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Buddha By Karen Armstrong Penguin LIVES Series Copyright Karen Armstrong 2001

CONTENTS Intro u!tion 1" #enun!iation 2" $uest %" En&ightenment '" (hamma )" *ission +" Parini,,ana


Introduction Some Bu hists might say that to .rite a ,iography o/ Si hatta -otama is a 0ery un1Bu hist thing to o" In their 0ie.2 no authority shou& ,e re0ere 2 ho.e0er august3 Bu hists must moti0ate themse&0es an re&y on their o.n e//orts2 not on a !harismati! &ea er" One ninth1!entury master2 .ho /oun e the Lin1Chi &ine o/ 4en Bu hism2 e0en .ent so /ar as to !omman his is!ip&es2 5I/ you meet the Bu ha2 6i&& the Bu ha78 to emphasi9e the importan!e o/ maintaining this in epen en!e /rom authority /igures" -otama might not ha0e appro0e o/ the 0io&en!e o/ this sentiment2 ,ut throughout his &i/e he /ought against the !u&t o/ persona&ity2 an en &ess&y e/&e!te the attention o/ his is!ip&es /rom himse&/" It .as not his &i/e an persona&ity ,ut his tea!hing that .as important" :e ,e&ie0e that he ha .o6en up to a truth that .as ins!ri,e in the eepest stru!ture o/ e;isten!e" It .as a dhamma3 the .or has a .i e range o/ !onnotations2 ,ut origina&&y it enote a /un amenta& &a. o/ &i/e /or go s2 humans an anima&s a&i6e" By is!o0ering this truth2 he ha ,e!ome en&ightene an ha e;perien!e a pro/oun inner trans/ormation3 he ha .on pea!e an immunity in the mi st o/ &i/e<s su//ering" -otama ha thus ,e!ome a Bu ha2 an En&ightene or A.a6ene One" Any one o/ his is!ip&es !ou& a!hie0e the same en&ightenment i/ he or she /o&&o.e this metho " But i/ peop&e starte to re0ere -otama the man2 they .ou& istra!t themse&0es /rom their tas62 an the !u&t !ou& ,e!ome a prop2 !ausing an un.orthy epen en!e that !ou& on&y impe e spiritua& progress" The Bu hist s!riptures are /aith/u& to this spirit an seem to te&& us &itt&e a,out the etai&s o/ -otama<s &i/e an persona&ity" It is o,0ious&y i//i!u&t2 there/ore2 to .rite a ,iography o/ the Bu ha that .i&& meet mo ern !riteria2 ,e!ause .e ha0e 0ery &itt&e in/ormation that !an ,e !onsi ere histori!a&&y soun " The /irst e;terna& e0i en!e that a re&igion !a&&e Bu hism e;iste !omes /rom ins!riptions ma e ,y King Aso6a2 .ho ru&e the *auryan state in North In ia /rom a,out 2+= to 2%2 B"C"E" But he &i0e some t.o hun re years a/ter the Bu ha" As a resu&t o/ this earth o/ re&ia,&e /a!t2 some >estern s!ho&ars in the nineteenth !entury ou,te that -otama ha ,een a histori!a& /igure" They !&aime that he ha simp&y ,een a personi/i!ation o/ the pre0ai&ing Sam6hya phi&osophy or a sym,o& o/ a so&ar !u&t" ?et mo ern s!ho&arship has retreate /rom this s6epti!a& position2 an argues that e0en though &itt&e in the Bu hist s!riptures is .hat is popu&ar&y 6no.n as 5gospe& truth28 .e !an ,e reasona,&y !on/i ent that Si hatta -otama i in ee e;ist an that his is!ip&es preser0e the memory o/ his &i/e an tea!hings as .e&& as they !ou& " >hen trying to /in out a,out the Bu ha2 .e are epen ent upon the 0o&uminous Bu hist s!riptures2 .hi!h ha0e ,een .ritten in 0arious Asian &anguages an ta6e up se0era& she&0es in a &i,rary" Not surprising&y2 the story o/ the !omposition o/ this &arge ,o y o/ te;ts is !omp&e; an the status o/ its 0arious parts mu!h ispute " It is genera&&y agree that the most use/u& te;ts are those .ritten in Pa&i2 a north In ian ia&e!t o/ un!ertain pro0enan!e2 .hi!h seems to ha0e ,een !&ose to *aga han2 the &anguage that -otama himse&/ may ha0e spo6en" These s!riptures .ere preser0e ,y Bu hists in Sri Lan6a2 Burma an Thai&an .ho ,e&onge to the Thera0a a s!hoo&" But .riting .as not !ommon in In ia unti& the time o/ Aso6a2 an the Pa&i Canon .as

ora&&y preser0e an pro,a,&y not .ritten o.n unti& the /irst !entury B"C"E" :o. .ere these s!riptures !ompose @ It seems that the pro!ess o/ preser0ing the tra itions a,out the Bu ha<s &i/e an tea!hing ,egan short&y a/ter his eath in 'A% Ba!!or ing to the tra itiona& >estern atingC" Bu hist mon6s at this time &e itinerant &i0es3 they .an ere aroun the !ities an to.ns o/ the -anges p&ain an taught the peop&e their message o/ en&ightenment an /ree om /rom su//ering" (uring the monsoon rains2 ho.e0er2 they .ere /or!e o// the roa an !ongregate in their 0arious sett&ements2 an uring these monsoon retreats2 the mon6s is!usse their o!trines an pra!ti!es" Short&y a/ter the Bu ha ie 2 the Pa&i te;ts te&& us that the mon6s he& a !oun!i& to esta,&ish a means o/ assessing the 0arious e;tant o!trines an pra!ti!es" It seems that a,out /i/ty years &ater2 some o/ the mon6s in the eastern regions o/ North In ia !ou& sti&& remem,er their great Tea!her2 an others starte to !o&&e!t their testimony in a more /orma& .ay" They !ou& not yet .rite this o.n2 ,ut the pra!ti!e o/ yoga ha gi0en many o/ them phenomena&&y goo memories2 so they e0e&ope .ays o/ memori9ing the is!ourses o/ the Bu ha an the etai&e ru&es o/ their Or er" As the Bu ha himse&/ ha pro,a,&y one2 they set some o/ his tea!hings in 0erses an may e0en ha0e sung them3 they a&so e0e&ope a /ormu&ai! an repetiti0e sty&e Bsti&& present in the .ritten te;tsC to he&p the mon6s &earn these is!ourses ,y heart" They i0i e the sermons an regu&ations into istin!t ,ut o0er&apping ,o ies o/ materia&2 an !ertain mon6s .ere assigne the tas6 o/ !ommitting one o/ these antho&ogies to memory an passing it on to the ne;t generation" A,out a hun re years a/ter the Bu ha<s eath2 a Se!on Coun!i& .as he& 2 an ,y this time it seems that the te;ts ha rea!he the /orm o/ the present Pa&i Canon" It is o/ten !a&&e the Tipitaka B5Three Bas6ets8C ,e!ause &ater2 .hen the s!riptures .ere .ritten o.n2 they .ere 6ept in three separate re!epta!&esD the Bas6et o/ (is!ourses BSutta PitakaC2 the Bas6et o/ (is!ip&ines BVinaya PitakaC2 an a mis!e&&aneous ,o y o/ tea!hings" Ea!h o/ these three 5Bas6ets8 .ere su, i0i e as /o&&o.sD E1F Sutta Pitaka, .hi!h !onsists o/ /i0e 5!o&&e!tions8 BnikayasC o/ sermons2 e&i0ere ,y the Bu haD EiF Digha Nikaya, an antho&ogy o/ thirty1/our o/ the &ongest is!ourses2 .hi!h /o!us on the spiritua& training o/ the mon6s2 on the uties o/ the &aity2 an on 0arious aspe!ts o/ the re&igious &i/e in In ia in the /i/th !entury B"C"E" But there is a&so an a!!ount o/ the Bu ha<s Gua&ities BSampasadaniyaC an o/ the &ast ays o/ his &i/e BMahaparinibbdnaC" EiiF Majjhima Nikaya, an antho&ogy o/ 1)2 mi &e1&ength sermons BsuttasC" These in!&u e a &arge num,er o/ stories a,out the Bu ha2 his strugg&e /or en&ightenment an his ear&y prea!hing2 as .e&& as some o/ the !ore o!trines" EiiiF Samyutta Nikaya: a !o&&e!tion o/ /i0e series o/ suttas, .hi!h are i0i e a!!or ing to su,He!t2 on su!h matters as the Eight/o& Path an the ma6eup o/ the human persona&ity" Ei0F Anauttara Nikaya, .hi!h has e&e0en i0isions o/ suttas, most o/ .hi!h are in!&u e in other parts o/ the s!riptures" E0F Khuddaka-Nikaya, a !o&&e!tion o/ minor .or6s2 .hi!h in!&u e su!h popu&ar te;ts as the Dhammapada, an antho&ogy o/ the Bu ha<s epigrams an short poems3 the Udana, a !o&&e!tion o/ some o/ the Bu ha<s ma;ims2 !ompose most&y in 0erse2 .ith intro u!tions te&&ing ho. ea!h one !ame to ,e e&i0ere 3 the Sutta-Nipata, another !o&&e!tion o/ 0erses2 .hi!h in!&u e some &egen s a,out the Bu ha<s &i/e3 an the Jataka, stories a,out the /ormer &i0es o/ the Bu ha an his !ompanions2 to i&&ustrate ho. a person<s kamma B5a!tions8C ha0e reper!ussions in their /uture

e;isten!es" E2F Th Vinaya Pitaka, the Boo6 o/ *onasti! (is!ip&ine2 .hi!h !o i/ies the ru&es o/ the Or er" It is i0i e into three partsD EiF the Sutta Vibhanga, .hi!h &ists the 22I o//enses .hi!h must ,e !on/esse at the /ortnight&y !hapter2 .ith a !ommentary e;p&aining ho. ea!h ru&e !ame to ,e ma e" EiiF The Khandhakhas, .hi!h are su, i0i e into the Maha!agga Bthe -reat SeriesC2 an the "u##a!agga Bthe Lesser SeriesC2 .hi!h gi0e ru&es /or a mission to the Or er2 the .ay o/ &i/e an the !eremonies2 a&so .ith !ommentaries2 e;p&aining the in!i ents .hi!h ga0e rise to the ru&es" These !ommentaries intro u!ing ea!h ru&e ha0e preser0e important &egen s a,out the Bu ha" EiiiF The Pari!ara: summaries an !&assi/i!ations o/ the ru&es" The 5Thir Bas6et8 BAbhidhamma PitakaC ea&s .ith phi&osophi!a& an o!trina& ana&yses an has &itt&e o/ interest to the ,iographer" A/ter the Se!on Coun!i&2 there .as a s!hism in the Bu hist mo0ement2 .hi!h sp&it up into a num,er o/ se!ts" Ea!h s!hoo& too6 these o& te;ts ,ut rearrange them to /it its o.n tea!hing" In genera&2 it seems that no materia& .as is!ar e 2 e0en though there .ere a itions an e&a,orations" C&ear&y the Pa&i Canon2 the s!ripture o/ the Thera0a a s!hoo&2 .as not the on&y 0ersion o/ the Tipitaka, ,ut it .as the on&y one to sur0i0e in its entirety" ?et /ragments o/ some &ost In ian materia& !an ,e /oun in &ater trans&ations o/ the s!riptures into Chinese2 or in the Ti,etan s!riptures2 .hi!h gi0e us our ear&iest !o&&e!tion o/ Sans6rit te;ts" So e0en though these trans&ations .ere !ompose in the /i/th an si;th !enturies C"E"2 a,out a thousan years a/ter the Bu ha<s eath2 some parts are as o& as an !orro,orate the Pa&i Canon" Jrom this ,rie/ a!!ount2 se0era& points emerge that .i&& a//e!t the .ay .e approa!h this s!riptura& materia&" Jirst2 the te;ts purport to ,e" simp&e !o&&e!tions o/ the Bu ha<s o.n .or s2 .ith no authoria& input /rom the mon6s" This mo e o/ ora& transmission pre!&u es in i0i ua&isti! authorship3 these s!riptures are not the .or6 o/ a Bu hist eGui0a&ent o/ the e0ange&ists 6no.n as *atthe.2 *ar62 Lu6e an Kohn2 ea!h o/ .hom gi0es his o.n i iosyn!rati! 0ie. o/ the -ospe&" >e 6no. nothing a,out the mon6s .ho !ompi&e an e ite a&& these te;ts2 nor a,out the s!ri,es .ho &ater !ommitte them to .riting" Se!on 2 the Pa&i Canon is ,oun to re/&e!t the 0ie.point o/ the Thera0a in s!hoo&2 an may ha0e s&ante the origina&s /or po&emi!a& purposes" Thir 2 espite the e;!e&&en!e o/ the mon6s< yoga1traine memories2 this mo e o/ transmission .as ine0ita,&y /&a.e " *u!h materia& .as pro,a,&y &ost2 some .as misun erstoo 2 an the mon6s< &ater 0ie.s .ere ou,t&ess proHe!te onto the Bu ha" >e ha0e no means o/ istinguishing .hi!h o/ these stories an sermons are authenti! an .hi!h are in0ente " The s!riptures o not pro0i e us .ith in/ormation that .i&& satis/y the !riteria o/ mo ern s!ienti/i! history" They !an on&y !&aim to re/&e!t a &egen a,out -otama that e;iste some three generations a/ter his eath2 .hen the Pa&i Canon too6 e/initi0e /orm" The &ater Ti,etan an Chinese s!riptures !ertain&y !ontain an!ient materia&2 ,ut they a&so represent a sti&& &ater e0e&opment o/ the &egen " There is a&so the so,ering /a!t that the o& est Pa&i manus!ript to ha0e sur0i0e is on&y a,out )00 years o& " But .e nee not espair" The te;ts o !ontain histori!a& materia& .hi!h seems to ,e re&ia,&e" >e &earn a great ea& a,out North In ia in the /i/th !entury B"C"E"2 .hi!h agrees .ith the s!riptures o/ the Kains2 .ho .ere !ontemporary .ith Bu ha" The te;ts !ontain a!!urate re/eren!es to the re&igion o/ the Ve as2 a,out .hi!h the Bu hists .ho !ompose the &ater s!riptures an the !ommentaries .ere &arge&y ignorant3 .e &earn a,out histori!a& personages2

su!h as King Bim,isara o/ *aga ha2 a,out the emergen!e o/ !ity &i/e2 an a,out the po&iti!a&2 e!onomi! an re&igious institutions o/ the perio .hi!h agrees .ith the is!o0eries ma e ,y ar!heo&ogists2 phi&o&ogists an historians" S!ho&ars are no. !on/i ent that some o/ this s!riptura& materia& pro,a,&y oes go ,a!6 to the 0ery ear&iest Bu hism" To ay it is a&so i//i!u&t to a!!ept the nineteenth1!entury 0ie. that the Bu ha .as simp&y an in0ention o/ the Bu hists" This mass o/ tea!hings a&& has a !onsisten!y an a !oheren!e that point to a sing&e origina& inte&&igen!e2 an it is har to see them as a !orporate !reation" It is not at a&& impossi,&e that some o/ these .or s .ere rea&&y uttere ,y Si hatta -otama2 e0en though .e !annot ,e !ertain .hi!h they are" Another !ru!ia& /a!t emerges /rom this es!ription o/ the Pa&i CanonD it !ontains no !ontinuous narrati0e o/ the Bu ha<s &i/e" Ane! otes are intersperse .ith the tea!hing an simp&y intro u!e a o!trine or a ru&e" Sometimes in his sermons2 the Bu ha te&&s his mon6s a,out his ear&y &i/e or his en&ightenment" But there is nothing &i6e the e0e&ope !hrono&ogi!a& a!!ounts o/ the &i0es o/ *oses or Kesus in the Ke.ish an Christian s!riptures" Later2 Bu hists i .rite e;ten e 2 !onse!uti0e ,iographies" >e ha0e the Ti,etan $a#ita-Vistara Bthir !entury C"E"C an the Pa&i Nidana Katha B/i/th !entury C"E"C2 .hi!h ta6es the /orm o/ a !ommentary on the Jataka stories" The Pa&i Commentaries on the Canon2 put into their /ina& /orm ,y the Thera0a in s!ho&ar Bu haghosa in the /i/th !entury C"E"2 a&so he&pe rea ers to p&a!e the spora i! an un!onse!uti0e e0ents re!ounte in the Canon in some !hrono&ogi!a& or er" But e0en these e;ten e narrati0es ha0e &a!unae2 They !ontain a&most no etai&s a,out the /orty1/i0e years o/ the Bu ha<s tea!hing mission2 a/ter his en&ightenment" The $a#ita-Vistara en s .ith the Bu ha<s /irst sermon2 an the Nidana Katha !on!&u es .ith the /oun ation o/ the /irst Bu hist sett&ement in Sa0atthi2 the !apita& o/ Kosa&a2 at the outset o/ his prea!hing !areer" There are t.enty years o/ the Bu ha<s mission a,out .hi!h .e ha0e no in/ormation at a&&" A&& this .ou& seem to in i!ate that those Bu hists .ho !&aim that the story o/ the histori!a& -otama is irre&e0ant are right" It is a&so true that the peop&e o/ North In ia .ere not intereste in history in our senseD they .ere more !on!erne a,out the meaning o/ histori!a& e0ents" As a resu&t2 the s!riptures gi0e &itt&e in/ormation a,out matters that most mo ern >estern peop&e .ou& !onsi er in ispensa,&e" >e !annot e0en ,e !ertain .hat !entury the Bu ha &i0e in" :e .as tra itiona&&y thought to ha0e ie in a,out 'A% B"C"E"2 ,ut Chinese sour!es .ou& suggest that he !ou& ha0e ie as &ate as %+A B"C"E" >hy shou& any,o y ,other .ith the ,iography o/ -otama2 i/ the Bu hists themse&0es .ere so un!on!erne a,out his &i/e@ But this is not Guite true" S!ho&ars no. ,e&ie0e that the &ater e;ten e ,iographies .ere ,ase on an ear&y a!!ount o/ -otama<s &i/e2 !ompose at the time o/ the Se!on Coun!i&2 .hi!h has ,een &ost" Jurther2 the s!riptures sho. that the /irst Bu hists thought eep&y a,out se0era& !ru!ia& moments in -otama<s ,iographyD his ,irth2 his renun!iation o/ norma& omesti! &i/e2 his en&ightenment2 the start o/ his tea!hing !areer2 an his eath" These .ere in!i ents o/ great importan!e" >e may ,e in the ar6 a,out some aspe!ts o/ -otama<s ,iography2 ,ut .e !an ,e !on/i ent that the genera& out&ine e&ineate ,y these 6ey e0ents must ,e !orre!t" The Bu ha a&.ays insiste that his tea!hing .as ,ase entire&y on his o.n e;perien!e" :e ha not stu ie other peop&e<s 0ie.s or e0e&ope an a,stra!t theory" :e ha ra.n his !on!&usions /rom his o.n &i/e history" :e taught his is!ip&es that i/ they .ante to a!hie0e en&ightenment2 they must a,an on their homes2 ,e!ome men i!ant mon6s2 an pra!ti!e the menta& is!ip&ines o/ yoga2 as he ha one" :is &i/e an tea!hing .ere ine;tri!a,&y !om,ine " :is .as an essentia&&y auto,iographi!a& phi&osophy2 an the main !ontours o/ his &i/e .ere es!ri,e in the s!riptures an !ommentaries as a mo e& an an inspiration to other Bu hists" As he put itD 5:e .ho sees

me2 sees the dhamma Bthe tea!hingC2 an he .ho sees the dhamma sees me"8 There is a sense in .hi!h this is true o/ any maHor re&igious /igure" *o ern Ne. Testament s!ho&arship has sho.n that .e 6no. /ar &ess a,out the histori!a& Kesus than .e thought .e i " 5-ospe& truth8 is not as .atertight as .e assume " But this has not pre0ente mi&&ions o/ peop&e /rom mo e&ing their &i0es on Kesus an seeing his path o/ !ompassion an su//ering as &ea ing to a ne. 6in o/ &i/e" Kesus !ertain&y e;iste 2 ,ut his story has ,een presente in the -ospe&s as a para igm" Christians ha0e &oo6e ,a!6 to him .hen e&0ing into the heart o/ their o.n pro,&ems" In ee 2 it is on&y possi,&e to !omprehen Kesus /u&&y i/ one has in some sense e;perien!e persona& trans/ormation" The same is true o/ the Bu ha2 .ho2 unti& the t.entieth !entury2 .as pro,a,&y one o/ the most in/&uentia& /igures o/ a&& time" :is tea!hing /&ourishe in In ia /or 12)00 years2 an then sprea to Ti,et2 Centra& Asia2 China2 Korea2 Kapan2 Sri Lan6a an Southeast Asia" Jor mi&&ions o/ human ,eings2 he has ,een the person .ho has epitomi9e the human situation" It /o&&o.s that un erstan ing the Bu ha<s &i/e2 .hi!h is to an e;tent /use .ith his tea!hing2 !an he&p us a&& to un erstan the human pre i!ament" But this !annot ,e the sort o/ ,iography .hi!h is usua&&y .ritten in the t.enty1/irst !entury3 it !annot tra!e .hat a!tua&&y happene or is!o0er !ontro0ersia& ne. /a!ts a,out the Bu ha<s &i/e2 sin!e there is not a sing&e in!i ent in the s!riptures that .e !an honest&y a//irm to ,e histori!a&&y true" >hat is histori!a& is the /a!t o/ the &egen 2 an .e must ta6e that &egen .ho&e2 as it ha e0e&ope at the time .hen the Pa&i te;ts too6 their e/initi0e shapes a,out a hun re years a/ter the Bu ha<s eath" To ay2 many rea ers .i&& /in aspe!ts o/ this &egen in!re i,&eD stories o/ go s an mira!&es are intersperse .ith the more mun ane an histori!a&&y pro,a,&e e0ents in -otama<s &i/e" In mo ern histori!a& !riti!ism2 it is usua&&y a ru&e o/ thum, to is!ount mira!u&ous e0ents as &ater a!!retions" But i/ .e o this .ith the Pa&i Canon2 .e istort the &egen " >e !annot ,e !ertain that the more norma& in!i ents are any more origina& to the &egen than these so1!a&&e signs an .on ers" The mon6s .ho e0o&0e the Canon .ou& !ertain&y ha0e ,e&ie0e in the e;isten!e o/ the go s2 e0en though they sa. them as &imite ,eings an 2 as .e sha&& see2 .ere ,eginning to regar them as proHe!tions o/ human psy!ho&ogi!a& states" They a&so ,e&ie0e that pro/i!ien!y in yoga ga0e the yogin e;traor inary 5mira!u&ous8 po.ers BiddhiC" The yogi! e;er!ises traine the min so that it !ou& per/orm e;!eptiona& /eats2 Hust as the e0e&ope physiGue o/ the O&ympi! ath&ete gi0es him po.ers enie to or inary morta&s" Peop&e assume that an e;pert yogin !ou& &e0itate2 rea peop&e<s min s an 0isit other .or& s" The mon6s .ho !ompi&e the Canon .ou& ha0e e;pe!te the Bu ha to ,e a,&e to o these things2 e0en though he himse&/ ha a Haun i!e 0ie. o/ iddhi an /e&t that they shou& ,e a0oi e " As .e sha&& see2 the 5mira!&e stories8 are o/ten !autionary ta&es2 esigne to sho. the point&essness o/ su!h spiritua& e;hi,itionism" *any o/ the stories re!or e in the Pa&i s!riptures ha0e an a&&egori!a& or sym,o&i! meaning" The ear&y Bu hists &oo6e /or signi/i!an!e2 rather than histori!a&&y a!!urate etai&2 in their s!riptures" >e sha&& a&so /in that the &ater ,iographies2 &i6e the one /oun in the Nidana Katha, gi0e a&ternati0e an more e&a,orate a!!ounts o/ su!h in!i ents as -otama<s e!ision to &ea0e his /ather<s house2 or his en&ightenment2 than the more sparse an te!hni!a& narrati0es in the Pa&i Canon" These &ater stories too are e0en more ri!h in mytho&ogi!a& e&ements than the CanonD go s appear2 the earth sha6es2 gates open mira!u&ous&y" Again2 it .ou& ,e a mista6e to imagine that these mira!u&ous etai&s .ere a e to the origina& &egen " These &ater !onse!uti0e ,iographies .ere pro,a,&y ,ase on that &ost a!!ount o/ the Bu ha<s &i/e .hi!h .as !ompose a,out a !entury a/ter his eath2 at the same time that the Canon too6 its e/initi0e /orm" It .ou& not ha0e .orrie the ear&y Bu hists that these o0ert&y mytho&ogi!a& ta&es .ere i//erent /rom those in the Canon" They .ere simp&y a i//erent interpretation o/ these e0ents2 ,ringing out their

spiritua& an psy!ho&ogi!a& meaning" But these myths an mira!&es sho. that e0en the Thera0a in mon6s2 .ho ,e&ie0e that the Bu ha shou& simp&y ,e regar e as a gui e an an e;emp&ar2 .ere ,eginning to see him as a superman" The more popu&ar *ahayana s!hoo& 0irtua&&y ei/ie -otama" It use to ,e thought that the Thera0a a represente a purer /orm o/ Bu hism an that the *ahayana .as a !orruption2 ,ut2 again2 mo ern s!ho&ars see ,oth as authenti!" The Thera0a a !ontinue to stress the importan!e o/ yoga an honore those mon6s .ho ,e!ame Arahants2 5a!!omp&ishe ones8 .ho2 &i6e the Bu ha2 ha a!hie0e en&ightenment" But the *ahayana2 .ho re0ere the Bu ha as an eterna& presen!e in the &i0es o/ the peop&e an as an o,He!t o/ .orship2 ha0e preser0e other 0a&ues that are Hust as strong&y emphasi9e in the Pa&i te;ts2 parti!u&ar&y the importan!e o/ !ompassion" They /e&t that the Thera0a a .as too e;!&usi0e an that the Arahants hugge en&ightenment se&/ish&y to themse&0es" They pre/erre to 0enerate the /igures o/ the Bo hisattas2 the men or .omen estine to ,e!ome Bu has ,ut .ho e/erre en&ightenment in or er to ,ring the message o/ e&i0eran!e to 5the many"8 This2 .e sha&& see2 .as simi&ar to -otama<s o.n per!eption o/ the ro&e o/ his mon6s" Both s!hoo&s ha sei9e upon important 0irtues3 ,oth2 per1 haps2 ha a&so &ost something" -otama i not .ant a persona&ity !u&t2 ,ut para igmati! in i0i ua&s su!h as himse&/2 So!rates2 Con/u!ius2 an Kesus ten to ,e re0ere either as go s or as superhuman ,eings" E0en the Prophet *uhamma 2 .ho a&.ays insiste that he .as an or inary human ,eing2 is 0enerate ,y *us&ims as the Per/e!t *an2 an ar!hetype o/ the !omp&ete a!t o/ surren er Bis#amC to -o " The immensity o/ the ,eing an a!hie0ements o/ these peop&e seeme to e/y or inary !ategories" The Bu ha &egen in the Pa&i Canon sho.e that this .as happening to -otama2 an e0en though these mira!u&ous stories !annot ,e &itera&&y true2 they te&& us something important a,out the .ay human ,eings /un!tion" Li6e Kesus2 *uhamma 2 an So!rates2 the Bu ha .as tea!hing men an .omen ho. to trans!en the .or& an its su//ering2 ho. to rea!h ,eyon human pettiness an e;pe ien!y an is!o0er an a,so&ute 0a&ue" A&& .ere trying to ma6e human ,eings more !ons!ious o/ themse&0es an a.a6en them to their /u&& potentia&" The ,iography o/ a person .ho has ,een !anoni9e in this .ay !annot satis/y the stan ar s o/ mo ern s!ienti/i! history2 ,ut in stu ying the ar!hetypa& /igure presente in the Pa&i Canon an its re&ate te;ts2 .e &earn more a,out human aspiration an gain ne. insight into the nature o/ the human tas6" This para igmati! ta&e e&ineates a i//erent 6in o/ truth a,out the human !on ition in a /&a.e an su//ering .or& " But a ,iography o/ the Bu ha has other !ha&&enges" The -ospe&s present Kesus2 /or e;amp&e2 as a istin!t persona&ity .ith i iosyn!rasies3 spe!ia& turns o/ phrase2 moments o/ pro/oun emotion an strugg&e2 iras!i,i&ity an terror ha0e ,een preser0e " This is not true o/ the Bu ha2 .ho is presente as a type rather than as an in i0i ua&" In his is!ourses .e /in none o/ the su en Guips2 thrusts an .itti!isms that e&ight us in the spee!h o/ Kesus or So!rates" :e spea6s as the In ian phi&osophi!a& tra ition eman sD so&emn&y2 /orma&&y an impersona&&y" A/ter his en&ightenment2 .e get no sense o/ his &i6es an is&i6es2 his hopes an /ears2 moments o/ esperation2 e&ation or intense stri0ing" >hat remains is an impression o/ a transhuman serenity2 se&/1!ontro&2 a no,i&ity that has gone ,eyon the super/i!ia&ity o/ persona& pre/eren!e2 an a pro/oun eGuanimity" The Bu ha is o/ten !ompare to non1human ,eingsLto anima&s2 trees or p&antsLnot ,e!ause he is su,human or inhumane2 ,ut ,e!ause he has utter&y trans!en e the se&/ishness that most o/ us regar as insepara,&e /rom our !on ition" The Bu ha .as trying to /in a ne. .ay o/ ,eing human" In the >est2 .e pri9e in i0i ua&ism an se&/1e;pression2 ,ut this !an easi&y egenerate into mere se&/1promotion" >hat .e /in in -otama is a !omp&ete an

