially:
a. Security control related to incoming and
outgoing information through the external line
of the internet which contradicts to our religion
and regulations.
b. Coordinate with the parties utilizing the service
in relation to management and security of the
national network.
This resolution shows the Kingdom's initiative to
organize and control the electronic transactions.

The Kingdom started to conduct training sessions


being the first about the subject of fighting the
computer crimes by participation of international
experts. Computer crimes are estimated to cost USD
600 million in the middle east. 25% of these crimes
happened to individuals and organizations in Saudi
Arabia during 2000 only. There is a Saudi government
Thesis of Doctorate - 89 -

committee composed of respective Ministries to


accomplish the e-commerce project. It is also required
to put regulations and details, and evaluation of the
infrastructure and all elements related to electronic
transactions. These preparations are to prevent spread
of this type of local crime after opening of the e-
commerce especially that the world is suffering of such
crimes and now there are a lot of such crimes and
means of fighting them in addition to provisions and
regulations to prevent their occurrence.

The procedures in the Kingdom aim to develop


knowledge and skills to participate in fighting crimes
committed via computer or computer networks and
identify their types and security indications and apply
the technical procedures for security of software's and
networks and admin procedures to use information.
This type of crimes is committed by different categories
but the most dangerous of that is the organized crimes
which are committed by the computer for stealing
banks and commercial firms including the theft of
credit card numbers and the pin numbers and spread
them on the internet. This category uses the computer
Thesis of Doctorate - 90 -

to manage its illegal activities such as drugs and


money wash. Although the categories are different but
their means are similar in many aspects. Therefore,
the security organizations need a lot of work to develop
their abilities to deal with computer crimes so that the
investigator will be able to deal with the electronic
tools of hardware and software.

The electronic terrorism became a horrible thing in the


world which is subject to terrorism attacks through
internet. Terrorists attack from anywhere in the world.
These risks increase by days because technology only is
not able to protect people from the electronic terrorism
operations which caused significant damages to people,
organizations and countries. These efforts are not
enough to face this dangerous weapon.
E-terrorism becomes a danger for all world and its
danger is due to its easy use and severe effects. It can
be used from home, office, coffee shop and hotel room.

Factors to reserve the society from the e-terrorism:


Dr. Abdurrahman concluded factors to protect society from the e-
terrorism:
Thesis of Doctorate - 91 -

First: the transactions related to IT as other fields of life shall be


subject to jurisdiction laws of the Quran and sunnah. In view
of such laws, the respective agencies shall put the specific
regulations for laws and obligations of other parties. The
juristic and security institutions shall implement such laws
and regulations and resolve the disputes.
Second: one of the most means used in e-terrorism is using the e-
mail to make contacts and exchange information. There are
many terrorism operations occurred recently, the e-mail was
one of the means for exchange of information between those
who performed these operations.
Three: penetration of the e-commerce is assault on the privacy of
others and their information. Allah forbid spying and the
Sharia kept the human personal right and considered
aggression on other rights as Haram. Legally it is forbidden to
attach internet site and that is considered damage and shall
be subject to penalty.
Fourth: Terrorists design and construct internet sites to spread
their ideas and call for their principles and teach the methods
to assist them implement their terrorist act. Sites are created
to teach explosions manufacturing and how to penetrate sites
and e-mail and how to enter barred sites and spread viruses.
Thesis of Doctorate - 92 -

Fifth: Bar the bad sites which calls for corruption including those
call for terrorism and aggression on others.
Six: Although it is important to apply the provisions and rules to
control the e-transactions which become a means of e-
terrorism, the efforts are still in the initial stages. The
resolutions and bylaws do not cover all new matters in IT
activities. There is no security sections and specialized courts
and information products for many society categories.
Seven: Security organizations need a lot of work to develop their
capabilities to deal with computer crimes and protect from
them. Procedures shall be developed to discover crime and
provide the evidence for the jurisdiction parties. Also,
awareness shall be spread about the computer crimes and the
penalties for that. New security organizations shall be created
to investigate computer crimes and coordinate with other
countries for protection against these crimes.
Eight: the Kingdom exert extensive efforts to fight e-terrorism and
issued several regulations and bylaws, instructions and
resolutions to face the electronic aggression and terrorism. In
addition, training courses were conducted regarding the
subject of computer crimes by participation of international
specialists.
Thesis of Doctorate - 93 -

Ninth: At the worldwide level and to go along with the


tremendous development in IT, regulations are issued to
control electronic transaction. These transactions included
penalties for violators of e-transactions and fight the
terrorism fighting.

