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ANSYS

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ANSYS is a software tool used by engineers to perform variety of analysis on mechanical parts and systems. The focus of this handout is using ANSYS to determine reactions stresses and deflections in beams and frames. ANSYS uses the finite!element method to determine the reactions on a structure as well as the stress and deflections at various points on the structure. The basic component of a finite!element model is the element. "raphically beam elements appear as a line but to the software an element is a series of e#uations that predict how the ends of the element will deform when loaded. $or each two!dimensional beam element si% e#uations are needed to determine the rotation and translations of each node. Nodal translations are defined parallel and perpendicular to the element. &lements connect with each other at nodes. The response of an element to an applied load affects each of the elements connected to it at nodes. A model will have three e#uations for each node in the model. The deformations at each node are found by ANSYS using matri% math to solve all of the e#uations for the model simultaneously. i Node 0eam element

A Node

The basic procedure for solving a beam problem using ANSYS is as follows' 1. Start the ANSYS program. (. Specify the element type to be used. )n ANSYS the (* beam element is designated as BEAM3. 3. Specify the real constants for the element' area +in(, height +in, and moment of inertia +in-,. The area cannot be .ero. The height is used to find bending stress. )n ANSYS the distance c is always ta/en as half of the height. 0e aware of this when wor/ing with sections which are not symmetrical. -. )ndicate the material properties' modulus of elasticity +psi, and Poisson1s ratio. 2. 3reate nodes. A node is needed at each load and support as well as at any point of importance in the structure which is any point where the stress or deflection is to be found. &ach node will have a uni#ue number. Nodes are located by 3artesian coordinates determined by the user. The length units used 45ST be consistent with those used to define the real constants and material properties. 6. 3reate elements between nodes. &ach element will have a uni#ue number. &lements are defined by selecting a node for each of its end. &lements cannot have .ero length. 7. Apply support constraints to nodes. Translation can be constrained parallel and perpendicular to the element to create pins and rollers. 8otation can also be constrained at a node when creating a fi%ed support. 9. Apply concentrated loads and moments to the model at nodes. :oads are typically applied hori.ontally or vertically. All units must be compatible with other units used in the model. *istributed loads can be applied as pressures to the elements. ;arning' the value specified for pressure is applied per unit length of the element. )f an element is 1( inches long a distributed load of 1<< lbs=foot would be applied as 1<<=1( > 9.3333 lbs=inch. ?. Solve. 1<. 8etrieve the reactions. 11. 8etrieve the deflection results at each node. 1(. 8etrieve the stress and internal reaction results at each node as needed. 13. @erify solutions using hand calculations remembering that the necessary conditions for e#uilibrium are $% > < $y > < 4 > <. Also recall that bending stress is the predominate stress in a beam. 0ending stress is determined by > 4c=). EXAMPLE' A rectangular beam (!inches wide and 6!inches deep is shown in the figure below. *etermine the magnitude and direction of the reactions and the deflection and bending stress at the midpoint of the beam. 5se & > 1 2<< <<< psi and <.(- for Poisson1s ratio. 2< lbs=ft (<< lbs ( in 6 in 3 feet 3 feet - feet

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1. Start ANSYS using the se#uence' Sta!t Button " P!o#!ams " En#$nee!$n# P!o#!ams " Ans%s 11&0 " Ans%s

Toolbar 4enu

4ain 4enu

3oordinate Triad

Boom 3ontrols

(. Select the following from the 4ain 4enu to specify the element type' P!ep!o'esso! " Element T%pe " Add(Ed$t( elete Pic/ the Add) button

Specify Beam and 2 elast$' 3 Pic/ *+ to close the :ibrary of &lement Types. Pic/ ,lose to shut the &lement Types dialog bo%. 0&A43 is now element type 1.

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3. Add the real constants to the model using Preprocessor > -eal ,onstants " Add(Ed$t( elete Pic/ the Add) button. Type 1 0&A43 should be listed in the new dialog bo%. 4a/e sure Type 1 0&A4 3 is selected and pic/ CD to open the 8eal 3onstant for 0&A43 dialog bo%. Specify area area moment of inertia and total beam height as shown below. Pic/ *+ then ,lose.