,reathta6ing se&/1a,an onment" :e .ou& not ha0e ,een surprise to &earn that the s!riptures o not present him as a /u&&y1roun e 5persona&ity28 ,ut .ou& ha0e sai that our !on!ept o/ persona&ity .as a angerous e&usion" :e .ou& ha0e sai that there .as nothing uniGue a,out his &i/e" There ha ,een other Bu has ,e/ore him2 ea!h o/ .hom e&i0ere the same dhamma an ha e;a!t&y the same e;perien!es" Bu hist tra ition !&aims that there ha0e ,een t.enty1/i0e su!h en&ightene human ,eings an that a/ter the present histori!a& era2 .hen 6no.&e ge o/ this essentia& truth has /a e 2 a ne. Bu ha2 !a&&e *etteyya2 .i&& !ome to earth an go through the same &i/e1!y!&e" So strong is this ar!hetypa& per!eption o/ the Bu ha that perhaps the most /amous story a,out him in the Nidana Katha, his 5-oing Jorth8 /rom his /ather<s house2 is sai in the Pa&i Canon to ha0e happene to one o/ -otama<s pre e!essors2 Bu ha Vipassi" The s!riptures .ere not intereste in tra!ing -otama<s uniGue2 persona& a!hie0ements ,ut in setting /orth the path that a&& Bu has2 a&& human ,eings must ta6e .hen they see6 en&ightenment" The story o/ -otama has parti!u&ar re&e0an!e /or our o.n perio " >e too are &i0ing in a perio o/ transition an !hange2 as .as North In ia uring the si;th an /i/th !enturies B"C"E" Li6e the peop&e o/ North In ia2 .e are /in ing that the tra itiona& .ays o/ e;perien!ing the sa!re an is!o0ering an u&timate meaning in our &i0es are either i//i!u&t or impossi,&e" As a resu&t2 a 0oi has ,een an essentia& part o/ the mo ern e;perien!e" Li6e -otama2 .e are &i0ing in an age o/ po&iti!a& 0io&en!e an ha0e ha terri/ying g&impses o/ man<s inhumanity to man" In our so!iety too there are .i esprea ma&aise2 ur,an espair an anomie2 an .e are sometimes /ear/u& o/ the ne. .or& or er that is emerging" *any aspe!ts o/ the Bu ha<s Guest .i&& appea& to the mo ern ethos" :is s!rupu&ous empiri!ism is espe!ia&&y !ongenia& to the pragmati! tenor o/ our o.n >estern !u&ture2 together .ith his eman /or inte&&e!tua& an persona& in epen en!e" Those .ho /in the i ea o/ a supernatura& -o a&ien .i&& a&so .arm to the Bu ha<s re/usa& to a//irm a Supreme Being" :e !on/ine his resear!hes to his o.n human nature an a&.ays insiste that his e;perien!esLe0en the supreme Truth o/ Ni,,anaL.ere entire&y natura& to humanity" Those .ho ha0e ,e!ome .eary o/ the into&eran!e o/ some /orms o/ institutiona& re&igiosity .i&& a&so .e&!ome the Bu 1 ha<s emphasis on !ompassion an &o0ing16in ness" But the Bu ha is a&so a !ha&&enge2 ,e!ause he is more ra i!a& than most o/ us" There is a !reeping ne. ortho o;y in mo ern so!iety that is sometimes !a&&e 5positi0e thin6ing"8 At its .orst2 this ha,it o/ optimism a&&o.s us to ,ury our hea s in the san 2 eny the u,iGuity o/ pain in ourse&0es an others2 an to immure ourse&0es in a state o/ e&i,erate heart&essness to ensure our emotiona& sur0i0a&" The Bu ha .ou& ha0e ha &itt&e time /or this" In his 0ie.2 the spiritua& &i/e !annot ,egin unti& peop&e a&&o. themse&0es to ,e in0a e ,y the rea&ity o/ su//ering2 rea&i9e ho. /u&&y it permeates our .ho&e e;perien!e2 an /ee& the pain o/ a&& other ,eings2 e0en those .hom .e o not /in !ongenia&" It is a&so true that most o/ us are not prepare /or the egree o/ the Bu ha<s se&/1a,an onment" >e 6no. that egotism is a ,a thing3 .e 6no. that a&& the great .or& tra itionsLnot Hust Bu hismLurge us to trans!en our se&/ishness" But .hen .e see6 &i,erationLin either a re&igious or se!u&ar guiseL.e rea&&y .ant to enhan!e our o.n sense o/ se&/" A goo ea& o/ .hat passes /or re&igion is o/ten esigne to prop up an en orse the ego that the /oun ers o/ the /aith to& us to a,an on" >e assume that a person &i6e the Bu ha2 .ho has2 apparent&y2 an a/ter a great strugg&e2 0anGuishe a&& se&/ishness2 .i&& ,e!ome inhuman2 humor&ess an grim" ?et that oes not seem to ha0e ,een true o/ the Bu ha" :e may ha0e ,een impersona&2 ,ut the state he a!hie0e inspire an e;traor inary emotion in a&& .ho met him" The !onstant2 e0en re&ent&ess egree o/ gent&eness2 /airness2 eGuanimity2 impartia&ity an serenity a!Guire ,y the

Bu ha tou!h a !hor an resonate .ith some o/ our eepest yearnings" Peop&e .ere not repe&&e ,y his ispassionate !a&m2 not aunte ,y his &a!6 o/ pre/eren!e /or one thing2 one person o0er another" Instea 2 they .ere ra.n to the Bu ha an /&o!6e to him" >hen peop&e !ommitte themse&0es to the regimen that he pres!ri,e /or su//ering humanity2 they sai that they 5too6 re/uge8 .ith the Bu ha" :e .as a ha0en o/ pea!e in a 0io&ent .or& o/ !&amorous egotism" In one o/ the most mo0ing stories in the Pa&i Canon2 a 6ing in a state o/ a!ute epression too6 a ri0e one ay through a par6 /i&&e .ith huge tropi!a& trees" :e ismounte /rom his !arriage an .a&6e among their great roots2 .hi!h .ere themse&0es as ta&& as an or inary man2 an noti!e the .ay that they 5inspire trust an !on/i en!e"8 5They .ere Guiet3 no is!or ant 0oi!es istur,e their pea!e3 they ga0e out a sense o/ ,eing apart /rom the or inary .or& 2 a p&a!e .here one !ou& ta6e re/uge /rom peop&e8 an /in a retreat /rom the !rue&ties o/ &i/e" Loo6ing at these .on er/u& o& trees2 the 6ing .as remin e imme iate&y o/ the Bu ha2 Humpe into his !arriage an ro0e /or mi&es unti& he rea!he the house .here the Bu ha .as staying" The sear!h /or a p&a!e apart2 separate /rom the .or& an yet mar0e&ous&y .ithin it2 that is impartia&2 utter&y /air2 !a&m an .hi!h /i&&s us .ith the /aith that2 against a&& o s2 there is 0a&ue in our &i0es2 is .hat many see6 in the rea&ity .e !a&& 5-o "8 In the person o/ the Bu ha2 .ho ha gone ,eyon the &imitations an partia&ities o/ se&/hoo 2 many peop&e seeme to /in it in a human ,eing" The &i/e o/ the Bu ha !ha&&enges some o/ our strongest !on0i!tions2 ,ut it !an a&so ,e a ,ea!on" >e may not ,e a,&e to pra!ti!e the metho he pres!ri,e in its entirety2 ,ut his e;amp&e i&&uminates some o/ the .ays in .hi!h .e !an rea!h /or an enhan!e an more tru&y !ompassionate humanity" N%t & In Guoting /rom the Bu hist s!riptures2 I ha0e ra.n on the trans&ations ma e ,y other s!ho&ars" But I ha0e paraphrase them myse&/ an pro u!e my o.n 0ersion to ma6e them more a!!essi,&e to the >estern rea er" Some 6ey terms o/ Bu hism are no. !ommon&y use in or inary Eng&ish is!ourse2 ,ut .e ha0e usua&&y a opte the Sans6rit rather than the Pa&i /orms" Jor the sa6e o/ !onsisten!y2 I ha0e 6ept to the Pa&i2 so the rea er .i&& /in kamma, dhamma an Ni,,ana2 /or e;amp&e2 instea o/ karma, dharma an Nir0ana" Chapter 1 - Renunciation the en o/ the si;th !entury B"C"E"2 a young man !a&&e Si hatta -otama .a&6e out o/ his !om/orta,&e home in Kapi&a0atthu in the /oothi&&s o/ the :ima&ayas an too6 to the roa " >e are to& that he .as t.enty1nine years o& " :is /ather .as one o/ the &ea ing men o/ Kapi&a0atthu an ha surroun e -otama .ith e0ery p&easure he !ou& esire3 he ha a .i/e an a son .ho .as on&y a /e. ays o& 2 ,ut -otama ha /e&t no p&easure .hen the !hi& .as ,orn" :e ha !a&&e the &itt&e ,oy #ahu&a2 or 5/etter8D the ,a,y2 he ,e&ie0e 2 .ou& sha!6&e him to a .ay o/ &i/e that ha ,e!ome a,horrent" :e ha a yearning /or an e;isten!e that .as 5.i e open8 an as 5!omp&ete an pure as a po&ishe she&&28 ,ut e0en though his /ather<s house .as e&egant an re/ine 2 -otama /oun it !onstri!ting2 5!ro. e 8 an 5 usty"8 A miasma o/ petty tas6s an point&ess uties su&&ie e0erything" In!reasing&y he ha /oun himse&/ &onging /or a &i/esty&e that ha nothing to o .ith omesti!ity2 an .hi!h the as!eti!s o/ In ia !a&&e 5home&essness"8 The thi!6 &u;uriant /orests that /ringe the /erti&e p&ain o/ the -anges ri0er ha ,e!ome the haunt o/ thousan s o/ men an e0en a /e. .omen .ho ha a&& shunne their /ami&ies in or er to see6 .hat they !a&&e 5the ho&y &i/e8 Bbrahma'ariyaC2 an -otama ha ma e up his min to Hoin them" It .as a romanti! e!ision2 ,ut it !ause great pain to the peop&e he &o0e " -otama<s parents2

he re!a&&e &ater2 .ept as they .at!he their !herishe son put on the ye&&o. ro,e that ha ,e!ome the uni/orm o/ the as!eti!s an sha0e his hea an ,ear " But .e are a&so to& that ,e/ore he &e/t2 Si hatta sto&e upstairs2 too6 one &ast &oo6 at his s&eeping .i/e an son2 an !rept a.ay .ithout saying goo ,ye" It is a&most as though he i not trust himse&/ to ho& true to his reso&0e shou& his .i/e ,eg him to stay" An this .as the nu, o/ the pro,&em2 sin!e2 &i6e many o/ the /orest1mon6s2 he .as !on0in!e that it .as his atta!hment to things an peop&e .hi!h ,oun him to an e;isten!e that seeme mire in pain an sorro." Some o/ the mon6s use to !ompare this 6in o/ passion an !ra0ing /or perisha,&e things to a 5 ust8 .hi!h .eighe the sou& o.n an pre0ente it /rom soaring to the pinna!&e o/ the uni0erse" This may ha0e ,een .hat Si hatta meant .hen he es!ri,e his home as 5 usty"8 :is /ather<s house .as not irty2 ,ut it .as /i&&e .ith peop&e .ho pu&&e at his heart an .ith o,He!ts that he treasure " I/ he .ante to &i0e in ho&iness2 he ha to !ut these /etters an ,rea6 /ree" #ight /rom the start2 Si hatta -otama too6 it /or grante that /ami&y &i/e .as in!ompati,&e .ith the highest /orms o/ spiritua&ity" It .as a per1 !eption share not on&y ,y the other as!eti!s o/ In ia2 ,ut a&so ,y Kesus2 .ho .ou& &ater te&& potentia& is!ip&es that they must &ea0e their .i0es an !hi& ren an a,an on their age re&ati0es i/ they .ante to /o&&o. him" -otama .ou& not2 there/ore2 ha0e agree .ith our !urrent !u&t o/ 5/ami&y 0a&ues"8 Nor .ou& some o/ his !ontemporaries or near1!ontemporaries in other parts o/ the .or& 2 su!h as Con/u!ius B))11'I=C an So!rates B'+=1%==C2 .ho .ere !ertain&y not /ami&y1min e men2 ,ut .ho .ou& 2 &i6e -otama himse&/2 ,e!ome 6ey /igures in the spiritua& an phi&osophi!a& e0e&opment o/ humanity uring this perio " >hy this reHe!tionism@ The &ater Bu hist s!riptures .ou& e0o&0e e&a,orate mytho&ogi!a& a!!ounts o/ -otama<s renun!iation o/ omesti!ity an his 5-oing Jorth8 into home&essness2 an .e sha&& !onsi er these &ater in this !hapter" But the ear&ier te;ts o/ the Pa&i Canon gi0e a star6er 0ersion o/ the young man<s e!ision" >hen he &oo6e at human &i/e2 -otama !ou& see on&y a grim !y!&e o/ su//ering2 .hi!h ,egan .ith the trauma o/ ,irth an pro!ee e ine;ora,&y to 5aging2 i&&ness2 eath2 sorro. an !orruption"8 :e himse&/ .as no e;!eption to this uni0ersa& ru&e" At present he .as young2 hea&thy an han some2 ,ut .hene0er he re/&e!te on the su//ering that &ay ahea 2 a&& the Hoy an !on/i en!e o/ youth raine out o/ him" :is &u;urious &i/esty&e seeme meaning&ess an tri0ia&" :e !ou& not a//or to /ee& 5re0o&te 8 .hen he sa. a e!repit o& man or some,o y .ho .as is/igure ,y a &oathsome i&&ness" The same /ateLor something e0en .orseL.ou& ,e/a&& him an e0ery,o y he &o0e " :is parents2 his .i/e2 his ,a,y son an his /rien s .ere eGua&&y /rai& an 0u&nera,&e" >hen he !&ung to them an yearne ten er&y them2 he .as in0esting emotion in .hat !ou& on&y ,ring him pain" :is .i/e .ou& &ose her ,eauty2 an &itt&e #ahu&a !ou& ie tomorro." To see6 happiness in morta&2 transitory things .as not on&y irrationa&D the su//ering in store /or his &o0e ones as .e&& as /or himse&/ !ast a ar6 sha o. o0er the present an too6 a.ay a&& his Hoy in these re&ationships" But .hy i -otama see the .or& in su!h ,&ea6 terms@ *orta&ity is a /a!t o/ &i/e that is har to ,ear" :uman ,eings are the on&y anima&s .ho ha0e to &i0e .ith the 6no.&e ge that they .i&& ie one ay2 an they ha0e a&.ays /oun this 0ision o/ e;tin!tion i//i!u&t to !ontemp&ate" But most o/ us manage to /in some so&a!e in the happiness an a//e!tion that is a&so part o/ the human e;perien!e" Some peop&e simp&y ,ury their hea s in the san an re/use to thin6 a,out the sorro. o/ the .or& 2 ,ut this is an un.ise !ourse2 ,e!ause2 i/ .e are entire&y unprepare 2 the trage y o/ &i/e !an ,e e0astating" Jrom the 0ery ear&iest times2 men an .omen e0ise re&igions to he&p them !u&ti0ate a sense that our e;isten!e has some u&timate meaning an 0a&ue2 espite the ispiriting e0i en!e to the !ontrary" But sometimes the myths an pra!ti!es o/ /aith

seem in!re i,&e" Peop&e then turn to other metho s o/ trans!en ing the su//erings an /rustrations o/ ai&y &i/eD to art2 musi!2 se;2 rugs2 sport or phi&osophy" >e are ,eings .ho /a&& 0ery easi&y into espair2 an .e ha0e to .or6 0ery har to !reate .ithin ourse&0es a !on0i!tion that &i/e is goo 2 e0en though a&& aroun us .e see pain2 !rue&ty2 si!6ness an inHusti!e" >hen he e!i e to &ea0e home2 -otama2 one might thin62 appeare to ha0e &ost this a,i&ity to &i0e .ith the unpa&ata,&e /a!ts o/ &i/e an to ha0e /a&&en prey to a pro/oun epression" ?et that .as not the !ase" -otama ha in ee ,e!ome isen!hante .ith omesti! &i/e in an or inary In ian househo& 2 ,ut he ha not &ost hope in &i/e itse&/" Jar /rom it" :e .as !on0in!e that there .as a so&ution to the pu99&e o/ e;isten!e2 an that he !ou& /in it" -otama su,s!ri,e to .hat has ,een !a&&e the 5perennia& phi&osophy28 ,e!ause it .as !ommon to a&& peop&es in a&& !u&tures in the pre1mo ern .or& " Earth&y &i/e .as o,0ious&y /ragi&e an o0ersha o.e ,y eath2 ,ut it i not !onstitute the .ho&e o/ rea&ity" E0erything in the mun ane .or& ha 2 it .as thought2 its more positi0e rep&i!a in the i0ine rea&m" A&& that .e e;perien!e here ,e&o. .as mo e&e on an ar!hetype in the !e&estia& sphere3 the .or& o/ the go s .as the origina& pattern o/ .hi!h human rea&ities .ere on&y a pa&e sha o." This per!eption in/orme the mytho&ogy2 ritua& an so!ia& organi9ations o/ most o/ the !u&tures o/ antiGuity an !ontinues to in/&uen!e more tra itiona& so!ieties in our o.n ay" It is a perspe!ti0e that is i//i!u&t /or us to appre!iate in the mo ern .or& 2 ,e!ause it !annot ,e pro0e empiri!a&&y an &a!6s the rationa& un erpinning .hi!h .e regar as essentia& to truth" But the myth oes e;press our in!hoate sense that &i/e is in!omp&ete an that this !annot ,e a&& there is3 there must ,e something ,etter2 /u&&er an more satis/ying e&" A/ter an intense an eager&y a.aite o!!asion2 .e o/ten /ee& that .e ha0e misse something that remains Hust outsi e our grasp" -otama share this !on0i!tion2 ,ut .ith an important i//eren!e" :e i not ,e&ie0e that this 5something e&se8 .as !on/ine to the i0ine .or& o/ the go s3 he .as !on0in!e that he !ou& ma6e it a emonstra,&e rea&ity in this morta& .or& o/ su//ering2 grie/ an pain" Thus2 he reasone to himse&/2 i/ there .as 5,irth2 aging2 i&&ness2 eath2 sorro. an !orruption8 in our &i0es2 these su//erings states must ha0e their positi0e !ounterparts3 there must ,e another mo e o/ e;isten!e2 there/ore2 an it .as up to him to /in it" 5Suppose28 he sai 2 5I start to &oo6 /or the un,orn2 the unaging2 unai&ing2 eath# ss2 sorro.# ss2 in!orrupt an supreme /ree om /rom this ,on age@8 :e !a&&e this .ho&&y satis/a!tory state Ni,,ana B5,& out8C" -otama .as !on0in!e that it .as possi,&e to 5e;tinguish8 the passions2 atta!hments an e&usions that !ause human ,eings so mu!h pain2 rather as .e snu// out a /&ame" To attain Ni,,ana .ou& ,e simi&ar to the 5!oo&ing8 .e e;perien!e a/ter .e re!o0er /rom a /e0erD in -otama<s time2 the re&ate a He!ti0e nibbuta .as a term in ai&y use to es!ri,e a !on0a&es!ent" So -otama .as &ea0ing home to /in a !ure /or the si!6ness that p&agues humanity an .hi!h /i&&s men an .omen .ith unhappiness" This uni0ersa& su//ering .hi!h ma6es &i/e so /rustrating an misera,&e .as not something that .e .ere oome to ,ear /ore0er" I/ our e;perien!e o/ &i/e .as !urrent&y a.ry2 then2 a!!or ing to the &a. o/ ar!hetypes2 there must ,e another /orm o/ e;isten!e that .as n%t !ontingent2 /&a.e an transient" 5There is something that has not !ome to ,irth in the usua& .ay2 .hi!h has neither ,een !reate an .hi!h remains un amage 28 -otama .ou& insist in &ater &i/e" 5I/ it i not e;ist2 it .ou& ,e impossi,&e to /in a .ay out"8 A mo ern person may smi&e at the nai0ete o/ this optimism2 an /in the myth o/ eterna& ar!hetypes .ho&&y in!re i,&e" But -otama .ou& !&aim that he did /in a .ay out an that Ni,,ana i 2 there/ore2 e;ist" Mn&i6e many re&igious peop&e2 ho.e0er2 he i not regar this pana!ea as supernatura&" :e i not re&y on i0ine ai /rom another .or& 2 ,ut .as !on0in!e that Ni,,ana .as a state that .as entire&y natura& to human ,eings an !ou& ,e e;perien!e ,y

any genuine see6er" -otama ,e&ie0e that he !ou& /in the /ree om he sought right in the mi st o/ this imper/e!t .or& " Instea o/ .aiting /or a message /rom the go s2 he .ou& sear!h .ithin himse&/ /or the ans.er2 e;p&ore the /urthest rea!hes o/ his min 2 an e;p&oit a&& his physi!a& resour!es" :e .ou& tea!h his is!ip&es to o the same2 an insiste that no,o y must ta6e his tea!hing on hearsay" They must 0a&i ate his so&utions empiri!a&&y2 in their o.n e;perien!e2 an /in /or themse&0es that his metho rea&&y .or6e " They !ou& e;pe!t no he&p /rom the go s" -otama ,e&ie0e that go s e;iste 2 ,ut .as not mu!h intereste in them" :ere again2 he .as a man o/ his time an !u&ture" The peop&e o/ In ia ha .orshippe go s in the pastD In ra2 the go o/ .ar3 Varuna2 the guar ian o/ the i0ine or er3 Agni2 the /ire go " But ,y the si;th !entury2 these eities ha ,egun to re!e e /rom the re&igious !ons!iousness o/ the most thought/u& peop&e" They .ere not e;a!t&y regar e as .orth&ess2 ,ut they ha ,e!ome unsatis/a!tory as o,He!ts o/ .orship" In!reasing&y2 peop&e .ere a.are that the go s !ou& not pro0i e them .ith rea& an su,stantia& he&p" The sa!ri/i!es per/orme in their honor i not in /a!t a&&e0iate human misery" *ore an more men an .omen e!i e that they must re&y entire&y on themse&0es" They ,e&ie0e that the !osmos .as ru&e ,y impersona& &a.s to .hi!h e0en the go s .ere su,He!t" -o s !ou& not sho. -otama the .ay to Ni,,ana3 he .ou& ha0e to epen upon his o.n e//orts" Ni,,ana .as not2 there/ore2 a p&a!e &i6e the Christian :ea0en to .hi!h a ,e&ie0er .ou& repair a/ter eath" Very /e. peop&e in the an!ient .or& at this point hope /or a ,&iss/u& immorta&ity" In ee 2 ,y -otama<s ay2 the peop&e o/ In ia /e&t imprisone eterna&&y in their present pain/u& mo e o/ e;isten!e2 as .e !an see /rom the o!trine o/ rein!arnation2 .hi!h ha ,e!ome .i e&y a!!epte ,y the si;th !entury" It .as thought that a man or a .oman .ou& ,e re,orn a/ter eath into a ne. state that .ou& ,e etermine ,y the Gua&ity o/ their a!tions BkammaC in their present &i/e" Ba kamma .ou& mean that you .ou& ,e re,orn as a s&a0e2 an anima& or a p&ant3 goo kamma .ou& ensure a ,etter e;isten!e ne;t timeD you !ou& ,e re,orn as a 6ing or e0en as a go " But re,irth in one o/ the hea0ens .as not a happy en ing2 ,e!ause i0inity .as no more permanent than any other state" E0entua&&y2 e0en a go .ou& e;haust the goo kamma .hi!h ha i0ini9e him3 he .ou& then ie an ,e re,orn in a &ess a 0antageous position on earth" A&& ,eings .ere2 there/ore2 !aught up in an en &ess !y!&e o/ samsara B56eeping going8C2 .hi!h prope&&e them /rom one &i/e to another" It soun s &i6e a ,i9arre theory to an outsi er2 ,ut it .as a serious attempt to a ress the pro,&em o/ su//ering2 an !an ,e seen as inherent&y more satis/a!tory than attri,uting human /ate to the /reGuent&y errati! e!isions o/ a persona&i9e go 2 .ho o/ten seems to ensure that the .i!6e prosper" The &a. o/ kamma .as a .ho&&y impersona& me!hanism that app&ie /air&y an .ithout is!rimination to e0ery,o y" But the prospe!t o/ &i0ing one &i/e a/ter another /i&&e -otama2 &i6e most other peop&e in northern In ia2 .ith horror" This is perhaps i//i!u&t to un erstan " To ay many o/ us /ee& that our &i0es are too short an .ou& &o0e the !han!e to o it a&& again" But .hat preo!!upie -otama an his !ontemporaries .as not so mu!h the possi,i&ity o/ re,irth as the horror o/ re eath" It .as ,a enough to ha0e to en ure the pro!ess o/ ,e!oming seni&e or !hroni!a&&y si!6 an un ergoing a /rightening2 pain/u& eath %n' , ,ut to ,e /or!e to go through a&& this again an again seeme into&era,&e an utter&y point&ess" *ost o/ the re&igious so&utions o/ the ay .ere esigne to he&p peop&e e;tri!ate themse&0es /rom samsara an a!hie0e a /ina& re&ease" The /ree om o/ Ni,,ana .as in!on1 !ei0a,&e ,e!ause it .as so /ar remo0e /rom our e0ery ay e;perien!e" >e ha0e no terms to es!ri,e or e0en to en0isage a mo e o/ &i/e in .hi!h there is no /rustration2 sorro. or pain2 an .hi!h is not !on itione ,y /a!tors ,eyon our !ontro&" But In ian sages o/ -otama<s ay .ere