Research Ten: (Intellectual Security)


The intellectual security for the society is one of the main
terrorism fighting means. It is a major requirement for each
nation and necessary for its stability.
Islam has been interested to prevent aggression on the Muslim
society doctrine and any attempt to change that or violate the
intellectual security and divert the thought specially among the
youth. The intellectual security is disturbed when there is no
reference for Fatwa in matters related to the society and its
relation with others including the relation with non-Muslims. The
society needs to understand the balance, moderation and the
spread of that among its members, young or old in this
environment where the satellite audio and video broadcasting and
the internet flood with all their advantages and disadvantages
which provide various sources of receiving information, not limited
in school, mosque, family and society organizations. This flood
carried many bad things including the bad behavior and morals
Thesis of Doctorate - 94 -

which made the moderate current lose many of its supporters to


become more liberate or more extremists.

Preventive methods to protect the intellectual security:

1. Show that Islam is moderate and balanced and establish


loyalty of youth to this moderate religion and make them
proud of that to stay on that method and do not support
extremism and liberation.
2. Know diverted ideas and protect the youth against that by
teaching the youth about these ideas and their mistakes
before they get impacted of that diverted thoughts.
3. Give the full opportunity for dialogue inside the society and
rectify any diversion by the evidence and convince otherwise
bad ideas will spread and be adopted to disturb the society
security.
4. Pay attention to schools, mosques, home to avoid isolation
between fathers and their sons and the teachers and their
student and between the mosque speakers and the audience.
In the blast terrorist incidents we found that some who
committed such acts have been isolated from their families
for long time.
Thesis of Doctorate - 95 -

5. Doa (ask Allah) This has significant effect in the intellectual


security and it has been neglected by many people.

Remedial Means to protect the intellectual security:

1. Ask the person who committed the mistake to return and


find the right path for calm discussion without accusation of
intentions because they may be right.
2. Avoid the un-useful methods that take a lot of effort and
time which may be take a lot of effort and time but its
results are limited.
3. Should control them and prevent them form violating the
intellectual security of the society even if that leads to force
them not to mix with others to avoid their wickedness. .
4. Avoid sitting with the bearers of deviated thoughts who
want to sink the ship of society.
5. It is necessary to differentiate between the deviated
thoughts which do not result in action and the violation of
security of the society. Any one who commits a destructive
acts shall be subject to penalty.
Thesis of Doctorate - 96 -

Historical overview of the explosions in Saudi Arabia:

A series of terrorism operations occurred in the Kingdom and


killed several innocent people. These operations can be
summarized as follows:
1. Explosion in Makkah in 1409H
2. Explosion of car in Olaya quarter in Riyadh city in 1416H.
3. Four explosions of cars in three compounds in Riyadh 1424H.
4. Explosion of car in the old Public Security building in Washem
in Riyadh in 1425H.
This is in addition to several partial explosions in which killed
some innocent persons and policemen in various areas in the
Kingdom. By the help of Allah, several mined vehicles and
weapons, grenades and small arms have been controlled. In 1424,
1425H, 22 terrorism operations occurred in the Kingdom resulted
in killing 90 persons, 507 injuries and billions of Riyals of losses.
Security forces were able to kill 92 criminal and injured 17 of
them and stopped implementation of 52 operations.
In 1400 the Kingdom witnessed armed assault on the Holy
mosque in Makka, led by Juhaiman Al-Otaibi, claiming that Al-
Mahdi has appeared. They committed the worst crime by
frightening people in the Holy mosque. The country was able to
capture them and execute the legal penalties.
Thesis of Doctorate - 97 -

The Kingdom's effort in fighting terrorism

The Kingdom is part of the world and it doesn't accept terrorism


and tries to eliminate this phenomena to protect its society from
the risks of terrorism. It is important area on the world map and it
was subject to some terrorism operations. It is the source of Islam
and such it will be subject to terrorism which frightens the
secured people, kill innocent, destroy vital installations and
country properties. The Kingdom played a major role in fighting
terrorism as part of its Islamic responsibility. The Quran and
Sunnah stipulated provisions to fight terrorism as mentioned
before.

The basic system of the government stipulated that (the Kingdom


of Saudi Arabia is an Arab Islamic state with full superiority.
Religion is Islam and the statue is the Quran and Sunnah).

Therefore, the Kingdom stand towards the terrorism is the same


like the Islamic stand based on sunnah and Quran.

