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VOL. X X X V I I The Cover:


N o. 4 (384)

The Great O u tdoors................................................................... .. Gavino Reyes Congson. . . Philippine Economic C onditions.........................................................p a u 2 p . Steintorf News Sum m ary.......................................................................................... Editorials: Hitler’s Second Fatal Blunder— The Philippines and PanAmericanism— Anti-Semitism in the Philippines— “ The Security o f Property and the Person” ............................. ...The E ditor................ Go to Spanish America, Mr. President............................................Adrian Got Latin America in a Warring World .............................................. ...Wilbur B urton ...........

Cover 124

133 134

The Baby (S to r y )...................................................................................N . V. M . G onzalez! ! ! ” ! ” Bats under the M oon (V e rse )............................................................ Maximo R am os....................... The Banaue Rice T erraces............................................................... ...W. S. B oston ....................... ' Aleph, the C a r ..................................................................................... ...p ura Santillan-Castrence____ The Silver-inlaid Chowpot (S t o r y )................................................. ...Henry Philip Broad Tropic Serenade (Verse)..................................................................... ...Soledad R. Juan........... ‘ ' Prisoners Paradise (San Ramon Penal F a r m )............................. ...Stanley and Kenneth Nobbs In the Shadows I Think o f Her (Verse)....................................... ...Conrado V. P edroch e.... The “ China Incident” ........................................................................... Lin Y u ...................... The Higher L ife ................................................................................... ...C atuca....................... ” ............ Capitan Palmon and the M oro P ira tes....................................... ...Beato A. de la Cruz Rose o f Pampanga (Verse)................................................... ............... John H Brow n.....................' Rules o f the Commonwealth Literary C ontests....................................... Four o ’ Clock in the Editor’s Office...............................................




143 144 145

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April, 1940
M a r. 1 .— President Quezon in im prom ptu speech at American Cham ber o f C om m erce reception in his honor, states he hopes it unnecessary to give assurances that governm ent is one that looks upon business w ithout prejudice. H e states aim o f social justice program is to give opportunity t o com m on m an to increase his earnings and that n o class in com m unity would be m ore benefitted b y this than that o f business m an. (See editorial, M arch Philip­ pine M agazine). President Quezon in letter to Secretary o f Finance M anuel R oxas authorizes him to defer land tax co l­ lection to April 30, stating this is last extension g o v ­ ernment will grant, thus m eeting half-w ay wishes o f assemblymen w ho have been pressing for 6-m onth extension. President states lands confiscated for non-paym ent will be bough t for re-sale to landless with funds o f Agricultural and Industrial Bank. M a r. 2 .— Presidential Secretary Jorge Vargas admits truth o f newspaper reports that training and^ maneuvers o f Philippine A rm y m ay suffer dim i­ nution this year for reasons o f econ om y in com pari­ son to augm ented activities in past, b u t that training program as laid dow n in law will be carried out. R egents o f U niversity o f Philippines reported to have gone on record as favoring closing B aguio C ol­ lege o f Arts and Sciences and C ebu Junior College. Pam panga P rovincial Fiscal exonerates M asantol ch ief o f police P . Sunga for shooting o f Zacarias Viray. Assem bly com m ittee on public services submits report on “ anom alous practices” o f M anila Electric C om pany, Philippine L ong D istance Telephone C om pany, and M anila Gas C om pany, m entioning com plicated holding com pany set-ups, inflation o f capital assets, understatem ent o f operating incom e, overstatem ent o f expenses, excessive rates, im prud­ ent financing, maintenance o f expensive offices abroad, keeping o f records outside o f Philippines, evasion o f taxes, etc. M a r. 4 .—-President Quezon orders suspension o f 8 N acionalista members o f M anila M unicipal Board together with Secretary o f Board and 2 stenograph­ ers, upon receiving report o f D epartm ent o f Interior prelim inary investigation ordered after newspapers published reports o f mutual recriminations hurled b y members against each other with respect to elec­ tion o f B oard President, allegedly involving split­ ting o f per diems. M a r. 5 .— President Quezon appoints 8 substitute councillors and orders Departm ent o f Interior to conduct form al investigation. N ew members are D r. Juan N olasco, Director o f P ublic W elfare and form er senator; Faustino Aguilar, technical assistant at M alacanan and form er Under-Secretary o f Labor; Jos6 Garrido, form er C ity Engineer; Felipe Tem pongko, Chairman o f Provincial C om m ittee o f N a­ cionalista P a rty in M anila; D r. V ictoriano Yam zon, attorney and law professor; Juan T . Santos, law professor and form er C ouncillor; D r. M iguel V e­ larde, physician and political leader; and Aurelio

Philippine Economic Conditions
B y Paul P. Steintorf
A m erican Trade C om m issioner e b r u a r y was a very quiet m onth with no im portant or outstand­ ing developm ents. In general, business was somewhat weak and uncertain, owing to the lack o f constructive factors and the depressing effects o f war conditions in m any sec­ tions o f the w orld: unsatis­ fa ctory export dem and for Philippine com m odities; and declining prices for m ost o f the m ajor dom estic pro­ ducts. E xp ort volum e fo r the m onth appears to have been fairly satisfactory. In general, the total was considerably below January but com pares favorably with February, 1939. A com parison o f available figures on this basis shows gains in shipments o f copra, coconut oil and hem p, which were partly offset b y declines in sugar, copra cake and meal and lumber. Im p ort volum e also was fairly larger possibly slightly above the corresponding m onth o f 1939. Available reports show gains in arrivals o f automobiles and tires, canned fish, fresh fruits and vegetables and building materials, and declines in textiles, wheat flour and canned milk. Governm ent finance was featured b y fairly subs­ tantial and rather unexpected declines in internal revenue and Custom s collections. T otal collections for the first tw o m onths o f this year, however, are slightly above the corresponding period o f 1939, although the gain is m uch less than m ight have been expected in view o f the im position o f the new higher taxes. T he banking situation continued to be quiet, the only im portant change from the previous m onth being a further sharp reduction in banks’ cash on hand. This is attributed to heavy purchases o f dollar drafts from the Insular Treasurer in order to m eet exchange com m itm ents. T he local securities market was very quiet during February, with volum e restricted and with average prices m oving downward throughout the m onth. Corporate investments during February were the smallest since the corresponding m onth o f 1939, but investments in new partnerships were very large, reaching the highest total since M a y, 1937. N ew construction during February was somewhat below seasonal expectations, b u t the basic outlook continued to b e good in view o f the very substantial volum e o f new building permits and the h eavy amount o f real estate sales. Arrivals o f building materials showed a substantial increase during the m onth.


The sugar m arket continued to be v ery quiet with sales o f export sugar restricted, owing to un­ satisfactory prices. D om estic consum ption sugar on the contrary showed an advancing tendency, owing to the probability o f a shortage o f supply. The cocon u t products m arket was very dull throughout February, with prices m oving downward and with export dem and weak and irregular. T h e abaca m arket was quiet b u t steady during February, with sales fairly well maintained and with prices practically stationary. The rice m arket was quiet during the m onth, despite the possibility o f a short supply, owing to the p oor dom estic crop. R ice prices showed a weakening tendency, although palay or rough rice was very firm. T h e toba cco m arket was inactive owing to p oor export dem and during February. Shipments o f leaf tob a cco were very small, b u t cigar shipments were satisfactory. The lum ber m arket showed some im provem ent during February, owing to reduction in excess stocks, good seasonal dom estic demand and an increase in export orders. G old production during February was fairly well maintained, but declined m oderately com pared with the previous m onth. Yield per ton milled was very satisfactory. The cotton textile m arket showed a m arked re­ cession from the a ctiv ity o f the previous m onth. Prices declined very sharply and the trade outlook was quite discouraging. Sales o f m otor vehicles during February were somewhat disappointing for this season o f the year. Im ports showed the expected seasonal increase, while the trade was optim istic concerning the sales ou t­ look for the next few months. The m arket fo r im ported foodstuffs was generally satisfactory throughout February. There was the usual seasonal im provem ent in demand fo r canned fish, canned milk and fresh fruits and vegetables, while consum ption o f wheat flour was well maintained, despite its com paratively high price in com parison with rice.

News Summary
T h « P h ilip p in e s F e b . 2 8 .— In course o f speech at coronation o f Cebu C ity Carnival Queen, G ov . Tom as Confessor o f Iloilo states this allegorical bestowal is o f significance “ for tim e is n ot far when presidency o f nation, for honor and glory o f Philippines, will be placed on noble and patriotic brow o f your great and distinguish­ ed son, H on. Sergio Osm ena” . D r. H . H . Steinm etz, known . in Philippines as “ grand old man o f m edicine and philanthropy” , dies at San D iego, California, aged 62, as result o f stroke he suffered in Philippines last year. e b- 29s In telegram to G ov . B . R odriguez o f C ebu, President M anuel L. Quezon states he did not authorize Confesor to launch candidacy o f Osmena, but had told him he was free to d o so, telling him also, however, that he (Q u ezon ) would not support the candidacy o f any one for presidency as he had no right to say w ho should be his successor and ex­ pects people t o make own choice. “ I can n ot and will n ot assume responsibility for policies o f m y successor. Unfair to me and unfair as well to next President if he were to appear as owing m e his eleva­ tion to ch ief m agistry o f nation. Let every F ilipino m ake up own mind as to w ho is best man to carry trem endous burden o f leading our people in these m ost _critical tim es” . Osmena issues statement declaring he is in fa vor o f re-election o f President Quezon and “ at proper tim e I propose to jo in very large group o f our citizens, constituting I believe a m ajority o f our people, which desires to urge the President to be candidate fo r re-election . . . Only in event we find it impossible to persuade President Quezon to run fo r second term can I accede to wishes o f friends to have m y hum ble name presented to people . . .“ American C ivil Liberties U nion, N ew Y o rk , in letter t o President Quezon, states it wholeheartedly supports position o f his administration on independ­ ence “ which we assume reflects will o f Philippine p eople” , and will d o best to com bat attem pts in U nited States to com prom ise pledge m ade to Philip­ pines.

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C O R . O F 13TH & B O S T O N STS. P O R T A R E A . M A N IL A

T elep h on e 2-24-28

April, 1940
A lvero, young lawyer w ho obtained 11th place in last city elections for Board. M a r. 6 .— Secretary Vargas announces Elizalde & C om p any will p a y P i , 273,400 for S. S. M a y o n , extra P73.400 covering cost o f im provem ents made in ship b y governm ent. M a r. 7 .— Secretary Vargas, with reference to criticism in Congress, states C om m onw ealth govern­ m ent has been and is very careful in appropriations o f oil-tax refunds, bearing constantly in m ind restric­ tions Congress placed on their use. M a r. 8 .— F loor Leader Quintin Paredes on floor o f A ssem bly attacks policy o f Agricultural and In ­ dustrial B ank criticizes Secretary o f Agriculture and Com m erce B enigno A qu in o for receiving per diems as Chairman and Director o f B ank B oard. M a r. 9 .— President Quezon in letter to Speaker Jos6 Y u lo states that “ ultimate responsibility for matters affecting executive m ust rest with m e” and “ while I welcom e all ju st and sound criticism , it is m y con viction that public interest will best be served i f members o f A ssem bly were to afford C hief E xec­ utive opportunity to explain or correct executive acts before launching any attacks against his ad­ m inistration” . H e states as to per diem paym ents, officials concerned received n o per diems for over 2 m onths and that after Auditor-General and Secre­ tary o f Justice expressed opinion this could be done, he ordered p aym ent. A quino points ou t B ank was organized only last A ugust and is still in process o f organization. Secretary o f N ational Defense T eofilo Sison states suspension o f July, 1940, trainee class will mark cutting dow n o f num ber o f trainees each year from 40,000 to 20,000. “ W e want to save for future em ergencies” . M a r. 10 .— R ep orted that W ashington econom ic advisers have refused to recom m end President Frank­ lin D . R oosevelt’ s approval o f Philippine Reserve B ank law passed b y Assem bly last year, as senti­ m ent is against any change in Philippine currency system that m ay affect cou n try’s credit. President Paul M onroe o f W orld Federation of E ducational Associations announces he is delighted to a ccept invitation extended b y President Quezon to hold annual convention in M anila this August. G roup o f 1000 educators will sail on J uly 1, probably on S. S. A m e r ic a , to be chartered for trip. M a r. 11 .— Paredes states his criticisms were aimed at Secretary and n ot at President and that if latter were aware o f all circum stances o f incident, he would




not have written his letter. “ Out o f respect for His E xcellency, I shall not com m ent on letter, b u t send him full account for his inform ation” . Speaker Y u lo writes President expressing regret at incident but that remarks were m ade on spur o f m om ent in course o f interpellations in connection with N ational T ob a cco C orporation bill; he states that m any m em ­ bers o f Assem bly, including himself, d o n ot agree with construction placed b y legal officers on charter o f Agricultural and Industrial B ank perm itting p a y ­ m ent o f per diems to governm ent officials and that A ssem bly last F riday unanim ously adopted am end­ m ent m aking this clear. M a r. 13 .— In brush between C onstabulary and some 150 people illegally engaged, in spite o f court warning, in cutting m angrove trees on privately owned swamp land at m outh o f river at Tam ban, H erm osa, B ataan, leads to shooting and killing o f 2 men, serious wounding o f several others, and drow n­ ing o f unknown num ber; one C onstabulary private was injured. Lazaro V iray was killed and Vicente V iray is am ong wounded, b oth brothers o f Zacarias V iray recently killed b y police o f M asantol. B oth sides claim other side started shooting. M a r. 14. — Adm . T . C . H art states at C ebu that Asiatic Fleet o f U . S. N a v y will remain in Far East after Philippine independence in 1946 as necessary for protection o f American interests. C orporal A . A bejueta, w ho shot and killed Lieut. M . Castro in Panitan, C apiz, training cam p, is sen­ tenced t o 50 years im prisonm ent b y general court martial o f Sixth M ilitary D istrict, first trial o f its kind. M a r. 15. — Assem. J. S. A lano (Zam boanga) in subm itting com m ittee report, charges Associated Steamship Lines with charging exorbitant freight rates on Philippine exports, strangling to trade, and recom m ends establishm ent o f Philippine m erchant marine, and, pending this, chartering o f ships b y the national com panies. T h e U n ite d S ta tes F eb . 15 .— James R oosevelt, son o f President Franklin D . R oosevelt, files suite for d ivorce; some observers express belief this means President has decided not to run for third term. F eb . 7 6 .~ H o u s e passes $995,772,878 naval appro­ priation bill, including am endm ent eliminating $1,000,000 Guam harbor im provem ent item . O b­ servers believe Japanese attitude had little influence on vote on amendment. R ep . K . Hill stated United States undoubtedly has right t o fo rtify Guam , but that “ it would be fo lly to d o s o ” . R ep . J. P . R i ­ chards, author o f amendment, contended it was not to public interest to build “ another Gibraltar or Singapore amidst 1000 Japanese m andated islands” . R ep. E. V. Izac (C alifornia) stated, however, “ U nit­ ed States has exhausted trade possibilities in A t­ lantic; our whole future lies in P acific” . M a yor E . J. K elley o f C hicago announces that Illinois’ 58 delegates will vote for renom ination o f R oosevelt with or w ithout his sanction. Other leaders have m ade statements indicating third-term draft m ovem ent is under way. F eb . 17.— F o r t u n e ’ s round-table discussion a t­ tended b y A dm . W . H . Standley and G en. Frank R . M c C o y , $nd leaders o f organized labor, finance, industry, and journalism , reported to have com e to decision that U nited States should refuse, to recog­ nize Japan’s “ new order” and help China b y loans and em bargo against Japan. A lso concluded that Philippines is strategic p oint in holding back Japan’ s southward expansion and to con trol Strait Settle­ ments and Netherlands Indies, seizure o f which w ould m ake Japan one o f w orld’s greatest and m ost dangerous powers, seriously m enacing also W estern Hemisphere, especially if it form ed alliance with a victorious Germ any. T h e conference advised that should Philippine governm ent take initiative in reopning question, United States should postpone withdrewal from Philippines until m ore favorable international situation exists. F e b . 18.— President R oosevelt arrives at Cris­ tobal, Panam a, on cruiser T u sca lo o sa and inspects canal defenses. Under-Secretary o f State Sumner W elles and M yron C. T a ylor, the latter the President’ s repre­ sentative at the Vatican, sail for Europe. A dm . H . E . Yarnell (re t.) advocates em bargo against Japan as “ it ju s t doesn’t m ake any sense that we should send m oney and m edical supplies to China to relieve suffering caused b y Japanese aggression and at sem e tim e send materials for m aking war to Japan” . H e states Philippines is in “ dubious p osition” and that present American forces in Orient are insufficient to defend Islands. “ In

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April, 1940
event o f war we w ould have to fall b ack on Hawaii and Philippines m ight easily be captured, b u t reten­ tion o f Islands b y Japan would depend on outcom e o f war which would p robably be long drawn ou t test o f endurance'’ . United States Lines sells 8 idle American ships to a Belgian firm, retaining a m inor interest. F e b . 19 .— R ep ort adopted b y m ajority o f 200-man R epublican com m ittee headed b y Glen Frank, is published. It denounces violations o f international law and sanctity o f treaties in Far East and else­ where, calls for strict enforcem ent o f M on roe D o c­ trine, advocates adequate defense force on land, air, and sea, and declares, “ we must avoid all com m it­ m ents and courses o f action which m ight involve us in other p eop le’s wars” . I t asks for return to fixed gold standard and brands R oosev elt’s “ pum pprim ing’ * a failure. I t attacks huge federal expen­ ditures proposing 2 0 % cu t with view t o balancing budget in 1942. I t advocates curtailm ent o f large federal relief outlays, suggesting relief administra­ tion b e returned t o individual states which would bear m ost o f cost. F e b . 20 — Secretary o f State Cordell H ull indi­ cates to press United States is n ot planning early initiative tow ard solution o f differences with Japan, stating he has nothing new in m ind a t present on this phase o f U nited States foreign affairs. Security Comm issioner P . V. M c N u tt states in R ichm ond, Virginia, that national incom e rose from $42,000,000,000 in 1933 t o $72,000,000,000 in 1937, and that estimates fo r 1940 range between $75,000,000,000 and $80,000,000,000. Sen. G . P . N ye tells press that em bargo against Japan would b e direct incitem ent t o war "and warns that current flow o f m unitions t o E urope is prelude to American credit extension to warring nations and involvem ent w ould follow . H e com pares Welles mission t o that o f Colonel H ouse during W ilson’s administration and states, “ W e are walking same road as we did in 1915; it is uncanny how close parallel is.” W . R . Castle, U nder-Secretary of State under President H oover, opposes em bargo against Japan as “ insult to basically friendly nation” which m ight result in form al declaration o f war b y Japan against China, thereby legalizing blockade of China, Japanese alliance with Russia and Germany, and subsequent naval action against Britain in Orient and retaliatory action against American lives and property. As for war, “ what in heaven’s name cou ld war between U nited States and Japan accom ­ plish? A t end what? A prostrated Japan, a b olshevized China, surely a ruined Philippines, and very p ossibly the European war lost b y the dem ocracies’ . R o y W . H oward, publisher, states he believes antiJapanese em bargo at present unwise and unneces­ sary as well as prejudicial t o early peace. “ Japanese statesmen are n ot stupid. N ow th ey know Am er­ ican tolerance has been extended to breaking point, they will not force em bargo issue. I f smart cop is known to have good gun, he seldom has t o use it.”