!on0in!e that this &i,eration .as a genuine possi,i&ity" >estern peop&e o/ten es!ri,e In ian thought as negati0e an nihi&isti!" Not so" It .as ,reathta6ing&y optimisti! an -otama share this hope to the /u&&" >hen he &e/t his /ather<s house !&a in the ye&&o. ro,es o/ a men i!ant mon6 .ho ,egge /or his /oo 2 -otama ,e&ie0e that he .as setting out on an e;!iting a 0enture" :e /e&t the &ure o/ the 5.i e open8 roa 2 an the shining2 per/e!t state o/ 5home&essness"8 E0ery,o y spo6e o/ the 5ho&y &i/e8 at this time as a no,&e Guest" Kings2 mer!hants an .ea&thy househo& ers a&i6e honore these bhikkhus B5a&msmen8C an 0ie .ith one another /or the pri0i&ege o/ /ee ing them" Some ,e!ame their regu&ar patrons an is!ip&es" This .as no passing !ra9e" The peop&e o/ In ia !an ,e as materia&isti! as any,o y e&se2 ,ut they ha0e a &ong tra ition o/ 0enerating those .ho see6 the spiritua&2 an they !ontinue to support them" Sti&&2 there .as a spe!ia& urgen!y in the -anges region in the &ate si;th !entury B"C"E" Peop&e i not regar the renun!iants as /ee,&e rop1outs" There .as a spiritua& !risis in the region" The sort o/ isi&&usion an anomie that -otama ha e;perien!e .as .i esprea 2 an peop&e .ere esperate&y a.are that they nee e a ne. re&igious so&ution" The mon6 .as thus engage in a Guest that .ou& ,ene/it his /e&&o.s2 o/ten at huge !ost to himse&/" -otama .as o/ten es!ri,e in heroi! imagery2 suggesting strength2 energy an mastery" :e .as !ompare to a &ion2 a tiger an a /ier!e e&ephant" As a young man2 he .as seen as a 5han some no,&eman2 !apa,&e o/ &ea ing a !ra!6 army or a troop o/ e&ephants"8 Peop&e regar e the as!eti!s as pioneersD they .ere e;p&oring the rea&ms o/ the spirit to ,ring su!!or to su//ering men an .omen" As a resu&t o/ the pre0ai&ing unrest2 many yearne /or a Bu ha2 a man .ho .as 5en&ightene 28 .ho ha 5.o6en up8 to the /u&& potentia& o/ humanity an .ou& he&p others to /in pea!e in a .or& that ha su en&y ,e!ome a&ien an eso&ate" >hy i the peop&e o/ In ia /ee& this is1ease .ith &i/e@ This ma&aise .as not !on/ine to the su,!ontinent2 ,ut a//&i!te peop&e in se0era& /ar1/&ung regions o/ the !i0i&i9e .or& " An in1 !reasing num,er ha !ome to /ee& that the spiritua& pra!ti!es o/ their an!estors no &onger .or6e /or them2 an an impressi0e array o/ propheti! an phi&osophi!a& geniuses ma e supreme e//orts to /in a so&ution" Some historians !a&& this perio B.hi!h e;ten e /rom a,out A00 to 200 B"C"E"C the NA;ia& Age8 ,e!ause it pro0e pi0ota& to humanity" The ethos /orge uring this era has !ontinue to nourish men an .omen to the present ay" -otama .ou& ,e!ome one o/ the most important an most typi!a& o/ the &uminaries o/ the A;ia& Age2 a&ongsi e the great :e,re. prophets o/ the eighth2 se0enth an si;th !enturies3 Con/u!ius an Lao T9u2 .ho re/orme the re&igious tra itions o/ China in the si;th an /i/th !enturies3 the si;th1!entury Iranian sage 4oroaster3 an So!rates an P&ato B!" '2I1%2IC2 .ho urge the -ree6s to Guestion e0en those truths .hi!h appeare to ,e se&/1e0i ent" Peop&e .ho parti!ipate in this great trans/ormation .ere !on0in!e that they .ere on the ,rin6 o/ a ne. era an that nothing .ou& e0er ,e the same again" The A;ia& Age mar6s the ,eginning o/ humanity as .e no. 6no. it" (uring this perio 2 men an .omen ,e!ame !ons!ious o/ their e;isten!e2 their o.n nature an their &imitations in an unpre!e ente .ay" Their e;perien!e o/ utter impoten!e in a !rue& .or& impe&&e them to see6 the highest goa&s an an a,so&ute rea&ity in the epths o/ their ,eing" The great sages o/ the time taught human ,eings ho. to !ope .ith the misery o/ &i/e2 trans!en their .ea6ness2 an &i0e in pea!e in the mi st o/ this /&a.e .or& " The ne. re&igious systems that emerge uring this perio LTaoism an Con/u!ianism in China2 Bu hism an :in uism in In ia2 monotheism in Iran an the *i &e East2 an -ree6 rationa&ism in EuropeL a&& share /un amenta& !hara!teristi!s ,eneath their o,0ious i//eren!es" It .as on&y ,y parti!ipating in this massi0e trans/ormation that the 0arious peop&es o/ the .or& .ere a,&e to progress an Hoin the /

mar!h o/ history" ?et espite its great importan!e2 the A;ia& Age remains mysterious" >e o not 6no. .hat !ause it2 nor .hy it too6 root on&y in three !ore areasD in China3 in In ia an Iran3 an in the eastern *e iterranean" >hy .as it that on&y the Chinese2 Iranians2 In ians2 Ke.s an -ree6s e;perien!e these ne. hori9ons an em,ar6e on this Guest /or en&ightenment an sa&0ation@ The Ba,y&onians an the Egyptians ha a&so !reate great !i0i&i9ations2 ,ut they i not e0o&0e an A;ia& i eo&ogy at this point2 an on&y parti!ipate in the ne. ethos &aterD in Is&am or Christianity2 .hi!h .ere restatements o/ the origina& A;ia& impu&se" But in the A;ia& !ountries2 a /e. men sense /resh possi,i&ities an ,ro6e a.ay /rom the o& tra itions" They sought !hange in the eepest rea!hes o/ their ,eings2 &oo6e /or greater ness in their spiritua& &i0es2 an trie to ,e!ome one .ith a rea&ity that trans!en e norma& mun ane !on itions an !ategories" A/ter this pi0ota& era2 it .as /e&t that on&y ,y rea!hing ,eyon their &imits !ou& human ,eings ,e!ome most /u&&y themse&0es" #e!or e history on&y ,egins in a,out %000 B"C"E"3 unti& that time .e ha0e &itt&e o!umentary e0i en!e o/ the .ay human ,eings &i0e an organi9e their so!ieties" But peop&e a&.ays trie to imagine .hat the 202000 years o/ prehistory ha ,een &i6e2 an to root their o.n e;perien!e in it" A&& o0er the .or& 2 in e0ery !u&ture2 these an!ient ays .ere epi!te in mytho&ogy2 .hi!h ha no histori!a& /oun ation ,ut .hi!h spo6e o/ &ost para ises an prima& !atastrophes" In the -o& en Age2 it .as sai 2 go s ha .a&6e the earth .ith human ,eings" The story o/ the -ar en o/ E en2 re!ounte in the Boo6 o/ -enesis2 the &ost para ise o/ the >est2 .as typi!a&D on!e upon a time2 there ha ,een no ri/t ,et.een humanity an the i0ineD -o stro&&e in the gar en in the !oo& o/ the e0ening" Nor .ere human ,eings i0i e /rom one another" A am an E0e &i0e in harmony2 una.are o/ their se;ua& i//eren!e or o/ the istin!tion ,et.een goo an e0i&" It is a unity that is impossi,&e /or us to imagine in our more /ragmente e;isten!e2 ,ut in a&most e0ery !u&ture2 the myth o/ this prima& !on!or sho.e that human ,eings !ontinue to yearn /or a pea!e an .ho&eness that they /e&t to ,e the proper state o/ humanity" They e;perien!e the a.ning o/ se&/1!ons!iousness as a pain/u& /a&& /rom gra!e" The :e,re. Bi,&e !a&&s this state o/ .ho&eness an !omp&eteness sha#%m3 -otama spo6e o/ Ni,,ana an &e/t his home in or er to /in it" :uman ,eings2 he ,e&ie0e 2 ha &i0e in this pea!e an /u&/i&&ment ,e/ore2 ,ut they ha /orgotten the path that &e to it" As .e ha0e seen2 -otama /e&t that his &i/e ha ,e!ome meaning&ess" A !on0i!tion that the .or& .as a.ry .as /un amenta& to the spiritua&ity that emerge in the A;ia& !ountries" Those .ho too6 part in this trans/ormation /e&t rest&essLHust as -otama i " They .ere !onsume ,y a sense o/ he&p&essness2 .ere o,sesse ,y their morta&ity an /e&t a pro/oun terror o/ an a&ienation /rom the .or& " They e;presse this ma&aise in i//erent .ays" The -ree6s sa. &i/e as a tragi! epi!2 a rama in .hi!h they stro0e /or katharsis an re&ease" P&ato spo6e o/ man<s separation /rom the i0ine2 an yearne to !ast o// the impurity o/ our present state an a!hie0e unity .ith the -oo " The :e,re. prophets o/ the eighth2 se0enth an si;th !enturies /e&t a simi&ar a&ienation /rom -o 2 an sa. their po&iti!a& e;i&e as sym,o&i! o/ their spiritua& !on ition" The 4oroastrians o/ Iran sa. &i/e as a !osmi! ,att&e ,et.een -oo an E0i&2 .hi&e in China2 Con/u!ius &amente the ar6ness o/ his age2 .hi!h ha /a&&en a.ay /rom the i ea&s o/ the an!estors" In In ia2 -otama an the /orest mon6s .ere !on0in!e that &i/e .as dukkhaD it .as /un amenta&&y 5a.ry28 /i&&e .ith pain2 grie/ an sorro." The .or& ha ,e!ome a /rightening p&a!e" The Bu hist s!riptures spea6 o/ the 5terror2 a.e an rea 8 that peop&e e;perien!e .hen they 0enture outsi e the !ity an .ent into the .oo s" Nature ha ,e!ome o,s!ure&y mena!ing2 rather as it ha ,e!ome inimi!a& to A am an E0e a/ter their &apse" -otama i not &ea0e home to !ommune happi&y .ith nature in the .oo s2 ,ut e;perien!e a !ontinuous 5/ear an horror"8 I/

a eer approa!he or i/ the .in rust&e in the &ea0es2 he re!a&&e &ater2 his hair stoo on en " >hat ha happene @ No,o y has /u&&y e;p&aine the sorro. that /ue&e A;ia& Age spiritua&ity" Certain&y men an .omen ha e;perien!e anguish ,e/ore" In ee 2 ta,&ets ha0e ,een /oun in Egypt an *esopotamia /rom !enturies ,e/ore this time that e;press simi&ar isi&&usion" But .hy i the e;perien!e o/ su//ering rea!h su!h a !res!en o in the three !ore A;ia& regions@ Some historians see the in0asions o/ the noma i! In o1European horsemen as a !ommon /a!tor in a&& these areas" These Aryan tri,esmen !ame out o/ Centra& Asia an rea!he the *e iterranean ,y the en o/ the thir mi&&ennium2 .ere esta,&ishe in In ia an Iran ,y a,out 1200 B"C"E" an .ere in China ,y the en o/ the se!on mi&&ennium" They ,rought .ith them a sense o/ 0ast hori9ons an &imit&ess possi,i&ities2 an 2 as a master ra!e2 ha e0e&ope a tragi!a&&y epi! !ons!iousness" They rep&a!e the o& sta,&e an more primiti0e !ommunities2 ,ut on&y a/ter perio s o/ intense !on/&i!t an istress2 .hi!h might a!!ount /or the A;ia& Age ma&aise" But the Ke.s an their prophets ha no !onta!t .ith these Aryan horsemen2 an these in0asions o!!urre o0er mi&&ennia2 .hereas the !hie/ A;ia& trans/ormations .ere remar6a,&y !ontemporaneous" *oreo0er2 the type o/ !u&ture e0e&ope ,y the Aryans in In ia2 /or e;amp&e2 ,ore no re&ation to the !reati0ity o/ the A;ia& Age" By 1000 B"C"E"2 the Aryan tri,esmen ha sett&e o.n an esta,&ishe agri!u&tura& !ommunities in most regions o/ the su,!ontinent" They ominate In ia so!iety to su!h an e;tent that .e no. 6no. a&most nothing a,out the in igenous2 pre1Aryan !i0i&i9ation o/ the In us 0a&&ey" (espite the ynamism o/ its origins2 ho.e0er2 Aryan In ia .as stati! an !onser0ati0e2 &i6e most pre1A;ia& !u&tures" It i0i e the peop&e into /our istin!t !&asses2 simi&ar to the /our estates .hi!h .ou& e0e&op &ater in /eu a& Europe" The brahmins .ere the priest&y !aste2 .ith responsi,i&ity /or the !u&tD they ,e!ame the most" The .arrior ksatriya !&ass .as e0ote to go0ernment an e/ense3 the !aisya .ere /armers an sto!6,ree ers .ho 6ept the e!onomy a/&oat3 an the sudras .ere s&a0es or out!astes .ho .ere una,&e to assimi&ate into the Aryan system" Origina&&y the /our !&asses .ere not here itary3 nati0e In ians !ou& ,e!ome ksatriyas or brahmins i/ they possesse the reGuisite s6i&&s" But ,y -otama<s time2 the strati/i!ation o/ so!iety ha a!Guire a sa!re signi/i!an!e an ,e!ome immuta,&e2 sin!e it .as thought to mirror the ar!hetypa& or er o/ the !osmos" There .as no possi,i&ity o/ !hanging this or er ,y mo0ing /rom one !aste to another" Aryan spiritua&ity .as typi!a& o/ the an!ient2 pre1A;ia& re&igions2 .hi!h .ere ,ase on a!!eptan!e o/ the status Guo2 in0o&0e &itt&e spe!u&ati0e thought a,out the meaning o/ &i/e an sa. sa!re truth as something that .as gi0en an un!hangea,&e3 not sought ,ut passi0e&y re!ei0e " The Aryans !u&ti0ate the rug soma2 .hi!h put the brahmins into a state o/ e!stati! tran!e in .hi!h they 5hear 8 BsrutiC the inspire Sans6rit te;ts 6no.n as the Ve as" These .ere not thought to ,e i!tate ,y the go s ,ut to e;ist eterna&&y an to re/&e!t the /un amenta& prin!ip&es o/ the !osmos" A uni0ersa& &a.2 go0erning the &i0es o/ go s an human ,eings a&i6e2 .as a&so a !ommon /eature o/ an!ient re&igion" The Ve as .ere not .ritten o.n2 sin!e .riting .as un6no.n in the su,!ontinent" It .as2 there/ore2 the uty o/ the brahmins to memori9e an preser0e these eterna& truths /rom one generation to another2 passing o.n this here itary &ore /rom /ather to son2 sin!e this sa!re 6no.&e ge put human ,eings in tou!h .ith brahman, the un er&ying prin!ip&e that ma e the .or& ho&y an ena,&e it to sur0i0e" O0er the !enturies2 Sans6rit2 the &anguage o/ the origina& Aryan tri,esmen2 .as superse e ,y &o!a& ia&e!ts an ,e!ame in!omprehensi,&e to e0ery,o y ,ut the brahminsLa /a!t .hi!h ine0ita,&y enhan!e the brahmins( an prestige" They a&one 6ne. ho. to per/orm the sa!ri/i!ia& ritua& pres!ri,e in the Ve as2 .hi!h .as thought to 6eep the .ho&e .or& in e;isten!e" It .as sai that at the ,eginning o/ time2 a mysterious Creator ha per/orme a prima&

sa!ri/i!e that ,rought go s2 humans an the entire !osmos into e;isten!e" This prime0a& sa!ri/i!e .as the ar!hetype o/ the anima& sa!ri/i!es per/orme ,y the brahmins, .hi!h ga0e them o0er &i/e an eath" E0en the go s epen e upon these sa!ri/i!es an .ou& su//er i/ the ritua& .as "not per/orme !orre!t&y" The .ho&e o/ &i/e there/ore !entere aroun these rites" The brahmins .ere !&ear&y !ru!ia& to the !u&t2 ,ut the ksatriyas an !aisyas a&so ha important ro&es" Kings an no,&emen pai /or the sa!ri/i!es2 an the !aisyas reare the !att&e as 0i!tims" Jire .as o/ great importan!e in Ve i! re&igion" It sym,o&i9e humanity<s !ontro& o0er the /or!es o/ nature2 an the brahmins !are/u&&y ten e three sa!re /ires in shrines" Ea!h househo& er a&so honore his o.n omesti! hearth .ith /ami&y rites" On the 5Guarter8 Bup%sathaC ays o/ ea!h &unar month2 spe!ia& o//erings .ere ma e to the sa!re /ire" On the e0e o/ the up%satha, brahmins an or inary househo& ers a&i6e .ou& /ast2 a,stain /rom se; an .or62 an 6eep night 0igi& at the hearth" It .as a ho&y time2 6no.n as the upa!asatha, .hen the go s 5 .e&t near8 the househo& er an his /ami&y ,esi e the /ire" Ve i! /aith .as thus typi!a& o/ pre1A;ia& re&igion" It i not e0e&op or !hange3 it !on/orme to an ar!hetypa& or er an i not aspire to anything i//erent" It epen e upon e;terna& rites2 .hi!h .ere magi!a& in e//e!t an inten e to !ontro& the uni0erse3 it .as ,ase on ar!ane2 esoteri! &ore 6no.n on&y to a /e." This eep&y !onser0ati0e spiritua&ity sought se!urity in a rea&ity that .as time&ess an !hange&ess" It .as !omp&ete&y i//erent /rom the ne. A;ia& ethos" One nee on&y thin6 o/ So!rates2 .ho .as ne0er !ontent to a!!ept tra itiona& !ertainties as /ina&2 ho.e0er august they might ,e" :e ,e&ie0e that instea o/ re!ei0ing 6no.&e ge /rom outsi e2 &i6e the sruti Ve as2 ea!h person must /in the truth .ithin his o.n ,eing" So!rates Guestione e0erything2 in/e!ting his inter&o!utors .ith his o.n perp&e;ity2 sin!e !on/usion .as the ,eginning o/ the phi&osophi!a& Guest" The :e,re. prophets o0erturne some o/ the o& mythi!a& !ertainties o/ an!ient Israe&D -o .as no &onger automati!a&&y on the si e o/ his peop&e2 as he ha ,een at the time o/ the E;o us /rom Egypt" :e .ou& no. use the -enti&e nations to punish Ke.s2 ea!h o/ .hom ha a persona& responsi,i&ity to a!t .ith Husti!e2 eGuity an /i e&ity" Sa&0ation an sur0i0a& no &onger epen e upon e;terna& rites3 there .ou& ,e a ne. &a. an !o0enant .ritten in the heart o/ ea!h o/ the peop&e" -o eman e mer!y an !ompassion rather than sa!ri/i!e" A;ia& /aith put the onus on the in i0i ua&" >here0er they &oo6e 2 as .e ha0e seen2 the A;ia& sages an prophets sa. e;i&e2 trage y an dukkha& But the truth that they sought ena,&e them to /in pea!e2 espite !rue&ty2 inHusti!e an po&iti!a& e/eat" >e nee on&y re!a&& the &uminous !a&m o/ So!rates uring his e;e!ution ,y a !oer!i0e state" The in i0i ua& .ou& sti&& su//er an ie3 there .as no attempt to a0ert /ate ,y the o& magi!a& means3 ,ut he or she !ou& enHoy a !a&m in the mi st o/ &i/e<s trage ies that ga0e meaning to e;isten!e in su!h a /&a.e .or& " The ne. re&igions sought inner epth rather than magi!a& !ontro&" The sages .ere no &onger !ontent .ith e;terna& !on/ormity ,ut .ere a.are o/ the pro/oun psy!hi! ness that pre!e es a!tion" Cru!ia& .as the esire to ,ring un!ons!ious /or!es an im&y per!ei0e truths into the &ight o/ ay" Jor So!rates2 men a&rea y 6ne. the truth2 ,ut on&y as an o,s!ure memory .ithin3 they ha to a.a6en this 6no.&e ge an ,e!ome /u&&y !ons!ious o/ it ,y means o/ his ia&e!ti!a& metho o/ Guestioning" Con/u!ius stu ie the an!ient !ustoms o/ his peop&e2 .hi!h ha hitherto ,een ta6en /or grante an ha remaine une;amine " No. the 0a&ues that they en1 shrine must ,e !ons!ious&y /ostere in or er to ,e restore to their origina& ra ian!e" Con/u!ius .ante to ma6e e;p&i!it i eas .hi!h ha pre0ious&y ,een mere&y intuite 2 an put e&usi0e2 ha&/1 un erstoo intimations into !&ear &anguage" :uman ,eings must stu y themse&0es2 ana&y9e the reasons /or their /ai&ures an thus /in a ,eauty an or er in the .or& that .as not ren ere meaning&ess ,y the /a!t o/ eath" The A;ia& sages s!rutini9e the o& mytho&ogy an

reinterprete it2 gi0ing the o& truths an essentia&&y ethi!a& imension" *ora&ity ha ,e!ome !entra& to re&igion" It .as ,y ethi!s2 not magi!2 that humanity .ou& .a6e up to itse&/ an its responsi,i&ities2 rea&i9e its /u&& potentia& an /in re&ease /rom the ar6ness that presse in on a&& si es" The sages .ere !ons!ious o/ the past2 an ,e&ie0e that the .or& ha gone a.ry ,e!ause men an .omen ha /orgotten the /un amenta&s o/ e;isten!e" A&& .ere !on0in!e that there .as an a,so&ute rea&ity that trans!en e the !on/usions o/ this .or& L-o 2 Ni,,ana2 the Tao2 brahmanLan sought to integrate it .ithin the !on itions o/ ai&y &i/e" Jina&&y2 instea o/ hugging a se!ret truth to themse&0es as the brahmins ha one2 the A;ia& sages sought to pu,&ish it a,roa " The prophets o/ Israe& spo6e to or inary peop&e in impassione sermons an e&oGuent gestures" So!rates Guestione e0eryone he met" Con/u!ius tra0e&e .i e&y in an attempt to trans/orm so!iety2 instru!ting the poor an hum,&e as .e&& as the no,i&ity" These sages .ere etermine to put their theories to the test" S!ripture .as no &onger the pri0ate possession o/ a priest&y !aste2 ,ut ,e!ame a .ay o/ transmitting the ne. /aith to the mu&titu e" Stu y an e,ate ,e!ame important re&igious a!ti0ities" There .as to ,e no more ,&in a!!eptan!e o/ the status Guo2 an no automati! /ea&ty to re!ei0e i eas" Truth ha to ,e ma e a rea&ity in the &i0es o/ those .ho strugg&e to a!hie0e it" >e sha&& see ho. !&ose&y -otama mirrore the 0a&ues o/ the A;ia& Age2 an ho. he ,rought his o.n spe!ia& genius to ,ear on the human i&emma" The A;ia& trans/ormation .as a&rea y .e&& un er .ay in In ia2 ho.e0er2 .hen he &e/t his home in Kapi&a0atthu" :istorians an s!ho&ars note that a&& these inno0ati0e i eo&ogies .ere !reate in the setting o/ the mar6etp&a!e2 .hi!h ha a!Guire a ne. !entra&ity in the si;th !entury B"C"E" .as passing /rom the o& partnership o/ King an Temp&e to the mer!hants2 .ho .ere e0e&oping a i//erent 6in o/ e!onomy" These so!ia& !hanges !ertain&y !ontri,ute to the spiritua& re0o&ution2 e0en i/ they !annot /u&&y e;p&ain it" The mar6et e!onomy a&so un ermine the status GuoD mer!hants !ou& no &onger e/er o,e ient&y to the priests an aristo!ra!y" They ha to re&y on themse&0es an ,e prepare to ,e ruth&ess in ,usiness" A ne. ur,an !&ass .as !oming into ,eing2 an it .as thrusting2 am,itious an etermine to ta6e its estiny into its o.n han s" It .as !&ear&y in tune .ith the ne.&y emerging spiritua& ethos" The p&ain aroun the ri0er -anges in North In ia2 &i6e the other A;ia& regions2 .as un ergoing this e!onomi! trans/ormation uring -otama<s &i/etime" By the si;th !entury2 the essentia&&y rura& so!iety that ha ,een esta,&ishe ,y the Aryan in0a ers so &ong ago .as ,eing trans/orme ,y the ne. iron1age te!hno&ogy2 .hi!h ena,&e /armers to !&ear the ense /orests an thus open up ne. &an /or !u&ti0ation" Sett&ers poure into the region2 .hi!h ,e!ame ense&y popu&ate an high&y pro u!ti0e" Tra0e&ers es!ri,e the !opious /ruit2 ri!e2 !erea&2 sesame2 mi&&et2 .heat2 grains an ,ar&ey that ga0e the &o!a& peop&e pro u!e in e;!ess o/ their nee s2 an .hi!h they !ou& tra e" The -angeti! p&ain ,e!ame the !enter o/ In i! !i0i&i9ation3 .e hear &itt&e a,out other parts o/ the su,!ontinent uring -otama<s &i/etime" Si; great !ities ,e!ame !enters o/ tra e an in ustryD Sa0atthi2 Sa6eta2 Kosam,i2 Varanasi2 #aHagaha an Champa2 an .ere &in6e ,y ne. tra e routes" The !ities .ere e;!iting p&a!esD their streets ere !ro. e .ith ,ri&&iant&y painte !arriages2 huge e&ephants !arrie mer!han ise to an /rom istant &an s2 an there .as gam,&ing2 theater2 an!ing2 prostitution an a ro. y ta0ern &i/e2 mu!h o/ .hi!h sho!6e the peop&e o/ the near,y 0i&&ages" *er!hants /rom a&& parts o/ In ia an /rom a&& !astes ming&e in the mar6etp&a!e2 an there .as &i0e&y is!ussion o/ the ne. phi&osophi!a& i eas in the streets2 the !ity ha&& an the &u;urious par6s in the su,ur,s" The !ities .ere ominate ,y the ne. menLmer!hants2 ,usinessmen an ,an6ersL.ho no &onger /it easi&y into the o& !aste system an .ere ,eginning to !ha&&enge the brahmins an ksatriyas& This