Endorsement of Terrorism Penalty and Implementation: A strong


penalty against terrorism has been approved as per the fatwa
Thesis of Doctorate - 98 -

from the Senior Committee of Scientists as per Fatwa No. 148 for
the year 1409 issued at Taif when they confirmed that Islam
considers terrorism as aggression and corruption in the land
because it is fighting against Allah, prophet and human beings.
This fatwa has been actually implemented in cases of Al-Haram
incident in 1400H and Olaya explosion in 1416 and other cases of
aggression against security of society and its people.

Spread of moderation and fairness: All society institutions,


governmental and national, are establishing the principle of
moderation and treatment of extremism among all society
individuals. They use all available means to spread the moderate
culture via mass media so that the message will reach all society
classes.

International Participation

The country participate in all international conferences organized


by institutions interested in fighting terrorism. Furthermore, it
also organized meetings and invited international personalities
such as the holding the international conference for fighting
terrorism held in Riyadh with participation of 57 countries and
organizations. A meeting was also organized by Imam Mohamed
Thesis of Doctorate - 99 -

Ibn Saud University about Islam stand towards terrorism whereat


approximately 200 newsmen have participated from all over the
world.

Clarify the Picture for Abroad: The Kingdom spread the real
picture of fighting terrorism through its embassies, centers and
institutions all over the world by conveying the real Islam and the
call for it by wisdom as it is the religion of forgiveness, and
brotherhood and it is against violence, terrorism and extremism.

Security Systems: Established security systems specialized in


fighting terrorism. Some of their responsibilities are to coordinate,
cooperate and exchange information with similar systems at the
bilateral, regional and international levels. They have been
provided with the most advanced technologies, and high level
training for their staff considering the developments of methods
and rules to fight terrorism.

Local Level: at the local level the Kingdom proved to the world
that it is serious and hard in facing terrorist operations. The
evidence of that is the success of security forces in overcoming the
corruptors who are apart from the group. The Kingdom recruited
all its organizations to protect the society from their danger and
Thesis of Doctorate - 100 -

eliminated or captured many of terrorists. It discovered and


prevent some terrorism operations before implementation. It
captured various types of weapons. The security and religious
authorities convinced some of them to abandon such thought and
return to their societies. Security teams and check points have
been established to make the citizen feel of security.

Intellectual References: The respective agencies in the Kingdom


have succeeded in convincing many Sheikh who affected the
members of this deviated group. They withdraw some of their
fatwa which they confirmed that they were wrong. Some of these
sheikhs are Ali Al-Khodair, Nasir Al-Omar and Ahmad Al-Khaldi.
Also some wanted person announced that they returned from their
attitude such as Khalid Al-farraj, Abdulrahman Al-Roshoud as
broadcasted by the Saudi TV and radio and local newspapers and
other local, Arab and international mass media which took care of
the incidents and broadcasted that and supported that step from
the Kingdom.

Royal Amnesty: One of the positive initiatives to overcome this


local and internal terrorism phenomena was the decree issued by
the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques to give the terrorists a
grace period of one month to think and return and hand over
Thesis of Doctorate - 101 -

themselves. This Amnesty has a big effect on the Saudi society


and it was acceptable. Some have yielded and they were released
from jail and involved in the social life.

Valued Awards: The Ministry of Interior promised to give a


valuable financial award for every one who shows cooperation
with the security forces and report about any terrorists and
contribute in preventing terrorism operations. This award
exceeded SR 7 million in some cases. The society interacted
positively and cooperated with the security forces to fight
terrorism.

Continuous Call: The country followed a unique method in


treatment of some incidents of terrorism conducted by its people.
It asked them to turn to Allah and hand themselves to the
security forces. The scientists approved this step which leads to
unite the nation and narrow the gap. This method was a
combination between the security solution and the intellectual
treatment. This was a successful policy at the short and long term.

Care of Policemen: The Kingdom represented by the Ministry of


Interior has exerted complementary efforts to upgrade the morals
of the security forces. Firstly they defend their country and holy
Thesis of Doctorate - 102 -

places and that will be awarded by Allah. The also received


financial support by increasing their salaries and give them two
months award. Also the injured and the martyrs families have
been compensated for the damages occurred to them and the
society was satisfied by that. These families have received moral
support and assistance in searching for jobs for the sons of
martyrs and facilitate completion of study by giving them priority
in scholarships.

Activation of the Arab Ministries of Interior Council resolutions.


The Kingdom contributed actively in several resolutions issued by
the Arab Ministries of Interior Council aimed to foster the security
cooperation between the Arab countries. Some of the most
important:
Arab security strategy
Arab security strategy for fighting terrorism
Arab security strategy for civil protection
Arab information strategy for security awareness and protection
from crime.