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A p ril, 1940
F e b . 2 1 .— Learned from reliable sources that U . S. airmail was rem oved from Pan-Am erican C lip­ p er at Berm uda b y threat o f force when Captain o f Lisbon-bound plane refused to surrender it on Jan­ uary 18. According to American Institute o f P ublic O pi­ nion poll, 17% o f Americans would oppose armed intervention b y U nited States even i f Germ any is defeating Britain and France; last Septem ber, 5 6 % o f Americans answered “ n o” ; last O ctober, 7 1% . F e b . 2 2 .— M c N u tt in Oklahom a C ity speech, attacks leading R epublican presidential candidates T . E . D ew ey, A. H . Vandenberg, R . A . T a ft, and F . Gannett, as “ quartet o f croakers” and states R oosevelt administration saved nation from chaos at coast o f $8,000,000,000, bringing b ack m any times that am ount in additional wealth to country. “ R e ­ publicans have short m em ory, or they w ouldn’t talk o f bankruptcy” . F e b . 2 3 .— State Departm ent declares no reports have been received o f any force used or threatened in connection with rem oval o f mail from plane at Berm uda and that protest o f American Consul there was m ade on “ his own authority” . Despite this announcem ent and statem ent o f Berm uda author­ ities report is “ nonsense” , Senate is roused and some members urge drastic action. H ouse passes bill extending State D epartm ent’s reciprocal trade agree­ ment program 3 m ore years b y vote o f 216 to 168. House banking and currency com m ittee approves b ill to increase working capital o f E xp ort and Im port B ank b y $100,000,000 b y vote o f 18 to 5; increase would perm it new loans to China and loan to F in­ land. D epartm ent o f Com m erce estimates national incom e in 1939 was $68,500,000,000, gain o f 7 % over 1938, b u t $3,000,000,000 under 1937, peak-year o f N ew D eal, and $14,000,000,000 under 1929 record. F e b . 2 4 .— Hull tells press that status o f em bargo bills is such that issue could easily becom e active on short notice. Observers state he does n ot wish em bargo powers im m ediately because he m ight not b e able logically to resist public dem and for drastic application. Sir V ictor Sassoon, British Shanghai financier, states in N ew Y ork that Japan will eventually seek peace with China and will realize Russia and not China is its real enem y. Russia also will prove B ritain’s greatest foe, not Germ any, he states. F e b . 25. — A m b. J. P . K en nedy sails back to E n g­ land, telling press he believes U nited States can keep ou t o f the war. Pan-Am erican Airways announces that Clippers will om it stop at Berm uda after M arch 15. F e b . 26 .— H ull pleads for extension o f trade reci­ procity program before Senate com m ittee where powerful group o f western senators are said to be form ing b lo c to defeat measure or at least require Senate ratification o f future trade agreements. He states that “ at term ination o f war there will be un­ precedented need throughout world for vastly in­ creased production o f useful goods o f every kind” and that “ this vital need can be m et only if America maintains position o f leadership in prom oting liberal trade policies as against totalitarianism ” . He denounces view that U nited States should merely defend own seacoasts and disregard rest o f world, as this would mean relinquishment o f ocean high­ ways to “ m ost lawless elements in w orld” . Senate defeats H . C. Lodge amendment to State D epart­ ment appropriation bill which would have withheld funds to p a y salary o f Ambassador to M oscow ; simi­ lar amendment was defeated in H ouse tw o weeks ago. Arizona Indians in proclam ation signed b y 4 chiefs ban use o f swastika which “ after it has been con ­ sidered for centuries as sym bol o f friendship b y our ancestors, has been profained b y another nation” . ^ eP : 2 7 .— Supreme C ourt dismisses appeal o f m unicipal councils o f San Ildefonso and San Rafael, Bulacan, Philippines, in land suit against San Juan de D ios H ospital; reported reconsideration will be asked. M a j.-G en . W illiam Graves dies, aged 74; served m Philippines as early as 1899 and com m anded American E xpeditionary Forces in Siberia in 1918-20. F e b . 2 8 .— President R oosevelt aboard U. S. S. L a n g tells newsmen he is doubling present number o f guns and planes defending Panam a Canal and that defense operations m ay extend, i f necessary, throughout Central Am erica as far south as Ecuau?rii C olom bia, and Venezuela. H e states letter Welles carried to Prem ier B enito Mussolini was personal and unofficial. House approves E xp ort and Im p ort B ank bill with amendment perm itting borrowers o f funds from B ank to purchase com m ercial airplanes. 2 9 .— H ull discloses to press that American diplom atic representatives are conferring with for­ eign governm ents with view to preventing forces o f autarchy, regim entation, and econom ic totalitarian­ ism from getting control after war. Senate approves House-amended E xp ort and Im port B ank bill. M a r. 1 .— President R oosevelt instructs Chairman Jesse Jones o f R econstruction Finance Corporation to prepare to extend non-m ilitary credits to Finland; Jones announces E xp ort and Im port B ank has allot­ ted $20,000,000 t o Finland, $15,000,000 to Swe­ den, and $10,000,000 t o N orw ay, m aking no mention o f any loan to China. M c N u tt in statement to A s s o c ia te d P ress de­ clares “ there is very great likelihood o f Philippine independence being delayed. I am satisfied that if Filipinos only ask for revision o f Independence A ct, United States would give request serious considera­ tion. R equest must com e from Philippines, but I feel sure it will be forthcom ing. I have sounded out question in heart o f American beet-sugar centers in M iddle W est and cane-sugar areas in Florida and Louisiana— places where I expected severe opposi­ tion— and found people all sym pathetic with idea o f retaining American sovereignty over Islands” . H erbert H oover, appearing before H ouse foreign affairs com m ittee, states E urope will be “ starvation sp ot” after war and urges appropriation o f $20,000,-



have welcom ed Japanese Em bassy statement. Said that Senate foreign relations com m ittee has agreed inform ally to defer action on anti-Japanese em bargo bills at indirect suggestion o f the administration. M a r. 7 .— H ouse appoints sub-com m ittee to stu dy possibility o f purchasing C ocos and Galapagos is­ lands, o f strategic im portance in defense o f Panama Canal. S. S. Q u e e n E liz a b e th , 85,000 tons, reaches America on secret voyage from England to escape hazards o f war, and docks beside sister-ship Q u e e n M a r y and French liner N o r m a n d ie which have been at anchor in N ew Y o rk H arbor since outbreak o f war. E liz a b e th was protected b y steel chains

000 as start toward general relief program, also dis­ cussing possibilities o f establishing centralized relief administration in P oland; in reply to question, he states he sees no practicable w ay o f administrating similar relief in China. Yarnell in letter to Sen. L. Schwellenbach, urges em bargo o f war material shipments to Orient, de­ claring this would n ot mean war as such would be suicidal for Japan. “ In civil life it has been found ‘ appeasem ent’ does not work in dealing with law­ breakers and gun-men . . . W e face uncertain and dangerous future if dem ocratic nations o f Europe and China are defeated in present wars” . M a r. 2 .— President R oosevelt signs E xport-Im p ort B ank bill. M cN u tt characterizes report o f R epublican “ C om ­ m ittee o f 200” as “ brass beneath the glitter” and states it “ reeks with nostalgia for the pre-N ew Deal era and actually advocates return to ‘ norm alcy’ o f 1932, I presume, o f course, w ithout apple venders” . M a r. 4. — Sen. E Thom as introduces bill author­ izing E xp ort-Im port B ank to redistribute among w orld’s “ solvent nations” the $18,166,000,000 w orth o f gold now held b y United States “ to prevent co l­ lapse o f m onetary systems o f nations now fast losing all their gold ” . Six huge U. S. N a v y bom bers leave H onolulu for “ routine” flight to M id w a y and W ake and return. 4 Archduke O tto von H apsburg on 3-week visit to United States, declares in B altim ore that “ there is no question b u t that Germans will lose war— m oral factors alone make allied v ictory certain” . H e is reported studying American constitutional system as m odel for post-war central European fed e­ ration which he states “ will com e autom atically after the war” . M a r. 5 .— Japanese E m bassy in W ashington issues statement that m any points o f disagreement with third powers in China are being cleared up which should “ allay misapprehension” that Japan will deliberately drive foreign interests out o f China. “ Dam ages have been accidental and unintentional, and restrictions are n o more than tem porary and will be rem oved as m atter o f course with conclusion o f m ilitary a ction” . Sen. R . R . R eynolds drafts resolution asking Pres­ ident to negotiate with Britain for acquisition o f islands in western hemisphere as part paym ent o f defaulted war d ebt; resolution m entions Bermudas, Baham as, Jam aica, T rinidad, T ob a go, Barbadoes, Grenada, Grenadines, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and British Honduras. R eps. F. L . C raw ford and J. G . Alexander charge Philippines is spending excise tax refunds recklessly and suggest some o f m oney be used for U. S. H igh Comm issioner. Alexander states U nited States should “ either cu t ou t talk o f giving Philippines independence or pursue businesslike course” . He declares U nited States officials are “ afraid o f Japan” and, in consequence, are “ playing fast and loose with Philippines” . H e predicts U nited States will be at war or in situation close to war within 15 to 18 m onths. M a r. 6 .— A dm inistration officials reported to




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and under naval con v oy and sailed at full speed all the way. The three ships are largest in world. Philippine Resident Commissioner J. M . Elizalde tells In te r n a tio n a l N ew s S er v ice that “ only pan­ dem onium in Pacific can alter Philippine will for com plete independence in 1946” . (See editorial, M arch Philippine M agazine.) M a r. 8 .— President R oosevelt, denying current rumors, states he had received no request to mediate Russo-Finn war. _ E xp ort-Im port B ank allocates $20,000,000 loan to China for buying road-building m achinery, trucks, m edical supplies, and other for non-m ilitary purposes which China expects to repay largely in tin and tung-oil. A llocation o f $10,000,000 to Denmark and $1,000,000 to Iceland also announced. Edwin M arkham , author o f poem , “ The M an with the H oe” , dies in N ew Y ork , aged 87. M a r. 10. — Sen. K . Pittm an in radio-cast urges 30-day armistice in b oth European wars to perm it neutral states to offer services in working ou t settle­ ment. H e reveals President sent Welles to ascer­ tain confidentially attitude o f warring powers, their ob jectives, and, if possible, some form ula that m ight be foundation for further American efforts to bring about cessation o f war and adjustm ent o f con tro­ versies. H e bitterly criticizes Russia and Japan for their aggressions, stating Finland was invaded w ith­ out excuse, Scandinavia has been threatened with exterm ination b y tw o powerful sources, and China is being destroyed b y Japan. Situation in Asia is im proving, however, he states, because it has becom e apparent Japan can not conquer China and cost of invasion has already destroyed Japan’ s m onetary and econom ic systems. M a r. 11 .— Supreme C ou rt refuses to review ap­ peal o f W . P . Buckner and W . J. Gillespie. M a r. 12 .— House approves $800,000,000 naval expansion bill. R ep . C . Vinson states, “ L et E urope know we can speak language o f force i f necessary . Afar. 13 .— President R oosevelt states ending o f R usso-Finn war “ does not clarify right o f small nations to maintain their integrity against attack b y superior force. Spread o f force jeopardizes rights o f m ankind to self-governm ent” . Sen. G . W . N o r­ ris states settlement is “ new v ictory for tyranny . Sen. B . C. Clark states “ it was their business, not ours” . Pittm an states” criticism is o f no avail; it is none o f our business” . Jones states remainder o f loan to Finland will be used for rehabilitation work. O t h e r C o u n t r ie s F e b . 16.— Foreign M inister H . Arita in D iet ad­ mits “ hopelessness” o f concluding new com m ercial treaty with United States b u t rejects suggestions that attem pt b e abandoned, stating only advisable m ove at present is to prevent relations from becom ­ ing worse. H ankow H era ld states message o f Pope Pius X I I to Em peror H irohito expressing hopes for peace will p rove futile as Em peror is “ ju st another puppet” . “ B loodiest 10 miles on earth” reported taken b y Russians, b u t Mannerheim line is 60 miles long. Helsinki official com m unique admits Russians have penetrated Finn positions east o f Summa and at other points. Swedish Prim e M inister P . A. Hansson emphasizes Sweden desires to maintain strict neutrality though m aximum humanitarian aid will be sent. R eported Pope has sent new peace messages to powers. British Bishop w ho recently visited him said to have told him British believe Italy’s interven­ tion against Russia would aid in establishing peace. King Boris swears in new Cabinet succeeding that which resigned yesterday reportedly over question o f Bulgaria’s relations with Russia. F eb . 17 .— Japanese squadrons b om b Indo-C hm a Yunnan railway for 5th time. British destroyer C ossa ck reported to have a t­ tacked German ship A ltm a r k , former supply ship o f G r a f S p e e in Jossing fiord and rem oved B ri­



April, 1940
affair, press stating that “ M onroe Doctrine for Scan­ dinavia” m ight have averted it. Stockholm Tidn in g e n states incident “ shows how great powers are still intending to extend their war to our smaller neutral countries and that only w ay to avert this is to stick t o our own pow er if we have any. Scandi­ navia stands in m iddle o f fight and on verge o f trial that m ay decide our whole future” . Oslo A ft e n p o s t e n states England “ based action on decision that N orw ay as small nation could be dismissed from consideration; deplorable to think that even Britain believes m ight, n o t right, is decisive” . Belgian L ib r e B e lg iq u e states “ There is nothing in com m on between British warship attacking armed German ship secretly taking prisoners o f war through neutral waters, and German submarine torpedoing Dutch ship sailing between neutral ports” . French opinion supports British action in A lt m a r k case. W ashing­ ton circles reported to believe action was justified. German submarine sinks British destroyer D a rin g and 9 officers and 148 men said to be missing; this is fifth destroyer sunk since beginning o f war. B Turkish C abinet invokes national defense law giving it practically dictatorial powers. F e b . 2 0 .— Foreign M inister H . K o h t states N o r­ w ay violated no international convention when it allowed A ltm a r k to use its territorial waters and that governm ent was n ot obliged to search ship since it flew German governm ent service flag as distin­ guished from naval and m erchant flags; Captain o f ship refused permission t o Norwegian marine station to search ship; N orw ay is prepared to submit m atter to League o f N ations. Speakers in N orw ay Parlia­ m ent state there is n o international law forbidding belligerent powers from conducting prisoners through neutral waters. Captain o f A lt m a r k states ship was unarmed and that “ any statement that we fired on British is sheer lie” . R eported Norwegian g o v ­ ernm ent will perm it A ltm a r k t o depart whenever Germ any so desires. Prim e M inister N eville C ham ­ berlain praises rescue o f British prisoners on A l t ­ m a r k , and declares that statement o f Foreign M inis­ ter K o h t makes “ action or inaction o f N orw ay go v ­ ernment even m ore difficult to understand than we had previously supposed. W e had imagined that N orw egian authorities had conducted some exam ina­ tion o f A lt m a r k and our com plaint was that this had been done so perfunctorily it did n ot reveal pre­ sence o f British prisoners aboard. I t now appears that Norwegian authorities conducted n o exam ina­ tion o f ship at all. I find it difficult under circum ­ stances to resist conclusion that Norwegian author­ ities have displayed com plete indifference as to use which m ight b e m ade o f their waters b y German fleet.” British naval circles m aintain that Germans initiated action b y attem pting to ran the C o ssa ck and later b y shooting o f gunner in charge o f boarding party. French governm ent spokesman warns that allies are determined to take whatever measures are necessary to prevent German ships from using neutral Norwegian waters as result o f “ passivity” o f Norwegian authorities. R eported that French governm ent has through m ilitary tribunals sent at least 10,000 and possibly double that num ber o f com m unists to prison or co n ­ centration camps “ for the duration o f war” . Turkish press declares any attack on Balkans would bring Turkey into war on side o f allies. Stated T urkey has 300,000 troops massed along Russian frontier and will construct naval base a t Eregli in B lack Sea. F e b . 21 .— Japan announces settlement o f 21 claims for property damage and personal injuries, believed to be part o f “ final offer” m entioned b y spokesman. Foreign office spokesman denies charges o f Captain C rispulo Onrubia that S. S. P r e s id e n t Q u e z o n ran onto reef n ot found on charts. Ambas. N . T . Johnson arrives at Kunm ing, over Indo-C hinaYunnan railway, w ithout incident. British A dm iralty confirms that German sea war­ fare inflicted heaviest losses on allied and neutral

tish seamen-prisoners taken from merchantmen sunk b y the S p ee. Norwegian governm ent protests against violation o f neutrality o f its waters. Swe­ den’ s foreign office spokesman states “ no foreign troops will ever receive permission to traverse Swe­ den” ; believed attitude o f Scandinavian countries will prevent Britain and France from sending troops to Finland. Official C e n tr a l D a ily N ew s (C hungking) states China will negotiate peace “ once Japan observes N ine-Power Treaty and abandons aggression. Chinese claim 30,000 Japanese have been killed in past 2 weeks in Nanning area. Special engineering squads keep French-owned Indo-C hina-Yunnan railway open and French sources state bom bing alone will p rove ineffective in cutting this trade artery. M oscow com m unique states offensive launched February 9 has been increasingly successful, that 51 points on Mannerheim line have been captured, all o f them o f reenforced concrete, that Russian forces are within 12 miles o f Vipuri, and that large groups o f Finn soldiers, “ misled men o f Baron Mannerheim and his bosses, the L ondon bankers” , are surrender­ ing. Baron Mannerheim urges new efforts be made, stating foreign help is arriving. R eported that A ltm a r k was run aground and 7 Germans killed in fighting that follow ed; 299 British prisoners were taken from ship. British Adm iralty announces that on February 16, on A dm iralty orders, British cruiser took charge o f German supply ship A ltm a r k in a N orwegian fiord and took aboard some British citizens, after which cruiser left N o r­ wegian waters; action was necessary because N or­ wegian governm ent failed to discover British prison­ ers on board who had lived for m onths under terrible conditions, and perm itted ship to leave Bergen with them still on board. Norwegian governm ent states 2 small torpedo boats escorting A ltm a r k yielded to force as British cruiser and 5 destroyers were involv­ ed in incident, and that it has protested against this clear violation o f its territorial waters. German press asserts situation imposes on neutrals duty to decide whether or n ot England can assume rights, step b y step, leading to destruction o f freedom and sovereignty o f northern states; “ a ct reveals txue nature o f British solicitude for rights o f neutrals . German governm ent announces that U -boats will henceforth conduct unrestricted warfare against British and French ships; assuming that ail British ships will be armed, they will be treated as warships and sunk w ithout warning. This will n ot apply to neutral ships unless they are under enem y con voy or entering Anglo-French ports. First L ord o f A d ­ m iralty, W . Churchill, recently announced that all allied ships will be armed in future. F e b 19 .— Foreign Office spokesman states Japan has m ade its “ final offer” to rem edy non-treaty status with United States and that “ situation is very serious” . “ W e have done everything within our power to ameliorate situation b y making last definite gesture o f friendship and are now awaiting next m ove o f United States.” Generalisimo Chiang Kai-shek reiterates hie “ no com prom ise, no surrender stand and declares, “ W e are 100% sure o f final v ictory . Finns claim to have annihilated Russian 18th division northeast o f Lake Ladoga, ending drive to encircle Lake and attack Mannerheim Line from rear. K ing Gustav states in proclam ation: we have always given m aximum voluntary aid to F in­ land, but I feel sure that active m ilitary intervention would mean n ot only war against Russia b u t im m e­ diate involvem ent in a great war with other powers . Foreign Secretary L ord H alifax demands A ltm a r k be interned as armed v e s s e l and demands N orw ay explain w hy Norwegian search o f ship failed to reveal presence o f British prisoners aboard. German o f ­ ficials deny ship is armed, stating crewmen carried only pistols for police purposes. Anger and tear reportedly sweeping Scandinavian countries over

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•hipping last week o f any week since war started— 5 British and 15 neutral ships (86,077) tons), b u t claims at least 4 German submarines were sunk. Squadrons o f German planes reported bom bing and machine-gunning trawlers and small freighters along English coast. Parliam ent is asked to vote on “ token credits” for arm y, navy, and air forces to prevent leakage o f inform ation to enem y as to how m uch is being spent and what for. Authoritative L ond on sources state B ritain has released large quantities o f m ilitary supplies for F in­ land including 144 bom bing planes, 150 anti-tank rifles, 10,000 anti-tank mines, 50,000 hand-grenades, 25 howitzers, 100 m achine guns, 24 anti-aircraft guns, 30 field guns, 4 six-ton tanks, 12 six-inch rifles, and 10 three-inch mortars, together with m uch am ­ m unition. France has also been sending large amounts o f war materials. F e b . 2 2. — Ling-erh (D iv in e C hild) La-m u-tan-chu is enthroned as Dalai Lam a at Lhasa, T iber, supreme lord, spiritual and tem poral, o f w orld’s only th eo­ cracy, being supposed re-incarnation o f 13th Dalai Lama w ho died on D ecem ber 17, 1933, and w ho devoted most o f his 40-year career to driving Chinese influence from country. Under him , the Panchen Lama, or spiritual teacher o f T ib et, fled to China where he lived for 12 years, dying in 1937 in K okonor, n ot far from place where new Dalai Lam a was born. Stockholm newspapers report that Russian C om ­ missar o f N aval Affairs has flown to M urm ansk to investigate reports that British warships are cruising off Petsam o. Soviet leaders state any attem pt to sink Russian m erchant ships would bring imm ediate armed conflict. Rum ania reported speeding up m ilitary prepara­ tions in view o f reports that Germ any is challenging its recent ban on exports to Germ any o f gasoline and oil which was issued because o f allied pressure and was in direct contradiction with Germ an-Rum anian agreement o f few weeks ago. F eb . 23 .— Japanese foreign office spokesman states that Chinese use o f American loans for m ili­ tary purposes w ould be regarded as “ extrem ely se­ rious” . M aneuvers o f French Indo-C hina colonial army in area between C am bodia and Cochin-China reported to have ended in repulse o f theoretical enem y force and to have shown it is possible t o m ove to scene o f operations within 48 hours all forces needed to ip rotect country, also that tropical vegetation provides perfect screen for machine guns which under these conditions are weapons o f “ exceptional effi­ ciency” . Vipuri reported in ruins but still in hands o f Finns. Former British W ar-Secretary L . H oare Belisha in speech urges allies to throw “ all their weight b y sea, air, and land into help to Finland as Russo-German control o f Finland and Scandinavia w ould mean halting our considerable purchases from there o f ore, tim ber, and agricultural products; risk o f helping Finland m ay be great, b u t o f n ot helping, greater” . Churchill states that “ long arm o f British sea-power stretches into one-sided neutrality” . Spokesm an in L ondon states no protest has been received from United States abou t C lip p e r mail incident at B er­ m uda and that n oth in g is known whatever o f any use o f force or threat o f force” . Liner R e x , carrying Under-Secretary o f State Sumner W elles and M yron C . T aylor, President R oosevelt’s personal representa­ tive at Vatican, is held up for nearly 4 hours at G i­ braltar when British control officers rem ove 334 bags o f U. S. mail addressed to Germ any and Poland. Geh. Sir Archibald W avell, Com m ander o f British Near East forces, tells Istanbul press that British and French now have “ full offensive and defensive force in Near E ast” and that allies “ want to cut supplies Germ any is receiving from S oviet” . R e ­ ports from Sebastopol state Russian B lack Sea fleet has com pleted maneuvers in area. G io r n a le d ’ I ta ­ lia states “ Italy has no reason to regard future Anglo French plans in Southeast E urope with com plete tranquility and confidence” . F eb . 24 .— F ood shortage in Japanese-controlled N orth China results in serious riots in Peiping; pri­ soners are being released from jails because they can n o longer be fed. Foreign ministers o f Denm ark, Sweden, and N o r­ w ay confer at Copenhagen concerning indications that allied forces are preparing attack on Russia. Chancellor A d olf H itler speaking in M unich on 20th anniversary o f prom ulgation o f N azi P arty program, states he prefers to settle problem s o f na­ tions b y peaceful means b u t that if B ritain and France want force, they can have it. H e states that 3 o f Germ any’s W orld W ar enemies— Italy, Russia, and Japan— are now friends, b u t that English again have hopes that other peoples will fight for them and that these hopes are “ partially well foun ded” . H e ridicules Chamberlain and Churchill as “ old, dessicated, and ossified non-entities who babble o f new order o f E urope and w orld; new order will com e, but w ithout them ” . H e states aim o f G erm any is to establish “ security o f our le b e n s r a u m and return o f form er colonies” . “ There are som e regions in M iddle E urope which have been built b y G erm any and there we shall live; there we will n ot tolerate any threat or political com bination against us” . Chamberlain in speech at Birm ingham declares Russia is “ apprentice” o f Germ any and b y im plica­ tion urges neutral nations to join allies, pointing out damages they suffer a t G erm any’s hands and declar­ ing that “ only b y v ictory o f allies can system be pre­ served which has been built up b y efforts o f civilized people and which with all its faults represents a genuine, earnest endeavor to free ourselves from barbarities o f m iddle ages and establish order m ore in {keeping with fundam ental principles o f Chris­ tian ity” . He states allied aims are to obtain inde­ pendence for Poles and Czechs and p ro o f that G er­ many “ will once and for all tim e abandon thesis that m ight is right.” H e states Britain and France will continue their cooperation after wai— “ outcom e o f which we have no reason to fear, n o m atter how long it m ay last, b u t that they can n ot and would not wish alone to settle future o f E urope, “ others must com e in and help and above all bring abou t