-. Add the material properties to the model using Preprocessor > Mate!$al P!ops " Mate!$al Models *ouble!3lic/ each one' St!u'tu!al " L$nea! " Elast$' " .sot!op$' for 4aterial 4odel Number 1. Specify &E > 12<<<<< psi and Poisson1s 8atio +P8EY, as .(-.

Pic/ *+ to close the dialog bo%. Select Mate!$al " Ex$t to close the *efine 4aterial 4odel 0ehavior dialog bo%.

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Planning ahead five nodes will be needed as shown in the figure below. At nodes 1 and 2 a support will be built. At node ( a load will be applied. At node 3 results are re#uired. The element between nodes - and 2 will have a distributed load. Node 1 +< < <, 36 in 6< in 7( in 1(< in 2. 3reate nodes using the se#uence Preprocessor > Model$n# " ,!eate " Nodes " .n A't$/e ,S Specify node number and E Y B coordinates in the active coordinate system which is a 3artesian coordinate system by default. )f the node number is left blan/ ANSYS automatically assigns the ne%t number. Pic/ Appl% to set the node and reopen the dialog bo% for the ne%t node. 8epeat for remaining nodes. Pic/ *+ to set the last node and close the dialog bo%. Node ( +36 < <, Node 3 Node +6< < <, +7( < <, Node 2 +1(< < <,

The screen should contain 2 numbered nodes. To plot nodes select from the toolbar menu' Plot " Nodes. To generate a list of nodes select from the toolbar menu' L$st " Nodes) Select the ,oo!d& 0(An#les button then *+. The nodes and their coordinates are listed in another window. This list can be saved or copied and pasted in another program such as ;ord or &%cel. Planning ahead four elements will be needed' Node 1 &lement 1 Node ( Node 3 &lement ( &lement 3 6. 3reate elements using the se#uence Preprocessor > Modeling > Create > Elements " Auto Num1e!ed " T2!u Nodes Pic/ node 1 on the screen then node ( then pic/ Appl%. Crder is important. 3hoose the i!node then the A!node G be consistent left to right. Pic/ node ( then node 3 then pic/ Appl%. Pic/ node 3 then node - then pic/ Appl%. Pic/ node - then node 2 then pic/ *+. This creates the last element and closes the dialog bo%. $our elements should appear on the screen at this point. To plot elements select from the toolbar menu' Plot " Elements To generate a list of elements select from the toolbar menu' L$st " Elements " Nodes 3 Att!$1utes& The elements are listed in another window by element number. The list contains the material number element type number real Node &lement Node 2

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constant numbers nodes and other information for each element. This list can be saved or copied and pasted in another program such as ;ord or &%cel. To display node and element numbers select from the toolbar menu' Plot,t!ls " Num1e!$n#H

Node numbers on and off The displayed numbers for each element can be set to show any of these' No numbering &lement number 4aterial number &lement type number 8eal constant number others

Planning ahead three support constraints have to be created. A pin is at node 1 which will constrain translation in both the %! and y!directions. A roller at node 2 will constrain translation in the y!direction. Node 1 Node 2

ANSYS constraint symbol 7. 3reate constraints +supports, using the main menu se#uence Solut$on " e4$ne Loads " Appl% " St!u'tu!al " $spla'ement " *n Nodes Cn the screen select nodes 1 and 2 and pic/ *+ on the dialog bo%. Pic/ 5Y in the DOFs to be constrained window then *+ to apply the supports. These nodes are constrained vertically. 5Y is ANSYS for displacement in the y!direction. Since the displacement value was applied as .ero +empty window in dialog bo%, the node will not move vertically. 3onstrains translation in %!direction at the node. 3onstrains translation in y!direction at the node. 3onstrains rotation about the .!a%is at the node.

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8epeat this process by selecting node 1 and applying the 5E constraint to it. 0lue triangles should appear for each constraint applied to the model. Note that if a fi%ed support is needed its node would have 5E 5Y and 8CTB all applied. 9. 3reate the concentrated load using the 4ain 4enu se#uence Solut$on " e4$ne Loads " Appl% " St!u'tu!al " 6o!'e(Moment " *n Nodes& Pic/ node ( on the screen and pic/ *+ on the dialog bo%. $E > hori.ontal force $Y > vertical force 4B > moment @alue of the force or moment. I is for right or up or 33;. G is for left or down or 3;.