Signature of Meetings and Covenants: The Kingdom signed


several covenants:
Thesis of Doctorate - 103 -

• Signature of Arab Agreement for fighting


terrorism for 1998.
• Approval of the Islamic Conference Agreement
about Terrorism.
• The Kingdom also signed eleven international
agreement at the united nations level to fight
terrorism.
• Signature of recommendations of all
international conferences, organizations and
councils related to fighting terrorism.
Furthermore, it called for international
conference targeting to conclude a
comprehensive international agreement to fight
the terrorism.
• The Kingdom leads a strong campaign against
terrorism and terrorists through the Arab
Ministers of Interior Council established in
1982.
HRH Prince Naïf Ibn Abdul Aziz Al-Saud, the
Minister of Interior and the Honorable
Chairman of the Council has a leading role to
approve policies, plans and several programs.
Thesis of Doctorate - 104 -

• The Kingdom held about fifteen bilateral


security agreements, in which fighting terrorism
occupied the top priority and that confirms the
Kingdom's full cooperation with the
international society for protection against
terrorism.
• The Kingdom has endorsed several
international agreements related to fighting
terrorism including agreements:
a. Tokyo agreements for crimes and acts
implemented on the aircraft boards signed
on 14/9/1967G.
b. Lahai agreement regarding fighting illegal
capturing of aircrafts signed on 16/12/1970.
c. Montréal Agreement for fighting illegal acts
conducted against civil aviation safety
signed on 23/9/1971. etc.
For more discussion and authentication you
may review the research (Kingdom's Efforts in
Fighting Terrorism).
References -1-

Quran
Maqayees Alogha Dictionary
Lisan Al-Arab
Taj Al- Arous
Jame'e Ahkam Al-Quran
Meanings of Quran
Ahkam Al-Quran
Al-Tafseer Al-Kabeer
Al-Nihayeh fe Ghareeb Al-Hadeeth and Al Athar
International Terrorism for Dr. Mohamed Abdulaziz Shokri
Terrorism Establish A state for Dr. Haitham Al-Kilani
The Arab Agreement for fighting terrorism
Statement of the Islamic Research Complex in Azhar regarding
terrorism in 1422
Book: Resolutions of the Islamic Feqeh Complex
Makkah Statement: Islamic World League Magazine.
Security Newspaper (Ministry of Interior) No. 58 P. 34
International Information Magazine . The National Information
Center No. 57
Terrorism and Extremism for the view of Society Dr.
Abdulrahman Rashwan
Role of Islamic Education in facing Terrorism Dr. Khalid Al-
Thahri
Factors of extremist, terrorism and violence and treatment in view
of Quran and Sunnah.
Al-Bidayah and Al-Nihayah 10/ 581
References -2-

Yamamah Magazine . No. 1790


Profile of terrorism in the recent time
Altafseer Alfareed in the Quran
Tafseer Al-Quran by Al-Ezz
Saheeh Al-Bukhari and Moslem
Al-tafseer Alfareed
Al-Uboodiah for Ibn Taymiah
Role of Mosque Dr. Abdulkarim Ibn Sunaitan AlOmari
The best method in Friday Sermon
Terrorism Magazine , special issue from the Ministry of Islamic
Affairs 1424H
AlMostasfa by Al-Ghazali
Almowafaqat by Al-Shatibi
Qualification Programs 21-23 Adnan Al-Qarshees
Quran Tafseer
Penalty Procedures System
Jurisdiction Function in Dealing with Terrorism Dr. Nasser Al-
Mohaymed
Islam Nature Dr. Abdulhadi bo Taleb
Arab Family and its Role in Protection from deviation and crime
School role Dr. Abdul aziz Yousuf
Child culture development – Abdul Tawab Yousuf
Security and Planning – Gen. Yahya Al-Alami
AlJazirah Newpaper No. 11810
Informative File for forum issued by Imam University
Al-Sharq Al-Awsat newspaper, No. 8196 , Monday 7/5/2001. P15.
References -3-

Electronic Terrorism Means


Intellectual Security Dr. Abdulrahman Al-Sudais
Intellectual Security Dr. Adel Al-Sheddi
Amenon Magazine p. 64
Article One of the Basic System of the Ruling issued by the Royal
Decree No. A/90 dated 27/8/1412H
Kingdoms Efforts in Fighting Terrorism , prepared by Dr. Saeed
Al-Zahrani