fired back and hit Dutch plane 3 times before escap­ ing over Belgian border; D u tch governm ent lodges protest, stating D u tch p ilot was only doing his d uty. F e b . 26. — T . Saito, member o f D iet threatened with expulsion for criticizing Japanese arm y cam ­ paign in China, states he will n ot resign and will run again if expelled; he declares he has received letters o f encouragem ent from all parts o f Japan. • D o m e i reports that “ German watchfulness” has prevented British effort to corner soy bean crop o f M anchukuo. Finnish Foreign M inister V . Tanner tells press he is disappointed United States is n ot expediting action on Finland’s request for loan b u t is considering re­ quest in “ peace-tim e manner” . Prim e M inister Hansson states, “ From our standpoint, Finnish co n ­ flict can n ot be judged w ithout considering situation in rest o f world. Unanim ity fo r intervention can not be found am ong Swedish people” . Sweden, N orw ay, and Denm ark issue com m unique stating that “ three governm ents will in future sup­ port each other in negotiations with belligerent na­ tions to p rotect their neutrality. T o prevent further h eavy ship losses they will henceforth a void British ports and con voys as Germ any has m ade it plain its principal aim in sinking neutral ships is to prevent ( C o n tin u e d o n p a g e 155)

disarm ament which is essential to lasting peace. Germany itself can d o more than any other nation since it has done m ost to destroy confidence. W hen Germ any is ready to give reliable proofs o f goodw ill, it will not find others lacking in will to help it over­ com e econom ic difficulties that will accom pany transi­ tion from war to peace” . D u tch governm ent forces British plane flying over its territory to land and interns crew. Announced at R om e that Italy has concluded new trade agreements with Germany and Turkey. Official Turkish news agency denies Turkey has m obilized although it is prepared to protect all its rights and interests. Cabinet o f General Francisco F ranco approves law suppressing the M asonic Order in Spain. F e b . 25.— M oscow com m unique states Russian forces occupied 3 Finn islands in G u lf o f Finland, capturing great amounts o f m ilitary equipm ent and also occupied 28 m ore defense positions in M annerheim line. K oh t states N orw ay prefers to settle A ltm a r k affair direct with England and believes it can, but will call for arbitration b y some international court i f necessary. D u tch pursuit plane reported to have engaged German bom ber flying over Holland^territory which




April, 1940

W ere the Architects o f old Superior to those o f Today?
Note the clean, restful lines of the comparatively inexpensive rein­ forced concrete structure above. Its graceful yet sturdy pile sug­
Provincial Capitol, D u m a g uete

gests peace and contentment.

Compare it with the jumbled mass of the medieval edifice below, with its useless and ill­ shaped towers and its wealth of unsightly and unsanitary detail— suggesting arrogance and pride, and ever lurking fear. those o f today? Were the architects o f old better than

(Moreover, experts tell us that high grade Portland Cement, properly mixed and poured and reinforced, will actually outlast the elaborate stone and cement struct­ ures of the middle ages.)

“ Best by Test”
M a ison de Jacques Coear, Bruges

Cebu Portland Cement Company

Hitler has for the second time committed one of those unpredictable and fatal blunders which make it so impossible to foreH itler’ s Secon d see the exact course o f warlike Fatal Blunder affairs. His first great blunder was to assume that England was bluffing when it warned him against invading Poland, which was what precipitated a war that other­ wise might have been long postponed. This war might yet have ended, before great damage was done, in a negotiated peace, were it not for his second great blunder this month— the invasion o f Scandinavia which, for the first time, gave Great Britain the full will as well the opportunity to deal him very heavy blows. Berlin reports have made it clear that this was Hitler’s decision alone. His invasion o f Denmark, with the object o f seizing firmer control o f the entrance to the Baltic, o f better pro­ tecting German ships bringing iron ore from Norway, and of securing the food resources o f that small, but rich country, was strategically justifiable because practicable. His invasion o f Norway, however though planned, no doubt, to give him control o f the entire Scandinavian Peninsula and to secure bases from which to strike more effectively at Britain would appear to be an act o f military madness. How he could have hoped to be able to invest in any great force any o f the scattered strategic points along the Norway coast and hold them against Bri­ tish naval and air attack, the Norwegian terrain being what it is, passes the imagination, unless, indeed, Germany’s air arm proves more powerful than the Allied combined naval and air forces that can be brought to bear. He may hold the ul­ terior hope o f drawing Russia into the war on his side by in­ ducing the Allies to land large forces in Scandinavia, but it is extremely unlikely that Russia will oblige him to this extent, as Russia still wants nothing more than to be left alone to work out its own problems. He may also have in mind to use the Scandinavian thrust to create a diversion while gathering his forces for a sudden attack somewhere along or around the Maginot line, but this would be another act of madness and proof o f the desperate position to which a war-threatening despot is brought after seven months of forced immobility. He may have believed that another demonstration of the b litz k rieg would frighten other neutrals and make them more amenable to his demands for supplies, and would also daunt the Allies and make them more disposed to agree to a peace on his own terms, but he should have known that Great Britain could never allow him to gain even a foothold on the vitally strategic Norwegian coast and would be forced to prevent this at any cost. There can be no further doubt that Hitler will be crush­ ed even if Germany itself must be destroyed to bring this about. There would still seem to be a possibility that if the German defeat in Scandinavia is overwhelming enough and the losses are severe enough, that Hitler may lose so mvfch prestige that either the German people or the Germanj army 'will rise against him, in which case the war might soon be over. But if Jhe (remains in control, and follows one act of madness with another, no one can foresee where the action may go, how much blood will have to be shed before his evil rule is over. President Quezon’s reported plan to visit Central and South America this summer is of great interest inasmuch as the relationships developed beT h e P h ilipp in es and tween the United States and the P a n -A m erica n ism various countries o f Latin America may well hold a lesson for the Philippines. The progress of Pan-American cooperation and the political solidarity developed in the Americas during the past hundred years, despite differences ip race, language, and historical background, is one o f the most hopeful o f world-aspects. During this period, the preservative M on­ roe Doctrine (1823) has gradually been “ continentalized” , the policy o f intervention under the “ Roosevelt (I) Corol­ lary” has been discarded, and the Roosevelt (II) “ Good Neighbor” policy has led to the substitution o f the part­ nership for the elder-brother idea. The Philippines not only shares in the Spanish back­ ground and culture o f the larger part o f Latin America, but was, in fact, governed through M exico for several hundred years up to 1821, when Mexico declared itself independent o f Spain. The Mexican Viceroy was the overlord o f the Philippines. The first Governor-General o f the Philippines, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi (1563-1572) was a Spanish resident o f Mexico, and Mexican officials often came to rule the Philippines. The standing army o f the Philippines was largely made up o f Mexican Indians, For many years the only means o f communication between the Philippines and Spain was through Mexico. Further­ more, to avoid contact with the Portuguese and other rivals, much o f the Philippine trade was carried on with and through Mexico. In view o f its historical cultural, political, and economic relationship with Latin-America, as well as its half-century relationship with the United States, the Philippines might well consider the feasibility of joining the Pan-American Union which, according to one authority, “ is gradually developing into an American League o f Nations minus the political functions o f such an organization” . Objection might be raised on the basis of the great distance that separates the Philippines from the Americas, but all that lies between them is water and a number of small islands the most important o f which are already American.

It is not entirely beyond reason that Australia and New Zealand, to the south and south-east o f the Philippines, may one day find it to their interest to join the Pan-Amer­ ican Union. Australia has for some tims been conducting good-will radio broadcasts, both in Spaiish a id English, directed to SDuth America. Sydney is closer to the Chile coast than it is to India, or than Manila is to the California coast and they are both about the same distance from Hawaii. Distance in itself is rapidly becoming a minor consideration in world planning, due to rapid advances in the speed o f ships and airplanes. Distances miist be taken relatively and are, in fact, not so great as they are commonly thought to be. There a e political and strategic as well as economic reasons for a closer drawing together o f the Americas and th,e countries with a Western civilization in the western an.d southern Pacific. These countries are all closer to the Americas than they are to Europe, and there are no in­ tervening land areas offering only narrow and dangerous channels o f navigation. The recent reciprocal appointment for the first time o f an American minister to Australia and a Australian minister to the United States, the building up o f an air route from the United States to Australia, President Quezon’s projected visit to the United States and Central and South America, these are all indications pointing possibly toward the closer relationship that is desirable from so many points o f view.

A well known Manila weekly magazine is currently publishing what appears to be a series o f articles which serves to inA n ti-S e m itis m troduce the spirit o f anti­ in th e P h ilipp in es Semitism in its crudest form into the Philippines. The articles are being published without explanation, and the uninformed can only speculate as to their origin and their general aim. Their content and form o f pre­ sentation, however, can leave no doubt as to their foreign origin, and their falsety and malice as to their reprehen­ sible character. The material in these articles is taken chiefly from an ill-reputed book, “ The International Jew” , and has been refuted ten thousand times. A clumsy effort to give the articles a local touch is made by referring, among other things, to the mortal dangers that would arise for the people o f this country if the project o f settling some thousands of Jewish refugees in Mindanao were carried out. In connection with these dangers, the articles cite a docu­ ment— “ The Protocols o f the Elders o f Zion” — in which the alleged plans o f the Jews to dominate the world are described. This document was long ago proved to be a falsification, the sources and authorship o f which are known. The main source was a satire which a Paris attorney, Maurice Joly, published in 1864, accusing the French Emperor Napoleon III o f aspiring to world domination through various crafty and ruthless measures. The Secret Service o f old Russia later caused a booklet to be printed in which the words “ the Jews” were substituted for “ Napoleon” in order to deflect popular hatred o f the Czarist regime to the Jews and prevent a threatened revo­ lution. The spuriousness o f the “ Protocols” has been con132

firmed in numerous court decisions in various countries, but reference to the document still makes good propaganda in a country like the Philippines where the subject is entirely new. The “ Protocols” and “ The International Jew” are also being used by Father Coughlin in Detroit and by Oswald Mosley in England in an effort to incite the feeling o f the more ignorant people against their Jewish fellow-citizens. More intelligent persons dismiss these publications with contempt, as they know how they have been written and for what purpose they are being used. Wherever this propaganda has been resorted to, it has been to arouse racial and religious animosities against a minority group for the purpose o f rallying mass support to some demagogue who would point to the alleged common enemy and promise to deliver his followers from them. Hitler applied this method with great success in Germany; and even in Spain, where the Jews make up only 0.02 per cent o f the population, Franco used anti-Semitic slogans and distributed pamphlets containing the “ Protocols” in great numbers. It has always proved to be the case that wherever anti-Semitic propaganda has been started on a large scale, there was some would-be dictator behind it. Now, since Hitler assumed power in Germany and German propaganda is being spread all over the globe, anti-Semitic propaganda can generally be traced back to Wilhelmstrasse, Berlin, where Propaganda Minister Goebbels has his office. The writer has made no effort to investigate the source o f the anti-Semitic articles in the Manila weekly, but it is certain that they came, text, pictures, and head­ line lettering (in the style o f Hebrew characters), from outside the Philippines. The fact that the book, “ The International Jews” (which originated in the United States), is one o f the main sources o f “ information” , rather points to Father Coughlin, “ radio-priest” o f Detroit. The fact that the Father’s financial affairs have finally aroused the deep interest o f the State Attorney may have led the Manila publisher not to use his name in connection with the articles. On the other hand, Germany has during the past seven years spread its anti-Semitic propaganda all over the world, with specially heavy doses to South America, the idea being that by inciting hatred against the Jews everywhere a feeling o f more general sympathy for the atrocious Nazi government may be expected to result. It is a regrettable thing that a publisher in Manila, what­ ever his motives may be, is thus aiding in spreading a mind-poisoning propaganda which has brought inhuman outrages and shame to other countries. The address o f United States High Commissioner Fran­ cis B. Sayre on the occasion of the commencemeint exer­ cises of the University of T h e Secu rity o f the Philippines, was one Property and the P erson ” o f the most eloquent pro­ nouncements ever heard here on the fundamental issues o f might versus right, the few versus the many, the state versus the individual, dictatoitstyp versus democracy; but when he asked in closing what his hearers chose to believe in— what they would put their faith in, he asked questions the answers to which could neither be in doubt nor be especially significant.

Certainly none o f his hearers, or very few— as in any group o f peopje anywhere in the world— would express themselves in favor o f anarchy, tyranny, and war over the ways o f order, liberty, and peace. We may earnestly and even fanatically bdieve in in­ dividual liberty and in democracy, in human cooperation, and in the felicities o f order and peace, and yet be held helpless in the grip o f a despotic government, swamped in poverty and misery, and forced to fight and kill our fellow men. And none or little o f any o f this is due to any one w anting it this way, even the “ few” , even the rulers. Rulers no less than the ruled in the dictatorships, and leaders and their followers in the so-called democracies, are all alike being pushed down the steep paths that lead to the field o f Armageddon by inexorable forces that have their origin precisely in a part o f that which M r. Sayre still seems to prize so much— the “ security” o f “ property” which he couples, apparently without hesitation, with the security o f the person. In so far as the rights relating to p erso n a l property are concerned, he has reason to link these with the general rights o f the individual, but in so far as the private and monopolized ownership o f what are usually called the “ means o f production” is concerned, he, and many others like him, do not appear to grasp the fact that this is the poisonous spring o f all the oppression and cruelty and death in the world today. The security o f the right o f monopolized ownership of

the means o f production means ultimately the insecurity o f everything else that men p ir iz e . So long as competition rather than cooperation is the m e th o d ; so long as private and monopolized profit is the a im ; so long as the private and monopolized ownership o f the riches o f nature, o f raw materials, and o f mills and factories is the m e a n s ; so long as goods for human consumption must be sold at a profit to be produced and obtainable; and so long as the markets o f the world must be competed for by great and lawless rival combines -just so long w ill the standards o f living o f the laboring masses have to be progressively reduced (despite the incidental and temporary “ prosperity” and state o f comparative order in a few parts o f the world where industrialism first developed); so long will force h&ve to be used to set aside individual rights come down from happier times and to suppress mass uprisings; and so long will desperate wars hava to be fought for what, ultimately under the present system, is actually self-preservation. Under the existing economic system, both the trampling down o f individual rights and the tearing up o f international agreements (both products o f ampler times in some coun­ tries) , are inevitable, and no mere wishful thinking and no mere rhetoric can bring them back. Some day, when men think more clearly and dare to speak more openly, the tides o f misery and desperation of a world in universal war will sweep away the obstructions raised by modern capitalism to the forces o f democracy and cooperation, o f reason and goodwill.

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Go to Spanish America, Mr. President!
By Adrian Got
S a Spaniard and a resident o f the Philippines, my second country which I wish all the good I could wish for Spain, I am happy about President Manuel L. Quezon’s projected tour o f Latin America, believing that many benefits, both moral and economic, may come o f it.


South America; relations based on an autocthbnous and fraternal Monroeism resulting from the wise “ Good Neigh-* bor” policy. In a memorable conference held in Manila during the latter part o f 1938, a great Spaniard, Garcia Sanchiz, in an unforgettable lecture entitled “ Las Banderas Solitarias” , drew Philippine eyes to the limitless horizon o f the possi­ bilities o f the Americas. The idea then suggested to the minds o f many is today maturing, and the voyage o f Pre­ sident Quezon may initiate a new or renewed PhilippineAmerican relationship that may prove o f the greatest good to this dear land. Latin America is a rich production source and offers a vast market, and the Philippines undoubtedly possesses product? suitable for exchange, an exchange that will be facilitated through the existing sisterhood based on a com ­ mon culture, a common religion, a common language. Japan, less favored by nature than the Philippines, and with none o f these special advantages, has found South America one o f its most important markets. Go to Spanish America, M r. President! Your voyage may be the first step toward the establishment o f an inde­ pendence less burdened than it otherwise would be, and encouraged and strengthened by intercourse with other republics born o f the same Mother.

Spanish America, like Spain itself, entertains an affec­ tion for the Philippines as for a spiritual sister, like in religion, culture, and mind, despite her geographic position. In Spain, a Filipino finds all the doors o f the heart open; President Quezon’s 1937 visit to M exico proved that the Spanish-American Republics consider the Philippines a sister-country. In the past, a number o f exceptional men, considering the broad and enigmatic perspective o f Philippine independ­ ence, turned their thoughts to Latin America as holding out immense possibilities for the future. But othpr pre­ occupations had almost erased the great South American continent from our minds, when the government o f the United States o f North America, itself, lacking confidence in conditions in Europe, turned to the Spanish Republics to the south not only for trade but in hope o f building up that solidarity so important to mutual security and the preservation o f peace. Today, one o f the great sources o f the strength o f the United States is its relations with

Latin America in a Warring World
By Wilbur Burton
lth o u g h course, their inde­ Latin Amer­ pendence is some­ ica and the what n o m i n a l , P h i l i p p i n e s are while traditionally geographically very the United States far apart and with­ has a s s e r t e d its out any direct cul­ hegemony over all tural or political — with the current connection in mod­ “ G ood N eighbor em times, the his­ Policy,” however, tory and destiny of being more diplo­ both a r e a s have matic. I think it been singularly in­ safe to say, never­ tertwined. It was theless, that funda­ the P o r t u g u e s e mentally the M on­ Magellan, sailing roe Doctrine still under the Spanish stands as a unilat­ flag around South eral manifesto of America and across the United States, the Pacific, who dis­ Rio de Janeiro, Brazil whether it is carried covered the Phil­ out |with| the Big ippines and claimed them for Madrid, thereby making them Stick o f Roosevelt I or the Big Smile of Roosevelt II. a part o f the same far-flung Spanish empire that at one In any event, the security o f Latin America—particularly time embraced Tall o f what is now called Latin America in the warring world o f today, with an ever blacker outlook excepting Brazil and a few small British, French, and o f crisis and upheaval— depends Ultimately upon the United Dutch colonies. Thus the Philippines and most of Latin States. For no Latin American land is politically stable America were alike long subjected to Spanish political enough nor economically strong enough either to be a great and cultural conditioning, while the main Spanish trade power or to assure its own protection against the onslaught route to Cebu and Manila was via Acapulco, M exico— o f a great power, while at the same time all o f the area is today a sleepy little town where some o f the population imperialistically more tempting than any other on earth trace descent from Filipino sailors’ nights ashore. because o f the sparse population and the vast undeveloped Then, in the course o f history, the Spanish bonds on natural resources. both Latin America and the Philippines were broken under But— and this is most significant fact o f all,— no one the aegis o f the United States,— indirectly, but none the less Latin American country contains within its own borders effectively, in the case o f Continental Latin America by sufficiently varied and extensive natural resources for devel­ promulgation o f the Monroe Doctrine. And today the opment o f a balanced national economy. Brazil, largest Philippines and all o f Latin America are under the avowed and best endowed o f all, has iron deposits exceeding those protection o f the United States, with American cultural o f the United States, but it lacks both the coal essential influence generally replacing the Spanish in both areas for a steel industry, and oil. Argentina, second largest, is although, o f course, not to the same extent in Latin America agriculturally one o f the richest regions on earth, but is as in the Philippines. Panama, however, is almost as almost entirely lacking in all minerals and woods. Others Americanized as the Philippines, with English as widely and are rich in some minerals but poor agriculturally, or vice well spoken in Panama City as in Manila, although Spanish versa, and where there is extensive mineral wealth it is is the only official language in the former. generally confined to only one or two products— copper At the same time, there are in all the lands o f both areas and silver in Peru and oil in Venezuela, for example. Mexico excepting Brazil (and the small British, Dutch, and French is better balanced than most, but far from well balanced, colonies) potent minorities o f Spanish who are united in while its arable land is no greater than that o f Iowa and not spirit by their common medieval Castilian ideology— as fertile. In brief, nature seems to have designed the manifested recently in their fanatical support o f Genera­ Latin American lands for imperialistic exploitation— until lissimo Francisco Franco o f Spain,— while everywhere, that happy but most probably far off day when the peoples excepting in M exico and Brazil (and the colonies men­ o f the world will truly cooperate and share with each other, tioned), the Spanish Catholic Church is predominant. like good neighbors should. Continental Latin America today includes the following In the world o f our time, the economic position o f the independent political entities: Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Latin American countries means that, except for agricul­ Paraguay, Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Vene­ tural production, they can be developed only by the ex­ zuela, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El ploitation and export o f irreplaceable natural resources— Salvador, Guatemala, and Mexico. In many cases, o f such as oil and iron and copper. In other words, the more



