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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies

E-ISSN22498974

Research Paper

PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION IMPROVEMENTS OF 4-STROKE MULTI- CYLINDER CI-ENGINE BY USE OF DMC-EGM-DIESEL BLENDS
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Simit B. Prajapati, 2Pravin P. Rathod, 3Nikul K. Patel

Address for Correspondence


4 Semester PG student, Automobile Engineering, Government Engineering College, Bhuj 2 Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, Government Engineering College, Bhuj 3 Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, M S University, Vadodara ABSTRACT
Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethylene glycol monoacetate (EGM) are two hopeful alternative fuels as well as fuel additives to improve performance and emissions in CI engine, due to their high oxygen content. This paper presents an experimental study on their effects on the performance and emissions characteristics of CI engine. Test results show that brake thermal efficiency for the DMCEGM05 blends is higher than that of diesel blend while in the case of DMCEGM10 and DMCEGM15 blends it is lower. BSEC of DMCEGM-diesel blends show decreasing trend for increasing brake power or load. As engine load raises the values of EGT increase. Maximum EGT is measured at full load conditions for all blends. CO emissions can be remarkably reduced with the addition of DMC and EGM to diesel. Minimum CO is found for DMCEGM10 fuel. The blends of diesel with 10% DMC and EGM by volume is the best fraction for reduction of smoke and CO emissions. The obtained results show that the fuel which effectively reduces the CO emissions is less effective in reducing the NOx emissions. All these results indicate the potential of the DMC-EGM-diesel blends for clean combustion in diesel engine. The blends of diesel with 15% DMC and EGM by volume is the best fraction for reduction of smoke and CO emissions. KEYWORDS: CI Engine; Dimethyl Carbonate; Ethylene Glycol Monoacetate; Diesel; Blend; Performance ; Emission
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1. INTRODUCTION As crude oil and petroleum products will have a certain quantity and it is reduced day by day, hence they are costlier. There will be a great demand for fuel in the near future because of increases in number of automobiles. Due to these reasons, alternative fuel technology will become more common in the coming decades. An advantage of a diesel engine compared to a gasoline engine is the fuel-economy benefits and extensive applications. Diesel engines are mainly used in industrial, transport and agricultural applications. Diesel engine has been widely used in such applications due to its reliability, durability and high fuel efficiency. However, high smoke and NOx emissions always remain the main hindrance for its developments. It is further subjected to increase of strict imposed emission regulations [1-2]. To achieve substantial reductions in emissions, some diesel engine emission control technologies have been developed, such as common rail systems, fuel injection control strategies including multi-stage injection, exhaust gas recirculation and exhaust gas after treatment devices [3]. But these emission control technologies usually lead to cost increase highly or more fuel consumption. It is also commonly accepted that diesel engine emission can be reduced effectively by using oxygen alternative fuels, or potentially the addition of oxygen within the diesel fuel. Therefore, much research has focused on screening of oxygenated fuel additives, including alcohols, esters and ethers [4]. Combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with diesel diglyme blends are improved [5]. The effect of fuel constituents on combustion characteristics, fuel efficiency and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with diesel-dimethoxymethane (DMM) blends are investigated. By the use of DMM, it is observed that CO and smoke emissions as well as the total number and mass concentration of particulate reduce significantly, while HC emissions and particulate IJAERS/Vol. I/ Issue IV/July-Sept., 2012/70-73

number increase slightly [6]. By using a diesel fuel reformulating agent (CETANER) has been examined in a popular light-medium duty turbo diesel engine over a range of blending ratios on six cylinder diesel engines. This work demonstrates the potentially seamless transition that may be achieved with incorporation of oxygenates in diesel fuel to reduce emissions [7]. An investigation to improve the performance of a diesel engine by adding oxygenated fuel additive of known percentages. The effect of fuel additive dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was to control the emission from diesel engine and to improve its performance. The experimental study was carried out in a multi-cylinder diesel engine. DMC is an oxygenated fuel with the oxygen content of 53.3%, which is usually used as an oxygenated additive to blend with diesel fuel to improve combustion and reduce emissions of diesel engines [8]. The addition of DMC to fuels to reduce engine emissions without engine modification seems to be more attractive. However, the power output will decreases when diesel engines fueled with DMC diesel blend without engine modification, especially at condition of high loads, because the low heating value of DMC is much lower than that of diesel fuel. To achieve substantial reductions in emissions without severely decreases of power output, this paper proposes that DMC is blended with ethylene glycol monoacetate (EGM) in order to increase the low heating value, which is another promising oxygenated fuel additive with the more oxygen content and the lower low heating value [9]. The objectives of this study are to investigate experimentally the performance and emissions characteristics of CI engine fueled with the DMC-EGM-diesel blends. 2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND TEST PROCEDURE A four cylinder, four stroke, naturally aspirated, indirect injection, water cooled CI engine have been used to carry out experimental investigations which is situated in Thermal Engineering Laboratory at