.as a&& istur,ing ,ut in0igorating" Mr,an .e&&ers /e&t at the !utting e ge o/ !hange" The po&iti!a& &i/e o/ the region ha a&so ,een trans/orme " The -anges ,asin ha origina&&y ,een ru&e ,y a num,er o/ sma&& 6ing oms an ,y a /e. so1!a&&e repu,&i!s .hi!h .ere rea&&y o&igar!hies2 ,ase on the institutions o/ the o& !&ans an tri,es" -otama .as ,orn in Sa66a2 the most norther&y o/ these repu,&i!s2 an his /ather Su ho ana .ou& ha0e ,een a mem,er o/ the sangha, the regu&ar Assem,&y o/ aristo!rats .hi!h go0erne the Sa6yan !&ansmen an their /ami&ies" The Sa6yans .ere notorious&y prou an in epen ent" Their territory .as so remote that Aryan !u&ture ha ne0er ta6en root there2 an they ha no !aste system" But times .ere !hanging" Kapi&a0atthu2 the !apita& o/ Sa66a2 .as no. an important tra ing post on one o/ the ne. mer!anti&e routes" The outsi e .or& ha ,egun to in0a e the repu,&i!2 .hi!h .as gra ua&&y ,eing pu&&e into the mainstream" Li6e the other repu,&i!s o/ *a&&a2 Ko&iya2 Vi eha2 Naya an VaHHi to the east o/ the region2 Sa66a /e&t threatene ,y the t.o ne. monar!hies o/ Kosa&a an *aga ha2 .hi!h .ere aggressi0e&y an ine;ora,&y ,ringing the .ea6er an more o& 1/ashione states o/ the -angeti! p&ain un er their !ontro&" Kosa&a an *aga ha .ere /ar more e//i!ient&y run than the o& repu,&i!s2 .here there .as !onstant in/ighting an !i0i& stri/e" These mo ern 6ing oms ha stream&ine ,ureau!ra!ies an armies .hi!h pro/esse a&&egian!e to the 6ing a&one2 instea o/ to the tri,e as a .ho&e" This meant that ea!h 6ing ha a persona& /ighting ma!hine at his isposa&2 .hi!h ga0e him the to impose or er on his omains an to !onGuer neigh,oring territory" These mo ern monar!hs .ere a&so a,&e to po&i!e the ne. tra e routes e//i!ient&y2 an this p&ease the mer!hants on .hom the e!onomy o/ the 6ing oms epen e " The region enHoye a ne. sta,i&ity2 ,ut at a !ost" *any .ere istur,e ,y the 0io&en!e an ruth&essness o/ the ne. so!iety2 .here 6ings !ou& /or!e their .i&& upon the peop&e2 .here the e!onomy .as /ue&e ,y gree 2 an .here ,an6ers an mer!hants2 &o!6e in aggressi0e !ompetition2 preye upon one another" The tra itiona& 0a&ues seeme to ,e !rum,&ing2 a /ami&iar .ay o/ &i/e .as isappearing2 an the or er that .as ta6ing its p&a!e .as /rightening an a&ien" It .as no .on er that so many peop&e /e&t &i/e .as dukkha, a .or usua&&y trans&ate as 5su//ering28 ,ut .hose meaning is ,etter !on0eye ,y su!h terms as 5unsatis/a!tory28 5/&a.e 28 an 5a.ry"8 In this !hanging so!iety2 the an!ient Aryan re&igion o/ the brahmins seeme in!reasing&y out o/ p&a!e" The o& ritua&s ha suite a sett&e rura& !ommunity2 ,ut .ere ,eginning to seem !um,ersome an ar!hai! in the more mo,i&e .or& o/ the !ities" *er!hants .ere !onstant&y on the roa an !ou& not 6eep the /ires ,urning2 nor !ou& they o,ser0e the up%satha ays" Sin!e these ne. men /it &ess an &ess easi&y into the !aste system2 many o/ them /e&t that they ha ,een pushe into a spiritua& 0a!uum" Anima& sa!ri/i!e ha ma e sense .hen sto!6,ree ing ha ,een the ,asis o/ the e!onomy2 ,ut the ne. 6ing oms epen e upon agri!u&tura& !rops" Catt&e .ere ,e!oming s!ar!e an sa!ri/i!e seeme .aste/u& an !rue&Ltoo reminis!ent o/ the 0io&en!e that no. !hara!teri9e so mu!h o/ pu,&i! &i/e" At a time .hen the ur,an !ommunities .ere ominate ,y se&/1ma e men .ho ha to re&y on themse&0es2 peop&e in!reasing&y resente the ominan!e o/ the brahmins an .ante to !ontro& their o.n spiritua& estiny" *oreo0er2 the sa!ri/i!es i not .or6" The brahmins a&&ege that these ritua& a!tions BkammaC .ou& ,ring the peop&e ri!hes an materia& su!!ess in this .or& 2 ,ut these promise ,ene/its usua&&y /ai&e to materia&i9e" In the ne. e!onomi! !&imate2 peop&e in the !ities .ante to !on!entrate on kamma .hi!h .ou& yie& a soun er in0estment" The mo ern monar!hies an the !ities2 ominate ,y a mar6et e!onomy2 ha ma e the peop&es o/ the -angeti! region high&y !ons!ious o/ the rate o/ !hange" Mr,an .e&&ers !ou& see /or themse&0es that their so!iety .as ,eing rapi &y trans/orme 3 they !ou& measure its progress

an .ere e;perien!ing a &i/esty&e that .as 0ery i//erent /rom the repetiti0e rhythms o/ a rura& !ommunity2 .hi!h .as ,ase on the seasons an .here e0ery,o y i the same things year a/ter year" In the to.ns2 peop&e .ere ,eginning to rea&i9e that their a!tions BkammaC ha &ong1term !onseGuen!es2 .hi!h they themse&0es might not e;perien!e ,ut .hi!h they !ou& see .ou& a//e!t /uture generations" The o!trine o/ rein!arnation2 .hi!h .as o/ Guite re!ent origin2 suite this .or& mu!h ,etter than i the o& Ve i! /aith" The theory o/ kamma state that .e ha no,o y to ,&ame /or our /ate ,ut ourse&0es an that our a!tions .ou& re0er,erate in the 0ery istant /uture" True2 kamma !ou& not re&ease human ,eings /rom the .earisome roun o/ samsara, ,ut goo kamma .ou& yie& a 0a&ua,&e return sin!e it ensure a more enHoya,&e e;isten!e ne;t time" A /e. generations ear&ier2 the o!trine o/ rein!arnation ha ,een a high&y !ontro0ersia& one2 6no.n on&y to an e&ite /e." But ,y -otama<s time2 .hen peop&e ha ,e!ome !ons!ious o/ !ause an e//e!t in an entire&y ne. .ay2 e0ery,o y ,e&ie0e in itLe0en the brahmins themse&0es" But as in the other A;ia& !ountries2 the peop&e o/ northern In ia ha ,egun to e;periment .ith other re&igious i eas an pra!ti!es .hi!h seeme to spea6 more ire!t&y to their a&tere !on itions" Short&y ,e/ore -otama<s ,irth2 a !ir!&e o/ sages in the regions to the .est o/ the -angeti! p&ain stage a se!ret re,e&&ion against the o& Ve i! /aith" They ,egan to !reate a series o/ te;ts .hi!h .ere passe se!ret&y /rom master to pupi&" These ne. s!riptures .ere !a&&e the Upanisads, a tit&e .hi!h stresse the esoteri! nature o/ this re0o&utionary &ore2 sin!e it eri0e /rom the Sans6rit apa-ni-sad Bto sit nearC" The Upanisads ostensi,&y re&ie upon the o& Ve as2 ,ut reinterprete them2 gi0ing them a more spiritua& an interiori9e signi/i!an!e3 this mar6e the ,eginning o/ the tra ition no. 6no.n as :in uism2 another o/ the great re&igions /orme uring the A;ia& Age" The goa& o/ the sages< spiritua& Guest .as the a,so&ute rea&ity o/ brahman, the impersona& essen!e o/ the uni0erse an the sour!e o/ e0erything that e;ists" But brahman .as not simp&y a remote an trans!en ent rea&ity3 it .as a&so an immanent presen!e .hi!h per0a e e0erything that &i0e an ,reathe " In /a!t2 ,y int o/ the Mpanisa i! is!ip&ines2 a pra!titioner .ou& /in that brahman .as present in the !ore o/ his o.n ,eing" Sa&0ation &ay not in anima& sa!ri/i!e2 as the brahmins ha taught2 ,ut in the spiritua& rea&i9ation that brahman, the a,so&ute2 eterna& rea&ity that is higher e0en than the go s2 .as i enti!a& to one<s o.n eepest Se&/ BatmanC" The i ea o/ an eterna& an a,so&ute Se&/ .ou& great&y e;er!ise -otama2 as .e sha&& see" It .as a remar6a,&e insight" To ,e&ie0e that one<s innermost Se&/ .as i enti!a& .ith brahman, the supreme rea&ity2 .as a start&ing a!t o/ /aith in the sa!re potentia& o/ humanity" The !&assi! e;pression o/ this o!trine is /oun in the ear&y "hand%gya Upanisad& The brahmin M a&a6a .ante to sho. his son S0eta6etu2 .ho pri e himse&/ on his 6no.&e ge o/ the Ve as2 the &imitations o/ the o& re&igion" :e as6e S0eta6etu to isso&0e a &ump o/ sa&t in a ,ea6er o/ .ater" The ne;t morning2 the sa&t ha apparent&y 0anishe 2 ,ut2 o/ !ourse2 .hen S0eta6etu sippe the .ater he /oun that the sa&t permeate the .ho&e ,ea6er/u& o/ &iGui 2 e0en though it !ou& not ,e seen" This .as Hust &i6e brahman, M a&a6a e;p&aine 3 you !ou& not see It ,ut ne0erthe&ess It .as there" 5The .ho&e uni0erse has this /irst essen!e BbrahmanC as its Se&/ BatmanC& That is .hat the Se&/ is3 that is .hat y%u are2 S0eta6etu78 This .as re,e&&ious in ee 3 on!e you un erstoo that the A,so&ute .as in e0erything2 in!&u ing yourse&/2 there .as no nee /or a priest&y e&ite" Peop&e !ou& /in the u&timate /or themse&0es2 .ithout !rue&2 point&ess sa!ri/i!es2 .ithin their o.n ,eing" But the sages o/ the Upanisads .ere not a&one in the reHe!tion o/ the o& /aith o/ the brahmins& In the eastern part o/ the -angeti! region2 most o/ the mon6s an as!eti!s .ho &i0e in the /orest .ere un/ami&iar .ith the spiritua&ity o/ the Upanisads, .hi!h .as sti&& an un ergroun 2

esoteri! /aith !entere in the .estern p&ains" Some o/ the ne. i eas ha &ea6e through on a popu&ar &e0e&2 ho.e0er" There .as no ta&6 in the eastern -anges o/ brahman, .hi!h is ne0er mentione in the Bu hist s!riptures2 ,ut a /o&6 0ersion o/ this supreme prin!ip&e ha ,e!ome popu&ar in the !u&t o/ the ne. go Brahma2 .ho2 it .as sai 2 .e&t in the highest hea0en o/ a&&" -otama oes not seem to ha0e hear o/ brahman, ,ut he .as a.are o/ Brahma2 .ho2 as .e sha&& see2 p&aye a ro&e in -otama<s o.n persona& rama" >hen -otama &e/t Kapi&a0atthu2 he hea e /or this eastern region2 tra0e&ing throughout the rest o/ his &i/e in the ne. 6ing oms o/ Kosa&a an *aga ha an in the o& a Ha!ent repu,&i!s" :ere the spiritua& reHe!tion o/ the an!ient Aryan tra itions too6 a more pra!ti!a& turn" Peop&e .ere &ess intereste in metaphysi!a& spe!u&ation a,out the nature o/ u&timate rea&ity an more !on!erne .ith persona& &i,eration" The /orest1 mon6s may not ha0e ,een !on0ersant .ith the trans!en ent brahman, ,ut they &onge to 6no. atman, the a,so&ute Se&/ .ithin2 an .ere e0ising 0arious .ays o/ a!!essing this eterna&2 immanent prin!ip&e" The o!trine o/ the Se&/ .as attra!ti0e ,e!ause it meant that &i,eration /rom the su//ering o/ &i/e .as !&ear&y .ithin rea!h an reGuire no priest&y interme iaries" It a&so suite the in i0i ua&ism o/ the ne. so!iety an its !u&t o/ se&/1re&ian!e" On!e a mon6 ha /oun his rea& Se&/2 he .ou& un erstan at a pro/oun &e0e& that pain an eath .ere not the &ast .or s a,out the human !on ition" But ho. !ou& a mon6 /in this Se&/ an thus gain re&ease /rom the en &ess !y!&e o/ samsara) E0en though the Se&/ .as sai to ,e .ithin ea!h person2 the mon6s ha is!o0ere that it .as 0ery i//i!u&t to /in it" The spiritua&ity o/ the eastern -angeti! region .as mu!h more popu&ist" In the .est2 the Mpanisa i! sages guar e their o!trines /rom the masses3 in the east2 these Guestions .ere eager&y e,ate ,y the peop&e" As .e ha0e seen2 they i not see the men i!ant mon6s as use&ess parasites ,ut as heroi! pioneers" They .ere a&so honore as re,e&s" Li6e the Mpanisa i! sages2 the mon6s e/iant&y reHe!te the o& Ve i! /aith" At the start o/ his Guest2 an aspirant .ent through a !eremony 6no.n as the Pabbajja B5-oing Jorth8CD he ha ,e!ome a person .ho ha &itera&&y .a&6e out o/ Aryan so!iety" The ritua& reGuire that the renun!iant remo0e a&& the e;terna& signs o/ his !aste an thro. the utensi&s use in sa!ri/i!e into the /ire" :en!e/orth2 he .ou& ,e !a&&e a Sannyasin B5Caster1O//8C2 an his ye&&o. ro,e ,e!ame the insignia o/ his re,e&&ion" Jina&&y2 the ne. mon6 ritua&&y an sym,o&i!a&&y s.a&&o.e the sa!re /ire2 as a .ay2 perhaps2 o/ e!&aring his !hoi!e o/ a more interior re&igion" :e ha e&i,erate&y reHe!te his p&a!e in the o& .or& ,y repu iating the &i/e o/ the househo& er2 .hi!h .as the ,a!6,one o/ the systemD the marrie man 6ept the e!onomy going2 pro u!e the ne;t generation2 pai /or the a&&1 important sa!ri/i!es an too6 !are o/ the po&iti!a& &i/e o/ so!iety" The mon6s2 ho.e0er2 !ast asi e these uties an pursue a ra i!a& /ree om" They ha &e/t ,ehin the stru!ture spa!e o/ the home /or the untame /orests3 they .ere no &onger su,He!t to the !onstraints o/ !aste2 no &onger e,arre /rom any a!ti0ity ,y the a!!i ent o/ their ,irth" Li6e the mer!hant2 they .ere mo,i&e an !ou& roam the .or& at .i&&2 responsi,&e to no,o y ,ut themse&0es" Li6e the mer!hants2 there/ore2 they .ere the ne. men o/ the era2 .hose .ho&e &i/esty&e e;presse the heightene sense o/ in i0i ua&ism that !hara!teri9e the perio " In &ea0ing home2 there/ore2 -otama .as not a,Huring the mo ern .or& /or a more tra itiona& or e0en ar!hai! &i/esty&e Bas mon6s are o/ten per!ei0e to ,e oing to ayC2 ,ut .as in the 0anguar o/ !hange" :is /ami&y2 ho.e0er2 !ou& s!ar!e&y ,e e;pe!te to share this 0ie." The repu,&i! o/ Sa66a .as so iso&ate that it .as !ut o// /rom the e0e&oping so!iety that .as up in the -anges p&ain ,e&o. an 2 as .e ha0e seen2 ha not e0en assimi&ate the Ve i! ethos" The ne. i eas .ou& ha0e seeme /oreign to most o/ the Sa6yan peop&e" Ne0erthe&ess2 ne.s o/ the re,e&&ion o/ the /orest1mon6s ha o,0ious&y rea!he the repu,&i! an stirre the

young -otama" As .e ha0e seen2 the Pa&i te;ts gi0e us a 0ery ,rie/ a!!ount o/ his e!ision to &ea0e home2 ,ut there is another more etai&e story o/ -otama<s -oing Jorth2 .hi!h ,rings out the eeper signi/i!an!e o/ the Pa,,aHHa" It is /oun on&y in the &ater e;ten e ,iographies an !ommentaries2 su!h as the Nidana Katha, .hi!h .as pro,a,&y .ritten in the /i/th !entury C"E" But e0en though .e on&y /in this ta&e in the &ater Bu hist .ritings2 it !ou& ,e Hust as o& as the Pa&i &egen s" Some s!ho&ars ,e&ie0e that these &ate2 !onse!uti0e ,iographies .ere ,ase on an o& narrati0e that .as !ompose at a,out the same time that the Pa&i Canon too6 its /ina& shape2 some one hun re years a/ter -otama<s eath" The Pa&i &egen s .ere !ertain&y /ami&iar .ith this story2 ,ut they attri,ute it not to -otama ,ut to his pre e!essor2 the Bu ha Vipassi2 .ho ha a!hie0e en&ightenment in a pre0ious age" So the ta&e is an ar!hetype2 app&i!a,&e to a&& Bu has" It oes not attempt to !ha&&enge the Pa&i 0ersion o/ -otama<s -oing Jorth2 nor oes it purport to ,e histori!a&&y soun 2 in our sense" Instea 2 this o0ert&y mytho&ogi!a& story2 .ith its i0ine inter0entions an magi!a& o!!urren!es2 represents an a&ternati0e interpretation o/ the !ru!ia& e0ent o/ the Pa,,aHHa" This is .hat a&& Bu hasL-otama no &ess than VipassiLha0e to o at the ,eginning o/ their Guest3 in ee 2 e0ery,o y .ho see6s en&ightenment must go through this trans/ormati0e e;perien!e .hen he or she em,ar6s on the spiritua& &i/e" The story is a&most a para igm o/ A;ia& Age spiritua&ity" It sho.s ho. a human ,eing ,e!omes /u&&y !ons!ious2 in the .ay that the A;ia& sages eman e 2 o/ his or her pre i!ament" It is on&y .hen peop&e ,e!ome a.are o/ the ines!apa,&e rea&ity o/ pain that they !an ,egin to ,e!ome /u&&y human" The story in the Nidana Katha is sym,o&i! an has uni0ersa& impa!t2 ,e!ause una.a6ene men an .omen a&& try to eny the su//ering o/ &i/e an preten that it has nothing to o .ith them" Su!h enia& is not on&y /uti&e B,e!ause no,o y is immune to pain an these /a!ts o/ &i/e .i&& a&.ays ,rea6 inC2 ,ut a&so angerous2 ,e!ause it imprisons peop&e in a e&usion that pre!&u es spiritua& e0e&opment" Thus the Nidana Katha te&&s us that .hen &itt&e Si hattha .as /i0e ays o& 2 his /ather Su ho ana in0ite a hun re brahmins to a /east2 so that they !ou& e;amine the ,a,y<s ,o y /or mar6s .hi!h .ou& /orete&& his /uture" Eight o/ the brahmins !on!&u e that the !hi& ha a g&orious /utureD he .ou& either ,e!ome a Bu ha2 .ho a!hie0e the supreme spiritua& en&ightenment2 or a Mni0ersa& King2 a hero o/ popu&ar &egen 2 .ho2 it .as sai 2 .ou& ru&e the .ho&e .or& " :e .ou& possess a spe!ia& i0ine !hariot3 ea!h one o/ its /our .hee&s ro&&e in the ire!tion o/ one o/ the /our Guarters o/ the earth" This >or& Emperor .ou& .a&6 through the hea0ens .ith a massi0e retinue o/ so& iers2 an .ou& 5turn the >hee& o/ #ighteousness28 esta,&ishing Husti!e an right1&i0ing throughout the !osmos" This myth .as !&ear&y in/&uen!e ,y the ne. !u&t o/ 6ingship in the monar!hies o/ Kosa&a an *aga ha" Throughout -otama<s &i/e2 he ha to !on/ront this a&ternati0e estiny" The image o/ the Mni0ersa& *onar!h B'akka!attiC .ou& ,e!ome his sym,o&i! a&ter ego2 the opposite o/ e0erything that he i /ina&&y a!hie0e" The 'akka!atti might ,e an his /eign !ou& e0en ,e ,ene/i!ia& to the .or& 2 ,ut he is not a spiritua&&y en&ightene man2 sin!e his !areer epen s entire&y upon /or!e" One o/ the brahmins, .hose name .as Kon anna2 .as !on0in!e that &itt&e Si hatta .ou& ne0er ,e!ome a 'akka!atti& Instea 2 he .ou& renoun!e the !om/orta,&e &i/e o/ the househo& er an ,e!ome a Bu ha .ho .ou& o0er!ome the ignoran!e an /o&&y o/ the .or& " Su ho ana .as not happy a,out this prophe!y" :e .as etermine that his son ,e!ome a 'akka!atti, .hi!h seeme to him a mu!h more esira,&e option than the &i/e o/ a .or& 1 renoun!ing as!eti!" Kon anna ha to& him that one ay Si hatta .ou& see /our thingsLan o& man2 a si!6 person2 a !orpse an a mon6L.hi!h .ou& !on0in!e him to &ea0e home an 5-o Jorth"8 Su ho ana2 there/ore2 e!i e to shie& his son /rom these istur,ing sightsD guar s