they are developed (except in agriculture) the poorer they becom e! For the natural wealth o f many o f them is worth exploiting only when shipped abroad for the benefit of other countries. So far, mineral exploitation— extensive as it has been in some places— is slight in relation to what remains, but generally it has not enriched even temporarily the countries concerned. A few anti-social politicians have profited and native workers have made a bare living from wages paid them, while the overwhelming bulk o f the earnings from exploitation have gone into foreign pockets. . Mexican oil situation is a case in point, although in recent years Mexican oil workers (because o f strong unions) have been relatively well paid— better than the Mexican average and also better than since the time the government expropriated the foreign oil fields. But the Mexican government did not get even royalties, only a small tax, from the huge volume o f oil pumped forth for consumption abroad. Politically, none o f the Latin American lands has achieved democracy as a going political concern— less so for the most part than the Philippines. At the same time none has embraced any totalitarian dogma. Government ranges from the “ strong man” d ic ta to r -n o w best exem­ plified by Getulio Dornelles Vargas in Brazil— to hopeful attempts at democracy. Uruguay and Argentina have democracy o f a fashion, conservative but with not many outrages against civil liberties. Both o f these countries, unlike the rest o f Latin America, have an almost exclusively white population— largely o f Spanish and Italian origin— and each is well over half literate, with strong union move­ ments. The most impressive labor demonstration I have ever seen in 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 miles o f travel over the world, includ­ ing some countries in revolution, was on M ay Day o f 1937 in Buenos Aires. The ringing chorus o f “ M iaja si! Fascism o n o ! ” along fifteen kilometers o f Buenos Aires’ broad boulevards, combined with ear-splitting hissing of Nazi ensigns— and an Argentine hiss once heard is never to be forgotten l-re v e a led an extraordinarily acute mass political consciousness; but the paramount social aspect o f the land is a pro-Franco ruling class and the worst land­ lordism on earth— a mere 1 0 ,0 0 0 hectares constituting a sm a ll farm! s

told me. Brazil is the only Latin American country that has always supported the Monroe Doctrine, and we regard President Roosevelt’s good neighbor policy as an extension o f the doctrine rather than a substitute for it.” Once Brazil seemsd on its way to development o f de­ mocracy, but the clock has been turned back in this respect y. , Vargas‘ As dictatorships go, however', it is mild and has continued such genuine reforms as social security, albeit on the basis o f a very low standard o f living. Also, Vargas most probably saved the country from a Naziinspired if not actually Berlin-dominated Fascist regime by the green-shirted In tegra lista s. He used them to stage his dictatorial co u p d ’e ta t, but then promptly sup­ pressed them and likewise cracked down effectively on the German Nazis themselves who were organizing the large German population with alarming speed and thoroughness. All this was done, o f course, in cooperation with Washington. While basically Portuguese, Brazil contains a vast popuation o f Spanish, Italian, and German origin, with also many Indians and Negroes and admixtures o f them with the whites. In recent years there has been, too, appreciable Japanese settlement. Literacy is not more than twentyfive percent and little real nationalism has ever been achiev­ ed. So perhaps a Vargas is not only inevitable, but the best choice o f evils.

Argentina, being the largest country o f S panish America has ever aspired to Latin American leadership, and so most of the squawks against the Monroe Doctrine have emanated rom Buenos Aires. Actually, American— that is, United otates— imperialism has never adversely affected Argentina thC CUrrent uPheaval which probably will be the most earth-shaking in h isto ry -sta rted on that Its national limitations are those imposed upon it by nature while economically it is inevitably more tied up with Great M u k d en t Pte? Sr 18’ 1931’ When th e J aPanese seized n in than with the United States since its chief products a S S ki ’ thG American hegemony o f Latin compete with those o f American agriculture but constitute Am .rica has been challenged successively by Japan Ger­ many and Italy. Japan has been assiduously coLrdng an important item in the life o f the British Isles. Further Argentina is no mean imperialist itself, ever seeking to several Latin American countries, particularly Peru and razi , ut has never made any dangerous headway. I dominate Paraguay, direct Uruguay, and to oppose any have already recounted part o f the attempted German peneexpansion o f Brazilian influence in South America. ration o f Brazil, which included in addition a “ compen­ Brazil being o f Portuguese origin and tradition, is some­ sated mark” trade arrangement which for a time threatened what isolated from Spanish America, and so in order to to tie that country economically to Berlin. Mussolini counter Argentina has always leaned heavily on the United has been proceeding less openly through organization of States. One o f the chief government buildings in Rio de the millions o f Italian settlers in Latin America into “ over­ Janeiro is named “ Monroe Palace,” and the Brazilian seas colonies.” roreign minister o f the time I was there, Brandaon, once In so far as Japan and Germany are concerned, the pre-

Except for little Costa Rica, the rest o f Latin America is basically Indian m population, although save in Mexico, the ruling class is white or more or less Hispanicized znestizo. Costa Rica, Colombia, and Chile have governments that indicate a trend to democracy. So does the govern­ ment o f Mexico, although it is difficult to classify. It is today more Indian than Spanish, and the only sweeping social revolution in all Latin America has been under way m Mexico since 1917— including virtually complete sup­ pression o f the Catholic Church as a political power, ex­ propriation o f both Church and private estates for division mto peasant communes, and truly monumental strides in public education. Literacy, nevertheless, is still not more an twenty-five percent; mass political consciousness is yet o f a low order; the peasant communes are directed more y the governmental bureaucracy than by their members; and there is a tragic amount o f racketeering by both labor union leaders and government officials. The future depends on w et er mass literacy and political consciousness can catch up and keep pace with the changes in social forms.

J le r rC e

W O r l d


sent wars in Europe and the Far East have effectively curtailed their Latin American activities,— but this does not necessarily mean they will never be renewed again. Italian activities are continuing although o f no im m e ­ diate importanoe. And with the triumph o f Franco in Spain another possibility looms, its seriousness depending on the future course o f history: formation o f a Spanish “ racial front” which could embrace the ruling class o f every Latin American land, excepting M exico and Brazil, and, possibly, Chile and Colombia— which are now under none too stable anti-Fascist governments. Mexico is, and will continue to be, unless there is unex­ pected internal reaction, under a belligerently anti-Fascist, anti-Catholic, and anti-Spanish regime. In any event, every Mexican government depends directly upon the goodwill o f the United States, for there are always enough dissidents o f every shade to stage an uprising— provided they can get arms from the United States. Even so, Mexi­ can expropriation o f the oil wells willy-nilly played into German, Italian, and Japanese hands, since the govern­ ment has had to sell the bulk o f the oil it produced to these nations— or not at all.

The situation in Brazil, as I have outlined, seems well in American hands; and right now all the Latin American lands are cooperating with the United States in their atti­ tude toward the European war. Further, President Roose­ velt's diplomatic “ good neighbor” policy has created more genuine goodwill toward the United States than has ever before existed in Latin America. But in view o f the fac­ tors I have sought to indicate, it would be dangerously easy for non-American— and anti-American—imperialistic intrigue to be effective between Cape Horn and the Rio Grande. Actual alien military invasion, o f course, would appear most unlikely in any foreseeable future, but this would be the last— not the initial— aspect o f a Fascist imperialism. The most immediate— and greatest— menace o f today and tomorrow is o f a less obvious kind, but one that Pres­ ident Monroe fully covered in his historic message o f 1823: that the United States should consider any attempt on the part o f European nations “ to extend th eir sy s te m to any portion o f {this (the American) hemisphere as dangerous to ou r p e a c e and s a fe ty .”

The Baby ,
By N. V. M. Gonzalez
UCASj Antaran land his young wife, Baray, with their seven-weeks-old baby, were on their way to the village, to show the child to Baray’s mother,' Aling Take. The young couple had remained on their clearing the entire year as though indeed nothing mattered to them but the land. But then the child had come, and they felt they could put off a visit no longesr. Lucas carried the baby in a thin cotton blanket the ends o f which he had tied together and flung across his shoulder, making a comfortable little hammock. He supported the small bundle with one arm and walked with an even and careful gait. Behind him came Baray, with a few articles o f clothing for Toto, as they called their little one, under her arm.


The trail wound through a thickly wooded plain and, this late Saturday afternoon, the sun’s rays now fell ob­ liquely upon the wayfarers through the thick fronds of buri palms. The wind blew intermittently from the east, caus­ ing the palm leaves to make a sound like a strange strum , ming o f bass guitars. This was the same trail which Lukas had often traveled over alone before he persuaded Baray to live with him out in the jo lo . Now, finding himself on it again, and with a wife and child, he felt elated about it all, and a little vain, too. He said to Baray: “ I quite remember how it was.” Baray understood the vague allusion and replied quickly: “ When you were young, you mean?”

“ Yes, when I used to go to the barrio a-courting.” Baray laughed. “ You do talk like an old man, when in fact you are only seventeen!” “ And you gabble like your toothless old mother,” said Lucas, chuckling. They walked on in silence and came to the place where the trail ran into a sledge-road and became much wider. Marks o f runners showed between the heaps o f dead leaves, and blotches o f sunlight were strewn about in patterns so unreal that it did not seem afternoon but some time beyond day or night. Lucas remembered how once, when he and Baray had passed this way, still somewhat strange to each other, a brown lizard had darted across their path. Baray had started to talk o f the possible connection between the li­ zard’s appearance and their own lives, when he stopped her short by making her believe they had lost their way. He knew then from her brave behavior what sort o f a girl she was. On this same occasion, a little later, they had sighted a white quail in the bush and against the girl’s wish he had stopped to see if he could not find its nest. Lucas felt that he had indeed been very young then. He felt old now, what with boy Toto he carried so snugly in the blanket over his shoulder. As though it were a memory half buried by years, a very precious little memory, he recalled how he had built for Baray a house o f bamboo and wood, with rattan leaves for roofing, out there on the homestead which his father, old M ang Kiko Antaran, now ten years dead, had left to him.

It was a rude, make-shift dwelling, and the wind swept down upon it at night like a hawk on some hapless chick; and as Baray lay beside him, snuggling close as a wife will, she would beg him to take her back to the village in the morning. But there was the clearing to look after. It lay on a hill­ side on which his father had started some coffee and cacao trees. That had been twelve years before, and when old Kiko had died in the influenza epidemic o f 1918, the jungle had at once reclaimed the area. The rattan had choked out the struggling young cacao trees and ferns had crept over the ground where his father had dreamed o f one day seeing the glossy-leaved coffee trees greet the morning sun. Then Lucas had come with a bolo o f his own and had started clearing the land once more, as bevies o f blue and green parrakeets burst forth from the undergrowth with riotous chatter. Lucas could not make out whether this was in protest or in welcome. When he learned that a child was coming, com stood already waist-high in his kain gin . Baray at first could still help him—-in the weeding, for instance; but soon Lucas had to do everything by himself. “ After this harvest” , he told her once, “ I shall build you a better house” . “ And a shed for the chickens, and a pig-pen, too?” she asked. “ N o, they will have to come later. I am thinking o f making the house first.” “ But it would be much easier to build the pen first. No, you had better build the shed first.” Lucas went on, unheeding. “ And there will be a cam arin, for storing the corn. And then still another camarin for a small wooden sugar mill.” “ But all o f that?” Baray exclaimed, looking as if she were greatly surprised, although she was familiar with that kind o f talk. “ I can make a mill, you know. It will be a simple thing.” “ But you haven’t even a stalk o f sugar-cane.” “ But we’ll plant cane, too. After I have cleared away the corn-stalks. Now you take good care o f the baby when it comes, and I’ll plant the cane and build the mill. M y father made one, once.” Baray wanted to coax him on, and said: “ And when you ’ve got the mill and can make some sugar, you’re going to sell the sugar in the barrio?” “ And where else, may I ask?” he said brusquely. “ And we will be rich then?” “ Not rich, perhaps; but better off than most,” said Lucas. H e looked quite serious when he said |that, Baray noticed,

smiling to herself and deciding not to ask any more ques­ tions. She feared Lucas might again say she was just a child, when, indeed, she was hardly a year younger than he. Though how very often, thinking o f Lucas and his kaingin and their lonely life, she felt like an old woman, too. |Yet now, walking behind him, she had misgivings about meeting her mother from whom they had stayed away so long. Aling Take would be surprised with the baby. She might be glad, in her heart, but she would certainly take them to task because Lucas had not fetched her when she was to have her baby. Lucas and the baby and herself, too, might get quite a harsh reception. Baray tried hard to keep these thoughts out o f her head, but suddenly she imagined her mother holding Toto in her arms and inspecting-the new-born one as if it were some dubious thing. “ I’ve been thinking o f your mother,” Lucas broke out, stopping in his stride. “ I ’ve been wondering what she will say about T oto.” “ I was thinking o f that, too,” said Baray. It seemed significant to her that Lucas should be thinking what she was thinking. She began to feel sure that Aling Take would find fault with the child, and then what would she do? “ Let me carry Toto now,” she said. “ Your arm| must be tired.” x Lucas stopped under a tree and gave her the Ichild, help­ ing her to adjust the blanket. “ We shall rest a while, shall we?” asked Baray, seeing the stump o f a tree beside the trail. She walked over and sat down, taking the baby in her lap. Lucas took off his hat and fanned himself to dry the perspiration on his face. “ Isn’t T oto’s blanket too damp from m y sweat?” he asked. But Baray, gazing at her baby, seemed not to hear him. The child was half asleep and Baray for a moment held her breath and bent down to touch its soft cheek with her own. Then, with her free hand, she began to fondle it, touching its face and delicate hands and feet, like a little girl toying with a doll. She started counting the tiny fingers on each hand and the tiny toes on each foot. “ Eh, what are you doing?” asked Lucas, seeing that Baray seemed deeply engrossed. She did not reply, but looked up at him with happy tears sparkling in her eyes. Never had she felt so sure that Toto was whole and live and perfect. “ Come,” she said. before nightfall.” “ Let’s hurry. W e must get there

Bats under the Moon
By Maximo Ramos
O n e by one In the hush Under the moon They go waving Their gray wings Of hairy hide From shadowy caverns In jungles unknown— Gray witches stalking Young child-fruits

Asleep in starlight.

The Banaue Rice Terraces
A Building Contractor’s View
By W. S. Boston
returned to Manila through Ifugao Sub - Province, stopping off a few days at Banaue and Kiangan. I did not get so intimately acquainted with the Ifugao people, but there was evidence on every hand that these people very likely represent the oldest culture in the entire five mountain sub-provinces. Their rice-terraces can not be described in mere words. When one sits on the porch o f the resthouse at Banaue, and contemplates the work o f the Ifugaos, it leads to dreams. You may view from this point a large mountain, with a general slope o f thirty degrees, rising up above the village to a height o f some two thousand feet. The ter­ races, some large, some small, run up, tier after tier, to what appears to be the very top. At first you get the idea that this tremendous work could not have been done by man, but then you realize that it must have been. And studying more closely, you see that the great stone walls holding those level terraces in place, were very systematically built and that the smaller walls have been placed where they are for several very definite reasons. The smaller walls serve to protect the larger terraces from destruction by uncontrolled water and ero­ sion, but they also serve to utilize every inch o f the moun­ tain side for growing purposes. You can see that these terraces are narrower for the reason that they are on the more abrupt slopes o f the mountain.


If you have any engineering experience, you visualize this rugged mountain, two thousand feet high, without these terraces, and imagine that you are to survey and map them out. You pick a starting point for your survey. You will require thousands o f feet o f cable and rope, an army o f brave assistants, and years o f time to do the sur­ veying alone. Then you have to build those walls and dikes, so that they will stand cloud-bursts, earthquakes, erosion. Well, you just scratch your head and say, “ Oh Hell! such a thing can not be done!” Yet you stand there and view the finished work, and all you can think is that those fellows did it without an in­ strument o f any kind, not even a rope or a single stick o f dynamite. Personally, after due contemplation, my ques­ tion was, “ How did they do it?” Then I left the resthouse for a look-see. I found that those walls are truly o f one family, but that they were not all born at the same time. I saw that some must be thou­ sands o f years old and that others could be only a few years old. In the older walls I found large mended areas where they had been rebuilt. I looked about some more and realized that certain walls had been built over and above the original wall, not only to increase the area for rice grow­ ing, but to protect the first wall built. This work has evi­ dently been carried on for thousands o f years, and repre­ sents hundreds of millions o f units o f man-day labor. The fog has lifted and you look down some two thousand feet and see smoke on a small level basin. You grab your field-glasses and pick out the smoke spots. What you see becomes a village o f Ifugao huts. You see men, women, and children playing or m ov­ ing about. They look like some kind o f small animals through your glasses, but you realize that they are really human beings. Yes, the guar­ dians o f those wonderful ter­ races, built by their ancestors. You sweep your field-glasses around, and discover a line leading back into the moun­ tain. What’s that line? You adjust your focus, trace out the line: it rises higher and higher as it extends back into the mountain. Those beau­ tiful white streaks you have noticed, you see are alive.


Sure, they are waterfalls; the dark streaks between are also moving and tumbling, because you are looking at tribu­ taries of the Banaue River, which is itself in great haste to find a level spot where it may rest. ' Y ou begin to count the waterfalls in sight, and if you have a companion with you, you will soon find yourselves in a hot dispute as to approx­ imately how many waterfalls can be seen in the Banaue valley from where you stand; to count them is impossible. You have been conscious o f a continuous, low, roaring sound. Now you realize it is from all this rushing but definitely controlled water. You and your companion have filled your desire for see­ ing. You stop talking, remain perfectly still for minutes, trying to grasp what you have seen. Presently you awake from your dream, and say, “ L et’s go.” But I assure you that if you are honest with yourself, you will walk back with bowed head, thinking how small you really are, as an individual, although you may be won­ derfully civilized. You perhaps may think o f a poem of Longfellow which runs like this:
All are Architects of Fate, Working in these walls of Time; Some with massive deeds and great. Some with ornaments of rhyme. Nothing useless is, or low; Each thing in its place is best; And what seems but idle show Strengthens and supports the rest.

For the structure that we raise, Time is with materials filled; Our todays and yesterdays Are the blocks with which we build. Built today, strong and sure; With a firm and ample base; And ascending and secure Shall tomorrow find its place.

The town of Kiangan is built on a beautiful mountain slope. Unfortunately, the whole town is gradually sliding into the Ibulao River. The slip on the down-stream side begins about three kilometers outside the town. I stopped at this slip and noted that the movement within the last two years had been about four feet. It has thrown all the buildings out of plumb, and in the case o f stone govern­ ment structures has cracked them all, some stone columns having been completely upset. It is safe to say that in a comparatively short time the whole mountain slope will have disappeared down the Ibulao River. The town will have to be moved elsewhere. At Kiangan, as at Lubuagan, I found that modern civili­ zation is being assimilated by the Ifugaos and is not des­ troying them. From my short acquaintance with the Ifugaos, I judge that they are equal to the Kalingas in combativeness and will protect their rights with their lives, but that they are willing to adjust themselves to new con­ ditions. Let us hope indeed that the great human qualities found among these sturdy mountain people will not be lost to the nation that is new forming.

Aleph, the Car
By Pura Santillan-Castrence
O M IN G home from the office at noon in our none-too-sprightly 1929-model Ford is a daily ordeal my husband and I have to bear with Christian resignation. M y husband drives badly, although enthusiastically (and even audibly at times) so that as we approach the Ayala bridge, with its formidable (to me) incline, I cross my fingers for good luck and breathe a prayer for good measure. Some­ times we make the bridge, oftener we only make the cop angry.