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies Faculty of Engineering and Technology, M.S.University, Vadodara. The specifications of the test engine are listed in Table 1 and the experimental set up is shown in Figure 1. In this study, the engine was operated at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The series of tests were carried out using diesel and DMCEGM-diesel blends. The performance was measured by eddy current dynamometer. The exhaust gas emissions were measured by exhaust gas analyzer. Table 1 Engine Specifications

E-ISSN22498974

Table 2 Exhaust Gas Analyser Specifications

Starting from no load observations are taken for each fuel at six different loads. Various performance and emission parameters are measured at each load and fuel. Observations are taken at time when exhaust gas temperature remains steady. Initially engine performance with diesel fuel is measured followed by DMCEGM05, DMCEGM10 and DMCEGM15. Time taken for 10ml fuel consumption is recorded for fuel consumption records. Data measured then compared with performance of neat diesel. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Fuel Properties The calorific value of diesel fuel is 41807 KJ/Kg and those of EGM and DMC are 26000 KJ/Kg [9] and 15700 KJ/Kg [9] respectively. Based on these values, calorific values for different blends of DMCEGM05, DMCEGM10 and DMCEGM15 have been calculated which are shown in the Table 3.Table 3 shows comparison of some fuel properties like calorific value, kinematic viscosity, density, sulphur content and water content of diesel and DMC-EGM-diesel blends. Table 3 Properties comparison of Diesel and EGM-diesel blend

Figure 1 Engine Test Rig 2.1 Exhaust Gas Analyser Specifications A six gas Exhaust gas analyser is used to measure emission data of the engine. Measurement of HC, NO, NO2, CO, Excess air and flue gas temperature can be possible with the analyser. The specifications of the exhaust gas analyser are listed in Table 2. 2.2 Electronic Controller Device Electronic controller device displays all different parameters at every 5 seconds related with experimental work using different sensors. The parameters it measures are calorimeter inlet and outlet temperature, engine inlet and outlet temperature, flow rate of calorimeter, inlet and exhaust temperature, fuel remaining , load applied on dynamometer . 2.3 Experimental Procedure Experiments are carried out at constant engine speed of 1500 rpm. Load is varied by changing excitation of electrical dynamometer. IJAERS/Vol. I/ Issue IV/July-Sept., 2012/70-73

3.2 Performance Parameters Brake thermal efficiency From figure 2 it clearly indicates as brake power increases the brake thermal efficiency increases for all fuels viz. diesel and DMCEGM-diesel blends. BTE is showing increasing trend for increasing brake power or load. Higher brake thermal efficiency of DMCEGM05 fuel is contributed towards oxygen content of DMC and EGM helps in complete combustion of fuel. Addition of DMC and EGM to diesel decreases the kinematic viscosity of blends and it causes improvement in the shape of fuel spray and atomization. These finer fuel droplets tend to mix thoroughly with air and hence improving the combustion. Another reason is an advantage of reduction in combustion duration with DMCEGMdiesel as fuel. BTE with DMCEGM10 and DMCEGM15 as fuel is lower than diesel at all loads. The reason behind this is lower calorific value of DMC-EGM-diesel blends. However for DMCEGM blends greater than 5%, the thermal efficiency reduces due to the fluctuations in the engine speed and power output. The reason for the fluctuations in engine output may be due to the high volatility of DMC that leads to vapor lock in the fuel line. The maximum BTE with diesel fuel is 30.24% whereas in

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies DMCEGM05, DMCEGM10 and DMCEGM15, it is 30.50%, 30.05% and 29.96% respectively.

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Figure 2 BTE v/s BP

or brake power more and more amount of fuel is injected. Thus excess air available and in turn air fuel ratio inside cylinder decreases. This will result in higher CO emissions. In addition, indirect injection CI engine emits less amount of CO than direct injection CI engine and well below the emission norms. In this situation it can be concluded that the physical/chemical properties of the blended fuel, e.g. boiling point, play an important role. Thus, CO emissions reduction depends also on the molecular structure of the blended fuel . NOX emissions As seen from figure 5, emissions of NOx increases with rise in brake power for all fuels. The primary reason of higher value of NOx emissions of DMCEGM-diesel blends as fuels are contributed towards inbuilt oxygen content and lower duration of combustion. Higher NOx emissions can be direct measure of lower brake thermal efficiency as heat losses due to exhaust gases increases with temperature. Moreover, compact combustion chamber and relatively high speed of indirect injection engine results in lower heat loss to cylinder walls contribute for higher NOx emissions.