.ere poste aroun the pa&a!e to 6eep a&& upsetting rea&ity at ,ay2 an the ,oy ,e!ame a 0irtua& prisoner2 e0en though he &i0e in &u;ury an ha an apparent&y happy &i/e" -otama<s p&easure1 pa&a!e is a stri6ing image o/ a min in enia&" As &ong as .e persist in !&osing our min s an hearts to the uni0ersa& pain2 .hi!h surroun s us on a&& si es2 .e remain &o!6e in an un e0e&ope 0ersion o/ ourse&0es2 in!apa,&e o/ an spiritua& insight" The young Si hatta .as &i0ing in a e&usion2 sin!e his 0ision o/ the .or& i not !oin!i e .ith the .ay things rea&&y .ere" Su ho ana is an e;amp&e o/ e;a!t&y the 6in o/ authority /igure that &ater Bu hist tra ition .ou& !on emn" :e /or!e his o.n 0ie. upon his son an re/use to &et him ma6e up his o.n min " This type o/ !oer!ion !ou& on&y impe e en&ightenment2 sin!e it traps a person in a se&/ .hi!h is inauthenti! an in an in/anti&e2 una.a6ene state" The go s2 ho.e0er2 e!i e to inter0ene" They 6ne. that e0en though his /ather re/use to a!!ept it2 -otama .as a Bo hisatta2 a man .ho .as estine to ,e!ome a Bu ha" The go s !ou& not themse&0es &ea -otama to en&ightenment2 o/ !ourse2 sin!e they .ere a&so !aught up in samsara an nee e a Bu ha to tea!h them the .ay to /in re&ease as a!ute&y as any human ,eing" But the go s !ou& gi0e the Bo hisatta a mu!h1nee e nu ge" >hen he ha rea!he the age o/ t.enty1nine2 they e!i e that he ha &i0e in this /oo&<s para ise &ong enough2 so they sent into the p&easure1par6 one o/ their o.n num,er2 isguise as a seni&e o& man2 .ho .as a,&e to use his i0ine po.ers to e&u e Su ho ana<s guar s" >hen -otama sa. this o& man2 .hi&e ri0ing in the par62 he .as horri/ie an ha to as6 Channa2 the !harioteer2 .hat ha happene to the man" Channa e;p&aine that he .as simp&y o& D e0ery,o y .ho &i0e &ong enough .ent into a simi&ar e!&ine" -otama returne to the pa&a!e in a state o/ eep istress" >hen he hear .hat ha happene 2 Su ho ana re ou,&e the guar an trie to istra!t his son .ith ne. p&easuresL,ut to no a0ai&" On t.o /urther o!!asions2 go s appeare to -otama in the guise o/ a si!6 man an a !orpse" Jina&&y2 -otama an Channa ro0e past a go resse in the ye&&o. ro,e o/ a mon6" Inspire ,y the go s2 Channa to& -otama that this .as a man .ho ha renoun!e the .or& 2 an he praise the as!eti! &i/e so passionate&y that -otama returne home in a 0ery thought/u& moo " That night2 he .o6e to /in that the minstre&s an an!ers .ho ha ,een entertaining him that e0ening ha /a&&en as&eep" A&& aroun his !ou!h2 ,eauti/u& .omen &ay in isarrayD 5Some .ith their ,o ies s&i!6 .ith ph&egm an spitt&e3 others .ere grin ing their teeth2 an muttering an ta&6ing in!oherent&y in their s&eep3 others &ay .ith their mouths .i e open"8 A shi/t ha o!!urre in -otama<s 0ie. o/ the .or& " No. that he .as a.are o/ the su//ering that &ay in .ait /or e0ery sing&e ,eing .ithout e;!eption2 e0erything seeme ug&yL e0en repe&&ent" The 0ei& that ha !on!ea&e &i/e<s pain ha ,een torn asi e an the uni0erse seeme a prison o/ pain an point&essness" 5:o. oppressi0e an sti/&ing it is78 -otama e;!&aime " :e &eapt out o/ ,e an reso&0e to 5-o Jorth8 that 0ery night" It is a&.ays tempting to try to shut out the su//ering that is an ines!apa,&e part o/ the human !on ition2 ,ut on!e it has ,ro6en through the N!autionary ,arri!a es .e ha0e ere!te against it2 .e !an ne0er see the .or& in the same .ay again" Li/e seems meaning&ess2 an an A;ia& Age pioneer .i&& /ee& !ompe&&e to ,rea6 out o/ the o& a!!epte patterns an try to /in a ne. .ay o/ !oping .ith this pain" On&y .hen he ha /oun an inner ha0en o/ pea!e .ou& &i/e seem meaning/u& an 0a&ua,&e on!e more" -otama ha permitte the spe!ta!&e o/ dukkha to in0a e his &i/e an to tear his .or& apart" :e ha smashe the har !arapa!e in .hi!h so many o/ us en!ase ourse&0es in or er to 6eep sorro. at a istan!e" But on!e he ha &et su//ering in2 his Guest !ou& ,egin" Be/ore &ea0ing home2 he !rept upstairs to ta6e one &ast &oo6 at his s&eeping .i/e an their ,a,y2 ,ut !ou& not ,ring himse&/ to say goo ,ye" Then he sto&e out o/ the pa&a!e" :e sa &e his horse Kantha6a an ro e through the !ity2 .ith Channa !&inging to the horse<s tai& in a esperate

attempt to pre0ent his eparture" The go s opene the !ity gates to &et him out2 an on!e he .as outsi e Kapi&a0atthu2 -otama sha0e his hea an put on the ye&&o. ro,e" Then he sent Channa an Kantha6a ,a!6 to his /ather<s house2 an 2 .e are to& in another Bu hist &egen 2 the horse ie o/ a ,ro6en heart2 ,ut .as re,orn in one o/ the hea0ens o/ the !osmos as a go 2 as a /or his part in the Bu ha<s en&ightenment" Be/ore he !ou& ,egin his Guest in earnest2 -otama ha to un ergo one &ast temptation" Su en&y2 *ara2 the Lor o/ this .or& 2 the go o/ sin2 gree an eath2 erupte threatening&y ,e/ore him" 5(on<t ,e!ome a mon67 (on<t renoun!e the .or& 78 *ara ,egge " I/ -otama .ou& stay at home /or Hust one more .ee62 he .ou& ,e!ome a 'akka!atti an ru&e the .ho&e .or& " Thin6 .hat goo he !ou& o7 :e !ou& en &i/e<s su//ering .ith his ,ene0o&ent go0ernment" This .as2 ho.e0er2 the easy option an a e&usion2 ,e!ause pain !an ne0er ,e !onGuere ,y /or!e" It .as the suggestion o/ an unen&ightene ,eing2 an throughout -otama<s &i/e2 *ara .ou& try to impe e his progress an tempt him to & his stan ar s" That night2 -otama .as easi&y a,&e to ignore *ara<s suggestion2 ,ut the angry go re/use to gi0e up" 5I .i&& !at!h you28 he .hispere to himse&/2 5the 0ery /irst time you ha0e a gree y2 spite/u& or un6in thought"8 :e /o&&o.e -otama aroun 5&i6e an e0er1present sha o.28 to trap him in a moment o/ .ea6ness" Long a/ter -otama ha attaine the supreme en&ightenment2 he sti&& ha to ,e on his guar against *ara2 .ho represents .hat Kungian psy!ho&ogists .ou& 2 perhaps2 !a&& his sha o.1si e2 a&& the un!ons!ious e&ements .ithin the psy!he .hi!h /ight against our &i,eration" En&ightenment is ne0er easy" It is /rightening to &ea0e our o& se&0es ,ehin 2 ,e!ause they are the on&y .ay .e 6no. ho. to &i0e" E0en i/ the /ami&iar is unsatis/a!tory2 .e ten to !&ing to it ,e!ause .e are a/rai o/ the un6no.n" But the ho&y &i/e that -otama ha un erta6en eman e that he &ea0e ,ehin e0erything he &o0e an e0erything that ma e up his unregenerate persona&ity" At e0ery turn2 he ha to !onten .ith that part o/ himse&/ Bsym,o&i9e ,y *araC .hi!h shran6 /rom this tota& se&/1a,an onment" -otama .as &oo6ing /or a .ho&&y i//erent .ay o/ &i0ing as a human ,eing2 an to ,ring this ne. se&/ to ,irth .ou& eman a &ong2 i//i!u&t &a,or" It .ou& a&so eman s6i&&2 an -otama set o// to /in a tea!her .ho !ou& instru!t him in the path to En&ightenment" Chapter 2 - Quest ha &e/t the remote repu,&i! o/ Sa66a ,ehin an entere the King om o/ *aga ha2 he ha arri0e at the heart o/ the ne. !i0i&i9ation" Jirst2 the Pa&i &egen te&&s us2 he staye /or a .hi&e outsi e #aHagaha2 the !apita& o/ *aga ha an one o/ the most o/ the e0e&oping !ities" >hi&e ,egging /or his /oo 2 he is sai to ha0e !ome to the attention o/ no &ess a person than King Bim,isara himse&/2 .ho .as so impresse ,y the young Sa6yan bhikkhu that he .ante to ma6e him his heir" This is !&ear&y a /i!tiona& em,e&&ishment o/ -otama<s /irst 0isit to #aHagaha2 ,ut the in!i ent high&ights an important aspe!t o/ his /uture mission" -otama ha ,e&onge to one o/ the &ea ing /ami&ies in Kapi&a0atthu an /e&t Guite at ease .ith 6ings an aristo!rats" There ha ,een no !aste system in Sa66a2 ,ut on!e he arri0e in the mainstream so!iety o/ the region2 he presente himse&/ as a ksatriya, a mem,er o/ the !aste responsi,&e /or go0ernment" But -otama .as a,&e to &oo6 at the stru!tures o/ Ve i! so!iety .ith the o,He!ti0ity o/ an outsi er" :e ha not ,een ,rought up to re0ere the brahmins an ne0er /e&t at a isa 0antage .ith them3 &ater2 .hen he /oun e his Or er2 he reHe!te any rigi !ategori9ation on groun s o/ here ity" This !riti!a& stan!e .ou& stan him in goo stea in the !ities2 .here the

!aste system .as isintegrating" It is a&so signi/i!ant that -otama<s /irst port o/ !a&& .as not a remote hermitage ,ut a ,ig in ustria& !ity" :e .ou& spen most o/ his .or6ing &i/e in the to.ns an !ities o/ the -anges2 .here there .as .i esprea ma&aise an ,e.i& erment resu&ting /rom the !hange an uphea0a& that ur,ani9ation ,rought .ith it2 an .here !onseGuent&y there .as mu!h spiritua& hunger" -otama i not spen &ong in #aHagaha on this /irst 0isit2 ,ut set o// in sear!h o/ a tea!her .ho !ou& gui e him through his spiritua& apprenti!eship an tea!h him the ru iments o/ the ho&y &i/e" In Sa66a2 -otama ha pro,a,&y seen 0ery /e. mon6s2 ,ut as soon as he starte to tra0e& a&ong the ne. tra e routes that &in6e the !ities o/ the region2 he .ou& ha0e ,een stru!6 ,y the &arge !ro. s o/ .an ering bhikkhus in their ye&&o. ro,es2 !arrying their ,egging ,o.&s an .a&6ing ,esi e the mer!hants" In the to.ns2 he .ou& ha0e .at!he them stan ing si&ent&y in the oor.ays o/ the houses2 not as6ing /or /oo ire!t&y ,ut simp&y ho& ing out their ,o.&s2 .hi!h the househo& ers2 an;ious to a!Guire merit that .ou& earn them a goo re,irth2 .ere usua&&y g&a to /i&& .ith &e/to0ers" >hen -otama &e/t the roa to s&eep in the /orests o/ ,anyan2 e,ony an pa&m trees that s6irte the !u&ti0ate &an 2 he .ou& ha0e !ome a!ross ,an s o/ mon6s &i0ing together in en!ampments" Some o/ them ha ,rought their .i0es a&ong an ha set up a househo& in the .i& 2 .hi&e they pursue the ho&y &i/e" There .ere e0en some brahmins .ho ha un erta6en the 5no,&e Guest28 sti&& ten ing the three sa!re /ires an see6ing en&ightenment in a more stri!t&y Ve i! !onte;t" (uring the monsoon rains2 .hi!h hit the region in mi 1Kune an &aste .e&& into Septem,er2 tra0e& ,e!ame impossi,&e2 an many o/ the mon6s use to &i0e together in the /orests or in the su,ur,an par6s an !emeteries unti& the /&oo s su,si e an the roa s ,e!ame passa,&e again" By the time -otama !ame to Hoin them2 the .an ering bhikkhus .ere a nota,&e /eature o/ the &an s!ape an a /or!e to ,e re!6one .ith in so!iety" Li6e the mer!hants2 they ha a&most ,e!ome a /i/th !aste" In the ear&y ays2 many ha a opte this spe!ia& aji!a 0o!ation !hie/&y to es!ape /rom the ru gery o/ omesti!ity an a regu&ar Ho," There .ere a&.ays some renoun!ers .ho .ere !hie/&y ropouts2 e,tors2 ,an6rupts an /ugiti0es /rom Husti!e" But ,y the time -otama em,ar6e on his Guest2 they .ere ,e!oming more organi9e an e0en the most un!ommitte mon6s ha to pro/ess an i eo&ogy that Husti/ie their e;isten!e" :en!e a num,er o/ i//erent s!hoo&s ha e0e&ope " In the e//i!ient ne. 6ing oms o/ Kosa&a an *aga ha2 the go0ernment ha ,egun to e;er!ise more !ontro& o0er the inha,itants an .ou& not a&&o. peop&e to em,ra!e an a&ternati0e &i/esty&e that ma e no !ontri,ution to so!iety as a .ho&e" The mon6s ha to pro0e that they .ere not parasites2 ,ut phi&osophers .hose ,e&ie/s !ou& impro0e the spiritua& hea&th o/ the !ountry" *ost o/ the ne. i eo&ogies !entere on the o!trine o/ rein!arnation an kamma: their o,He!t .as to gain &i,eration /rom the !ease&ess roun o/ samsara that prope&&e them /rom one e;isten!e to another" The Upanisads ha taught that the !hie/ !ause o/ su//ering .as ignoran!eD on!e a see6er ha a!Guire a eep 6no.&e ge o/ his true an a,so&ute Se&/ BatmanC2 he .ou& /in that he no &onger e;perien!e pain so a!ute&y an ha0e intimations o/ a /ina& re&ease" But the mon6s o/ *aga ha2 Kosa&a an the repu,&i!s to the east o/ the -angeti! p&ain .ere more intereste in pra!ti!a&ities" Instea o/ regar ing ignoran!e as the !hie/ !ause o/ dukkha, they sa. esire BtanhaC as the !hie/ !u&prit" By esire they i not mean those no,&e yearnings that inspire human ,eings to su!h inspiring an e&e0ating pursuits as the ho&y &i/e2 ,ut the type o/ !ra0ing that ma6es us say 5I .ant"8 They .ere 0ery .orrie ,y the gree an egotism o/ the ne. so!iety" They .ere2 as .e ha0e seen2 men o/ their time an ha im,i,e the ethos o/ in i0i 1 ua&ism an se&/1re&ian!e that .as emerging in the mar6etp&a!e2 ,ut2 &i6e the other sages o/ the A;ia& Age2 they 6ne. that egotism !ou& ,e angerous" The mon6s o/ the eastern -anges .ere

!on0in!e that it .as this thirsty tanha that 6ept peop&e ,oun to samsara& They reasone that a&& our a!tions .ere2 to an e;tent2 inspire ,y esire" >hen .e /oun that .e .ante something2 .e too6 steps to get it3 .hen a man &uste /or a .oman2 he too6 the trou,&e to se u!e her3 .hen peop&e /e&& in &o0e2 they .ante to possess the ,e&o0e an !&ung an yearne !ompu&si0e&y" No,o y .ou& ,other to o an ar uous an /reGuent&y ,oring Ho, in or er to earn a &i0ing un&ess he or she .ante materia& !om/orts" So esire /ue&e peop&e<s a!tions BkammaC, ,ut e0ery sing&e a!tion ha &ong1term !onseGuen!es an !on itione the 6in o/ e;isten!e the person .ou& ha0e in his or her ne;t &i/e" It /o&&o.e that kamma &e to re,irth3 i/ .e !ou& a0oi per/orming any a!tions at a&&2 .e might ha0e a !han!e o/ &i,erating ourse&0es /rom the !y!&e o/ ne. ,irth2 su//ering an re1 eath" But our esires impe&&e us to a!t2 so2 the mon6s !on!&u e 2 i/ .e !ou& e&iminate tanha /rom our hearts an min s2 .e .ou& per/orm / kamma& But a househo& er ha no !han!e o/ ri ing himse&/ o/ esire" :is .ho&e &i/e !onsiste o/ one oome a!ti0ity a/ter another" It .as his uty as a marrie man to ,eget o//spring2 an .ithout some egree o/ &ust2 he .ou& not ,e a,&e to s&eep .ith his .i/e" Mn&ess he /e&t a mo i!um o/ gree 2 he !ou& not engage in tra e or in ustry .ith any su!!ess or !on0i!tion" I/ he .as a 6ing or a ksatriya, he .ou& ,e Guite una,&e to go0ern or .age .ar against his enemies i/ he ha no esire /or" In ee 2 .ithout tanha an the a!tions BkammaC that resu&te /rom it2 so!iety .ou& !ome to a ha&t" A househo& er<s &i/e2 ominate as it .as ,y &ust2 gree an am,ition2 !ompe&&e him to a!ti0ities that ,oun him to the .e, o/ e;isten!eD ine0ita,&y2 he .ou& ,e ,orn again to en ure another &i/e o/ pain" True2 a househo& er !ou& a!Guire merit ,y per/orming goo kamma& :e !ou& gi0e a&ms to a bhikkhu, /or e;amp&e2 an thus ,ui& up a reser0e o/ !re it that !ou& ,ene/it him in the /uture" But ,e!ause a&& kamma .ere &imite 2 they !ou& on&y ha0e /inite !onseGuen!es" They !ou& not ,ring the househo& er to the immeasura,&e pea!e o/ Ni,,ana" The ,est that our kamma !ou& o /or us .as to ensure that in the ne;t &i/e .e might ,e re,orn as a go in one o/ the hea0en&y .or& s2 ,ut e0en that !e&estia& e;isten!e .ou& !ome to an en one ay" ConseGuent&y2 the en &ess roun o/ uties an responsi,i&ities that ma e up a househo& er<s &i/e ,e!ame a sym,o& o/ samsara an o/ e;!&usion /rom ho&iness" Tie to this trea mi&& o/ /ate/u& a!ti0ity2 the househo& er ha no hope o/ &i,eration" But the mon6 .as in a ,etter position" :e ha gi0en up se;3 he ha no !hi& ren or epen ents to support2 an nee not o a Ho, or engage in tra e" Compare .ith the househo& er2 he enHoye a re&ati0e&y a!tion1/ree &i/e" But e0en though he per/orme / kamma, the mon6 sti&& e;perien!e esires .hi!h tie him to this &i/e" E0en the most !ommitte mon6 6ne. that he ha not &i,erate himse&/ /rom !ra0ing" :e .as sti&& a//&i!te ,y &ust2 an sti&& yearne o!!asiona&&y /or a &itt&e !om/ort in his &i/e" In ee 2 epri0ation sometimes in!rease esire" :o. !ou& a mon6 &i,erate himse&/@ :o. !ou& he gain a!!ess to his true Se&/ an /ree it /rom the materia& .or& 2 .hen2 espite his ,est en ea0ors2 he sti&& /oun himse&/ han6ering /or earth&y things@ A num,er o/ i//erent so&utions emerge in the main monasti! s!hoo&s" A tea!her e0e&ope a dhamma, a system o/ o!trine an is!ip&ine2 .hi!h2 he ,e&ie0e 2 .ou& ea& .ith these intra!ta,&e i//i!u&ties" :e then gathere a group o/ is!ip&es2 an /orme .hat .as 6no.n as a sangha or gana Bo& Ve i! terms /or tri,a& groupings in the regionC" These sanghas .ere not tight&y 6nit ,o ies2 &i6e mo ern re&igious or ers" They ha &itt&e or no !ommon &i/e2 no /orma& ru&e o/ !on u!t2 an mem,ers !ame an .ent as they !hose" There .as nothing to stop a mon6 /rom ropping his tea!her as soon as he /oun a more !ongenia& dhamma, an the mon6s seeme to shop aroun to /in the ,est tea!her they !ou& " It ,e!ame !ustomary /or the bhikkhus to hai& one another on the roa 2 as6ingD 5>ho is your tea!her@ An .hi!h dhamma o you /o&&o.@8

As -otama tra0e&e through *aga ha an Kosa&a2 he himse&/ .ou& pro,a,&y ha0e !a&&e out to passing mon6s in this .ay2 ,e!ause he .as &oo6ing /or a tea!her an a sangha& Initia&&y2 he might ha0e /oun the !&ash o/ i eo&ogies !on/using" The sanghas .ere !ompetiti0e an promote their dhammas as aggressi0e&y as mer!hants pushe their .ares in the mar6etp&a!e" 4ea&ous is!ip&es may .e&& ha0e !a&&e their tea!hers 5Bu has8 B5En&ightene Ones8C or 5Tea!her o/ -o s an *en"8 As in the other A;ia& !ountries2 there .as a /erment o/ e,ate2 mu!h sophisti!ate argument an a great ea& o/ pu,&i! interest in the issues" The re&igious &i/e .as not the preser0e o/ a /e. e!!entri! /anati!s2 ,ut .as a matter o/ !on!ern to e0ery,o y" Tea!hers e,ate .ith one another in the !ity ha&&s3 !ro. s .ou& gather to hear a pu,&i! sermon"Lay peop&e too6 si es2 supporting one sangha against the others" >hen the &ea er o/ one o/ the sanghas arri0e in to.n2 househo& ers2 mer!hants an go0ernment o//i!ia&s .ou& see6 him out2 interrogate him a,out his dhamma, an is!uss its merits .ith the same 6in o/ enthusiasm .ith .hi!h peop&e is!uss /oot,a&& teams to ay" The &aity !ou& appre!iate the /iner points in these e,ates2 ,ut their interest .as ne0er theoreti!a&" #e&igious 6no.&e ge in In ia ha one !riterionD i it .or6@ >ou& it trans/orm an in i0i ua&2 mitigate the pain o/ &i/e2 ,ring pea!e an hope o/ a /ina& re&ease@ No,o y .as intereste in metaphysi!a& o!trine /or its o.n sa6e" A dhamma ha to ha0e a pra!ti!a& orientation3 near&y a&& the i eo&ogies o/ the /orest1mon6s2 /or e;amp&e2 trie to mitigate the aggression o/ the ne. so!iety2 promoting the ethi! o/ ahimsa Bharm&essnessC2 .hi!h a 0o!ate gent&eness an a//a,i&ity" Thus the AHi0a6as2 .ho /o&&o.e the tea!hers *a66a&i -osa&a an Purana Kassapa2 enie the !urrent theory o/ kamma: they ,e&ie0e that e0ery,o y .ou& e0entua&&y enHoy &i,eration /rom samsara, e0en though this pro!ess !ou& ta6e thousan s o/ years" Ea!h person ha to pass through a /i;e num,er o/ &i0es an e;perien!e e0ery /orm o/ &i/e" The point o/ this dhamma .as to !u&ti0ate pea!e o/ min 3 there .as no point in .orrying a,out the /uture2 sin!e e0erything .as pre estine " In a simi&ar spirit2 the *ateria&ists2 &e ,y the sage AHita2 enie the o!trine o/ rein!arnation2 arguing that sin!e human ,eings .ere .ho&&y physi!a& !reatures2 they .ou& simp&y return to the e&ements a/ter eath" The .ay you ,eha0e .as a matter o/ no importan!e2 there/ore2 sin!e e0ery,o y ha the same /ate3 ,ut it .as pro,a,&y ,etter to /oster goo .i&& an happiness ,y oing as one p&ease an per/orming on&y those kamma .hi!h /urthere those en s" SanHaya2 the &ea er o/ the S6epti!s2 reHe!te the possi,i&ity o/ any /ina& truth an taught that a&& kamma shou& aim at !u&ti0ating /rien ship an pea!e o/ min " Sin!e a&& truth .as re&ati0e2 is!ussion !ou& &ea on&y to a!rimony an shou& ,e a0oi e " The Kains2 &e in -otama<s &i/etime ,y Var hamana Knatiputra2 6no.n as *aha0ira Bthe -reat :eroC2 ,e&ie0e that ,a kamma !o0ere the sou& .ith a /ine ust2 .hi!h .eighe it o.n" Some2 there/ore2 trie to a0oi any a!ti0ity .hatsoe0er2 espe!ia&&y those kamma .hi!h might inHure another !reatureLe0en a p&ant or an inse!t" Some Kains trie to remain immo,i&e2 &est they ina 0ertent&y trea on a sti!6 or spi&& a rop o/ .ater2 sin!e these & /orms o/ &i/e a&& !ontaine &i0ing sou&s2 trappe ,y ,a kamma per/orme in pre0ious &i0es" But Kains o/ten !om,ine this e;traor inary gent&eness .ith a 0io&en!e themse&0es2 oing horri/i! penan!e in an attempt to ,urn a.ay the e//e!ts o/ ,a kamma: they .ou& star0e themse&0es2 re/use to rin6 or to .ash an e;pose themse&0es to the e;tremes o/ heat an !o& " -otama i not Hoin any o/ these sanghas& Instea he .ent to the neigh,orhoo o/ Vesa&&2 the !apita& o/ the Vi eha repu,&i!2 to ,e initiate in the dhamma o/ A&ara Ka&ama2 .ho seems to ha0e taught a /orm o/ Sam6hya" -otama may ha0e a&rea y ,een /ami&iar .ith this s!hoo&2 sin!e the phi&osophy o/ Sam6hya B is!riminationC ha /irst ,een taught ,y the se0enth1!entury tea!her Kapi&a2 .ho ha &in6s .ith Kapi&a10atthu" This s!hoo& ,e&ie0e that ignoran!e2 rather than esire2

&ay at the root o/ our pro,&ems3 our su//ering eri0e /rom our &a!6 o/ un erstan ing o/ the true Se&/" >e !on/use this Se&/ .ith our or inary psy!homenta& &i/e2 ,ut to gain &i,eration .e ha to ,e!ome a.are at a pro/oun &e0e& that the Se&/ ha nothing to o .ith these transient2 &imite an unsatis/a!tory states o/ min " The Se&/ .as eterna& an i enti!a& .ith the A,so&ute Spirit BpurusaC that is ormant in e0ery thing an e0ery ,o y ,ut !on!ea&e ,y the materia& .or& o/ nature BpraktriC& The goa& o/ the ho&y &i/e2 a!!or ing to Sam6hya2 .as to &earn to is!riminate purusa /rom praktri& The aspirant ha to &earn to &i0e a,o0e the !on/usion o/ the emotions an !u&ti0ate the inte&&e!t2 the purest part o/ the human ,eing2 .hi!h ha the to re/&e!t the eterna& Spirit2 in the same .ay that a /& is re/&e!te in a mirror" This .as not an easy pro!ess2 ,ut as soon as a mon6 ,e!ame tru&y a.are that his true Se&/ .as entire&y /ree2 a,so&ute an eterna&2 he a!hie0e &i,eration" Nature BpraktriC .ou& then imme iate&y .ith ra. /rom the Se&/2 5&i6e a an!er .ho eparts a/ter ha0ing satis/ie her master<s esire28 as one o/ the !&assi! te;ts puts it" On!e this ha happene 2 the mon6 .ou& a!hie0e en&ightenment2 ,e!ause he ha .o6en up to his true nature" Su//ering !ou& no &onger tou!h him2 ,e!ause he 6ne. that he .as eterna& an a,so&ute" In ee 2 he .ou& /in himse&/ saying 5it su//ers8 rather than 5I su//er28 ,e!ause pain ha ,e!ome a remote e;perien!e2 istant /rom .hat he no. un erstoo to ,e his truest i entity" The en&ightene sage .ou& !ontinue to &i0e in the .or& an .ou& ,urn up the remains o/ the ,a kamma he ha !ommitte 2 ,ut .hen he ie he .ou& ne0er ,e re,orn2 ,e!ause he ha a!hie0e eman!ipation /rom materia& praktri& -otama /oun Sam6hya !ongenia& an 2 .hen he !ame to /ormu&ate his o.n dhamma, he retaine some e&ements o/ this phi&osophy" It .as !&ear&y an attra!ti0e i eo&ogy to some,o y &i6e -otama2 .ho ha so re!ent&y e;perien!e the isen!hantment o/ the .or& 2 ,e!ause it taught the aspirant to &oo6 /or ho&iness" Nature BpraktriC .as simp&y an ephemera& phenomenon2 an ho.e0er istur,ing it appeare 2 it .as not the /ina& rea&ity" To those .ho /e&t that the .or& ha ,e!ome an a&ien p&a!e2 ho.e0er2 Sam6hya .as a hea&ing 0ision2 ,e!ause it taught that2 espite its unpromising e;terior2 nature .as our /rien " It !ou& he&p human ,eings to a!hie0e en&ightenment" Li6e men an .omen2 e0ery sing&e !reature in the natura& .or& .as a&so ri0en ,y the nee to &i,erate the Se&/3 Nature .as thus ,ent on superse ing itse&/ an a&& the Se&/ to go /ree" E0en su//ering ha a re empti0e ro&e2 ,e!ause the more .e su//ere 2 the more .e &onge /or an e;isten!e that .ou& ,e /ree o/ su!h pain3 the more .e e;perien!e the !onstraints o/ the .or& o/ praktri, the more .e yearne /or re&ease" The more /u&&y .e rea&i9e that our &i0es .ere !on itione ,y outsi e /or!es2 the more .e esire the a,so&ute2 un!on itione rea&ity o/ purusa& But ho.e0er strong his esire2 an as!eti! o/ten /oun that it .as e;treme&y i//i!u&t to &i,erate himse&/ /rom the materia& .or& " :o. !ou& morta& human ,eings2 p&ague ,y the tur,u&ent &i/e o/ the emotions an the anar!hi! &i/e o/ the ,o y2 rise a,o0e this istur,an!e an &i0e ,y the inte&&e!t a&one@ -otama soon !ame up against this pro,&em an /oun that !ontemp&ating the truths o/ Sam6hya ,rought no rea& re&ie/2 ,ut at /irst he ma e great stri es" A&ara Ka&ama a!!epte him as a pupi& an promise him that in a 0ery short time he .ou& un erstan the dhamma an 6no. as mu!h as his tea!her" :e .ou& ma6e the o!trine his o.n" -otama Gui!6&y mastere the essentia&s2 an .as soon a,&e to re!ite the tea!hings o/ his master as pro/i!ient&y as !ou& the other mem,ers o/ the sangha, ,ut he .as not !on0in!e " Something .as missing" A&ara Ka&ama ha assure him that he .ou& 5rea&i9e8 these tea!hings an a!hie0e a 5 ire!t 6no.&e ge8 o/ them" They .ou& not remain truths that e;iste apart /rom himse&/2 ,ut .ou& ,e so integrate .ith his o.n psy!he that they .ou& ,e!ome a rea&ity in his &i/e" Soon he .ou& ,e!ome a &i0ing em,o iment o/ the dhamma& But this .as not happening" :e .as not 5entering into8 the o!trine