When we first got the car-—you guessed it, second-hand— we decided to give it a name. Calling it “ th e ca r ” in front of people sounded to us just a bit too pompous for its looks, as well as too impersonal for the affection we felt for it. For it seems that as soon as we saw Aleph (that is its name) and it saw us, there was mutual falling in love. And that love (Heaven bless it I) is growing with time, and Aleph now occupies a permanent place in our hearts. Aleph arrived one beautiful Thursday afternoon— we looked out o f the window, and there it was, (or, should I say, “ he was” ?) waiting to be approved. It came in answer to our long-expressed desire to own a car and “ give the children a little fun.” As the children are still very much

at a stage when their bottles are more important to them than anything else in the world, I often wonder if we had basely used them as a convenient alibi for cur cwn wish to have free and untram­ melled rides in the “ wide open spaces.” For Aleph, geed old sccut that it is, has already taken us places A person who likes the city, city life, city bustle, city glitter, even city noises and city dust, can not appreciate our feeling o f relief, when, o f a Sunday afternoon, we bundle the whole family into dear, faithful Aleph’s ample and willing bosom, and drive out into the country, to breath fresh exhilarating air, and let our eyes gaze upon vast stretches o f restful green, instead o f the dirty gray to which we are accustomed— and almost resigned. Sometimes, when we are particularly a m b itio u s (or when we had the gasoline tank filled up the previous Saturday), our riding rambles take us where we can even enjoy the sight o f mountains and gorges, as well as picturesque lakes of out-of-the-way brooks that bring up memories and longings. Our bodies, our minds, even our souls sometimes, cramped by the crowded, jittery, money-chasing life about us, are allowed a moment to stretch out, and relax, and drink in,
( C o n tin u e d cn p a £e 149)

The Silver-inlaid Chowpot
By Henry Philip Broad
S long as Hassan could remember— and that was now more than fifteen] years back— the chowpot had stood in the darkest corner o f the home in the village on the Sulu Sea. A mat o f fine palm fiber always covered it, so that none o f its brass-and-silver glitter could be seen; the tall spike o f the lid, made the stiff mat seem stiffer yet. The pot with its tray stood on a wooden stool whose four legs spread across the slit-bamboo floor like a spider’s. Many a time he had lifted that mat from the pot. It was wonderful, he thought, the gleaming brass, shot with bits of silver; and he had passed his hands over the sleek, curving sides. But once his mother had caught him at it and had slapped his hands smartly. “ If father catches you! You know father when he gets angry!” His mother’s rolling eyes and the shifting shoulders had said more, and Hassan had left the chowpot well alone. But never did he erase it from his mind. He would have liked to know more about it: where it came from, and who had shaped the mold and poured the metal, and how the dully-glinting specks o f silver had come into it. It also puzzled him greatly that so beautiful a piece o f crafts­ manship should stand shamefacedly, like a thief in a dark corner, when in other homes in the village things o f brass occupied places o f prominence in the middle o f the room or near the windows on benches or tables, so that the sun­ light fell upon them and people could exclaim over them. All this puzzled him, but it never occurred to him to ask his father. Father never invited speech and query; and as to mother, he had never known her to be without a baby on her lap or hips, and he felt too strongly the atmosphere o f intruiging mystery that the chowpot exuded to ask her about it in the presence o f even a babe a few months old. There had been a time when he had hated the chowpot. That was when he was still too small to go fishing with his father. He had been playing with other boys o f the village, running up and down the stone wall against which the waves from the sea broke, splashing them all with spume and spray. The boys were throwing handfuls o f sea-sand with tiny pebbles and fish-scales into the air and at one another, amid loud bursts o f laughter. The sun was shining brightly and pellets fell in glinting reflections upon their bare chests. Suddenly, Abdul, one o f the village chief’s sons, exclaimed, pointing: “ Just look at Ramun! Look! Like the chowpots at our grandfather’s house! In Tusak, by the big la k e.. . ” “ Just like them !” shouted his brother Mani. “ Our grandfather has many like t h a t ...” he added, pointing excitedly at his brother’s shimmering brown, dripping skin. “ And my grandfather, he had one big, big one!” Kiu threw in, his voice swelling with pride. “ And my grandfather, he has . . . ” cried Guri. Hassan, balancing himself upon his long, strong toes, broke in: “ M y father, too, has a chowpot— brass inlaid with silver.”


All stared at him, mute with astonishment. He said: “ It is a pot o f brass, very smooth around, and it has a lid and the lid has a____” They had recovered now from their surprise, and Ramun, slapping his plump thigh, shrieked: “ A chowpot! Brass and silver-inlaid! And your father a fisherman!” He went on slapping himself and shrieking, while the others followed house!” suit. “ A silver-inlaid chowpot! In your

It was more than they could bear, and they shouted it out again and again, throwing up their arms in a frenzy o f amusement. “ A great chowpot that must be! A beautiful chow pot!” “ Smooth, pale brass with silver, I tell y o u !” Hassan shouted it out as loud as he could, but they outshouted him. Smooth, pale mud, inlaid with dead fish-eyes! That’s your chowpot, fisherman’s son!” Hassan had paled; his lips worked up and down as in palsy. A raging fire sprang up in him, made him see the sun no longer. Grasping the still raving Ramun by a shoulder, his voice hoarse, he stuttered: "A nd my father has a silver-inlaid chow pot; he h a s.. . And you, you chief’s son, you must believe it !” He stamped his feet, infuriated at the spurts o f laughter from the five o f them. “ I ’ll show it to you !” Abdul raised his hand; “ All right, then show it to us, then we’ll believe that your fa th er.. . ” “ But we want to see it right now.” Hassan quickly calculated the possibilities. If father was home, he could not show them the chowpot. Father never let anybody come into the house. But this was after­ noon; father might be at the town market now. It would be easy to fool mother. She could be told that Apsa or Mantay were in child-pain. He would have to pay for the deception later, but now nothing mattered but to convince these boys. Somewhat calmer he said: “ I must go home first— if my fa th er.. .” They broke into loud guffaws again. “ Looking for excuses now, is he? He and his silver-inlaid chowpot!” they chorused and began pelting him with handfuls o f peb­ bles and there was nothing to do but rush home. Burning with rage to make them swallow the insult, to shame them, he ran, panting, all the way. I f father had .only gone out! And then he beheld his father, crouching upon the doorsill, quiet, but threatening. “ Where have you kept yourself all afternoon, worth­ less one?” Hassan hung his head, more in disappointment than in fear. He could still hear the derisive shouts o f his playmates coming from the direction o f the beach: “ . . . smooth, pale mud-inlaid with dead fish-eyes.” “ Get inside and pound the rice for the evening meal!” his father ordered. Then, some time after this— it was on his first fishing trip with his father— coming back from an errand, he had found

himself face to face with old Saudi, the village chief’s father. “ Just a word with you, Hassan, son o f my relative Upao,” the old man said, raising a hand in greeting. Hassan was too much surprised to answer. The village’s first man’s father to speak to him, Hassan! And he a relative! He remained standing in the middle o f the road, not sure o f having heard or seen right. “ Come over there with me, by the sea’s edge, Hassan, my son,” the man coaxed, and Hassan followed, still too dazed to do anything but follow.

“ Well, maybe I believe you, Hassan.” And then, only a few days later, he woke in what seemed to him the middle o f the night, hearing a commotion at the back-stairs o f the house. A thief trying to sneak in? He jumped up from his mat, watchfully stepped over some of his sleeping brothers and sisters, crept out toward the kit­ chen, and listened. It was his father talking to someone outside, and his voice had an edge to it: “ So it’s you, old one! Coming for the chowpot? Trying to steal it? Steal it from me?”

From below came the answer: “ And haven’t you stolen “ Hassan— some time ago— maybe a year back or more—• I heard something.” He stopped, waited a little, his eyes it? Haven’t you stolen it from my uncle’s hoard in Tussak? intensely on Hassan. “ I can not believe it, o f course— Long ago?” something about a chowpot in your father’s house.” “ He was my uncle, too, not alone yours. You stole enough already, you old one. W hy take mine too?” A resentment, not quite a hatred, sprang up in Hassan. The silver-inlaid chowpot! An affront had been done him “ But it’s the finest, the best o f all. And I want it, I tell and he had been given no chance to clear himself. you.” “ Is that true, Hassan? chowpot?” Your father has a silver-inlaid “ It’s mine. fisherman.” I like to look at it. I wasn’t always a poor Standing in

Hassan nodded: “ He has, H a d ji.” “ That is what you say. But is it true? chowpot is it?”

What sort of

“ What is it doing in your shabby house? a dark corner, with a mat over it?” “ It’s mine and I ’ll keep it.”

“ It is this big, Hadji, and its sides are this wide and they are curved like this. And the color is like the moonshine and the silver bits in it are like fish-scales.. . . ” He spoke quickly, desperately eager not to be taken for a braggard again. “ And it has a platter, a round one, that big, but no silver in i t . . . ” “ And the lid?” “ A long spike, with a silver knob— like a long nail.” The old man nodded. four legs?” “ And it stands on a stool, with

From below came the voice again, sharp in angered frustration. “ You'll not keep it. I ’ll get it yet, Upao! Mark my words! I ’ll get the chowpot y e t!” Short, raucous laughter broke from his father’s throat. “ You try to, you old one, you just try. . .” 'J 'h e years, not halting at puzzles that refuse to be solved, had passed. The chowpot, though it still stood on its stool in the dark corner o f the home, no longer occupied Hassan’s mind. He had other matters to think about, for he had passed his seventeenth year and time had come for him to live like a man and to take him a wife. He had become an adept fisherman himself, was now as quick as his father at spearing the leaping ro m p e-ca n d a d o that turns ferocious at the flash o f the torch. Some day he might even become a better fisherman than his own father. That, o f course, could not yet happen. He must first take wife, be, so-to-say, a man in the full term o f the word.
( C o n tin u e d o n p a t e ISO)

“ With four legs, H adji.” “ And your father keeps it where? room? So that all can see it?” In the middle o f the

“ It stands in the darkest corner . , . and there’s a mat over it . . . and now, Hadji, you believe me now ?” “ Calm yourself, Hassan.” “ Y ou believe that my father has a silver-inlaid chowpot, H adji?”

Tropic Serenade
By Soledad R. Juan
B e h o l d , my love, the magic moon Bids you leave your pillow! Come to where I wait alone Expectant by the willow. Come where heaven’s liquid gold It’s shifting pattern weaves On the velvet o f the grass Throiigh the moon-kissed leaves. While magnolia-scented winds Murmur invitation, Awake, my love, and hear me call In fervent supplication. (Turn to me those starry eyes Filled with glad surrender— Radiant with the glow o f love Infinitely tender.

Haste, m y love, the hours fly! I must not tarry longer. Ah, ere I cease my song o f love, Speak one word in answer!

Prisoners Paradise
By Stanley and Kenneth Nobs
When the Spaniards withdrew from the islands in 1898, all the prisoners, some thousand in number, were freed. Practically everything except a few thousand coconut trees was either carried away or destroyed. In 1907 the government decided to try prison labor on the Farm. A c­ cordingly, a few prisoners were sent to San Ramon from the Provincial Jail at Calarian. The experiment proved successful, and five years later General John J. Pershing, who was then Governor o f the M oro Province, decided to reorganize the institution. His plan was to combine in San Ramon the features o f a penitentiary and a penal colony. He had buildings such as the present cell houses erected, and surrounded the whole with grated walls. At first only prisoners under the jurisdiction o f the old Department o f Mindanao and Sulu were committed to the institution. However, with the advent o f the Jones Law, in 1916, the San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm was placed under the Bureau o f Prisons. At present persons convicted by the Courts o f First Instance in some o f the Visayan islands and sentenced to prison terms ranging from one year to life, are also committed to this prison. All this Mr. Liwanag told us in the manner o f one who has watched, with pride, the growth o f a great institution. It is easy to see that San Ramon, its past, present, and future, is his chief interest in life. When lunch was finished we walked through the spacious walled enclosure inspecting the dormitories, kitchens, work shops, cinema, library, and sales room. Of these, the latter is most colorful. Here are found products o f the inmates’ leisure time in the form o f handicraft articles such as canes, serving trays, powder boxes, baskets, miniatureM oro “ vintas” , and many other things. These articles are sold to tourists and other visitors. Ten per cent o f the proceeds go into the Prison Recreation Fund and the remain­ der is deposited in the name of the owner, thus giving him some­ t h i n g to get started on after h is r e l e a s e . Some prisoners have deposited as much as a thousand pesos from the sale of these articles. “ W ithin the enclosure,” re­ marked the Su­ perintendent as we were leaving the sales room, The Jail in the Prison

“ San Ramon”

E rolled leisurely along Zamboanga’s beautiful palmfringed beaches trying to forget the thought o f what lay ahead. Every penal institution we had ever visited before left us feeling depressed and gloomy for days. Small wonder that we should not be enthusiastic over visiting some dank, dark prison with all this warm Sulu sunshine and tropical scenery to be enjoyed. On passing through a wide gate, guarded only b y an unarmed sentry, a sign announced that we were within the limits o f the San Ramon Prison and Penal Farm. The macadamized road wound through a well tended coconut plantation where small groups o f men lounged here and there under the palms. “ Are those men visitors?” we asked. “ No, they are prisoners,” answered the driver.


They were a new type o f prisoner to us. All neatly dressed. Walking freely about. N ot a guard in sight. When we reached the administration building, Superin­ tendent Manuel Liwanag was in the midst o f an outdoor meeting o f the prison employees and their families. They were organizing a social club for the Farm. The Superinten­ dent excused himself, and said he would join us in a few minutes. While waiting we watched a spirited game o f soft-ball between the prisoners and a team from Zamboanga City. The few guards present were helping the San Ramon outfit defeat the visiting Zamboangans. We wondered if maybe some o f that “ warm Sulu sunshine” didn’t reach this prison after all. After the meeting broke up we all had lunch on the lawn under the huge acacia trees while the prison orchestra played popular American tunes. During the meal, Super­ intendent Liwanag told us briefly the history o f the Farm. It was established by the Spanish government in the year 1870 as an experimental agricultural station to which political prisoners were exiled and employed in farm work. It was given the name o f its founder, General Ramon Blanco y Erenas o f the Spanish army, who was at that time the military commander o f Mindanao.

“ all prisoners are free to go where they like, except those who are in jail.” “ Beg pardon?” we stammered, thinking our ears were playing tricks. In explanation he led us to a small locked dormitory over the door o f which hung a neatly lettered sign reading, “ Prison Jail” . Inside sat two shame-faced men. Their legs were shackled and they wore grey and white striped suits. “ These men have been convicted o f petty crimes within the prison,” he said. “ W e must deal severely with men o f this type, lest they weaken the morale o f the other pri­ soners. They must wear shackles for the duration o f their ‘secondary sentence’ : but this is never more than three months. Very few commit any o f these offences twice. They can not stand the humiliation in front o f their fellow inmates.” At this point a trustee came up with a note for M r. Liwanag. The Superintendent was wanted in the office, so he turned us over to the trustee who had accompanied us, until he could return. Even on his “ day off” he is a busy man. Thinking this would be a good chance to get the other fellow’s” point o f view, we bombarded the trustee with questions. Living conditions, food, attitude o f the pri­ soners, chances for escape, etc. The kitchen door was just ahead o f us, so our bewildered trustee decided to answer the food question first. The cook was preparing a great pile o f chickens for supper, while off to one side was a large basket o f cabbages and another o f rice. “ W e have chicken two, sometimes three, times a week,” he said. “ Always rice, and plenty o f green vegetables. Never go without eggs for breakfast. Better chow than I had outside.” The chickens and eggs started him off on a long statisticpacked description o f San Ram on’s famous poultry farm. “ The most modern and scientific poultry farm outside the Americas,” he said proudly. “ Our twelve thousand chickens bring in better than f>20,000 a year. Why, people come from all over the East to study our methods.”

All this was verified by Mr. Liwanag when he joined us shortly after. He told us also how the poultry farm had, in less than four years time, come to be their second largest source o f revenue. Second only to the coconut plantation, which has, since the original Farm, been the chief source o f income. Some two-thirds o f the institution’s 1,525 hec­ tares o f land is devoted to the copra industry. Of the 7 5 ,0 0 0 trees, 4 5 ,0 0 0 are now bearing, and each year hun­ dreds o f new trees come into bearing. Their m odem steamdrier turns out around P60,000 worth o f copra each year. Other assets include a scientific pig farm, and many hec­ tares o f rice, corn, sugar cane, abaca, fruits, and vegetables. Every prisoner has the opportunity to learn a trade. Besides the raising o f various crops they may study and gain practical experience in cattle, swine, and poultry raising, fishing, road and bridge construction, lumbering, operation o f farm machinery, carpentry, blacksmithing plumbing, shoemaking, tailoring, soap manufacturing, salt making, copra and rope making, and many other occu­ pations that help them to go out into the world better equipped than they were on entering San Ramon. As we wandered about the institution’s huge acreage we saw the various industries mentioned working as smoothly as a well-oiled machine. The shops, mills, driers, and the individual farms: each a well organized and efficiently op­ erated unit. And over the whole an atmosphere, not o f a penal institution, but that o f a large, producing business concern. A concern in which the employees are treated as employees, not as inmates. W e visited the colonists in their neat little cottages under the palms. They are the “ employees” who have shown the greatest loyalty and fidelity to the “ concern” . For this they have been awarded certain privileges which are the goal o f all long-timers. They are given a house, and upon the recommendation o f the Superintendent and approval o f the Commonwealth President and the Bureau o f Prisons, their families are allowed to come to the Farm and live with them. The colonists are scattered about the plantation, some caring for a few hectares o f coconuts, some in*charge o f rice or corn mills, and others on small
( C on tin u ed on p a g e ISO)

In the Shadows I Think of Her
Conrado V. Pedroche |
young girl was taking a bath by a wide-mouthed well: she was naked, she was lovely, and her shoulders were smooth and brown and cool; she splashed a bucketful o f water over her head, and her hair tumbled darkly over her tiny breasts; her body glistening wetly under the bright summer sl*y. When she saw me she covered her nakedness with her small ineffectual hands and bared her white teeth in a snarl of defiance, her eyes gleaming with bright childish anger.



O N IG H T walking alone under the flowering trees, in the shadows Where is she now?—

I think o f her:

I whistle a tune and the silence rings with fluid echoes— Did her body ripen into fullness rich with promises o f affection? Is she waiting for a lover’s kiss in the moonlight, for her lover’s arms in the moonlight?— Is she happy? I have no way o f knowing. I shall never know.
14 ?

The “China Incident”
By Lin Yu
IG H TIN G in general was sporadic in| most of China last month, but toward the end o f the month and the beginning o f this month it assumed a more serious character, with the Chinese


gaining the upper hand. In Kwangsi the Chinese troops gradually pushed the Japanese back from Santang to Ertang and Tatang, i.e., ever nearer to Nanning. Early this month, it was revealed that this was only one o f the three routes along which the Chinese had been attacking the Japanese base, the other two routes being one from Wuming in the north and the other from Yamchow in the southeast. The Japanese, however, tried to create a diversion by sending a flying column westward from Nanning. But this ended in a debacle when the invading forces were defeated at Tsohsien. The Japanese in. Kwangtung continued their attempt to capture Wachow, a river port on the KwangtungKwangsi borders, from Samsui, half way between Wuchow and Canton. They were beaten back to their base, an new attempts resulted only in more defeats for the in­ vaders. The Japanese then landed troops once more at Shekki, near the mouth o f the Pearl River. From this place they next tried to cut off the Portuguese settlement o f M acao from its hinterland. In the eastern part o f t e province, the Japanese westward move based on Chaochow ended in a debacle, as they were chased back right up to the city wall. Later they made a |similar attempt to the north and northwest, which likewise ended in failure. Japanese operations in west Chekiang, too, resulted in reverses for them. In Kiangsi, the Chinese launched their attacks on Fengsin, which was regained this month. At the time o f writing the Chinese have been seriously con­ tending for Nanchang, the fallen capital of Kiangsi, while the Japanese conceded that they might evacuate the city. In Hunan province, Chinese attacks on the outer defences o f Yochow have barely begun, but Yanglouszu has already fallen into Chinese hands. In Anhwei province, Chinese guerillas suddenly made their appearance on the banks o f Yangtze and attacked a squadron o f sixty Japanese naval vessels. Taken by surprise, the Japanese offered practically no resistance and

the north. In [Shantung over 1,400 puppet troops deserted their Japanese masters, who also suffered heavy losses in the southern part o f the province. In Shansi fighting has been hard in the south, especially at Chuyo, Chianghsien, and Fengcheng. Early this month, the Chinese scored a decisive victory at Hsiahsien and attacked the invaders at Hukwan and Chishan. Wuyuan, one o f the Japanese bases in western Suiyuan, was regained by the Chinese, and the Japanese counter­ attack was smashed when their troops were ambushed at the foot o f the Ulah Mountains. Paotow, the western terminal o f the Peiping-Suiyuan Railway, too, was sur­ rounded by the Chinese. In short, the military situation is steadily growing worse for the Japanese. Their attacks have been everywhere beaten off, and the Chinese have been successful in defeating the Japanese Imperial Army on more than one front. More significant still was the announcement by the Japanese military spokesman in Shanghai to the effect that Japanese troops would evacuate Nanchang and Fengsin and Kiangsi and Macheng in Hupeh. This announcement was made when the Chinese had scarcely begun to attack the invaders in these cities. It may be taken as a definite move by the Japanese command in China to carry out the earlier decision that they would not go farther inland, but wait for the Chinese to counter-attack. This is further substantiated by their actions on many fronts where they set towns and cities on fire and then retreated, evidently in the hope o f retarding a Chinese advance. In other words, a definitely new phase o f the undeclared war has been reached: the invaders are now on the defensive. They hope thus to save their war machine and avoid complete wreckage. But this hope will not be realized any more than their earlier hope o f annihilating the main forces o f the Chinese army, for the simple reason that the Chinese will give them no rest. As for the Japanese announcement that they will now turn their attention to consolidating the occupied areas politically and economically, I need only point out that such a move was anticipated by the Chinese leaders the same group o f Chinese leaders who planned a war o f attrition to tire the Japanese out, which has succeeded— long before the Japanese made their announcement. Gen­ eral Pai Chung-hsi made an appeal to the Chinese nation to fight the Japanese politically, behind the fronts, weeks before the Japanese said they would turn their attention to politics in the occupied areas. The “ Nanking regime” was supposed to have authority over all the Japanese occupied area, but in less than a fortnight after its inauguration the “ Peiping regime” was as vociferous as ever in its criticism o f Wang Ching-wei. As to the economic phase o f the question, North China gives an illuminating answer. There the Japanese have
( C o n tin u ed on p a g e 148)

lost forty ships. The Japanese, from Chingshan, central Hupeh, attacked Hochiatien but were beaten back and beleaguered in their own base. At Hsiaochien and Lishan, too, the Japanese suffered defeats; at Chunghsiang they were attacked. Their attack on Yingcheng, northern part o f the province, ended in a retreat, and they announced that they would evacuate Macheng, east o f Yingcheng. In the southeast­ ern part o f the province Chinese soldiers wrested Paikuo and Yechiakeng from the hands of their enemies. In southern Honan, the Japanese launched an attack from Sinyang but were beaten back and fighting was carried to the suburbs o f the city. Chinese victories were also reported at Tungshu, central Honan, and at Shinyang in

The Higher Life
By Catuca
H A T do you do when you ’re having peo­ ple to dinner and the lavandera isn’t due to come with your clean tablecloths until the next day? D o you call up one o f your m ar­ ried sisters or sisters-in-law and ‘borrow from her? Suppose you have neither sisters nor sisters-inlaw, or they’re out o f town, or their tables are smaller than yours. You need a tablecloth in a hurry and have no way o f getting it. You can’t call up one o f your prospective guests and ask her to just bring her own linen when she


that tell the world that, they’re the property o f the laundry. W e’d rather have these towels any day than the nice colored ones that you can buy to con­ trast with or match your bathroom, your mood, or your complexion. They look very nice indeed, but after you ’ve used them and had .them laundered a few times, something happens to them. It must be the dye and the sun when they’re hung up to dry. Whatever the explanation is, colored towels stink 'after a while. It’s only the colored ones, even the best and most expensive o f them. Y ou can wear a white towel threadbare. N oth­ ing like it happens to them. Speaking o f towels reminds us o f those you get after a lau riat, steaming hot and steeped in strong smelling cologne. When you have let them cool a bit and unfold them with much danger to your fingertips, you find out that they have red bands near the ends that read a polite G ood M orn in g or G o o d L u ck , or a romantic K iss M e or I L ove Y ou . These are Chinese towels, imported by p a n citer ia s direct from China, but you can buy them in a downtown store. W e came across them one day. Before we forget, we must announce that the canary didn't hatch those first eggs we were talking about. But she laid another batch, and two o f them hatched. The little birds looked terrible the first few days, without a single feather on them and resembling little red lizards more than anything else. Now after a week, they are about four times their original size and are covered with down here and there, with the beginnings o f real feathers on their wings. Still, they’re no beauties yet, with their long skinny necks and legs. The ants are more o f a problem than ever, especially when there’s a bit o f mashed hardboiled egg-yolk for the little ones in the cage. The smell attracts them or some­ thing, and no matter how fast you kill them off, more come from only heaven knows where. As we m ay have said several times before, their bite is supposed to be fatal to full-grown canaries, let alone poor featherless little babiesIf you want to know how their mother feeds them, it’s like this. She eats some egg-yolk, birdseed and lettuce, drinks a little, pecks at the cuttlebone, and lets it all cook together inside her for a while. It doesn’t go down very far anyway, not quite down her throat. Then she shakes herself to be sure she doesn’t make the mistake o f entirely eating it. When she is ready, she wakes up her children. They raise their funny heads and their mouths open automatically. Mamma bends over to let them take it from her mouth u n tiljt’s all gone. H alf goes to one, half to*the other. When it’s over they go back to sleep, their transparent little gullets forming large green lumps because o f the lettuce.