Figure 3 BSEC v/s BP Brake specific energy consumption From figure 3 it clearly indicates as brake power increases the brake specific energy consumption decreases for all fuels viz. diesel and DMCEGMdiesel blends. BSEC shows decreasing trend for increasing brake power or load. Inbuilt oxygen content, lower kinematic viscosity and lower combustion duration compared to diesel may be major contributor for lower BSEC of DMCEGM05 as fuel. Moreover, at high temperature losses due to dissociation are more. In combined effect there is increase in brake specific energy consumption for DMCEGM10 and DMCEGM15 as fuels. 3.3 Emission Parameters CO emissions It can be seen from figure 4, CO emissions decreases with load starting from no load for all fuels. After reaching minimum value, emissions of CO increase again for all fuels. This rise is continued up to the maximum brake power for all fuels. Trends of variations of CO emissions with brake power are same for all fuels. The reason behind high emissions of CO at no load may be lower cylinder temperature at no load. As load or brake power increases temperature inside cylinder also increases. This results in reduction of CO emissions and its value reaches to a minimum at brake power. Further increase in brake power results in higher emissions of CO. The reason behind this is explained here. As we know that diesel engines are quality governed engines. Here the amount of air sucked for each cycle is nearly constant and irrespective of load or brake power of the engine. Initially at no or part load amount of fuel is less and sufficient excess air results in complete combustion of fuel hence reduction in CO emissions is seen. However with increase in load IJAERS/Vol. I/ Issue IV/July-Sept., 2012/70-73

Figure 4 CO Emissions v/s BP

Figure 5 NOx Emissions v/s BP 4. CONCLUSIONS In this research a preliminary investigation was carried out to study comparison of the effects of on performance and exhaust emissions by diesel and DMC-EGM-diesel blend in a four cylinder, four stroke, naturally aspirated, direct injection, water cooled CI engine The results obtained for constant engine speed (N=1500rpm) with various engine loads can be summarized as follows: The addition of EGM and DMCEGM to diesel fuel changes the properties of blends. Kinematic viscosity depends on the molecular structure of the blended fuel. Addition of EGM and DMC to diesel decreases the kinematic viscosity of blends and it causes improvement

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies in the shape of fuel spray and atomization. These finer fuel droplets tend to mix thoroughly with air and hence improving the combustion. Maximum brake thermal efficiency with DMCEGM05 blend is contributed due to oxygen content of DMC and EGM helps in complete combustion of fuel. DMCEGM blends greater than 5%, the thermal efficiency reduces due to the fluctuations in the engine speed and power output due to the high volatility of DMC that leads to vapor lock in the fuel line. BSEC of DMC-EGM-diesel blends show decreasing trend for increasing brake power or load due to inbuilt oxygen content, lower kinematic viscosity and lower combustion duration compared diesel. As engine load raises the rate of increase NOx is higher for all blends due to inbuilt oxygen content and lower duration of combustion. As it can be seen from study, oxygenated fuel additives DMC and EGM considered in this work have a significant impact on CO emission from CI engine. The obtained results show that the fuel which effectively reduces the CO emission is less effective in reducing the NOx emissions. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are thankful to the MS University, Vadodara for providing the facilities and their support to carry out this work. ABBREVIATIONS
CI Engine Compression Ignition Engine DMC- Di Methyl Carbonate EGM - Ethylene Glycol Monoacetate CO- Carbon Monoxide HC- Hydro Carbon NOx- Nitrogen Oxide O Oxygen
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L. Xiaolu et al., Study of combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine operated with dimethyl carbonate, Energy Conversion and Management- 47, 2006, pp: 14381448. Yanxia W. et al., Diesel Engine Emission Improvements by the Use of EGM-DMC-Diesel Blends Fuel 5th WSEAS Int. Conf. On ENVIORNMENT, ECOSYSTEMS and DEVELOPMENT, 2007 pp: 90-94.

BTE-Brake Thermal Efficiency BSFC-Brake Specific Fuel Consumption BSEC- Brake Specific Energy Consumption EGT - Exhaust Gas Temperature DMCEGM05 - 95 % Diesel + 2.5% DMC + 2.5 % EGM DMCEGM10 - 90 % Diesel + 5% DMC + 5 % EGM DMCEGM15 - 85 % Diesel + 7.5% DMC + 7.5 % EGM PPM- Parts Per Million

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