Set the direction of the force to 6Y and specify the value of the force as 7200 which will represent (<< pounds down at node (. Pic/ *+. A red arrow should appear on the model to represent this force. 3reate the distributed load using the main menu se#uence Solut$on " e4$ne Loads " Appl% " St!u'tu!al " P!essu!e " *n Beams& Pic/ element - on the screen and pic/ *+ on the dialog bo%.

Pic/ *+ to apply load and close the dialog bo%. Note' positive values are down towards the element and negative values are up away from the element.

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?. To solve the model use the following main menu se#uence' Solut$on " Sol/e " ,u!!ent LS. Pic/ *+ from the information bo% that appears. Pic/ the ,lose button when ANSYS indicates that the solution is done. )t should ta/e less than a minute to solve simple beam and frame problems. 1<. To obtain beam reactions use the following main menu se#uence' 8ene!al Postp!o' " L$st -esults " -ea't$on Solu. Pic/ All .tems in the window and pic/ *+.

At node 1 the hori.ontal reaction is < the vertical reaction is 19< pounds up +I, and there is no moment reaction at a pin. These numbers match with the statics for this problem. At node 2 there is no hori.ontal reaction the vertical reaction is ((< pounds up +I, and there is no moment reaction at a roller. These numbers match with the statics for this problem.

11. "et the deflections of each node using the main menu se#uence' 8ene!al Postp!o' " L$st -esults " Nodal Solu.

Pic/ *6 Solut$on in the window then Y7,omponent o4 d$spla'ement and pic/ *+. +The E!3omponent of displacement option gives the hori.ontal deflection of each node and the B! 3omponent of rotation gives the rotation of each node.,

@ertical displacement of each node. Negative is down and positive is up. Note they are .ero at the supports as e%pected. The ma%imum value from this model is at node 3. Note that the actual ma%imum value will only appear if a node e%ists at the point of ma%imum deflection.

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To plot the deformed shape of the beam use the main menu se#uence' 8ene!al Postp!o' " Plot -esults " e4o!med S2ape 1(. An &lement Table has to be created to obtain the stress values and internal reactions at the nodes. 5se the main menu se#uence' 8ene!al Postp!o' " Element Ta1le " e4$ne Ta1le& Pic/ the Add) button. - #uantities will be added to the table. $or each one a five step process is needed as shown in the figure below. A label is specified B% se9uen'e num is selected the sequence is chosen and the number is specified. Pic/ Appl% to add the #uantity to the table. Pic/ *+ after the last one. Add label name

Apply or CD

Juantity at $7Node 0ending Stress 0ending 4oment 4 Shear $orce @ A%ial $orce $

To list the values in the element table use the main menu se#uence 8ene!al Postp!o' " Element Ta1le " L$st Elem Ta1le Select the table items to be listed. Pic/ *+

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NCT&' These values are for the i!node of each of the elements listed.

&lement 1 i!node

&lem (

&lement 3 i!node

N( 4$C8E > <K 4$C8Y > (<K 44C4B > 6-9< in!lbs =

N3 4$C8E > <K 4$C8Y > (<K 44C4B > 6<<< in!lbs =

((<K

N-

4$C8Y > (<K 44C4B > 276< in!lbs = 4c 276< in lbs +3 in, = = -9< psi ) 36 in -

((<K

Page 1< of 13

13. @erify that each of the free! body diagrams in e#uilibrium. )f a model has more is nodes say one per foot the 44C4B values could be copied to &%cel to create an EY+Scatter, chart which would be the moment diagram for the beam. Cf course the moment for the last node would have to be added manually. )t should be noted that each of the options used to add items to the model has a delete option which is used to remove the items from the model. Lunt around as needed to use these options. )f nodes and elements are deleted from the model their numbers are automatically reused when new ones are created. 0e sure to use the Plot,t!l " Num1e!$n# to chec/ the numbers used in the model. The numbers can be compressed by using the menu se#uence P!ep!o'ess$n# " Num1e!$n# ,t!ls " ,omp!ess Num1e!s& $or e%ample if the following are all nodes that are created in a model' 1 3 2 6 7