Buying the cloth is out. So is borrowing from the neighbors because your mother doesn’t believe in it, no matter what nice people they are and how often you ex­ change neighborly offerings o f ice-cream, le c h o n , cake, and other things on holidays and birthdays. Y ou know what you can do? Call your laundry up. That s what a friend o f ours says they do at his house when they pull out the extra leaf on their dining room table and they haven’t a long tablecloth handy.

W e have been regular customers o f this laundry our­ selves for years, only we didn’t know about this special service o f theirs. They admit renting tablecloths for ten centavos, just as they rent hundreds o f towels out to schools, hotels, and clubs. It turns out that this linen-renting business is a flourishing one, but it thrives on hotel trade and not on an occasional call for help from a harrassed hostess. The laundry is willing to help you out once in a while, if it happens to have a few tablecloths left over after they’ve sent their regular customers their supply jor the week. They’re not interested in small home trade as a general rule. It costs you eight centavos to have a tablecloth o f your own laundered. If you can rent one for ten, there doesn’t seem to be any use buying your own. They wear out, they stain, and "they cost money. But don’t begin planning to buy no more cloths o f your own. I f you use just two or three each week, it can’t be done. Even the most oblig­ ing laundry can’t be expected to [deliver only ninety-eight clean cloths to their best hotel customers just to be able to give you your weekly supply o f two. The delivery o f your order will cost them more in transportation than the twenty centavos it will get them.

Anyway it’s nice to know that in a pine you can turn somewhere for help and get it if you ’re lucky. And it’s not just tablecloths either. They have napkins to match. Nice, big white ones, not fancy by any means, but then you wouldn’t lexpect embroidery or lace, considering the five centavos they rent for. For that matter no one com ­ plains because rented towels are plain white with red bands

Capitan Palmon and the Moro Pirates
By Beato A. de la Cruz
OR a long time piratical M oro fleets frequent­ ly raided the coast towns o f Panay, as they did other sections o f the Philippines, burning the houses and carrying off the villagers into slavery in the Morolands. It is said that at the close of the sixteenth century, the people o f Aklan finally brought all their silver together to cast a large bell to be rung in warning at sight o f the enemy boats, and so originated the legendary White Bell o f Aklan. After a time the bell was lost. The people threw it into the Aklan River on one occasion when they were making their escape from another plundering raid, and they could never find it again. With the Great White Bell lost, the M oros came more frequently and raided the region with more success. The people lived in constant terror and left their homes to hide in the nearby mountains and forests.


and soon there was no sound except that o f the trade wind rustling the branches of the trees and the occasional call o f a wild chicken. The pirate chief lay in a crude hammock made o f pliant reeds and vines, and his crew slept around him on matted leaves spread on the ground, their broad, snaky krises ready ,to hand. A lone wax light flickered from a post, near the sentinel. Capitan Palmon whispered his instructions to Pungapong “ When you see me striking down the sentinel” , he said “ run to the campfire and put it out” . “ Si, Senor,” said Pungapong. “ Then, when you hear me command, ‘Continue the slaughter! Kill! K ill!,’ make your way to thisj^tree as quickly as possible. S a b e?” Stealthily Capitan Palmon crept toward the sleepy guard from behind and killed him with one thrust o f his ta libon g. Like a flying spear, frail Pungapong rushed to the light and put it out, then, in the darkness that covered all, Ca­ pitan Palmon, with one studied swing, cut the ropes that held up the chief’s hammock. The pirate leader fell to the hard ground with a heavy thud, and Capitan Palmon’s voice rang out, loud and clear, “ Continue the slaughter! Kill! M y good men, kill!”
(C on tin u ed on p a g e 148)

One day, during those troubled years, one Capitan Palmon and a trusted follower, Pungapong, stood on the ridge o f a high hill and carefully surveyed the temporary encampment o f a large M oro raiding party below them on the beach, and when darkness began to fall the two silently stole toward it. They watched the ribaldries o f the dreaded pirates for some time until they ceased and only one hardy, dark-skinned M oro, chosen to stay on guard, remained awake. But he, too, began to nod, the fire died down,

---- ------ < « > »

Rose of Pampanga
By John H. Brown

If you could understand how I ’m obsessed, You would no longer play this sorry jest; Too long your slavish sweetheart you’ve oppressed; To all and sundry it is manifest The pure affection that he has professed Has never in the least degree progressed. ’Tis true, he lacks the courage to protest, He knows your mercy has been long recessed, Your cruelty can never be redressed; His suit again has further still regressed, The feelings of his heart he long repressed; The tender sentiments before he stressed, The many ordinances he transgressed, No power can ever from his bosom wrest. Of all the pleas he has to you addressed, Perhaps the present one will best attest The nature of the state of his unrest; At least, I think it should be so assessed. If it could but your pity once arrest And you of your antipathy divest, Perhaps you would no more so much detest The victim of your now complete conquest. If those charms nature did in you invest Continue your lorn lover fo molest, Though he repent to have so much digressed, These verses will to you be his bequest. As I have many times to you expressed When you were still my neighbor and my guest,


Y heart, of all that I might have possessed, X never could but always call you best.

M y life would lose its savor and its zest If you and I should never have our nest. If you were mine midst flood or fire or pest, I still would count myself among the blest. Should you invite me to some fatuous fest, I think I might decline the honor, lest ’Twere your intent to put me to the test And ascertain why I am still depressed. Dear Heart, forbear at my forlorn behest Your lover to upbraid in his still quest. Quite well you know it was to you confessed. Your young boy-friend is very much distressed, His inner heart-throbs you have never guessed; And what, think you, such feelings could suggest? Those dainty limbs, so fractionally dressed, That young and firm and smooth and still chaste breast, The satin cheek no lover yet caressed, Those rich ripe lips that never have been pressed, The cutest nose that ever mortal blest, Illumined eyes like to the glowing West, The noblest brow that ever bore a crest O f glorious curls by some M ax Factor dressed, An airy carriage none could yet contest, A face Saint Anthony to put to test, A form that could, by drapery though suppressed, The pulses quicken in an aged breast. Say, kid, I ’ve got a whole lot off my chest. Sometimes I wish that I had never messed With such a radiant gorgeous young darn pest; Then, cutie, I might have a little rest.

April, 1940






h e

BY ’ L
eag u e


h il ip p in e


r it e r s

----------- « m > —
nature and a im s

■ —

1. The Commonwealth Literary Award founded in 1939 by His Excellency, Manuel L. Quezon, President of the Philippines, amounts to a total of f 42,000 divided into three sets of prizes, H 4 ,0 0 0 to each set. One set is offered for works in English, another for Spanish, and a third for Tagalog. Each set is subdivided into seven prizes of ?2,000 each, one for the winning entry in each of the following contests: Novel, Short Story, Drama, Poetry, History, Biography, and Essay. 2. The Contests shall aim: (a) To give Filipino authors and writers that dignity and pres­ tige which come with adequate remuneration for work well done; (b ) To discover talent, reward genius and encourage those who have taken up writing as a life work, and raise the stand­ ards of writing in this country; To encourage creative works that record or interpret the contemporary scene, or that deal with the social and eco­ nomic problems of the indvidual and of society over and above those that are merely concerned with fantasy or mysticism or vain speculation.

6. A board of judges for each of the different contests will be ap­ pointed by the President of the Philippines upon recommendation of the Executive Committee of the Philippine Writers’ League. The decision of each board shall be final. Any prize may be withheld if, in the opinion of the board of judges, none of the entries deserves a prize. SPECIFIC RULES 1. N o vel .— M anuscripts must contain not less than 90,000 words. Novels with native characters, utilizing native settings, customs, tradi­ tions, etc., shall be preferred. 2. S H O R T S t o r y . — Manuscripts must contain not less than 50,000 words. The term “ short story” as used here shall include short stories proper, novelas, and tales based on folklore. Narratives with native characters utilizing native settings, customs, traditions, etc., shall be preferred. 3. POETRY.— Manuscripts must contain not less than one thousand lines. The entry may be a single poem or a collection of poems. 4. D r a m a .— M anuscripts must consist of at least one full-length three-act play, or three plays of less than three acts each. Plays with native characters, utilizing native settings, traditions, customs, etc., shall be preferred. From the prize of the winning entry, the Executive Committee of the League shall set aside the sum of P500.00 for a period of six months after the Award is made to be loaned to any company that shall offer to stage the play. In the event the offer of such a company is accepted by the Executive Committee, the loan shall be paid back to the author from the proceeds of the performance; provided, that the right of the author to any royalties on such performance shall in no wise be impaired. In the event no offer is made or accepted within such a period, the money thus set aside shall revert to the author. The Executive Committee of the League shall act as the agent of the author in transactions with third parties involving the making of the loan. 5. HISTORY.— Manuscripts may deal with one subject or may be a collection of histories of various subjects; provided that the entry shall contain not less than 90,000 words. The term “ history” as used here shall include not only a general history of the Philippines but also any historical discussion of some phase of its political, social, economic, cultural or spiritual development. Thus, a history of art, literature, science, or religion in the Philippines or any historical discussion of political, social, economic, cultural, or religious movements and trends shall fall under this classification. 6. B i o g r a p h y . — Manuscripts may deal with one subject or may consist of a collection of various biographical compositions, provided, that the entry shall contain not less than 75,000 words. There shall be no restrictions in the choice of subject; the biographies may be of obs­ cure as well as of famous persons, of the living as well as of the dead. The term “biography” as used here shall include biography proper, autobiography, and memoir. This contest does not affect the Boni­ facio contest which closes M ay 31, 1940, or any contest on the biogra­ phy of any National hero which may thereafter be conducted independ­ ently by the Government. 7. E SS A Y . — Manuscript must contain not less than 50,000 words. The term “ essay” as used here shall include both formal and informal essays, magazine or newspaper articles, criticisms, reviews, editorials or other forms of journalistic prose (except history and biography). All entries and inquiries concerning the contests must be addressed to the Commonwealth Literary Contests, Malacanan, Manila.



G E N E R A L RULES Only Filipino citizens, including those residing abroad, are eli­

gible to take part in the contests. 2. Writers may enter any or all of the contests and may submit as many manuscripts as they desire. Works must be original and may be published or unpublished. If published, only those which have been published within the twenty-four months immediately preceding the date of the closing of the contests for that year may be included; provided, that any work or any unit thereof, shall, once submitted to a contest, become ineligible for subsequent contests. No work which has already been entered and awarded a prize in a previous government contest shall be eligible for these contests. 3. The contests will be held yearly covering the period from Sep­ tember 15 of one year to September 15 of the next year. The Common­ wealth Literary Award will be distributed to the winners during the Commonwealth Anniversary Celebration on November 15 immediately following the date of the closing of the contests. The first contests, therefore, open on September 15, 1939, and close on September 15, 1940, and the Award will be distributed for the first time during the Commonwealth Anniversary Celebration on November 15, 1940. 4. Manuscripts must be typewritten double-space on one side of the paper only. Three copies of each manuscript or book shall be sub­ mitted, one copy to be retained permanently by the League. The en­ velope or cover of each entry shall be marked “Novel Contest,” “Poetry Contest,” etc., to indicate the contest in which it is entered. All entries shall bear the name and address of the author. The time and place of first publication shall be indicated at the bottom of each work or unit of any work already published. 5. The copyright on all winning entries, published or unpublished, shall be retained by the authors. In the event that the Government should publish any winning work, the author of the work published shall be entitled to such royalties as may be agreed upon between the Gov­ ernment and the author.




April, 1940

Capitan Palmon . . .
( C o n tin u ed fr o m p a g e 146)

The “ China Incident”
{C o n tin u ed fr o m page 144)

To the rudely awakened pirates, the cry sounded like the fierce command to an invisible horde o f enemies who had taken them by surprise. Up rose the fear-stricken Moros, their murderous krises in their grips, each in terror and fury striking and stabbing about him blindly. The sound o f swishing blades, o f crushing bones, o f stamping, furious feet, o f curses and groans filled the night. None could see another and so the pirates had fallen to killing each other, while the crafty Capitan Palmon and his trusted Pungapong stood beside the tree listening to the fierce confusion. Before dawn the M oros that escaped that bloody night had carried their dead to their waiting vintas, covered the gory ground with ashes, and sailed away, not wanting to let the natives o f the place know how greatly their number had been decreased.

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practically a free hand, with no interference from foreign interests. If they can not succeed there, they have no hope for success elsewhere. What Japan wants to get from North China is, first and foremost, raw materials. But because o f the domination o f the hinterland by Chinese guerillas, the export o f cotton and other raw materials last year amounted to very little. And their military notes as well as the notes o f their puppet reserve bank are backed by nothing but Japanese bayonets. On the Japanese home front, anti-war sentiment was said to be responsible for a big fire in one ammunition depot in Japan and another in Korea where several miles o f scorched earth replaced an arsenal valued at 1 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 yen. The refusal o f Foreign Minister Arita to answer in­ terpellations caused a riot in the Japanese Diet. The Japanese were reported to be infuriated by the new Amer­ ican loan o f $20,000,000. The Imperial Japanese Navy answered the American N avy’s announced maneuvers in the Western Pacific by calling maneuvers based on Formosa, thus pointing, as it were, its dagger at the Philippines, America’s base in the Far East. Finally the Japanese Diet obediently passed, at the behest o f the Army, the 10,000,000 yen budget. Which reminds me o f a nursery rime that if the big hand that is made up of all the hands in the world takes up the big axe that is made up o f all the axes in the world, and cuts the big tree that is made up o f all the trees in the world standing by the big pond that is made up o f all the water in the world, what a big splash it would make!

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M era lc o E lec tric ity C o s ts L e s s

A p ril, 1940




Aleph, the Car
( C on tin u ed fro m p a g e 139)




F art

M a d iso n , l a ., U . S . A •


once a week, as it were, beauty and pleasure not translatable into pesos and centavos. ourselves. For thirty minutes, or an hour, we have the enviable privilege o f being ourselves and with Somehow, since we had Aleph, it does not matter now if, as usual, we spend the rest o f the week hurrying, hurrying in a never-ending vicious circle of activity which on Sunday afternoons seem so futile, and even so ludicrous. let-up: know. M y husband used to complain to me when our crazy week-days did not have this blessed Sunday “ When shall we ever stop so that we can get I did not Now we have our beautiful afternoons o f real Once acquainted with each other and the children?”

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A pril, 1940

Prisoners Paradise
( C on tinu ed fro m p a g e 143)

The Silver-inlaid Chowpot
( C o n tin u ed fr o m p a g e 141)

individual farms, raising fruits and vegetables for prison consumption. During the first half o f each year, a detach­ ment o f sixteen colonists is stationed at a good fishing ground about five miles from the Farm to engage in fishing. These men, who work without an armed guard, furnish all the fish needed by the institution. Another group o f fifteen colonists is employed in cutting timber in the nearby forest. Their only guard is a ca p a ta z who is a colonist himself. On our way back from the poultry farm we stopped at the Recreation Hall for a cold lemonade. From our com ­ fortable chairs we watched the prisoners bowling and playing ping-pong. The on-lookers chatted about the games or the “ talky” now showing at the prison cinema. The place had a definite “ country club” atmosphere. When we finally returned to the administration building it was late. The sun was just slipping below the rim o f the Sulu Sea, and the sky was a gorgeous blaze o f color. In a few short hours we had come to realize that that same sun shone just as brightly and the tropical scenery was just as beautiful as it seemed on our way out from Zamboanga. We felt not a trace o f the anticipated “ gloom ” or “ depres­ sed feeling” . This was a “ different” prison.

But he did not feel free to speak to his father about this. Between them lay a strange reluctance to touch upon the personal side o f life. Hassan often noticed his father’s eyes dwell upon him, and wondered; yet he never ventured to bring up the subject and never once did it occur to him to make his mother a confident; her lap was never free from squalling babes, even now that he was growing to be a man. His was a great tribulation now. He had seen a girl, slim as the young nipa palm, fair as the morning sun. His thoughts were on that girl all the time. She had come to the village from another place and was staying at the Hadji’s house. He had seen her there, leaning against the doorpost, her hair flowing down her back; and then again he had seen her on the platform o f the house, winnowing rice whose fluffy particles settled around in a golden rain. What if he asked his father to take steps? speak to him on the very first occasion. He would

The monsoon had come and with it the roaring sea, the wild mounting waves that played with the fishermen’s vintas as with empty match-boxes. It was no longer pos­ sible to go out fishing o f nights; one had to resort to fishtraps in the shallow water above the village. That suited Hassan, for in so doing he had to pass the H adji’s house. From the platform, the slim curves o f the girl beckoned. There she stood, busy at winnowing or at rolling betel-leaf, and if her lips remained sealed, her eyes did not. The long, narrow sarong, knotted at the waist, and the loose, floating jacket above, became as flags that waved to him. A fire ran through Hassan at the mere thought o f the girl; but the hotter the fire, the colder the despair. He knew that, in spite o f all, she was as far beyond his reach as the sun on the horizon. Maidens who come to visit in villages do so with a purpose, and that she was destined to a youth other than jhimself was self-evident. And were she free, she could become his wife only with the approval o f her father, and how would he ever approve? He .such a poor fisherman’s son! No, he must forget her, tear her image from his thoughts. She was not meant for him. Some day, with a string of newly-caught fish and a setting hen, he would woo for a wife among the lowly maidens o f the village. For several days he avoided her; under various pretexts managed to stay at home. But on the third day he could stand it no longer. There she was, a young queen, the winnowing basket in her hands. He stood still in the middle o f the water-flushed road, peering at her, unable to tear himself away, maddened. She went on winnowing.
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It was late at night and they were drifting towards the more prolific fishing banks, the older man steering. The moon was still too bright, the fish too wide-awake to let themselves be caught. Over the quiet sea, numerous pin-points of lights twinkled on other vintas out for fish.

April, 1940




“ Father,” said Hassan suddenly, firmly gripping his paddle. “ Father, I am a man now. I want to take me a wife.” The father’s thoughts seemed as far away as the vintas out at sea; and Hassan spoke again, louder: “ Father, it’s time for me to take a wife.” There was another moment of silence, and then the older man said slowly: “ I know, son— I have been thinking about this for some time.” Hassan paddled on vigorously. “ I have already spoken to Mumbai about it, son. He says he knows a fine maiden for you .” “ I already know a maiden, Father.” “ What? Y ou know a maiden? Since when do the young folks have a say about their spouses?” Furiously the man gripped the rudder and the vinta swerved. “ I didn’t lay eyes on your mother till the Im a m removed the veil from her face. And now you . . . you . . . and who is the maiden you already know, brain o f a bat?” The vinta still rode unsteadily. “ She stays at the H adji’s house. She winnows rice. Every day she stands on the platform .. . ” “ That one! I ask you, son, do maidens stand on plat­ forms and show themselves, even when the wind blows strong? Good maidens?” But Hassan gave no heed to the implication. “ I am a good fisherman and she is a fine maiden. Every day she waits for me to pass.” “ Hmmmmm! How do you know it is you she waits for? There are others like you in the village. There’s Abdul and Kiu and Usman.” Sarcastically he went on: “ They are good, if not better men. How do you know she is waiting for you, son?”