an 5 .e&&ing in it28 as A&ara Ka&ama ha pre i!te 3 the tea!hings remaine remote2 meta1 physi!a& a,stra!tions an seeme to ha0e &itt&e to o .ith him persona&&y" Try as he .ou& 2 he !ou& gain no g&immer o/ his rea& Se&/2 .hi!h remaine o,stinate&y hi en ,y .hat seeme an impenetra,&e rin o/ praktri& This is a !ommon re&igious pre i!ament" Peop&e o/ten ta6e the truths o/ a tra ition on /aith2 a!!epting the testimony o/ other peop&e2 ,ut /in that the inner 6erne& o/ the re&igion2 its &uminous essen!e2 remains e&usi0e" But -otama ha &itt&e time /or this approa!h" :e a&.ays re/use to ta6e anything on trust2 an &ater2 .hen he ha his o.n sangha, he insistent&y .arne his is!ip&es not to ta6e anything at a&& on hearsay" They must not s.a&&o. e0erything that their tea!her to& them un!riti!a&&y2 ,ut test the dhamma at e0ery point2 ma6ing sure that it resonate .ith their o.n e;perien!e" So e0en at this 0ery ear&y stage in his Guest2 he re/use to a!!ept A&ara Ka&ama<s dhamma as a matter o/ /aith" :e .ent to his master an as6e him ho. he ha manage to 5rea&i9e8 these o!trinesD Sure&y he ha not simp&y ta6en some,o y e&se<s .or /or a&& this@ A&ara Ka&ama a mitte that he ha not a!hie0e his 5 ire!t 6no.&e ge8 o/ Sam6hya ,y !ontemp&ation a&one" :e ha not penetrate these o!trines simp&y ,y norma&2 rationa& thought2 ,ut ,y using the is!ip&ines o/ yoga" >e o not 6no. .hen the yogi! e;er!ises .ere /irst e0o&0e in In ia" There is e0i en!e that some /orm o/ yoga might ha0e ,een pra!ti!e in the su,!ontinent ,e/ore the in0asion o/ the Aryan tri,es" Sea&s ha0e ,een /oun ating /rom the se!on mi&&ennium B"C"E" .hi!h sho. peop&e sitting in .hat might ,e a yogi! position" There is no .ritten a!!ount o/ yoga unti& &ong a/ter -otama<s &i/etime" The !&assi!a& te;ts .ere !ompose in the se!on or thir !entury C"E" an ,ase on the tea!hings o/ a mysti! !a&&e PatanHa&i2 .ho &i0e in the se!on !entury B"C"E" PatanHa&i<s metho s o/ !ontemp&ation an !on!entration .ere ,ase on the phi&osophy o/ Sam6hya ,ut starte at the point .here Sam6hya ,rea6s o//" :is aim .as not to propoun a metaphysi!a& theory ,ut to !u&ti0ate a i//erent mo e o/ !ons!iousness .hi!h !an tru&y enter into truths .hi!h &ie ,eyon the rea!h o/ the senses" This in0o&0es the suppression o/ norma& !ons!iousness2 ,y means o/ e;a!ting psy!ho&ogi!a& an physio&ogi!a& te!hniGues .hi!h gi0e the yogin insights that are suprasensory an e;trarationa&" Li6e A&ara Ka&ama2 PatanHa&i 6ne. that or inary spe!u&ation an me itation !ou& not &i,erate the Se&/ /rom praktri: the yogin ha to a!hie0e this ,y sheer /or!e" :e ha to a,o&ish his or inary .ays o/ per!ei0ing rea&ity2 !an!e& out his norma& thought pro!esses2 get ri o/ his mun ane B&o.er1!aseC se&/2 an 2 as it .ere2 ,&u geon his un.i&&ing2 re!a&!itrant min to a state that &ay ,eyon the rea!h o/ error an i&&usion" Again2 there .as nothing supernatura& a,out yoga" PatanHa&i ,e&ie0e that the yogin .as simp&y e;p&oiting his natura& psy!ho&ogi!a& an menta& !apa!ities" E0en though PatanHa&i .as tea!hing &ong a/ter the Bu ha<s eath2 it seems !&ear that the pra!ti!e o/ yoga2 o/ten &in6e .ith Sam6hya2 .as .e&& esta,&ishe in the -anges region uring -otama<s &i/etime an .as popu&ar among the /orest1mon6s" ?oga pro0e to ,e !ru!ia& to -otama<s en&ightenment an he .ou& a apt its tra itiona& is!ip&ines to e0e&op his o.n dhamma& It is2 there/ore2 important to un erstan the tra itiona& yogi! metho s2 .hi!h -otama pro,a,&y &earne /rom A&ara Ka&ama an .hi!h put him onto the roa to Ni,,ana" The .or 5yoga8 eri0es /rom the 0er, yuj: 5to yo6e8 or 5to ,in together"8 Its goa& .as to &in6 the min o/ the yogin .ith his Se&/ an to tether a&& the po.ers an impu&ses o/ the min 2 so that !ons!iousness ,e!omes uni/ie in a .ay that is norma&&y impossi,&e /or human ,eings" Our min s are easi&y istra!te " It is o/ten har to !on!entrate on one thing /or a &ong time" Thoughts an /antasies seem to rise un,i en to the sur/a!e o/ the min 2 e0en at the most inappropriate moments" >e appear to ha0e &itt&e !ontro& o0er these un!ons!ious impu&ses" A great ea& o/ our

menta& a!ti0ity is automati!D one image summons up another2 /orge together ,y asso!iations that ha0e &ong ,een /orgotten an ha0e retreate into o,&i0ion" >e rare&y !onsi er an o,He!t or an i ea as it is in itse&/2 ,e!ause it !omes saturate .ith persona& asso!iations that imme iate&y istort it an ma6e it impossi,&e /or us to !onsi er it o,He!ti0e&y" Some o/ these psy!homenta& pro!esses are /i&&e .ith painD they are !hara!teri9e ,y ignoran!e2 egotism2 passion2 isgust an an instin!t /or se&/1preser0ation" They are ,e!ause they are roote in the su,!ons!ious a!ti0ities B!asanasC that are i//i!u&t to !ontro& ,ut that ha0e a pro/oun e//e!t on our ,eha0ior" Long ,e/ore Jreu an Kung e0e&ope mo ern psy!hoana&ysis2 the yogins o/ In ia ha is!o0ere the un!ons!ious min an ha 2 to a egree2 &earne to master it" ?oga .as thus eep&y in &ine .ith the A;ia& Age ethosLits attempt to ma6e human ,eings more /u&&y !ons!ious o/ themse&0es an ,ring .hat ha on&y ,een im&y intuite into the !&ear &ight o/ ay" It ena,&e the pra!titioner to re!ogni9e these unru&y !asanas an get ri o/ them2 i/ they impe e his spiritua& progress" This .as a i//i!u&t pro!ess2 an the yogin nee e !are/u& super0ision at ea!h step o/ the .ay ,y a tea!her2 Hust as the mo ern ana&ysan nee s the support o/ his or her ana&yst" To a!hie0e this !ontro& o/ the un!ons!ious2 the yogin ha to ,rea6 a&& ties .ith the norma& .or& " Jirst2 &i6e any mon62 he ha to 5-o Jorth28 &ea0ing so!iety ,ehin " Then he ha to un ergo an e;a!ting regimen .hi!h too6 him2 step ,y step2 ,eyon or inary ,eha0ior1patterns an ha,its o/ min " :e .ou& 2 as it .ere2 put his o& se&/ to eath an 2 it .as hope 2 thus a.a6en his true Se&/2 an entire&y i//erent mo e o/ ,eing" A&& this .i&& soun strange to some >estern peop&e .ho ha0e ha a 0ery i//erent e;perien!e o/ yoga" The sages an prophets o/ the A;ia& Age .ere gra ua&&y rea&i9ing that egotism .as the greatest hin ran!e to an e;perien!e o/ the a,so&ute an sa!re rea&ity they sought" A man or a .oman ha to &ay asi e the se&/ishness that seems so en emi! to our humanity i/ he or she .ishe to apprehen the rea&ity o/ -o 2 brahman or Ni,,ana" The Chinese phi&osophers taught that peop&e must su,mit their esires an ,eha0ior to the essentia& rhythms o/ &i/e i/ they .ante to a!hie0e en&ightenment" The :e,re. prophets spo6e o/ su,mission to the .i&& o/ -o " Later2 Kesus .ou& te&& his is!ip&es that the spiritua& Guest eman e a eath to se&/D a grain o/ .heat ha to /a&& into the groun an ie ,e/ore it attaine its /u&& potentia& an ,ore /ruit" *uhamma .ou& prea!h the importan!e o/ is#am, an e;istentia& surren er o/ the entire ,eing to -o " The a,an onment o/ se&/ishness an egotism .ou& 2 as .e sha&& see2 ,e!ome the &in!hpin o/ -otama<s o.n dhamma, ,ut the yogins o/ In ia ha a&rea y appre!iate the importan!e o/ this" ?oga !an ,e es!ri,e as the systemati! ismant&ing o/ the egotism .hi!h istorts our 0ie. o/ the .or& an impe es our spiritua& progress" Those .ho pra!ti!e yoga in Ameri!a an Europe to ay o not a&.ays ha0e this o,He!ti0e" They o/ten use the is!ip&ines o/ yoga to impro0e their hea&th" These e;er!ises o/ !on!entration ha0e ,een /oun to he&p peop&e to re&a; or suppress e;!essi0e an;iety" Sometimes the te!hniGues o/ 0isua&i9ation use ,y yogins to a!hie0e spiritua& e!stasy are emp&oye ,y !an!er su//erersD they try to imagine the isease !e&&s an to e0o6e su,!ons!ious /or!es to !om,at the progress o/ the i&&ness" Certain&y2 the yogi! e;er!ises !an enhan!e our !ontro& an in u!e a serenity i/ proper&y pra!ti!e 2 ,ut the origina& yogins i not em,ar6 on this path in or er to /ee& ,etter an to &i0e a more norma& &i/e" They .ante to a,o&ish norma&ity an .ipe out their mun ane se&0es" *any o/ the mon6s o/ the -anges p&ain ha rea&i9e 2 as -otama i 2 that they !ou& not a!hie0e the &i,eration they sought ,y !ontemp&ating a dhamma in a &ogi!a&2 is!ursi0e .ay" This rationa& manner o/ thin6ing emp&oye on&y a sma&& part o/ the min 2 .hi!h2 on!e they trie to /o!us e;!&usi0e&y on spiritua& matters2 pro0e to ha0e an anar!hi! &i/e o/ its o.n" They /oun that they .ere !onstant&y strugg&ing .ith a host o/ istra!tions an unhe&p/u& asso!iations that

in0a e their !ons!iousness2 ho.e0er har they trie to !on!entrate" On!e they ,egan to put the tea!hings o/ a dhamma into pra!ti!e2 they a&so is!o0ere a&& 6in s o/ resistan!e .ithin themse&0es .hi!h seeme ,eyon their !ontro&" Some ,urie part o/ themse&0es sti&& &onge /or /or,i en things2 ho.e0er great their .i&&" It seeme that there .ere &atent ten en!ies in the psy!he .hi!h /ought per0erse&y against en&ightenment2 /or!es .hi!h the Bu hist te;ts personi/y in the /igure o/ *ara" O/ten these su,!ons!ious impu&ses .ere the resu&t o/ past !on itioning2 imp&ante .ithin the mon6s ,e/ore they ha attaine the age o/ reason2 or part o/ their geneti! inheritan!e" The -anges mon6s i not ta&6 a,out genes2 o/ !ourse3 they attri,ute this resistan!e to ,a kamma in a pre0ious &i/e" But ho. !ou& they get past this !on itioning to the a,so&ute Se&/2 .hi!h2 they .ere !on0in!e 2 &ay ,eyon this menta& turmoi&@ :o. !ou& they res!ue the Se&/ /rom this /ren9ie praktri@ The mon6s sought a /ree om that is impossi,&e /or a norma& !ons!iousness an that is /ar more ra i!a& than the &i,erty pursue to ay in the >est2 .hi!h usua&&y eman s that .e &earn to !ome to terms .ith our &imitations" The mon6s o/ In ia .ante to ,rea6 /ree o/ the !on itioning that !hara!teri9e the human persona&ity2 an to !an!e& out the !onstraints o/ time an p&a!e that &imit our per!eption" The /ree om they sought .as pro,a,&y !&ose to .hat St" Pau& .ou& &ater !a&& 5the /ree om o/ the sons o/ -o 28 ,ut they .ere not !ontent to .ait to e;perien!e this in the hea0en&y .or& " They .ou& a!hie0e it ,y their o.n e//orts here an no." The is!ip&ines o/ yoga .ere esigne to estroy the un!ons!ious impe iments to en&ightenment an to e!on ition the human persona&ity" On!e that ha ,een one2 the yogins ,e&ie0e that they .ou& at &ast ,e!ome one .ith their true Se&/2 .hi!h .as Mn!on itione 2 Eterna& an A,so&ute" The Se&/ .as2 there/ore2 the !hie/ sym,o& o/ the sa!re imension o/ e;isten!e2 per/orming the same /un!tion as -o in monotheism2 as brahman*atman in :in uism2 an as the -oo in P&atoni! phi&osophy" >hen -otama ha trie to 5 .e&&8 in A&ara Ka&ama<s dhamma, he ha .ante to enter into an inha,it the type o/ pea!e an .ho&eness that2 a!!or ing to the ,oo6 o/ -enesis2 the /irst human ,eings ha e;perien!e in E en" It .as not enough to 6no. this E eni! pea!e2 this sha#am, this Ni,,ana notiona&&y3 he .ante the 6in o/ 5 ire!t 6no.&e ge8 that .ou& en0e&op him as !omp&ete&y as the physi!a& atmosphere in .hi!h .e &i0e an ,reathe" :e .as !on0in!e that he .ou& is!o0er this sti&& sense o/ trans!en ent harmony in the epths o/ his psy!he2 an that it .ou& trans/orm him utter&yD he .ou& attain a ne. Se&/ that .as no &onger 0u&nera,&e to the su//erings that /&esh is heir to" In a&& the A;ia& !ountries2 peop&e .ere see6ing more interior /orms o/ spiritua&ity2 ,ut /e. i this as thorough&y as the In ian yogins" One o/ the insights o/ the A;ia& Age .as that the Sa!re .as not simp&y something that .as 5out there38 it .as a&so immanent an present in the groun o/ ea!h person<s ,eing2 a per!eption !&assi!a&&y e;presse in the Mpanisa i! 0ision o/ the i entity o/ brahman an atman& ?et e0en though the Sa!re .as as !&ose to us as our o.n se&0es2 it pro0e to ,e e;treme&y har to /in " The gates o/ E en ha !&ose " In the o& ays2 it .as thought that the Sa!re ha ,een easi&y a!!essi,&e to hu1 manity" The an!ient re&igions ha ,e&ie0e that the eities2 human ,eings an a&& natura& phenomena ha ,een !ompose o/ the same i0ine su,stan!eD there .as no onto&ogi!a& gu&/ ,e1 t.een humanity an the go s" But part o/ the istress that pre!ipitate the A;ia& Age .as that this sa!re or i0ine imension ha someho. retreate /rom the .or& an ,e!ome in some sense a&ien to men an .omen" In the ear&y te;ts o/ the :e,re. Bi,&e2 .e rea 2 /or e;amp&e2 that A,raham ha on!e share a mea& .ith his -o 2 .ho ha appeare in his en!ampment as an or inary tra0e&er"But /or the A;ia& Age prophets2 -o .as o/ten e;perien!e as a e0astating sho!6" Isaiah .as /i&&e .ith morta& terror .hen he ha a 0ision o/ -o in the Temp&e3 Keremiah 6ne. the i0ine as a pain that

!on0u&se his &im,s2 ,ro6e his heart an ma e him stagger aroun &i6e a run6" The .ho&e !areer o/ E9e6ie&2 .ho may ha0e ,een a !ontemporary o/ -otama2 i&&ustrates the ra i!a& is!ontinuity that no. e;iste ,et.een the Sa!re on the one han 2 an the !ons!ious2 se&/1prote!ting se&/2 on the otherD -o a//&i!te the prophet .ith su!h an;iety that he !ou& not stop trem,&ing3 .hen his .i/e ie 2 -o /or,a e him to mourn3 -o /or!e him to eat e;!rement an to .a&6 aroun to.n .ith pa!6e ,ags &i6e a re/ugee" Sometimes2 in or er to enter the i0ine presen!e2 it seeme ne!essary to eny the norma& responses o/ a !i0i&i9e in i0i ua& an to o 0io&en!e to the mun ane se&/" The ear&y yogins .ere attempting the same 6in o/ assau&t upon their or inary !ons!iousness in or er to prope& themse&0es into an apprehension o/ the Mn!on itione an A,so&ute Se&/2 .hi!h they ,e&ie0e to ,e .ithin" ?ogins ,e&ie0e that the Se&/ !ou& on&y ,e &i,erate i/ they estroye their norma& thought pro!esses2 e;tinguishe their thoughts an /ee&ings2 an .ipe out the un!ons!ious !asanas that /ought against en&ightenment" They .ere engage in a .ar against their !on0entiona& menta& ha,its" At ea!h point o/ his interior Hourney2 the yogin i the opposite o/ .hat !ame natura&&y3 ea!h yogi! is!ip&ine .as !ra/te to un ermine or inary responses" Li6e any as!eti!2 the yogin ,egan his spiritua& &i/e ,y 5-oing Jorth8 /rom so!iety2 ,ut he then .ent one step /urther" :e .ou& not e0en share the same psy!he as a househo& er3 he .as 5-oing Jorth8 /rom humanity itse&/" Instea o/ see6ing /u&/i&ment in the pro/ane .or& 2 the yogins o/ In ia etermine 2 at ea!h step o/ their Hourney that they .ou& re/use to &i0e in it" A&ara Ka&ama .ou& pro,a,&y ha0e initiate -otama into these yogi! e;er!ises2 one ,y one" But /irst2 ,e/ore -otama !ou& e0en ,egin to me itate2 he ha to &ay a soun /oun ation o/ mora&ity" Ethi!a& is!ip&ines .ou& !ur, his egotism an puri/y his &i/e2 ,y paring it o.n to essentia&s" ?oga gi0es the pra!titioner a !on!entration an se&/1 is!ip&ine so that it !ou& ,e!ome emoni! i/ use /or se&/ish en s" A!!or ing&y2 the aspirant ha to o,ser0e /i0e 5prohi,itions8 ByamaC to ma6e sure that he ha his re!a&!itrant B&o.er1!aseC se&/ /irm&y un er !ontro&" The yama /or,a e the aspirant to stea&2 &ie2 ta6e into;i!ants2 6i&& or harm another !reature2 or to engage in se;ua& inter!ourse" These ru&es .ere simi&ar to those pres!ri,e /or the &ay is!ip&es o/ the Kains2 an re/&e!t the ethi! o/ ahimsa Bharm&essnessC2 an the etermination to resist esire an to a!hie0e a,so&ute menta& an physi!a& !&arity2 .hi!h most o/ the -anges as!eti!s ha in !ommon" -otama .ou& not ha0e ,een permitte to pro!ee to the more a 0an!e yogi! is!ip&ines unti& these yama ha ,e!ome se!on nature" :e a&so ha to pra!ti!e !ertain niyamas B,o i&y an psy!hi! e;er!isesC2 .hi!h in!&u e s!rupu&ous !&ean&iness2 the stu y o/ the dhamma, an the !u&ti0ation o/ an ha,itua& serenity" In a ition2 there .ere as!eti! pra!ti!es BtapasC: the aspirant ha to put up .ith the e;tremes o/ heat an !o& 2 hunger an thirst .ithout !omp&aint2 an to !ontro& his .or s an gestures2 .hi!h must ne0er ,etray his inner thoughts" It .as not an easy pro!ess2 ,ut on!e -otama ha mastere the yama an niyamas, he pro,a,&y ,egan to e;perien!e the 5in es!ri,a,&e happiness8 that2 the yogi! !&assi!s te&& us2 is the resu&t o/ this se&/1!ontro&2 so,riety an ahimsa& -otama .as then rea y /or the /irst o/ the tru&y yogi! is!ip&inesD asana, the physi!a& posture that is !hara!teristi! o/ yoga" Ea!h one o/ these metho s entai&e a enia& o/ a natura& human ten en!y an emonstrate the yogin<s prin!ip&e re/usa& o/ the .or& " In asana, he &earne to !ut the &in6 ,et.een his min an his senses ,y re/using to mo0e" :e ha to sit .ith !rosse &egs an straight ,a!6 in a !omp&ete&y motion&ess position" It .ou& ha0e ma e him rea&i9e that2 &e/t to themse&0es2 our ,o ies are in !onstant motionD .e ,&in62 s!rat!h2 stret!h2 shi/t /rom one ,utto!6 to another2 an turn our hea s in response to stimu&us" E0en in s&eep .e are not rea&&y sti&&" But in asana, the yogin is so motion&ess that he seems more &i6e a statue or a p&ant than a

human ,eing" On!e mastere 2 ho.e0er2 the unnatura& sti&&ness mirrors the interior tranGui&ity that he is trying to a!hie0e" Ne;t2 the yogin re/uses to ,reathe" #espiration is pro,a,&y the most /un amenta&2 automati! an instin!ti0e o/ our ,o i&y /un!tions an a,so&ute&y essentia& to &i/e" >e o not usua&&y thin6 a,out our ,reathing2 ,ut no. -otama .ou& ha0e ha to master the art o/ pranayama, ,reathing progressi0e&y more an more s&o.&y" The u&timate goa& .as to pause /or as &ong as possi,&e ,et.een a gra ua& e;ha&ation an inha&ation2 so that it seeme as though respiration ha entire&y !ease " Pranayama is 0ery i//erent /rom the arrhythmi! ,reathing o/ or inary &i/e an more simi&ar to the .ay .e ,reathe uring s&eep2 .hen the un!ons!ious ,e!omes more a!!essi,&e to us in reams an hypnogogi! imagery" Not on&y i the re/usa& to ,reathe sho. the yogin<s ra i!a& enia& o/ the .or& 3 /rom the start2 pranayama .as /oun to ha0e a pro/oun e//e!t on his menta& state" In the ear&y stages2 aspirants sti&& /in that it ,rings on a sensation !ompara,&e to the e//e!t o/ musi!2 espe!ia&&y .hen p&aye ,y onese&/D there is a /ee&ing o/ gran eur2 e;pansi0eness an !a&m no,i&ity" It seems as though one is ta6ing possession o/ one<s o.n ,o y" On!e -otama ha mastere these physi!a& is!ip&ines2 he .as rea y /or the menta& e;er!ise o/ kagrata: !on!entration 5on a sing&e point"8 In this2 the yogin re/use to thin6" Aspirants &earne to /o!us on an o,He!t or an i ea2 to e;!&u e any other emotion or asso!iation2 an re/use to entertain a sing&e one o/ the istra!tions that rushe into their min s" -otama .as gra ua&&y separating himse&/ /rom norma&ity an trying to appro;imate the autonomy o/ the eterna& Se&/" :e &earne pratyahara B.ith ra.a& o/ the sensesC2 the a,i&ity to !ontemp&ate an o,He!t .ith the inte&&e!t a&one2 .hi&e his senses remaine Guies!ent" In dharana B!on!entrationC he .as taught to 0isua&i9e the Se&/ in the groun o/ his ,eing2 &i6e a &otus rising /rom the pon or an inner &ight" (uring his me itation2 ,y suspen ing his ,reathing2 the aspirant hope that he .ou& ,e!ome !ons!ious o/ his o.n !ons!iousness an penetrate to the heart o/ his inte&&e!t2 .here2 it .as thought2 he .ou& ,e a,&e to see a re/&e!tion o/ the eterna& Spirit BpurusaC& Ea!h dharana .as suppose to &ast /or t.e&0e pranayamas+ an a/ter t.e&0e dharanas the yogin ha sun6 so eep&y into himse&/ that he spontaneous&y attaine a state o/ 5tran!e8 Bdhyana+ in Pa&i2 jhanaC& A&& this2 the te;ts insist2 is Guite i//erent /rom the re/&e!tions that .e ma6e in e0ery ay &i/e" Nor is it &i6e a rug1in u!e state" On!e a s6i&&e yogin ha mastere these is!ip&ines2 he usua&&y /oun that he ha a!hie0e a ne. in0u&nera,i&ity2 at &east /or the uration o/ his me itation" :e no &onger noti!e the .eather3 the rest&ess stream o/ his !ons!iousness ha ,een ,rought un er !ontro&2 an 2 &i6e the Se&/2 he ha ,e!ome imper0ious to the tensions an !hanges o/ his en0ironment" :e /oun that he ,e!ame a,sor,e in the o,He!t or menta& image he .as !ontemp&ating in this .ay" Be!ause he ha suppresse his memory an the /&oo o/ un is!ip&ine persona& asso!iations that an o,He!t usua&&y e0o6e 2 he .as no &onger istra!te /rom it to his o.n !on!erns2 he i not su,He!ti0i9e it2 ,ut !ou& see it 5as it rea&&y .as28 an important phrase /or yogins" The 5I8 .as ,eginning to isappear /rom his thin6ing2 an the o,He!t .as no &onger seen through the /i&ter o/ his o.n e;perien!e" As a resu&t2 e0en the most hum rum o/ o,He!ts re1 0ea&e .ho&&y ne. Gua&ities" Some aspirants might ha0e imagine that at this point they .ere ,eginning to g&impse the purusa through the istorting /i&m o/ praktri& >hen2 using these te!hniGues2 the yogin me itate on the o!trines o/ his dhamma, he e;perien!e them so 0i0i &y that a rationa& /ormu&ation o/ these truths pa&e in !omparison" This .as .hat A&ara Ka&ama ha meant ,y 5 ire!t8 6no.&e ge2 sin!e the e&usions an egotism o/ norma& !ons!iousness no &onger !ame ,et.een the yogin an his dhamma+ he 5sa.8 it .ith ne. !&arity2 .ithout the istorting /i&m o/ su,He!ti0e asso!iations" These e;perien!es are not

