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Pig Heart Dissection

Laboratory Handout Background: Mammalian hearts are quite similar in that they are all four-chambered. The adult pig heart is approximately the size of an adult humans fist. The structure and size was so similar to than of a humans that they were once used in human heart transplants, but this practice has since been discontinued. In this activity, students will become more familiar with the anatomical structures of the human heart by dissecting, studying, and identifying the parts of a pig heart. The primary focus is on the anatomy and flow of blood through the heart.

Behaviour: We are in a lab. We must behave properly. Be careful with the materials (the scalpels are so sharp and dangerous). After the practice we must throw the organic waste, wash and dry the materials and leave our desk in good conditions. Material: Textbook or resource materials with labeled pictures or diagrams of the mammalian heart Preserved pig heart Dissecting tray Scalpel Forceps Punch Scissors Procedure: EXTERNAL ANATOMY 1. FIND THE PERICARDIUM. The heart is surrounded by a tough layer of connective and epithelial tissue called the pericardium. The sac-like structures of the pericardium is often removed earlier, during the hearts removal from the chest cavity. Try to find any remaining parts of the pericardium around the top of the heart. Also, you can find some fat around the heart. 2. FIND THE ATRIA. The atria are also removed by accident in most cases. The atria have very little muscle tissue because they do not pump blood very far. If there is any atrial tissues remaining, it is easily recognized as ear-like muscle at the top of the heart.

3. USE THE PUNCH TO POKE THE CORONARY ARTERIES. The coronary arteries depart from the aorta and run along the outer surface of the heart on the dorsal and ventral sides. These vessels generally run along the location of the septum which is found between the ventricles. 4. DIFEERENTIATE THE VEINS AND THE ARTERIES. Many of the large arteries and veins are cut close to the heart itself when it is removed from the animal. However, the origin of the arteries is within the heart itself and along with the semilunar valves can be observed when you inspect the heart internally. 5. LABEL THESE DRAWINGS. FRONT SIDE OF THE HEART: it has got a convex shape.

TURN THE HEART 180 DEGREES. BACK SIDE OF THE HEART: it has got a concave shape

INTERNAL ANATOMY 6. RIGHT VENTRICLE. Put the heart with the front side facing to you. Using the scalpel cut along the right side of the septum from the pulmonary veins to the apex of the heart. Open wide using the forceps. Label this picture.

7. LEFT VENTRICLE. Put the heart with the front side facing to you. Using the scalpel cut along the left side of the septum from the aorta artery to the apex of the heart. Open wide using the forceps. Label this picture.

8. RIGHT ATRIUM. Cut the area between the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava to open the right atrium. 9. LEFT ATRIUM. Cut the pulmonary veins to open the left atrium. Between the atriums there is a scare which is the fossa ovalis (a pipe where the blood shortcuts when we are fetus). CONCLUSIONS 1. Do the left and the right ventricle have the same myocardiums thickness? Why? 2. What is the name of the tissue located in the aortas beginning? 3. Wheres the tricuspid valve located? And the mitral valve? 4. Whats the goal of these valves? 5. What are the differences between an artery and a vein?