)f you wish to save the ANSYS model use the 6$le " Sa/e As option. Specify a location and filename. &EA4P:&' *etermine the reactions at the supports and internal pin of the frame shown below. 5se & > (?<<<<<< psi > .3 A > 1 in( height > 1 and moment of inertia > 1 in-. 0 ( ft 3<< lbs -<< lbs E! Y! B! coordinate coordinate coordinate < 1 < < < ( < 7( < 3 < ?6 < < ?6 < 2 36 -9 < 6 7( < Note: 0e need t0o nodes at an $nte!nal p$n;

Node

6 ft

A 3 ft 3 ft

The ANSYS solution for this problem is pretty much the same as it was for the beam. The frame has an additional step. 1. Start ANSYS. (. Specify the element type as 0&A43 3. Specify the real constants' area > 1 moment of inertia > 1 and height > 1. The stress isn1t going to be determined in this solution so these numbers aren1t really that important but they can1t be .ero. -. Specify the material properties' &E > (?<<<<<< P8EY > .3 2. 3reate the nodes indicated in the table above. Note that two nodes are needed at each internal pin G point 0 in this case.

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6. 3reate the elements for this model as follows' &lement Number 1 ( 3 i!node 1 ( 2 A!node ( 3 2 6

Note that each member of the frame is constructed with two elements. The members are not connected at this point. 0efore the model can be solved the translational degrees of freedom for nodes 3 and - have to be McoupledN. 5se the main menu se#uence P!ep!o'esso! " ,oupl$n#(,e9n " ,ouple *6s to begin the coupling process. Select the two nodes to be coupled. 5se the bo% option in the select dialog bo%. Pic/ *+ when selected. Specify 1 for the reference number. Pic/ *C$ :abel 5X Pic/ Appl% Specify 2 for the reference number. Pic/ *C$ label 5Y Pic/ *+ to apply and close the dialog bo%. Two green triangles should appear at the internal pin indicating that the two degrees of freedom have been coupled. 7. 3reate the pins at A and 3. 5se 5E and 5Y at both nodes 1 and 6. 9. Apply the concentrated loads. At node ( $E > 3<< and at node 2 $Y > !-<<. ?. Solve

Page 1( of 13

To get the forces on all the nodes use the main menu se#uence 8ene!al Postp!o' " L$st -esults " Element Solut$on. Scroll down and clic/ on St!u'tu!al 6o!'es then select X7,omponent o4 4o!'e. Pic/ *+. The values in this list are the element forces acting CN the node. Show these forces in the opposite directions on the element.

1 72K 1<<K

To get the moments on all the nodes use the main menu se#uence 8ene!al Postp!o' " L$st -esults " Element Solut$on. Scroll down and clic/ on St!u'tu!al Moments then select <7 ,omponent o4 moment. Pic/ *+. The values in this list are the element moments acting CN the node. Show these moments in the opposite directions on the element.

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)f you are not sure of the proper directions figure it out remembering that the element must be in e#uilibrium which is to say $% > < $y > < and 4 > <. An element table can also be created to determine the moment shear and a%ial forces at each node. )n this case the shear and a%ial forces are perpendicular and parallel to the element respectively. This may be the easier approachP

11. The deflections are not re#uired. 1(. The stresses and internal reactions are not re#uired. The following are the proper free!body diagrams for each of the nodes and elements in the model. The values are ta/en from the reaction solution and from the member force and moments lists shown on the previous page. Notice that nodes 3 and - are attached to one another so collectively they are in e#uilibrium. N3 1<<K 1<<K ((2K &( ((2K 2-<< inOlb 2-<< inOlb 3<<K 2-<< inOlb 1<<K 1<<K 72K &1 1 72K 1<<K 1<<K 72K 1<<K N1 72K 2<<K 2<<K ((2K 6B o4 6!ame Nodes and Elements 2<<K N6 ((2K 6 ((2K ((2K ( 2-<< inOlb ((2K N2 2<<K 2<<K 7(<< inOlb 2 &3 &3 N1<<K 1<<K ((2K 8ed forces are applied 0lue forces are reactions 0lac/ forces are element forces acting CN nodes "reen forces are member forces in directions opposite the tabulated values. 2 7(<< inOlb

((2K

((2K

1<<K

1<<K

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