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This time get the one that’s

“ I feel it, father.” “ Feel itl Reliable proof, feeling! D o you trust your feeling when you go to buy a sack of rice?” “ But a woman is not a sack o f rice, father.” “ And where is the difference? Doesn’t a man pay for a woman as he pays for a sack o f rice? Doesn t he? “ He does, father,” Hassan admitted. “ You need silver, son, and much o f it, too, from the looks of things. The Hadji doesn’t keep her for nothing.” There fell a pause and then he went on: “ I have no silver for you. I could not get any together, seeing that Heaven has sent me more children than, at times, fishes. The sixteenth, isn’t it, that your mother had just been brought low with? Hassan let the stream of words splash over him, unheeding. For a thought had come to him suddenly and was holding him. The silver-inlaid chowpot! The steering became steady again. “ I’ll see Mumbai again, son, as soon as we finish with this catch. H e’ll get you a wife, quite a good wife, and you’ll need no silver for her.” against his habit, Upao woke late that morning. The family must have gone down the beach for shell-fish already. Yes, there they were. The countless round, dark heads, bobbed up and down in the distance. Where was Hassan? Perhaps he had gone to town with the night’s catch. Slowly Upao took his morning ablutions, then went down to have a look at the vinta, under the platform, drying in the sun. The vinta wasn’ t there. Had it drifted away during the night? Had someone played a trick? Upao let his troubled gaze run among the stilts of the other houses standing half in the sea. No, nothing, nothing! Where was Hassan? A clammy sweat came upon him and he wiped his face with his head-cloth. Wnere was the vinta? Has­ san? He shouted, “ Hassan! Hassan!” Out at sea, the rest of the family, busy catching crabs, finally heard him and turned homeward without speed. But none knew where Hassan was. None had seen him or the vinta. Wasn’ t he at the house, the mother asked, incredulously, on a mat behind the door,-asleep? Upao rushed up the ladder that shook under his weight, broke into the room. Hassan was not there. Hassan was gone. And with him the silver-inlaid chowpot! That cherished memento o f days of grandeur, no longer stood on its stool; the mat that had covered it lay crumpled on the split-bamboo floor. Overcome, Upao sat down, moaning in distress and des­ pair. His wife followed suit and then the children fell in, clamoring, until, alarmed, the neighbors rushed in. No, they hadn’ t seen Hassan, nor the vinta; what could have happened? Perhaps the Hadji knew. There was a smile of satisfaction on the old H adji’s face when he strolled into the room later, and there was much more than satisfaction in his words to Upao, after the room had been cleared o f family and neighbors.


Q Tiie house was very still.

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“ Hassan has his girl now and they have gone up country with the vinta. A fine girl, my own niece, U pao.” The fisherman raised his head, and to his question, unformulated, came the answer at once: “ The chowpot? I told you long ago I’d get it.”

April. 1940




Four O’Clock
In the Editor’s Office

system Hitler is seeking to establish and the civilizations of which Britain and France are leaders, then no reader of this Magazine can have any doubt as to the attitude of its editor.


Maximo Ramos wrote me from Dansalan, Lanao, “ I join those who have been cheering for you in saying such brave things in the editorial columns of your own magazine. I trust that your British advertisers The article by Wilbur Burton entitled “ Latin will have the broadmindedness to keep up their advertising in spite j America in a Warring World” takes on added of what you have said about some of their present leaders. It is prob­ interest in view of the projected visit of Pre­ ably not the privilege of every advertiser to support a straight and sident Manuel L. Quezon to Central and South fearless editor. . . . ” M y thanks to friend Ramos. America this summer. M r. Burton, a roving A letter from the Rev. Father F. A. van der Linden, Director of the Catholic Parochial School of Saint Catherine, Leon, Iloilo, runs: “ The undersigned is a subscriber to your Philippine Magazine. I intend to have it bound, but find that some issues are missing. Perhaps you have some old copies. Could you please supply me with the following issues— January, 1938, and January and February 1939? I take this opportunity to inform you that I will continue to subscribe to your Magazine, so please continue to send it. Just inform me when it ex­ pires and I will renew my subscription.” John H. Brown, author of the sixty-line “ poem” all ending in “ essed” , presents a case of the rhymer rampant. Even his letter to me is in rhyme: “ On many newsstand racks, I note the sheen of your wellprinted, sprightly magazine. Though other publications may be droller, you seem to have no lack of local color. I wonder, when each issue you prepare, if you insist on native atmosphere; or can you use inconsequential stuff; or are your archives stocked full well enough? Belonging to the versifying tribe, I ’ve got a brand-new poem to trans­ cribe. I thought, when you this plaintive piece had seen, you might accept it for your magazine. W ith some degree of modest trepidation, I send you here my new expostulation (as I now desiccate this latest frasco with my cute Dulcinea de Tabasco). Rather than rant and

journalist whose work gets into leading news­ papers and magazines, is at present in Shanghai. Mrs. Anne J. Broad, of Zamboanga, wrote me in a letter that the story, “ The Silver-inlaid Chowpot” , is one that she had long wanted to write, adding “ it is an almost authentic story” . She is still at work on a novel dealing with life on a coconut plantation in Zamboanga Province, “ Brown Harvest.” W . S. Boston is an old-timer in the Philippines, former soldier, building contractor, and mining man. His article on the great Ifugao rice-terraces in the Mountain Province is written from the point of view of a man who considers what a job it would be to duplicate the feat of building them. N . V. M . Gonzalez, author of the short story, “ The Baby” , is now connected with the Philippine F o to New s. An English friend of mine, a prominent business man in Manila, wrote me, with reference to the editorial on the European war in the March issue, that he is of the opinion England is not fighting an impe­ rialist war, but is fighting for life— “ a condition which makes all this desire for a definition of peace terms seem a theoretical luxury at this stage, at least to me and, I sincerely believe, to the average man in the streets of England and France today” . He sent me also a recent issue of the London S p ecta tor which contained a naturally critical article on the general American attitude toward the war. As X try to point out in an editorial in this issue, I believe that it is a fact that imperialist wars are, under present conditions, wars for life, for ex­ istence. Faced with ultimate realities, horror and death, the very idea of the “ neutrality” of other people is abhorrent. No regular reader of this Magazine can be in any doubt as to my attitude toward Hitler and the system he stands for. Among Manila editors I have from the beginning been probably his most outspoken attacker for years. M y cri­ ticism of the Conservative leaders of England was based precisely on the support in the past given Hitler. These leaders, while professing democracy, did their best in various devious ways to build up the fascist states and did time and again throw Britain’s weight behind Hitler with the idea that he would be an ally and would do their fighting for them. As they should have known would happen, Hitler did not prove the willing instrument they hoped for. Shortsightedly, these leaders of the Brit­ ish Conservative Party have gotten the world in a hell of a mess, [and I have written the editorials X have because I think they should be convicted of it. I can not believe that the very men who are chiefly responsible for the present state of Europe are the men who can now save the situation. I have never editorially attacked England or the British Empire. I sincerely believe that an actual military defeat of the Allies would be a terrible set-back to world civilization. I have criticized Chamberlain because he plainly sacrificed Britain’s imperial interests to what he considers the interests of his class. I am still dubious about his war-aims. But if it comes to a real war between the

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A pril, 1940

rave and damn at her, I reprimand her in the good pentameter. It’s not at all the worst that I have done since I began to put words one to one. It’s very different from other rhymes; I use the same sonance just sixty times. I ’m writing on an old, well-seasoned theme all rhymsters always held in large esteem since this old clod began its giddy whirl— the pestiness of one lean-muscled girl. . . . And so, no more just now until the day when you may feel you find it fit to say if you can use this tender, tuneful lay, and also if it merits any pay.” Wayne Coy, Assistant Administrator, Federal Security Agency, Washington, D .C ., now, happily, back in his office, recovered from his long illness, wrote me in part: “ I am very much interested in news from the Philippines. I am somewhat surprised by the definite state­ ments carried in the press indicating that Philippine political leaders will not tolerate anything short of complete independence. The way was open for them to reconsider the whole question and at the same time assume they could have complete independence in 1946 unless they themselves sought a change. Their present statements seem to be closing the doors to a possible reconsideration of any of the issues in­ volved. I think it is most unfortunate. However, I am not informed as to the political opinion in the Philippines. The leaders may feel they have to have ‘Independence’ as an issue in order to control the 1941 election. I have not heard much about the refugee program in the Philippines. I was particularly interested in a rather sizeable settlement in Mindanao. It seemed to offer some possibility of success.. . . ” I received a printed three-page questionaire the other day from a young woman student who is working for a Ph.D. and is writing a thesis entitled: “ The Psychology of Senescent Emotions” . That being the subject, of course she had to send me one of her questionaires! It includes such questions as the following: “ When did you experience real happiness, in youth or in old age?” “ Do you fear the thought of death?” “ Did you fear the thought of death in the past?” “ Do you believe it possible for persons beyond fifty to fall in love?” “ Have your ideals changed since you were twenty-five?” “ Do you consider the youth of today retrograde?” “ Are you more religious than in the past?”

“ When did you experience the most vehement feelings, in youth or in maturity?” “ Do the voices of children irritate you?” “ Did they irritate you in the past?” “ Are you more ambitious now than you were before forty?” “ What do you consider the best compensation of old age?” “ Would you like to live over 100 years?” “ How do you expect or plan to spend the last days of your life?” “ A t what age did life really start for you?” “ Do you feel old now?” “ Did you feel old in your teens?” “Would you like to be a youth again?” “D o you enjoy attending social gatherings?” “ Do you choose to associate with very young people?” “ Do you forget easily?” “ Do you believe old age brings about more heightened interest in one’s facial expression?” “ Are you contented with your lot?” “ Do you still dream dreams of greatness?” “ If death should draw near you, would you resign yourself to it, or would you fight against it?” “ Do you get enthusiastic over a thrilling game like basketball or baseball?” “ Do you lose your temper easily? "D o you feel your task in life has been completed?” “ Have you ever despaired? When, if so?” “ Have you realized your life-long dreams?” “ Do you feel you are a burden on your family?” “ Are you embittered against the opposite sex?” “ Are you beset by any regret or remorse?” “ Would you like to live life all over again after death? If so, what for?” “ How could one make his old age happy?” To tell the truth, I just itched to answer those questions and many more like them in the questionaire, but as, definitely, it had been sent to the wrong address, I feared my answers might muddy the waters of science, so, with a strong effort of will, I desisted.



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April, 1940



national interests. F or past 6 m onths there has been no change in our relations with Russia.” M a r. 1.— Y o m iu r i S h im b u n states Russia has announced 100 submarines and 12 torp ed o boats will be stationed at V ladivostok and this is m atter o f serious concern to Japan. C onservative Helsinki U usi S u o m i publishes dispatches from its M oscow correspondent stating that Am erican Am bas. L. Steinhardt is attem pting to negotiate peace. W elles is given big welcom e in Berlin. In con­ ference with Foreign M inister J. vo n R ibbentrop, latter is understood to have said G erm any is not prepared even to discuss peace until B ritain’ s “ strangle-hold on econom ic life o f w orld” is broken; Ger­ m any must stick to autarchy as long as B ritain con ­ trols German overseas lanes; so long as Britain holds Gibraltar and Suez, there is no security for rest o f w orld; Germ any took C zechoslovakia and Poland because Anglo-French allies tried to use these areas as operating bases against Germany. U nder-Secretary o f State for Indian Affairs an­ nounces in C om m ons that governm ent is rushing plans for m odernizing India’ s armed forces and that £34,000,000, one-fourth o f which is to b e treated as loan to India, has been set aside t o m eet costs; go v ­ ernment proposes that Indian budget should provide for first normal cost o f India’ s pre-war force, and in addition costs o f special defense measures undertaken b y India in Indian interested during w ar; expendi­ tures for troops em ployed outside o f India, however, will be born b y Britain. E xecutive com m ittee o f Indian N ationalist Congress passes resolution stating com plete independence should be Ind ia’ s goal, that Indian freedom can n ot exist with in orbit^ o f British imperialism and that disobedience cam paign should b e instituted in p rotest against British refusal to grant im m ediate political freedom it recomm ends that Congress in plenary session ad op t resolution disapproving British declaration o f India as belli* gerent nation and dissociating India from European war “ which is being carried on for British imperial­ ist purposes” . M a r. 2 .— “Inform ed Berlin sources state that H it­ ler in conference with W elles told him peace must com e on basis o f status q u o as regards Bohem iaM oravia, Slovakia, Poland, and H ungary, freedom o f seas, guarantees that B ritain and France will not stir up trouble in Balkan and Scandinavian countries, and return o f German colonies; also that im prove­ m ent o f relations with U nited States is very desirable b u t that this is im possible so long as W ashington declines to name ambassador to Berlin; said t o have stated U nited States is n ot following strictly neutral course and that B ritain and n ot Germ any is m enac­ ing neutral countries and Germ any is on ly fighting to release world from B ritain’s “ imperialistic grip” . Chancellor o f Exchequer Sir John Sim on states in radiocast that B ritain’s aim is “ destruction o f H itlerism o” and points ou t that world knows from lips o f German leaders themselves that their ob ject

News Summary
( C o n tin u e d f r o m p a g e 129) supplies reaching Britain. Sweden form ally aban­ dons the gold standard and institutes foreign ex­ change control. Contradicting German announcem ent that 496 ships (1,800,000 tons) have been sunk since war began, French Adm iralty states losses up t o Feb­ ruary 20 total 312 ships (1,064,000 tons) o f which 157 (590,000) were British, 14 (66,000) French, and 141 (408,000) neutral. Semi-official Paris source states “ N o m ediation or peace offensive, whatever its patronage, could b e m ade with any chance o f success; having assumed all responsibility for con­ flict which has been imposed on them , France and Britain intend to remain masters o f their decision” . W elles has one-hour conference with Italian Forign Minister G . Ciano and later delivers signed mes­ sage from President R oosevelt to Premier Benito Mussolino. After call on Ciano, Welles received surprise visit from British Ambassador. Italian press at first alm ost ignored W elles visit but is now displaying lively interest, apparently believing it m ay have greater potentialities than first believed. Rum ania announces increase o f freight rates, m ostly on exports consigned to Germany. F e b . 27.— J a p a n T im e s warns France against pressing question o f Japanese occupation o f Spratley Islands and Hainan as former have been declared under jurisdiction as part o f Im perial territory and occupation o f latter was dictated b y m ilitary need; “ France with war in E urope on its hands, is not in position to raise issue.” Finns abandon K oiv isto Island, southern anchor o f Mannerheim line. H ea vy fighting reported 50 miles south o f Petsam o, Finnish arctic p ort captured b y Russians at outset o f war. S oviet Council o f K iev M ilitary D istrict is message to R ed A rm y and N a v y states S oviet U nion can n ot remain indiffer­ ent to foreign aid and encouragem ent to Finland “ British and French militarists are trying to plunge all hum anity into war and were the ones w ho incited Finland against Soviet U nion” . T a ylor is received b y Pope and delivers message from President R oosevelt; visit was m arked b y no form al presentation o f credentials or exchange o f speeches. R um ania reported t o have signed secret agreement with France under which latter will supply large numbers o f war planes, m achine guns, etc. F e b . 2 8 .— Finns evacuate all towns along Vipuri B a y for 25 miles back from coast; in Petsam o region they fall back t o N autsi and also withdraw from H oeyhenjaervi, near Norwegian border. Finnish Air Bureau, L ondon , announces that K erm it R oose­ velt, son o f form er President Theodore R oosevelt, has been appointed com m ander o f British volun­ teers in Finland, having resigned his com m ission in British arm y. R eported Germ any is building five 35,000-ton

battleships, at least tw o 10,000-ton aircraft carriers, and other smaller naval craft. Churchill announces 5 m odern battleships will soon reenforce n a vy and hints Britain m ay adopt sterner attitude toward E urope’s neutrals in order to tighten blockade o f Germany. Prime Minister Edouard Daladier discloses Japan has apologized to France for recent bom bing o f Indo-C hina-Yunnan railway and prom ised to indem ­ n ify French victim s. Welles states letter he brought to Mussolini was “ m erely letter o f presentation which contained greet­ ings from President R oosevelt” . Virginio G ay da, M ussolini spokesman, states Danubian as well as M editerranean waters are key to Italian security and that war in Balkans would be impossible for Italy to stay ou t of. H e indicates W elles visit m ay p ro­ vide foundation for new peace m ovem ent at some distant date. R um ania reported receiving bom bing and fighting planes and other war material b oth from Germ any and France. R eported Germ any has offered to guarantee R um anian border against attack in return for increased shipments o f oil, wheat, and other supplies. R eported T urkey has wirelessed order to all T u rk ­ ish ships in foreign waters to return. F e b . 29 .— British cruiser o ff Y okoham a surrenders to Japanese authorities 9 o f German prisoners taken from A sa m a M a ru . Daladier in interview with Osaka M a in ic h i reveals possibility o f com plete re­ orientation o f French Far Eastern p olicy, stating France is prepared to open negotiations envisaging recognition o f M anchukuo and stating also that France agrees Indo-C hina-Yunnan railway should not be used to ship war supplies to China though it is n ot ready to accept Japan’ s broad definition o f what should b e considered contraband. Pravda states that Sebastopol, Soviet B lack Sea naval base has been m ade impregnable fortress upon which any invasion would founder. K oh t states N orw ay’ s attitude to Russo-Finn war is similar t o that o f Sweden. “ I t is historical fa ct that Russia never m ade any demands whatever on N orw a y” . Propaganda M inister J. Goebels states in speech, “ German people know well this conflict is m atter o f life and death; to yield is no longer possible” . Ger­ m an press denies H itler is prepared to offer peace program and states that as Germ any is fighting de­ fensive war against aggression, it is not up to Ger­ m any to m ake peace until British Empire is de­ stroyed. D aladier decrees wartime rationing o f fo o d on card system . Turkish Prim e M inister R . Say dam states in radio­ cast that “ after intensive preparation for past 12 m onths, T urkey is ready for whatever com es, but rumors that it is preparing for defensive and offensive m oves against Russia is entirely baseless. W hether we enter war will be decided only upon basis o f our

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is to extend bounds o f N azi dom inion; he appeals to neutral nations in same terms as Churchill and C ham ­ berlain. British governm ent extends contraband control to German coal being shipped to Italy via H olland. Jews in Jerusalem, T el-a-V iv, and Haifa stage dem onstrations against announced British policy that sale o f certain Palestine lands to Jews would be restricted. M a r. 3. — W elles confers with Field M arshal H. von Goering twice and also with R u d o lf Hess, H it­ ler’ s D epu ty. Berlin com m unique states that during 6 m onths o f war it has lost only 11 U -boats, one “ pocket-battleship” , 2 destroyers, 6 smaller craft, 35 war planes, and that 43 other planes were lost as result o f accidents on return flights. D . N . B ., German news-agency, states that “ conscious o f fa ct that Germ any can not be conquered m ilitarily or econom ically, it looks forward jo y fu lly to conclusion o f war along with other European people and ex­ pects sensible conclusion will establish freedom o f seas and give Germ any living space.” F r a n k fu r te r Z e i t u n g states “ Germ any’s new E urope would work in cooperation with U nited States; talk o f German m enace is hum bug; Germ any neither wishes nor is able to conquer w orld” . Belgium lodges strong protest against German bom bing plane which, violating border and encircled b y 3 Belgian planes, opened heavy fire and shot down one o f them , killing pilot, damaging other 2 planes, and then escaped. London officials state Britain will contend that Italy already has been given ample tim e to obtain coal from other sources than Germ any, such as Bri­ tain, Belgium, and United States- S. S. Da m a la (8441 tons) carrying 143 British and Indian subjects released b y Germany, is bom bed in English Channel, 88 Indians and 20 others being reported missing or dead. L ondon police arrest num ber o f men and wom en in H yde Park selling pamphlets and making speeches, charging them under P ublic Order A ct. M a r. 4 . — Russian com m unique describes alleged Russian atrocities as fantastic and false and denies air attacks on civilian populations; states also that R ed A rm y is too strong to need poison gas, use o f which it considers immoral and criminal. Germ any apologizes and prom ises indem nity for Belgian air incident, stating that German plane was flying over what he believed was French territory and thought he was attacked b y French planes. U n ite d P ress reports from Basle, Switzerland, where Welles arrived on w ay to Paris, that he carries no hopes for peace concessions from Germ any b u t gain­ ed impression that German leaders and people are resigned to long struggle; also that there m ay b e a b litz k r ie g b y German air force this spring. Daladier has ordered 10,000 footballs to be sent to French troops in front, according to com m unique issued from his office. Italy informs Britain that blockade o f shipments o f coal from Germ any endangers econom ic and p olit­ ical relations o f R om e with London, declaring^ that Britain knows that coal in question meets indis­