e&usions" The psy!hophysi!a& !hanges .rought ,y pranayama an the is!ip&ines that taught the yogin to manipu&ate his menta& pro!esses an e0en to monitor his un!ons!ious impu&ses i ,ring a,out a !hange o/ !ons!iousness" The s6i&&e yogin !ou& no. per/orm menta& /eats that .ere impossi,&e /or a &ayman3 he ha re0ea&e the .ay the min !ou& .or6 .hen traine in a !ertain manner" Ne. !apa!ities ha !ome to &ight as a resu&t o/ his e;pertise2 Hust as a an!er or an ath&ete isp&ays the /u&& a,i&ities o/ the human ,o y" *o ern resear!hers ha0e note that uring me itation2 a yogin<s heart rate s&o.s o.n2 his ,rain rhythms go into a i//erent mo e2 he ,e!omes eta!he neuro&ogi!a&&y /rom his surroun ings an a!ute&y sensiti0e to the o,He!t o/ his !ontemp&ation" On!e he ha entere his tran!e BjhanaC, the yogin progresse through a series o/ in!reasing&y eep menta& states2 .hi!h ,ear &itt&e re&ation to or inary e;perien!e" In the /irst stage o/ jhana, he .ou& ,e!ome entire&y o,&i0ious to the imme iate en0ironment2 an /ee& a sensation o/ great Hoy an e&ight2 .hi!h2 a yogin !ou& on&y assume2 .as the ,eginning o/ his /ina& &i,eration" :e sti&& ha o!!asiona& i eas2 an iso&ate thoughts .ou& /&i!6er a!ross his min 2 ,ut he /oun that /or the uration o/ this tran!e he .as ,eyon the rea!h o/ esire2 p&easure or pain2 an !ou& ga9e in rapt !on!entration on the o,He!t2 sym,o& or o!trine that he .as !ontemp&ating" In the se!on an thir jhanas, the yogin ha ,e!ome so a,sor,e in these truths that he ha entire&y stoppe thin6ing an .as no &onger e0en !ons!ious o/ the pure happiness he ha enHoye a short .hi&e ,e/ore" In the /ourth an /ina& jhana, he ha ,e!ome so /use .ith the sym,o&s o/ his dhamma that he /e&t he ha ,e!ome one .ith them2 an .as !ons ious o/ nothing e&se" There .as nothing supernatura& a,out these states" The yogin 6ne. that he ha !reate them /or himse&/2 ,ut2 not surprising&y2 he i imagine that he .as in ee &ea0ing the .or& ,ehin an near to his goa&" I/ he .as rea&&y s6i&&e 2 he !ou& go ,eyon the jhanas, an enter a series o/ /our ayatanas Bme itati0e statesC that .ere so intense that the ear&y yogins /e&t that they ha entere the rea&ms inha,ite ,y the go s" The yogin e;perien!e progressi0e&y /our menta& states that seeme to intro u!e him to ne. mo es o/ ,eingD a sense o/ in/inity3 a pure !ons!iousness that is a.are on&y o/ itse&/3 an a per!eption o/ a,sen!e2 .hi!h is2 para o;i!a&&y2 a p&enitu e" On&y 0ery gi/te yogins rea!he this thir ayatana, .hi!h .as !a&&e 5Nothingness8 ,e!ause it ,ore no re&ation to any /orm o/ e;isten!e in pro/ane e;perien!e" It .as not another ,eing" There .ere no .or s or !on!epts a eGuate to es!ri,e it" It .as2 there/ore2 more a!!urate to !a&& it 5Nothing8 than 5Something"8 Some ha0e es!ri,e it as simi&ar to .a&6ing into a room an /in ing nothing thereD there .as a sense o/ emptiness2 spa!e an /ree om" *onotheists ha0e ma e simi&ar remar6s a,out their e;perien!e o/ -o " Ke.ish2 Christian an *us&im theo&ogians ha0e a&&2 in i//erent .ays2 !a&&e the most e&e0ate emanations o/ the i0ine in human !ons!iousness 5Nothing"8 They ha0e a&so sai that it .as ,etter to say that -o i not e;ist2 ,e!ause -o .as not simp&y another phenomenon" >hen !on/ronte .ith trans!en en!e or ho&iness2 &anguage stum,&es un er impossi,&e i//i!u&ties2 an this 6in o/ negati0e termino&ogy is one .ay that mysti!s instin!ti0e&y a opt to emphasi9e its 5otherness"8 Mn erstan a,&y2 those yogins .ho ha rea!he these ayatanas imagine that they ha /ina&&y e;perien!e the i&&imita,&e Se&/ that resi e in the !ore o/ their ,eing" A&ara Ka&ama .as one o/ the /e. yogins o/ his ay to ha0e attaine the p&ane o/ 5Nothingness83 he !&aime that he ha 5entere into8 the Se&/ .hi!h .as the goa& o/ his Guest" -otama .as an in!re i,&y gi/te stu ent" ?oga usua&&y reGuire a &ong apprenti!eship that !ou& &ast a &i/etime2 ,ut in Guite a short time2 -otama .as a,&e to te&& his master that he ha rea!he the p&ane o/ 5Nothingness8 too" A&ara Ka&ama .as e&ighte " :e in0ite -otama to ,e!ome his partner in the &ea ership o/ the sangha, ,ut -otama

re/use " :e a&so e!i e to &ea0e A&ara Ka&ama<s se!t" -otama ha no pro,&em .ith the yogi! metho an .ou& use it /or the rest o/ his &i/e" But he !ou& not a!!ept his master<s interpretation o/ his me itati0e e;perien!e" :ere he sho.e the s6epti!ism a,out metaphysi!a& o!trines that .ou& !hara!teri9e his entire re&igious !areer" :o. !ou& the state o/ 5Nothingness8 ,e the un!on itione an un!reate Se&/2 .hen he 6ne. per/e!t&y .e&& that he ha manu/a!ture this e;perien!e /or himse&/@ This 5Nothingness8 !ou& not ,e a,so&ute2 ,e!ause he ha ,rought it a,out ,y means o/ his o.n yogi! e;pertise" -otama .as ruth&ess&y honest an .ou& not a&&o. himse&/ to ,e gu&&e ,y an interpretation that .as not .arrante ,y the /a!ts" The e&e0ate state o/ !ons!iousness that he ha a!hie0e !ou& not ,e Ni,,ana2 ,e!ause .hen he !ame out o/ his tran!e2 he .as sti&& su,He!t to passion2 esire an !ra0ing" :e ha remaine his unregenerate2 gree y se&/" :e ha not ,een permanent&y trans/orme ,y the e;perien!e an ha attaine no &asting pea!e" Ni,,ana !ou& not b temporary7 That .ou& ,e a !ontra i!tion in terms2 sin!e Ni,,ana .as eterna&" The transitory nature o/ our or inary &i0es .as one o/ the !hie/ signs o/ dukkha an a !onstant sour!e o/ pain" But -otama .as rea y to gi0e this rea ing o/ the yogi! e;perien!e one &ast try" The p&ane o/ 5nothingness8 .as not the highest dyatana& There .as a /ourth p&ane2 !a&&e 5neither1per!eption1 nor1nonper!eption"8 It !ou& ,e that this high&y re/ine state i &ea to the Se&/" :e hear that another yogin !a&&e M a6a #amaputta ha a!hie0e the rare istin!tion o/ rea!hing this e;a&te dyatana, s% he .ent to Hoin his sangha in the hope that M a6a !ou& gui e him to this pea6 yogi! tran!e" ?et again2 he .as su!!ess/u&2 ,ut .hen he !ame ,a!6 to himse&/2 -otama sti&& /oun that he .as prey to esire2 /ear an su//ering" :e !ou& not a!!ept M a6a<s e;p&anation that .hen he ha entere this /ina& yogi! p&ane he ha e;perien!e the Se&/" >as .hat these mysti!s !a&&e the eterna& Se&/ perhaps simp&y another e&usion@ A&& that this type o/ yoga !ou& o .as gi0e pra!titioners a ,rie/ respite /rom su//ering" The metaphysi!a& o!trine o/ Sam6hya1?oga ha /ai&e him2 sin!e it !ou& not ,ring e0en a gi/te yogin any /ina& re&ease" So -otama a,an one yoga /or a time an turne to as!eti!ism BtapasC, .hi!h some o/ the /orest1mon6s ,e&ie0e !ou& ,urn up a&& negati0e kamma an &ea to &i,eration" :e Hoine /or!es .ith /i0e other as!eti!s an they pra!ti!e their e;a!ting penan!es together2 though sometimes -otama sought se!&usion2 running /ranti!a&&y through the gro0es an thi!6ets i/ he so mu!h as g&impse a shepher on the hori9on" (uring this perio 2 -otama .ent either na6e or !&a in the roughest hemp" :e s&ept out in the open uring the /ree9ing .inter nights2 &ay on a mattress o/ spi6es an e0en /e on his o.n urine an /e!es" :e he& his ,reath /or so &ong that his hea seeme to sp&it an there .as a /ear/u& roaring in his ears" :e stoppe eating an his ,ones stu!6 out 5&i6e a ro. o/ spin &es """ or the ,eams o/ an o& she "8 >hen he tou!he his stoma!h2 he !ou& a&most /ee& his spine" :is hair /e&& out an his s6in ,e!ame ,&a!6 an .ithere " At one point2 some passing go s sa. him &ying ,y the roa si e2 so /e. signs o/ &i/e that they thought he ha ie " But a&& this .as in 0ain" :o.e0er se0ere his austerities2 perhaps e0en ,e!ause o/ them2 his ,o y sti&& !&amore /or attention2 an he .as sti&& p&ague ,y &ust an !ra0ing" In /a!t2 he seeme more !ons!ious o/ himse&/ than e0er" Jina&&y2 -otama ha to /a!e the /a!t that as!eti!ism ha pro0e as /ruit&ess as yoga" A&& he ha a!hie0e a/ter this heroi! assau&t upon his egotism .as a prominent ri, !age an a angerous&y .ea6ene ,o y" :e might easi&y ha0e ie an sti&& not attaine the pea!e o/ Ni,,ana" :e an his /i0e !ompanions .ere &i0ing near Mru0e&a at this time2 on the ,an6s o/ the ,roa NeranHara ri0er" :e .as a.are that the other /i0e bhikkhus &oo6e up to him as their &ea er2 an .ere !ertain that he .ou& ,e the /irst to a!hie0e the /ina& re&ease /rom sorro. an re,irth" ?et he ha /ai&e them" No,o y2 he to& himse&/2 !ou& ha0e su,He!te himse&/ to more grue&ing penan!es2

,ut instea o/ e;tri!ating himse&/ /rom his human &imitations2 he ha simp&y manu/a!ture more su//ering /or himse&/" :e ha !ome to the en o/ the roa " :e ha trie 2 to the ,est o/ his !onsi era,&e a,i&ities2 the a!!epte .ays to a!hie0e en&ightenment2 ,ut none o/ them ha .or6e " The dhammas taught ,y the great tea!hers o/ the ay seeme /un amenta&&y /&a.e 3 many o/ their pra!titioners &oo6e as si!62 misera,&e an haggar as himse&/" Some peop&e .ou& ha0e espaire 2 gi0en up the Guest2 an returne to the !om/orta,&e &i/e they ha &e/t ,ehin " A househo& er might ,e oome to re,irth2 ,ut so2 it seeme 2 .ere the as!eti!s .ho ha 5-one Jorth8 /rom so!iety" The yogins2 as!eti!s an /orest1mon6s ha a&& rea&i9e that the se&/1!ons!ious an eterna&&y gree y ego .as at the root o/ the pro,&em" *en an .omen seeme !hroni!a&&y preo!!upie .ith themse&0es2 an this ma e it impossi,&e /or them to enter the rea&m o/ sa!re pea!e" In 0arious .ays2 they ha trie to 0anGuish this egotism an get ,e&o. the rest&ess /&u; o/ !ons!ious states an un!ons!ious !asanas to an a,so&ute prin!ip&e2 .hi!h2 they ,e&ie0e 2 they .ou& /in in the epths o/ the psy!he" ?ogins an as!eti!s in parti!u&ar ha trie to retreat /rom the pro/ane .or& 2 so that they ,e!ame imper0ious to e;terna& !on itions an sometimes seeme s!ar!e&y a&i0e" They un erstoo ho. angerous egotism !ou& ,e an trie to mitigate it .ith the i ea& o/ ahimsa, ,ut it seeme to ,e a&most impossi,&e to e;tinguish this se&/ishness" None o/ these meth1 o s ha .or6e /or -otama3 they ha &e/t his se!u&ar se&/ un!hange 3 he .as sti&& p&ague ,y esire an sti&& immerse in the toi&s o/ !ons!iousness" :e ha ,egun to .on er i/ the sa!re Se&/ .as a e&usion" :e .as2 perhaps2 ,eginning to thin6 that it .as not a he&p/u& sym,o& o/ the eterna&2 un!on itione #ea&ity he sought" To see6 an enhan!e Se&/ might e0en en orse the egotism that he nee e to a,o&ish" Ne0erthe&ess -otama ha not &ost hope" :e .as sti&& !ertain that it .as possi,&e /or human ,eings to rea!h the /ina& &i,eration o/ en&ightenment" :en!e/orth2 he .ou& re&y so&e&y on his o.n insights" The esta,&ishe /orms o/ spiritua&ity ha /ai&e him2 so he e!i e to stri6e out on his o.n an to a!!ept the dhamma o/ no other tea!her" 5Sure&y28 he !rie 2 5there must ,e another .ay to a!hie0e en&ightenment78 An at that 0ery moment2 .hen he seeme to ha0e !ome to a ea en 2 the ,eginning o/ a ne. so&ution e!&are itse&/ to him" Chapter 3 - Enlightenment that -otama<s !hi& hoo ha ,een spent in an una.a6ene state2 &o!6e a.ay /rom that 6no.&e ge o/ su//ering .hi!h a&one !an ,ring us to spiritua& maturity2 ,ut in &ater years he re!a&&e that there ha ,een one moment .hi!h ha gi0en him intimations o/ another mo e o/ ,eing" :is /ather ha ta6en him to .at!h the !eremonia& p&oughing o/ the /ie& s ,e/ore the p&anting o/ the ne;t year<s !rop" A&& the men o/ the 0i&&ages an to.nships too6 part in this annua& e0ent2 so Su ho ana ha &e/t his sma&& son in the !are o/ his nurses un er the sha e o/ a rose1app&e tree .hi&e he .ent to .or6" But the nurses e!i e to go an .at!h the p&oughing2 an 2 /in ing himse&/ a&one2 -otama sat up" In one 0ersion o/ this story2 .e are to& that .hen he &oo6e at the /ie& that .as ,eing p&oughe 2 he noti!e that the young grass ha ,een torn up an that inse!ts an the eggs they ha &ai in these ne. shoots ha ,een estroye " The &itt&e ,oy ga9e at the !arnage an /e&t a strange sorro.2 as though it .ere his o.n re&ati0es that ha ,een 6i&&e " But it .as a ,eauti/u& ay2 an a /ee&ing o/ pure Hoy rose up un,i en in his heart" >e ha0e a&& e;perien!e su!h moments2 .hi!h !ome upon us une;pe!te &y an .ithout any stri0ing on our part" In ee 2 as soon as .e start to re/&e!t upon our happiness2 as6 .hy .e are so Hoy/u&

an ,e!ome se&/1!ons!ious2 the e;perien!e /a es" >hen .e ,ring se&/ into it2 this unpreme itate Hoy !annot &astD it is essentia&&y a moment o/ e!stasy2 a rapture .hi!h ta6es us outsi e the ,o y an ,eyon the prism o/ our o.n egotism" Su!h ,stasis, a .or that &itera&&y means 5to stan outsi e the se&/28 has nothing to o .ith the !ra0ing an gree that !hara!teri9e so mu!h o/ our .a6ing &i0es" As -otama re/&e!te &ater2 it 5e;iste apart /rom o,He!ts that a.a6en tanha&8 The !hi& ha ,een ta6en out o/ himse&/ ,y a moment o/ spontaneous !ompassion2 .hen he ha a&&o.e the pain o/ !reatures that ha nothing to o .ith him persona&&y to pier!e him to the heart" This surge o/ se&/&ess empathy ha ,rought him a moment o/ spiritua& re&ease" Instin!ti0e&y2 the ,oy !ompose himse&/ an sat in the asana position2 .ith straight ,a!6 an !rosse &egs" A natura& yogin2 he entere into the /irst jhana, a tran!e in .hi!h the me itator /ee&s a !a&m happiness ,ut is sti&& a,&e to thin6 an re/&e!t" No,o y ha taught him the te!hniGues o/ yoga2 ,ut /or a /e. moments2 the !hi& ha a taste o/ .hat it might ,e &i6e to &ea0e himse&/ ,ehin " The !ommentary te&&s us that the natura& .or& re!ogni9e the spiritua& potentia& o/ the young -otama" As the ay .ore on2 the sha o.s o/ the other trees mo0e 2 ,ut not the sha e o/ the rose1app&e tree2 .hi!h !ontinue to shie& the ,oy /rom the ,&a9ing sun" >hen the nurses !ame ,a!62 they .ere stunne ,y the mira!&e an /et!he Su ho ana2 .ho pai homage to the &itt&e ,oy" These &ast e&ements are !ertain&y /i!tiona&2 ,ut the story o/ the tran!e2 histori!a& or not2 is important in the Pa&i &egen an is sai to ha0e p&aye a !ru!ia& ro&e in -otama<s en&ightenment" ?ears &ater2 Hust a/ter he ha !rie 2 .ith ming&e optimism an espair2 5Sure&y there must ,e another .ay to en&ightenment782 -otama re!a&&e this !hi& hoo e;perien!e" At that momentL again2 unpreme itate an unsoughtLthe memory o/ that !hi& hoo e!stasy rose to the sur/a!e o/ his min " Ema!iate 2 e;hauste an angerous&y i&&2 -otama remem,ere the 5!oo& sha e o/ the rose1app&e tree28 .hi!h2 ine0ita,&y2 ,rought to min the 5!oo&ness8 o/ Ni,,ana" *ost yogins !ou& on&y a!hie0e the /irst jhana a/ter years o/ stu y an har .or62 ,ut it ha !ome to him .ithout any e//ort on his part an gi0en him a /oretaste o/ Ni,,ana" E0er sin!e he ha &e/t Kapi&a0atthu2 he ha shunne a&& happiness as part o/ his !ampaign against esire" (uring his years as an as!eti!2 he ha a&most estroye his ,o y2 hoping that he !ou& there,y /or!e himse&/ into the sa!re .or& that .as the in0erse o/ humanity<s usua& su//ering e;isten!e" ?et as a !hi& he ha attaine that yogi! e!stasy .ithout any trou,&e at a&&2 a/ter an e;perien!e o/ pure Hoy" As he re/&e!te on the !oo&ness o/ the rose1app&e tree2 he imagine 2 in his .ea6ene state2 the re&ie/ o/ ,eing !on0a&es!ent BnibbutaC, a/ter a &i/etime o/ /e0er" Then he .as stru!6 ,y an e;traor inary i ea" 5Cou& this28 he as6e himse&/2 5possi,&y ,e the .ay to en&ightenment@8 :a the other tea!hers ,een .rong@ Instea o/ torturing our re&u!tant se&0es into the /ina& re&ease2 .e might ,e a,&e to a!hie0e it e//ort&ess&y an spontaneous&y" Cou& Ni,,ana ,e ,ui&t into the stru!ture o/ our humanity@ I/ an untraine !hi& !ou& rea!h the /irst jhana an ha0e intimations o/ Ni,,ana .ithout e0en trying2 then yogi! insight must ,e pro/oun &y natura& to human ,eings" Instea o/ ma6ing yoga an assau&t upon humanity2 perhaps it !ou& ,e use to !u&ti0ate innate ten en!ies that &e to ' t%-!imutti, the 5re&ease o/ the min 8 that .as a synonym /or the supreme en&ightenment@ As soon as he ha mu&&e o0er the etai&s o/ that !hi& hoo e;perien!e2 -otama ,e!ame !on0in!e that his hun!h .as !orre!t" This .as in ee the .ay to Ni,,ana" No. a&& he ha to o .as pro0e it" >hat ha pro u!e that moo o/ !a&m happiness that ha mo u&ate so easi&y into the /irst jhana) An essentia& e&ement ha ,een .hat -otama !a&&e 5se!&usion"8 :e ha ,een &e/t a&one3 he !ou& ne0er ha0e entere the e!stati! state i/ his nurses ha istra!te him .ith their !hatter" *e itation reGuire pri0a!y an si&en!e" But this se!&usion .ent ,eyon physi!a&

so&itu e" Sitting un er the rose1app&e tree2 his min ha ,een separate /rom esire /or materia& things an /rom anything un.ho&esome an unpro/ita,&e" Sin!e he ha &e/t home si; years ,e/ore2 -otama ha ,een /ighting his human nature an !rushing its e0ery impu&se" :e ha !ome to istrust any 6in o/ p&easure" But2 he no. as6e himse&/2 .hy shou& he ,e a/rai o/ the type o/ Hoy he ha e;perien!e on that &ong1ago a/ternoon@ That pure e&ight ha ha nothing to o .ith gree y !ra0ing or sensua& esire" Some Hoy/u& e;perien!es !ou& a!tua&&y &ea to an a,an onment o/ egotism an to the a!hie0ement o/ an e;a&te yogi! state" Again2 as soon as he ha pose the Guestion to himse&/2 -otama respon e .ith his usua&2 !on/i ent e!isi0enessD 5I am not a/rai o/ su!h p&easures2 5 he sai " The se!ret .as to repro u!e the se!&usion that ha &e to his tran!e2 an /oster su!h .ho&esome Bkusa#aC states o/ min as the isintereste !ompassion that ha ma e him grie0e /or the inse!ts an the shoots o/ young grass" At the same time2 he .ou& !are/u&&y a0oi any state o/ min that .ou& not ,e he&p/u& or .ou& impe e his en&ightenment" :e ha 2 o/ !ourse2 a&rea y ,een ,eha0ing a&ong these &ines ,y o,ser0ing the 5/i0e prohi,itions8 .hi!h ha /or,i en su!h 5unhe&p/u&8 Bakusa#aC a!ti0ities as 0io&en!e2 &ying2 stea&ing2 into;i!ation an se;" But no.2 he rea&i9e 2 this .as not enough" :e must !u&ti0ate the positi0e attitu es that .ere the opposite o/ these /i0e restraints" Later2 he .ou& say that a person see6ing en&ightenment must ,e 5energeti!2 reso&ute an perse0ering8 in pursuing those 5he&p/u&28 5.ho&esome8 or 5s6i&&/u&8 Bkusa#aC states that .ou& promote spiritua& hea&th" Ahimsa Bharm&essnessC !ou& on&y ta6e one part o/ the .ayD instea o/ simp&y a0oi ing 0io&en!e2 an aspirant must ,eha0e gent&y an 6in &y to e0erything an e0ery,o y3 he must !u&ti0ate thoughts o/ &o0ing16in ness to !ounter any in!ipient /ee&ings o/ i&& .i&&" It .as 0ery important not to te&& &ies2 ,ut it .as a&so !ru!ia& to engage in 5right ta&68 an ma6e sure that .hate0er you sai .as .orth sayingD 5reasone 2 a!!urate2 !&ear2 an ,ene/i!ia&"8 Besi es re/raining /rom stea&ing2 a bhikkhu shou& positi0e&y reHoi!e in ta6ing .hate0er a&ms he .as gi0en2 e;pressing no persona& pre/eren!e2 an shou& ta6e e&ight in possessing the ,are minimum" The yogins ha a&.ays maintaine that a0oi ing the /i0e prohi,itions .ou& &ea to 5in/inite happiness28 ,ut ,y e&i,erate&y !u&ti0ating these positi0e states o/ min 2 su!h ,stasis !ou& sure&y ,e re ou,&e " On!e this 5s6i&&/u&8 ,eha0ior ,e!ame so ha,itua& that it .as se!on nature2 the aspirant2 -otama ,e&ie0e 2 .ou& 5/ee& .ithin himse&/ a pure Hoy28 simi&ar to i/ not i enti!a& .ith the ,&iss that he ha /e&t as a ,oy un er the rose1app&e tree" This a&most Proustian re!o&&e!tion .as2 a!!or ing to the te;ts2 a turning point /or -otama" :e reso&0e /rom then on to .or6 .ith human nature an not /ight against itLamp&i/ying states o/ min that .ere !on u!i0e to en&ightenment an turning his ,a!6 on anything that .ou& stunt his potentia&" -otama .as e0e&oping .hat he !a&&e a 5*i &e >ay28 .hi!h shunne physi!a& an emotiona& se&/1in u&gen!e on the one han 2 an e;treme as!eti!ism B.hi!h !ou& ,e Hust as estru!ti0eC on the other" :e e!i e that he must imme iate&y a,an on the puniti0e regime that he ha /o&&o.e .ith his /i0e !ompanions2 .hi!h ha ma e him so i&& that there .as no .ay he !ou& e;perien!e the 5pure Hoy8 that .as a pre&u e to &i,eration" Jor the /irst time in months2 he too6 so&i /oo 2 starting .ith .hat the te;ts !a&& kummasa, a soothing mi&6y Hun6et or ri!e pu ing" >hen the /i0e bhikkhus sa. him eating2 they .ere horri/ie an .a&6e a.ay in isgust2 !on0in!e that -otama ha a,an one the strugg&e /or en&ightenment" But this2 o/ !ourse2 .as not the !ase" -otama must ha0e nurse himse&/ s&o.&y ,a!6 to hea&th2 an uring this time he pro,a,&y starte to e0e&op his o.n spe!ia& 6in o/ yoga" :e .as no &onger hoping to is!o0er his eterna& Se&/2 sin!e he .as ,eginning to thin6 that this Se&/ .as Hust another one o/ the e&usions that he& peop&e ,a!6 /rom en&ightenment" :is yoga .as esigne to