April, 1940
ceases to fraternize with com m unists and abandons his war resistance, then door to peace negotiations will not be closed to him ” . He expresses confidence Japan will carry ou t its prom ise to respect C hina’s sovereignty and independence. Vipuri reported still unoccupied because Russians d o n ot care to occu p y ruined city b u t prefer to fur­ ther weaken Finn resistance at m ore vital points. Copenhagen report states that German, Swedish, Finn, and Russian officials are negotiating a t S tock­ holm for R usso-Finn peace. S tockholm dispatch states Russia has sent ultim atum to Finland dem and­ ing cession o f Karelian Isthm us, northern Lapland territory, and area northeast o f Lake Ladoga. L o n ­ don diplom atic circles state Sweden between a week and fortnight ago com m unicated to Helsinki terms under which Russia was prepared t o terminate hos­ tilities. German press com m ents sarcastically on S. S. Q u e e n E liz a b e th taking refuge in N ew Y o rk , ask­ ing whether England does n ot still rule seas. Welles confers for nearly 2 hours with Daladier and for an hour with President Albert Lebrun; inform ed circles declare they emphasized that peace is impossible until P oland and Czechoslovakia are liberated. A m bas. J. K ennedy states in L ondon that desire to keep out o f war is “ definitely stronger” in United States now than before and this feeling has been strengthened b y stopping o f American ships and exam ination o f m ails); he states talk o f United States getting lot o f m oney out o f war is nonsense and that there is serious dislocation o f business and trade. M inister o f Air Sir Kingsley W ood states in C om ­ mons that Anglo-French supply o f new planes now exceeds G erm any’ s. Stated that British recon­ naissance flights have reached as far as Poland; British pilots recently claim ed to have flown over Berlin. During past 24 hours, 8 m ore Italian col­ liers have arrived at Dow ns, bringing total in past 48 hours to 16. M a r. 8 . — Japanese troops make surprise landing at N am tao for drive to Shum chun across border from H ongkong Leased Territories; Shum chun was occupied first ju st before outbreak o f European war, but following negotiations with H ongkong authorities, Japanese withdrew. Inform ed L ondon circles affirm that some sort o f negotiations under Swedish supervision are progres­ sing betw een Russia and Finland and state United States m ay possibly b e invited to assist. British governm ent unexpectedly speeds up m obilization by calling 250,000 reserves, aged 23, to colors; new class, aged 24, totalling 300,000, will register tom orrow. W elles confers with Foreign M inister G . B onnett, former Prem ier L eon Blum , and other French offi­ cials. Said he was told Germ any m ust be crushed. M a r. 9 .—-Reported from Stockho'm that Finn delegation is now in M oscow and indications are that peace m ove came from Russia and not Sweden though Germ any is regarded as real behind-scenes m ediator.

pensable need in life and labor o f Italian people; note further strikes a t British contraband con trol gen­ erally as m anifestly abusive, requiring onerous and excessive docum entation not com patible with normal secrecy in com m ercial deals, and charges that inter­ ception o f m ails on high seas is violation o f 1907 Hague C onvention. Five Italian cargo ships carry­ ing 30,000 tons o f German coal leave R otterdam for Italy. British Foreign Office states Italian protest will b e given imm ediate and careful consideration and that effort will be m ade to be as accom m odating as possible. L ondon reports tell o f heavy con cen­ tration o f A frican troops in Kenya, next d oor to Italian Ethiopia. M a r. 5. — Japan’ s China Fleet announces largescale offensive on Hainan where Chinese guerillas are alleged t o b e increasingly active; observers be­ lieve m ove intended to bring pressure on France during trade treaty negotiations now in progress. R eported from London that 2 o f Italian coal ships have been detained b y British authorities. Vatican quarters state that H oly See has inform ed Italian governm ent the V atican’s diplom ats are at Ita ly ’ s disposal t o resolve Italo-B ritish dispute am icably. M a r. 6. — Japanese land troops at H eungchan to cu t highway from Shekki to M a ca o over which C hi­ nese have been receiving supplies. W elles states a t Lausanne, Switzerland, that he will n ot reveal to allied officials details o f his con ­ versations with M ussolini and H itler. H igh French officials express determ ination t o carry out war aims and prevent establishment o f German hegem ony; press reports states they appear unconvinced that Germ any will attack and anyw ay have confidence in French defenses and aviation. Chamberlain tells C om m ons that governm ent has decided n ot to publish announced Blue B ook on pre-war A nglo-F rench-Soviet negotiations, the g o v ­ ernment “ having changed its mind in light o f general considerations” . Sir Andrew Duncan, President o f B oard o f T rade, announces governm ent will not reduce war-risk insurance and expresses opinion Germ any m ay attack England b y air sometime this m onth. T otal o f 9 Italian coal ships now at T he Dow ns contraband control station, together with one Italian tanker; four m ore Italian coal ships are ex­ pected to sail from R otterdam today. R om e sources state seizure o f colliers renders dispute acute as ships were loaded before M arch 1 when coal blockade was announced, and were delayed b y bad weather, Ita ­ lian authorities considering that British tacitly un­ derstood they were not liable to seizure. M a r. 7 . — Foreign Office spokesman states new American loan to China on eve o f establishment o f W ang Ching-wei regime is “ unfriendly act, highly undesirable” . Lower H ouse in secret session votes to expel Saito w ho recently denounced Japan’s China p olicy. W ang tells A s s o c ia te d P ress his “ peace negotiations” with Japan have reached p oint where it can be announced new central governm ent will be inaugurated within week. “ I f Chiang Kai-shek

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Russian governm ent orders m obilization o f all ablebodied men in N orth Russia to age o f 35. Intense diplom atic a ctivity reported centering abou t Am er­ ican Em bassy and Swedish Legation in M oscow . Berlin press charges allies with planning to demand right to march tfroops through Sweden and N orw ay to help Finland, thereby bringing all northern E u ­ rope into conflict. London officials are silent, but reported it is apparent in high quarters that Britain does n o t # want Finnish surrender. British press demands increased allied aid if Russian terms prove unacceptable or unreasonable. Semi-official Paris sources state Finland can cou nt on France’s unre­ served support continuing. Paris press states France will send expeditionary force if Finland gives the word. R om e press charges allies with attem pting to prevent Russo-Finn armistice. R ibbentrop ar­ rives in R om e and Vatican announces P op e will give him audience tom orrow. French Finance M inister announces Welles sub­ m itted m emorandum outlining United States trade policy and requiring post-war elimination o f barriers to international com m erce such as British and French have adopted in connection with current war; M i­ nistry states American stipulation is “ highly a ccept­ able” to France. French Foreign Office states that extension o f present Anglo-French alliance into post-war “ Pan-European U nion” is contem plated to form nucleus o f cooperative international organ­ ization. Mahatm a Gandhi states he can n ot and will n ot start mass civil disobedience so long as he is not convinced there is enough discipline and will to non­ violence in Indian ranks. M a r. 10 .— Russian capture foothold on north­ west shore o f Vipuri B a y after driving out, b y heavy thrusts over the ice, Finn forces concentrated in number o f islands guarding the shore line. Stated in Berlin that Germ any and Scandinavian countries would b e ready join tly to guarantee Finland’s inde­ pendence. H itler in speech com m em orating war dead, praises the soldier and declares “ unity o f German people is founded in blood, rising above class and occupation W orld wants our destruction. Our answer is new pledge to defend greatest com m unity o f all tim es” . He states for 15 years he has been prepared to give his hand to world for fair agreement, but world refused . . . “ I have all m y life maintained aim either to secure rights o f m y nation b y peaceful means or, if necessary, b y force . . . . On this day we solemnly swear that this war, forced upon us b y capitalistic rulers o f France and England, will be converted into m ost glorious victory in German history” . _ Stated in Berlin that R ib b en trop ’s visit to R om e is to bring answers to certain questions put b y Welles which were left unanswered in Berlin, for M ussolini to con vey to W elles on his return to R om e. R eported from L ondon that Britain over fortnight ago refused to com m unicate to Finland Russian peace terms as to o stiff and that France agreeing with British governm ent, Russia then approached Sweden for purpose. R eported also that 10 days ago, Britain inquired o f Sweden and N orw ay regard­ ing transit o f allied troops and that reply was this would be com plete violation o f their neutrality and would be resisted. R eported from London that considerable skepticism exists there with respect to Welles mission although British officials will be happy to talk with him . U n ite d P ress reports that L ondon business circles are uneasy because o f rumors that Welles “ will stake out United States claim to participate in econom ic aspects o f peace settlement” . Welles will learn that British leaders are preparing for at least 3-year war, despite prospects o f RussoFinn peace which will probably deprive allies o f chance to crush Germ any and Russia together. Mussolini receives R ibbentrop. G a y da, Mussolini m outhpiece, states that in event o f 11th hour help to Finland b y allies, it is impossible to see how such intervention could spare N orw ay and Sweden and not provoke retaliation from both Russia and G er­ many; any British and French intervention would mean deliberate spreading o f conflict” . M a r. 11 .— V iscount H . K ano, manager o f London branch o f Yokoham a Specie Bank, states after estab­ lishment o f W ang regime, both exports and imports will be com pletely controlled and British and Am er­ ican traders will n ot be perm itted to continue free trading; “ they forget that in almost every country in world except United States, trade is controlled and that Shanghai has been sphere o f unusual free­ dom ” . Paris L ’ O e u v re states non-aggression p a ct is being negotiated between Russia and Japan under aegis o f Germany. Trial o f J. R . Y ou ng, American newspaper man, opens in T o k y o ; trial is secret but wife and representative o f U. S. Em bassy are present. Finn delegation headed b y Premier R . R y ti re­ ported to have reached M oscow . S tockholm dis­ patch states peace within 24 hours is likely. Chamberlain states in C om m ons that Britain and France have inform ed Finn governm ent that they are prepared in response to appeal for further aid to proceed im m ediately to help Finland with all resources at their disposal. H e states help already sent has been considerable. In response to inquiry, he declares: “ I t w ould n ot b e true to say British government had been asked t o mediate, but there was an occasion when Russian Ambassador m en­ tioned certain terms which Russian governm ent was prepared to offer Finland and British governm ent did not feel able to pass these terms on to Finland” . T o Laborite question whether offer o f increased help to Finland is not tantam ount to going to war with Russia, Chamberlain answers: “ I t has n ot gone as far as that y et.” Asked if governm ent is prepared to violate neutrality o f N orw ay in sending troops, he answers he can not add anything to statement made. He announces that agreement with Italy was reached on 9th; “ as it appeared that Italian order for some vessels in question to sail after M arch 1 in spite of British control announcem ent, was based on mis­ understanding, British governm ent, recognizing this, has agreed to release ships and cargoes; Italy agreed



Ladoga including cities o f Kagsgolm and Sortavala, territory north o f M erkiijaerva and K uoliarvia and number o f islands in G u lf o f Finland; b oth countries pledge non-aggression against each other and prom ­ ise not t o conclude any alliance or participate in eolations against the other; Finnish republic will lease peninsula o f H angoe 3 miles west and north o f H angoe with all islands situated in this area, against yearly paym ent o f 8,000,000 Finnish marks, and agrees to establishment there o f S oviet m ilitary base; Russia agrees to withdraw all its troops from Petsam o area, b u t Russia and its citizens are to have right o f free transit through region into N orw ay and b ack and right to establish consulate there; Finland agrees to grant territory for construction o f new railroad to be built jo in tly betw een Kandalashka and K em ijarvi; new trade treaty will b e negotiated; treaty comes into force a t once and m ust b e ratified im m ediately; exchange o f ratification notes m ust take place not later than within ten days. B ritish Foreign Office states that offers o f in­ creased assistance to Finland began to be m ade well before start o f peace negotiations, b u t that no reply was received from Finland. R . H . Cross, M inister o f E conom ic W arfare, announces that B ritain is considering establishment o f contraband control station in Far East in view o f increased shipments to Germ any through V ladivostok. W elles confers w ith opposition leaders; also with Simon and C hurch­ ill. Officials reported to be trying to impress him that protests against interference with shipping and mails are illogical and unfair because prom pted b y war necessity and because Britain is fighting for principle for which America stands— w orld dem o­ cracy. Daladier tells Deputies 50,000 troops are prepared to proceed to Finland.

that Italian coal ships now in p o rt would leave in ballast and no other ships would be sent. Other sources state Italy agreed t o double its coal pur­ chases from Britain. Welles calls on K ing George V I and later holds conversations with Chamberlain and H alifax; “ re­ liably reported” he warned that interference with U . S. mails and shipping were having adverse effect on American sym pathy for allies and also emphasized W ashington’s vital interest in econom ic conditions established after war. British press carries ed ito­ rials claiming that i f United States entered war now , N azi regime would collapse before summer. R ibbentrop is received b y K ing V ictor Emm anuel and later b y Pope. M a r. 12 .— Sir Stafford Cripps, liberal m em ber o f Parliament, states in Shanghai on return from C hung­ king and after trip through Russia that “ England m ade mistake in not allying itself with Russia; there would have been n o war if it had” . He states B ri­ tain could afford show-down in Far East and would not necessarily lose H ongkong in such event. Representatives o f Russia and Finland sign peace treaty opening with paragraph: “ T he Presidium o f the Supreme Soviet and the President o f Finnish R epublic, led b y desire to cease war operations and to create strong and amiable relations, and convinced that friendly relations will assure their mutual safety as well as safety o f their cities, particularly Lenin­ grad and M urm ansk, and the M urm ansk railway, decided to appoint their representatives for con du ct­ ing the negotiations; these representatives reached the follow ing agreement . . .” A ccording to terms, m ilitary operations will halt at once; following terri­ tories will be included in Russia: whole o f Karelian Isthm us with city o f Vipuri, whole o f Vipuri B ay with its islands, territory west and north o f Lake

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P ope in address to Cardinals states “ words o f peace must be spoken b y Church as outlook for humanity if war continues is very grave” . R ib b en ­ trop confers with M ussolini and Ciano. Chamber o f Princes at N ew Delhi adopts resolu­ tion welcoming attainment b y India o f its due place am ong British dom inions under aegis o f British Crown, since retention o f this connection is essential for unity, order, and progress in country, and stress­ ing necessity o f safeguards for preservation o f Indian, states and special rights and interests o f the princes. M a r. 13 .— Arita announces in D iet “ adequate measures according to international law” will be taken to protect Japanese rights if Britain carries out plan to extend contraband control to Japan Sea. U pon interpellations, he states Japan should feel no alarm over .new American loan to China as this is intended to prom ote American export trade and is not armament loan. French authorities at Saigon seize mail aboard Japanese ship addressed to G er­ m an y; also recently seized m ail on Japanese ship at H aiphong. Finn M inister o f Defense and M inister o f E duca­ tions resign. Foreign Minister V. Tanner states in radio address that Finland surrendered because it was abandoned b y fellow dem ocracies and had no faith in promises. D ispatch o f allied troops to Fin­ land was too hazardous, he states, and only possible route was through N orw ay and Sweden, both refus­ ing permission. H e states initiative was taken by Finns, but that peace terms were unexpectedly severe and attem pts to gain m odification were vain. Pra vd a states “ not only entire Soviet people but working people o f whole world welcom e with tremendous satisfaction this new triumph o f Soviet peace p olicy; task which Soviet set for itself has been accom plished; our northwestern frontier and particularly security o f Leningrad, w orld’s greatest working class center, has been fully insured.’ Berlin circles state peace is “ diplom atic and m ilitary reverse o f first magnitude to allies” . R om e official quarters receive news with satisfaction as im portant in preventing spread o f war. Dutch political circles reported glad at peace b ut regret severe terms imposed.



April, 1940
on every conceivable front regardless o f “ diplom atic fictions” . Welles arrives in Paris and delivers per­ sonal message from President R oosevelt to Daladier. M a r. 15 .— After long debate, Finn Parliam ent ratifies peace treaty b y vote o f 145 t o 3, with 52 members absent or not voting. R y ti asserts that if Finland had accepted allied offers o f aid, Finland and all Scandinavia would have been drawn into Euro­ pean war. “ Our country, like whole o f civilization, is still in great danger. N o one can say what the m orrow will bring” . Finn losses in war, according to Tanner, were 50,000 dead and tens o f thousands wounded; forem ost task now is to take care o f 500,000 refugees from battle areas ceded to Russia. R e d S ta r, organ o f Russian arm y, states “ peace pact has strengthened our respect for Finland’s sov­ ereignty . . . Soviet U nion lacks expansionist am bi­ tions” . R ad io M oscow denounces Anglo-French instigation o f the Finnish war and states, “ once m ore the Anglo-French provocateurs have failed” . Foreign Ministers o f L atvia, E stonia, and Lithuania meet to consider effects o f R usso-Finn peace. Berlin officials predict rapprochem ent between Russia and Italy which m ay include trade pact. Sir Warren Fisher urges British governm ent “ to give Germany hell and bring war hom e to them ” . Vatican sources state that R ibbentrop told Pope Germ any proposes establishing small independent Poland after war is over, and that negotiations have been, started for accord on treatment o f Austrian, Polish, and Bohem ian catholics. Rum ania reported dem obilizing farmers serving in arm y, interpreted as meaning that Germany has guaranteed frontier in return for strenuous efforts to supply it with farm products. Bucharest officials, however, state K ing Carol rejected German offer to guarantee frontier for reason it was linked with Ger­ m an demand that outlawed Iron Guard be given representation in Cabinet. Balkans generally re­ ported relieved in belief that Germ any and Russia will now remain inactive and leave it to allies to take initiative in further warfare.

Chamberlain states in Com m ons that British and French sent large quantities o f war materials and supplies to Finland and were ready to throw in full weight o f all available resources if this had been in accordance with desire o f Finnish governm ent. H e states it is n ot true that Finnish governm ent made repeated requests for assistance and only m ade re­ quests for materials, every one o f which was answer­ ed. “ Finnish governm ent was inform ed as early as February 25 that if it made appeal to us, we were prepared to send men as well as materials” . U n ite d P ress states Russo-Finn peace is regarded as blow to prestige o f allies in Scandinavian countries and in Balkans, im proving G erm any’s chances o f defeating blockade, and weakening T u rkey’ s allegiance to allied cause. Italy and Germ any sign agreement fo r shipment o f German coal to Italy b y rail. M a r. 14 .— Baron Karl von Mannerheim states in order-of-the-day that valuable offers and promises o f assistance could not be realized because Sweden and N orw ay refused passage o f troops due to con­ cern for their own safety, b u t that considerable war materials did reach Finns. H e states 15,000 Finns and 200,000 Russians were killed and 1,500 Russian | tanks and 700 Russian planes destroyed. Swedish i Foreign Office confirms report that Sweden, N orw ay, and Finland will negotiate triple defense alliance to j guarantee Finland’ s new frontiers and their mutual neutrality; stated this would n ot be contrary to terms o f Russo-Finn peace agreement as Sweden originally forwarded this proposal to Finland with Russia’s peace demands. U n ite d P re ss states that “ unimpeachable but unofficial” Berlin sources disclosed Germ any has obtained definite pledge from Russia and Rum ania that it will not be attacked from southeast. British m ilitary experts are quoted as saying that undermining o f Finnish powers o f resistance exposes whole o f Scandinavia to Russian threat. Daladier defends allied war policy in Senate and demands allies “ find a battlefield and m ake war against all their enemies” . L e T em p s demands fundam ental change in strategy and m aking o f war

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T A G A L O G -E N G L IS H V O C A B U L A R Y A N D M A N U A L O F C O N V E R S A T IO N — C alde­ r o n . . P .9 5 (Postage P . 10) Q U A D R IL IN G U A L B O O K O F C O N V E R S A ­ T IO N S , T agalog - Ilocano - Visayan - English— G u e r re ro .. P1.E0 (Postage P .26)



Are You

Ready toDrop
... While Others Are Still Going Full Steam?
See How the New, Improved OVALTINE Is Helping Thousands Who Were Rundown, Exhausted/‘ Under Par” !
quickly the joy o f living is lost, when HOW energy runs low! Unable to keep up with others, you are forced to tell your friends to “ count you out” o f their plans . . . and are left alone to wonder what has become of your vital­ ity, your zest for life. Even worse, this exhausted, rundown feeling shows up all. too plain in your appearance. Your eyes lack luster. Your whole face sags. And you seem to be growing old before your time.

The “Protecting” Food-Drink Idea
Today, there is a new idea in combating lowered energy that you should know about. Called the “ protecting” food-drink idea, it is helping thou­ sands like yourself to build up vitality, so they can again enjoy life to its fullest. What they do is take the new, improved Ovaltine 3 times a day and at bedtime. Perhaps you ask, “ What is meant by a ‘pro­ tecting food-drink’? What can the new Ovaltine do for me?”

W H Y E N V Y th ose w h ose en erg y a n d p e p s e e m t o b e u n fla g g in g :? W i t h y o u r e n e r g y r e p le n i s h e d , y o u t o o m a y e n jo y th e e x tra f u n t h a t c o m e s w i t h in c r e a s e d v i t a l i t y !

The answer is simple. For example, when you are rundown and tired, Ovaltine provides quickacting energy in a form that gets into the bloodstream very rapidly. And it aids in the digestion of starchy foods . . . thus lightening the digestive burden. Ovaltine is a food high in nutritive value . . . extremely easy to digest. Recently, Ovaltine has been greatly enriched with the valuable protective Vitamins and Minerals that Ovaltine has always contained. These are the precious Vitamins A, B, D and G . . . and the Minerals Calcium, Phosphorus and Iron. The new Ovaltine now contains more

of these precious elements than ever before! Thus Ovaltine, more than ever before, helps to fill certain “ gaps” likely to exist in your diet . . . and so helps you regain the full measure of health and energy that everybody needs to feel and look at his best. Ovaltine is recognized as an important re­ storative and rebuilding food in 55 different countries. The best way, however, for you to judge the merits of Ovaltine is to try it for a few weeks, and see for yourself. You may be amazed at the results. Obtainable at your dealer’s or mail coupon below for trial supply.

H eavy Line shows the average increase in “ available energy” of a group of 20 people when given O valtine betw eenm eals. Note th a t their energy supply was stepped up 2 0 % in 15 m in u tes! IN C R E A S E Y O U R C A P A C ­ IT Y for work and enjoyment by increasing your daily supply o f “ protective food-factors.” Drink Ovaltine daily. It is a delicious drink . . . made easily with either plain or evaporated milk. People use it in 55 coun­ tries! T o get a trial tin of delicious Ovaltine—use coupon at right. Or get a full-size tin at dealer’s.
N a m e .. Address. .
N o w in tw o f o r m s : P la in , a n d C h o c o l a t e F la v o r e d (w ith a sw e e te r t a s t e ).

for a Sample Tin

E d . A . K e lle r, L t d ., D e p t. 7 -1 1 7 8 J u a n L u n a , M a n ila

Please send me a trial tin of Ovaltine. I enclose | P. 10 to cover handling and mailing.



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