he&p him ,e!ome ,etter a!Guainte .ith his human nature2 so that he !ou& ma6e it .or6 /or him in the attainment o/ Ni,,ana" Jirst2 as a pre&iminary to me itation2 !ame the pra!ti!e that he !a&&e 5min /u&ness8 BsatiC, in .hi!h he s!rutini9e his ,eha0ior at e0ery moment o/ the ay" :e note the e,, an /&o. o/ his /ee&ings an sensations2 together .ith the /&u!tuations o/ his !ons!iousness" I/ sensua& esire arose2 instea o/ simp&y !rushing it2 he too6 note o/ .hat ha gi0en rise to it an ho. soon it /a e a.ay" :e o,ser0e the .ay his senses an thoughts intera!te .ith the e;terna& .or& 2 an ma e himse&/ !ons!ious o/ his e0ery ,o i&y a!tion" :e .ou& ,e!ome a.are o/ the .ay he .a&6e 2 ,ent o.n or stret!he his &im,s2 an o/ his ,eha0ior .hi&e 5eating2 rin6ing2 !he.ing2 an tasting2 in e/e!ating2 .a&6ing2 stan ing2 sitting2 s&eeping2 .a6ing2 spea6ing an 6eeping si&ent"8 :e noti!e the .ay i eas !ourse through his min an the !onstant stream o/ esires an irritations that !ou& p&ague him in a ,rie/ ha&/1hour" :e ,e!ame 5min /u&8 o/ the .ay he respon e to a su en noise or a !hange in the temperature2 an sa. ho. Gui!6&y e0en a tiny thing istur,e his pea!e o/ min " This 5min /u&ness8 .as not !u&ti0ate in a spirit o/ neuroti! introspe!tion" -otama ha not put his humanity un er the mi!ros!ope in this .ay in or er to !astigate himse&/ /or his 5sins"8 Sin ha no p&a!e in his system2 sin!e any gui&t .ou& simp&y ,e 5unhe&p/u&8D it .ou& im,e an aspirant in the ego that he .as trying to trans!en " -otama<s use o/ the .or s kusa#a an akusa#a are signi/i!ant" Se;2 /or e;amp&e2 .as not &iste among the /i0e yama ,e!ause it .as sin/u&2 ,ut ,e!ause it .ou& not he&p a person rea!h Ni,,ana3 se; .as em,&emati! o/ the esire that imprisone human ,eings in samsara+ it e;pen e energy that .ou& ,e ,etter emp&oye in yoga" A bhikkhu re/raine /rom se; as an ath&ete might a,stain /rom !ertain /oo s ,e/ore an important !ompetition" Se; ha its uses2 ,ut it .as not 5he&p/u&8 to one engage in the 5no,&e Guest"8 -otama .as not o,ser0ing his human nature in or er to poun!e on his /ai&ings2 ,ut .as ,e!oming a!Guainte .ith the .ay it .or6e in or er to e;p&oit its !apa!ities" :e ha ,e!ome !on0in!e that the so&ution to the pro,&em o/ su//ering &ay .ithin himse&/2 in .hat he !a&&e 5this /athom1&ong !ar!ass2 this ,o y an min "8 (e&i0eran!e .ou& !ome /rom the re/inement o/ his o.n mun ane nature2 an so he must in0estigate it an get to 6no. it as intimate&y as an eGuestrian &earns to 6no. the horse he is training" But the pra!ti!e o/ min /u&ness a&so ma e him more a!ute&y a.are than e0er o/ the per0asi0eness o/ ,oth su//ering an the esire that ga0e rise to it" A&& these thoughts an &ongings that !ro. e into his !ons!iousness .ere o/ su!h short uration" E0erything .as impermanent Bani''aC& :o.e0er intense a !ra0ing might ,e2 it soon petere out an .as rep&a!e ,y something Guite i//erent" Nothing &aste &ong2 not e0en the ,&iss o/ me itation" The transitory nature o/ &i/e .as one o/ the !hie/ !auses o/ su//ering2 an as he re!or e his /ee&ings2 moment ,y moment2 -otama a&so ,e!ame a.are that the dukkha o/ &i/e .as not !on/ine to the maHor traumas o/ si!6ness2 o& age an eath" It happene on a ai&y2 e0en hour&y ,asis2 in a&& the &itt&e isappointments2 reHe!tions2 /rustrations an /ai&ures that ,e/a&& us in the !ourse o/ a sing&e ayD 5Pain2 grie/ an espair are dukkha,- he .ou& e;p&ain &ater2 5,eing /or!e into pro;imity .ith .hat .e hate is su//ering2 ,eing separate /rom .hat .e &o0e is su//ering2 not getting .hat .e .ant is su//ering"8 True2 there .as p&easure in &i/e2 ,ut on!e -otama ha su,He!te this to the mer!i&ess s!rutiny o/ min /u&ness2 he noti!e ho. o/ten our satis/a!tion meant su//ering /or others" The prosperity o/ one person usua&&y epen s upon the po0erty or e;!&usion o/ some,o y e&se3 .hen .e get something that ma6es us happy2 .e imme iate&y start to .orry a,out &osing it3 .e pursue an o,He!t o/ esire2 e0en .hen .e 6no. in our heart o/ hearts that it .i&& ma6e us unhappy in the &ong run" *in /u&ness a&so ma e -otama high&y sensiti0e to the pre0a&en!e o/ the esire or !ra0ing that

is the !ause o/ this su//ering" The ego is 0ora!ious an !ontinua&&y .ants to go,,&e up other things an peop&e" >e a&most ne0er see things as they are in themse&0es2 ,ut our 0ision is !o&ore ,y .hether .e .ant them or not2 ho. .e !an get them2 or ho. they !an ,ring us pro/it" Our 0ie. o/ the .or& is2 there/ore2 istorte ,y our gree 2 an this o/ten &ea s to i&& .i&& an enmity2 .hen our esires !&ash .ith the !ra0ings o/ others" :en!e/orth2 -otama .ou& usua&&y !oup&e 5 esire8 BtanhaC .ith 5hatre 8 Bd%saC& >hen .e say 5I .ant28 .e o/ten /in ourse&0es /i&&e .ith en0y2 Hea&ousy an rage i/ other peop&e ,&o!6 our esires or su!!ee .here .e ha0e /ai&e " Su!h states o/ min are 5uns6i&&/u&8 ,e!ause they ma6e us more se&/ish than e0er" (esire an hatre 2 its !on!omitant2 are thus the Hoint !ause o/ mu!h o/ the misery an e0i& in the .or& " On the one han 2 esire ma6es us 5gra,8 or 5!&ing8 to things that !an ne0er gi0e &asting satis/a!tion" On the other2 it ma6es us !onstant&y is!ontente .ith our present !ir!umstan!es" As -otama o,ser0e the .ay one !ra0ing a/ter another too6 possession o/ his min an heart2 he noti!e ho. human ,eings .ere !ease&ess&y yearning to ,e!ome something e&se2 go e&se2 an a!Guire something they o not ha0e" It is as though they .ere !ontinua&&y see6ing a /orm o/ re,irth2 a ne. 6in o/ e;isten!e" Cra0ing BtanhaC mani/ests itse&/ e0en in the esire to !hange our physi!a& position2 go into another room2 ha0e a sna!6 or su en&y &ea0e .or6 an go /in some,o y to ta&6 to" These petty !ra0ings assai& us hour ,y hour2 minute ,y minute2 so that .e 6no. no rest" >e are !onsume an istra!te ,y the !ompu&sion to ,e!ome something i//erent" 5The .or& 2 .hose 0ery nature is to !hange2 is !onstant&y etermine to ,e!ome something e&se28 -otama !on!&u e " 5It is at the mer!y o/ !hange2 it is on&y happy .hen it is !aught up in the pro!ess o/ !hange2 ,ut this &o0e o/ !hange !ontains a measure o/ /ear2 an this /ear itse&/ is dukkha"8 But .hen -otama re/&e!te upon these truths2 he .as not oing so in an or inary2 is!ursi0e manner" :e ,rought the te!hniGues o/ yoga to ,ear upon them2 so that they ,e!ame more 0i0i an imme iate than any !on!&usion arri0e at ,y norma& ratio!ination" E0ery ay2 a/ter he ha !o&&e!te enough a&ms /or his ai&y mea&2 .hi!h he usua&&y too6 ,e/ore noon2 -otama .ou& see6 out a se!&u e spot2 sit o.n in the asana posture an ,egin the yogi! e;er!ises o/ kagrata or !on!entration" :e .ou& pra!ti!e this min /u&ness in a yogi! !onte;t an 2 as a resu&t2 his insights gaine a ne. !&arity" :e !ou& see them 5 ire!t&y28 enter into them an &earn to o,ser0e them .ithout the /i&ter o/ se&/1prote!ting egotism that istorts them" :uman ,eings o not usua&&y .ant to rea&i9e the per0asi0eness o/ pain2 ,ut no. -otama .as &earning2 .ith the s6i&& o/ a traine yogin2 to 5see things as they rea&&y are"8 :e i not2 ho.e0er2 stop at these more negati0e truths3 he .as a&so /ostering the 5s6i&&/u&8 states .ith the same intensity" A person2 he e;p&aine &ater2 !ou& puri/y his or her min ,y !u&ti0ating these positi0e an he&p/u& states .hi&e per/orming the yogi! e;er!ises2 sitting !ross1&egge an 2 ,y means o/ the respiratory is!ip&ine o/ prdndydma, in u!ing an a&ternati0e state o/ !ons!iousness" .n' h has banish d ma# !%# n' and hatr d /r%m his mind, h #i! s 0ith%ut i## 0i## and is a#s% /u## %/ '%mpassi%n, d siring th 0 #/ar %/ a## #i!ing b ings& & & & .n' h has banish d th m nta# habits %/ #a1in ss and ind%# n' , h is n%t %n#y /r %/ #a1in ss and ind%# n' but has a mind that is #u'id, '%ns'i%us %/ its #/ and '%mp# t #y a# rt+ & & & .n' h has banish d an,i ty and 0%rry, h #i! s 0ith%ut an,i ty and his mind b '%m s 'a#m and sti##+ & & & .n' h has banish d un' rtainty, h #i! s 0ith a mind that has %utgr%0n d bi#itating d%ubt and is n% #%ng r p#agu d by unpr%/itab# Ea6usa&aF m nta# stat s& In this .ay2 a yogin 5puri/ies his min 8 o/ hatre 2 in o&en!e2 an;iety an un!ertainty" The brahmins ha ,e&ie0e that they a!hie0e this 6in o/ spiritua& puri/i!ation ,y means o/ the ritua&

kamma o/ anima& sa!ri/i!e" But no. -otama rea&i9e that any,o y !ou& !u&ti0ate this purity2 .ithout the agen!y o/ a priest2 ,y means o/ the menta& kamma o/ me itation2 .hi!h !ou& 2 he ,e&ie0e 2 i/ per/orme at su//i!ient epth in the yogi! manner2 trans/orm the rest&ess an estru!ti0e ten en!ies o/ the !ons!ious an un!ons!ious min " In &ater years2 -otama !&aime that the ne. yogi! metho he ha e0e&ope ,rought to ,irth a .ho&&y i//erent 6in o/ human ,eing2 one .ho .as not ominate ,y !ra0ing2 gree an egotism" It .as2 he e;p&aine 2 &i6e a s.or ,eing ra.n /rom its s!a,,ar or a sna6e /rom its s&oughD 5the s.or an the sna6e .ere one thing3 the s&ough an s!a,,ar ha ,een something Guite i//erent"8 In his system2 me itation .ou& ta6e the p&a!e o/ sa!ri/i!e3 at the same time2 the is!ip&ine o/ !ompassion .ou& ta6e the p&a!e o/ the o& puniti0e as!eti!ism BtapasC& Compassion2 he .as !on0in!e 2 .ou& a&so gi0e the aspirant a!!ess to hitherto1un6no.n imensions o/ his humanity" >hen -otama ha stu ie yoga .ith A&ara Ka&ama2 he ha &earne to as!en to a higher state o/ !ons!iousness through the /our su!!essi0e jhdna statesD ea!h tran!e ha ,rought the yogin greater spiritua& insight an re/inement" No. -otama trans/orme these /our jhanas ,y /using them .ith .hat he !a&&e 5the immeasura,&es8 BappamanaC& E0ery ay in me itation he .ou& e&i,erate&y e0o6e the emotion o/ &o0eL8that huge2 e;pansi0e an immeasura,&e /ee&ing that 6no.s no hatre 8Lan ire!t it to ea!h o/ the /our !orners o/ the .or& " :e i not omit a sing&e &i0ing thingLp&ant2 anima&2 emon2 /rien or /oeL/rom this ra ius o/ ,ene0o&en!e" In the /irst 5immeasura,&e28 .hi!h !orrespon e to the /irst jhana, he !u&ti0ate a /ee&ing o/ /rien ship /or e0ery,o y an e0erything" >hen he ha mastere this2 he progresse to the !u&ti0ation o/ !ompassion .ith the se!on Hhana2 &earning to su//er .ith other peop&e an things an to empathi9e .ith their pain2 as he ha /e&t the su//ering o/ the grass an the inse!ts un er the rose1app&e tree" >hen he rea!he the thir jhdna, he /ostere a 5sympatheti! Hoy8 .hi!h reHoi!es at the happiness o/ others2 .ithout re/&e!ting upon ho. this might re oun upon himse&/" Jina&&y2 .hen he attaine the /ourth jhana, in .hi!h the yogin .as so immerse in the o,He!t o/ his !ontemp&ation that he .as ,eyon pain or p&easure2 -otama aspire to an attitu e o/ tota& eGuanimity others2 /ee&ing neither attra!tion nor antipathy" This .as a 0ery i//i!u&t state2 sin!e it reGuire the yogin to i0est himse&/ !omp&ete&y o/ that egotism .hi!h a&.ays &oo6s to see ho. other things an peop&e !an ,e o/ ,ene/it or etriment to onese&/3 it eman e that he a,an on a&& persona& pre/eren!e an a opt a .ho&&y isintereste ,ene0o&en!e" >here tra itiona& yoga ha ,ui&t up in the yogin a state o/ imper0ious autonomy2 so that the yogin ,e!ame in!reasing&y hee &ess o/ the .or& 2 -otama .as &earning to trans!en himse&/ in an a!t o/ tota& !ompassion a&& other ,eings2 in/using the o& is!ip&ines .ith &o0ing16in ness" The purpose o/ ,oth min /u&ness an the immeasura,&es .as to neutra&i9e the o/ that egotism that &imits human potentia&" Instea o/ saying 5I .ant28 the yogin .ou& &earn to see6 the goo o/ others3 instea o/ su!!um,ing to the hatre that is the resu&t o/ our se&/1!entere gree 2 -otama .as mounting a !ompassionate o//ensi0e o/ ,ene0o&en!e an goo .i&&" >hen these positi0e2 s6i&&/u& states .ere !u&ti0ate .ith yogi! intensity2 they !ou& root themse&0es more easi&y in the un!ons!ious impu&ses o/ our min s an ,e!ome ha,itua&" The immeasura,&es .ere esigne to pu&& o.n the ,arri!a es .e ere!t ,et.een ourse&0es an others in or er to prote!t the /ragi&e ego3 they sought a &arger rea!h o/ ,eing an enhan!e hori9ons" As the min ,ro6e /ree o/ its norma&2 se&/ish !onstri!tion an em,ra!e a&& ,eings2 it .as /e&t to ha0e ,e!ome 5e;pansi0e2 .ithout &imits2 enhan!e 2 .ithout hatre or petty ma&e0o&en!e"8 The !ons!iousness no. /e&t as in/inite as the soun ma e ,y an e;pert !on!h1,&o.er2 .hi!h .as thought to per0a e a&& spa!e" I/ ta6en to a 0ery high &e0e&2 this yoga o/ !ompassion BkarunaC yie& e a 5re&ease o/ the

min 8 B' t%-!imuttiC, a phrase .hi!h2 in the Pa&i te;ts2 is use o/ en&ightenment itse&/" Through the is!ip&ine o/ min /u&ness too2 -otama ,egan to e;perien!e a eepening !a&m2 espe!ia&&y .hen this .as a!!ompanie ,y pranayama& :e .as ,eginning to is!o0er .hat it .as &i6e to &i0e .ithout the se&/ish !ra0ings that poison our &i0es an our re&ations .ith others2 imprisoning us .ithin the petty !on/ines o/ our o.n nee s an esires" :e .as a&so ,e!oming &ess a//e!te ,y these unru&y yearnings" It has ,een /oun that this ha,it o/ attenti0e se&/1s!rutiny has he&pe Bu hist pra!titioners to monitor the istra!tions that epri0e us o/ pea!e3 as the me itator ,e!omes a.are o/ the ephemera& nature o/ those in0asi0e thoughts an !ra0ings2 it ,e!omes i//i!u&t to i enti/y .ith them or to see them in any .ay as 5mine"8 ConseGuent&y they ,e!ome &ess istur,ing" >e o not 6no. ho. &ong it too6 -otama to re!o0er his hea&th a/ter his years o/ as!eti!ism" The s!riptures spee up the pro!ess to ma6e it more ramati!2 an gi0e the impression that -otama .as rea y /or the /ina& strugg&e .ith himse&/ a/ter one ,o.& o/ Hun6et" This !annot ha0e ,een true" The e//e!ts o/ min /u&ness an the !u&ti0ation o/ s6i&&/u& states ta6e time" -otama himse&/ sai that it !ou& ta6e at &east se0en years2 an stresse that the ne. se&/ e0e&ope imper!epti,&y o0er a &ong perio " 5Kust as the o!ean s&opes gra ua&&y2 /a&&s a.ay gra ua&&y2 an she&0es gra ua&&y .ith no su en in!&ine28 he &ater .arne his is!ip&es2 5so in this metho 2 training2 is!ip&ine an pra!ti!e ta6e e//e!t ,y s&o. egrees2 .ith no su en per!eption o/ the u&timate truth"8 The te;ts sho. -otama attaining his supreme en&ightenment an ,e!oming a Bu ha in a sing&e night2 ,e!ause they are &ess !on!erne .ith histori!a& /a!t than .ith tra!ing the genera& !ontours o/ the pro!ess o/ a!hie0ing re&ease an inner pea!e" Thus in one o/ the o& est portions o/ the s!riptures2 .e rea that a/ter -otama ha ,een eserte ,y his /i0e !ompanions an ha ,een nourishe ,y his /irst mea&2 he set o// Mru0e&a2 .a&6ing there ,y easy stages" >hen he rea!he Senanigama ,esi e the NeranHara ri0er2 he noti!e 5an agreea,&e p&ot o/ &an 2 a p&easant gro0e2 a spar6&ing ri0er .ith e&ight/u& an smooth ,an6s2 an 2 near,y2 a 0i&&age .hose inha,itants .ou& /ee him"8 This2 -otama thought2 .as Hust the p&a!e to un erta6e the /ina& e//ort that .ou& ,ring him en&ightenment" I/ he .as to repro u!e the !a&m !ontent that ha mo u&ate so easi&y into the /irst jhana un er the rose1app&e tree2 it .as important to /in a !ongenia& spot /or his me itation" :e sat o.n2 tra ition has it2 un er a ,o hi tree2 an too6 up the asana position2 that he .ou& not &ea0e this spot unti& he ha attaine Ni,,ana" This p&easant gro0e is no. 6no.n as Bo h -aya an is an important site o/ pi&grimage2 ,e!ause it is thought to ,e the p&a!e .here -otama e;perien!e the yathabhuta, his en&ightenment or a.a6ening" It .as in this spot that he ,e!ame a Bu ha" It .as &ate spring" S!ho&ars ha0e tra itiona&&y ate the en&ightenment o/ -otama at a,out the year )2A B"C"E"2 though re!ent&y some ha0e argue /or a &ater ate in the /irst ha&/ o/ the /i/th !entury" The Pa&i te;ts gi0e us some in/ormation a,out .hat happene that night2 ,ut nothing that ma6es mu!h sense to an outsi er .ho has not ,een through the Bu hist regimen" They say that -otama muse upon the eep&y !on itiona& nature o/ a&& &i/e as .e 6no. it2 sa. a&& his past &i0es2 an re!o0ere that 5se!&u e 8 an so&itary state he ha e;perien!e as a !hi& " :e then s&ippe easi&y into the /irst jhana, an progresse through e0er higher states o/ !ons!iousness unti& he gaine an insight that /ore0er trans/orme him an !on0in!e him that he ha /ree himse&/ /rom the roun o/ samsara an re,irth" But there seems &itt&e ne. a,out this insight2 tra itiona&&y 6no.n as the Jour No,&e Truths an regar e as the /un amenta& tea!hing o/ Bu hism" The /irst o/ these 0erities .as the no,&e truth o/ su//ering BdukkhaC that in/orms the .ho&e o/ human &i/e" The se!on truth .as that the !ause o/ this su//ering .as esire BtanhaC& In the thir no,&e truth2 -otama asserte that Ni,,ana e;iste as a .ay out o/ this pre i!ament an /ina&&y2 he

!&aime that he ha is!o0ere the path that &ea s /rom su//ering an pain to its !essation in the state o/ Ni,,ana" There seems nothing stri6ing&y origina& a,out these truths" *ost o/ the mon6s an as!eti!s o/ North In ia .ou& ha0e agree .ith the /irst three2 an -otama himse&/ ha ,een !on0in!e o/ them sin!e the 0ery ,eginning o/ his Guest" I/ there is anything no0e&2 it .as the /ourth truth2 in .hi!h -otama pro!&aime that he ha /oun a .ay to en&ightenment2 a metho .hi!h he !a&&e the No,&e Eight/o& Path" Its eight !omponents ha0e ,een rationa&i9e sti&& /urther into a three1 /o& p&an o/ a!tion2 !onsisting o/ mora&ity2 me itation an .is omD E1F M%ra#ity Bsi#%C, .hi!h !onsists o/ right spee!h2 right a!tion an right &i0e&ihoo " This essentia&&y !omprises the !u&ti0ation o/ the 5s6i&&/u&8 states in the .ay .e ha0e is!usse " E2F M ditati%n BsamadhiC, .hi!h !omprises -otama<s re0ise yoga is!ip&ines2 un er the hea ings o/ right e//ort2 min /u&ness an !on!entration" E%F 2isd%m BpannaC: the t.o 0irtues o/ right un erstan ing an right reso&0e ena,&e an aspirant2 ,y means o/ mora&ity an me itation2 to un erstan the Bu ha<s (hamma2 enter into it 5 ire!t&y8 an integrate it into his or her ai&y &i/e in the .ay that .e sha&& is!uss in the /o&& !hapter" I/ there is any truth to the story that -otama gaine en&ightenment at Bo h -aya in a sing&e night2 it !ou& ,e that he a!Guire a su en2 a,so&ute !ertainty that he rea&&y had is!o0ere a metho that .ou& 2 i/ /o&&o.e energeti!a&&y2 ,ring an earnest see6er to Ni,,ana" :e ha not ma e this up3 it .as not a ne. !reation or an in0ention o/ his o.n" On the !ontrary2 he a&.ays insiste that he ha simp&y is!o0ere 5a path o/ great antiGuity2 an an!ient trai&2 tra0e&e ,y human ,eings in a /ar1o//2 istant era"8 The other Bu has2 his pre e!essors2 ha taught this path an immeasura,&y &ong time ago2 ,ut this an!ient 6no.&e ge ha /a e o0er the years an ha ,een entire&y /orgotten" -otama insiste that this insight .as simp&y a statement o/ things 5as they rea&&y are83 the path .as .ritten into the 0ery stru!ture o/ e;isten!e" It .as2 there/ore2 th (hamma2 par e;!e&&en!e2 ,e!ause it e&u!i ate the /un amenta& prin!ip&es that go0ern the &i/e o/ the !osmos" I/ men2 .omen2 anima&s an go s 6ept to this path2 they !ou& a&& attain an en&ightenment that .ou& ,ring them pea!e an /u&/i&&ment2 ,e!ause they .ere no &onger strugg&ing against their eepest grain" But it must a&so ,e un erstoo that the Jour No,&e Truths o not present a theory that !an ,e Hu ge ,y the rationa& inte&&e!t a&one3 they are not simp&y notiona& 0erities" The Bu ha<s (hamma .as essentia&&y a metho 2 an it stan s or /a&&s not ,y its metaphysi!a& a!uity or its s!ienti/i! a!!ura!y2 ,ut ,y the e;tent to .hi!h it .or6s" The truths !&aim to ,ring su//ering to an en 2 not ,e!ause peop&e su,s!ri,e to a sa&0i/i! !ree an to !ertain ,e&ie/s2 ,ut ,e!ause they a opt -otama<s program or .ay o/ &i/e" O0er the !enturies2 men an .omen ha0e in ee /oun that this regimen has ,rought them a measure o/ pea!e an insight" The Bu ha<s !&aim2 e!hoe ,y a&& the other great sages o/ the A;ia& Age2 .as that ,y rea!hing ,eyon themse&0es to a rea&ity that trans!en s their rationa& un erstan ing2 men an .omen ,e!ome /u&&y human" The Bu ha ne0er !&aime that his 6no.&e ge o/ the Jour No,&e Truths .as uniGue2 ,ut that he .as the /irst person2 in this present era2 to ha0e 5rea&i9e 8 them an ma e them a rea&ity in his o.n &i/e" :e /oun that he had e;tinguishe the !ra0ing2 hatre an ignoran!e that ho& humanity in thra&&" :e had attaine Ni,,ana2 an e0en though he .as sti&& su,He!t to physi!a& ai&ments an other 0i!issitu es2 nothing !ou& tou!h his inner pea!e or !ause him serious menta& pain" :is metho ha .or6e " 5The ho&y &i/e has ,een &i0e out to its !on!&usion78 he !rie out triumphant&y at the en o/ that momentous night un er the ,o hi tree" 5>hat ha to ,e one has ,een a!!omp&ishe 3 there is nothing e&se to o78

Those o/ us .ho o not &i0e a!!or ing to the Bu hist program o/ mora&ity an me itation ha0e2 there/ore2 no means o/ Hu ging this !&aim" The Bu ha .as a&.ays Guite !&ear that his (hamma !ou& not ,e un erstoo ,y rationa& thin6ing a&one" It on&y re0ea&e its true signi/i!an!e .hen it .as apprehen e 5 ire!t&y28 a!!or ing to yogi! metho s2 an in the right ethi!a& !onte;t" The Jour No,&e Truths o ma6e &ogi!a& sense2 ,ut they o not ,e!ome !ompe&&ing unti& an aspirant has &earne to i enti/y .ith them at a pro/oun &e0e& an has integrate them .ith his o.n &i/e" Then an on&y then .i&& he e;perien!e the 5e;u&tation28 5Hoy8 an 5serenity8 .hi!h2 a!!or ing to the Pa&i te;ts2 !ome to us .hen .e i0est ourse&0es o/ egotism2 &i,erate ourse&0es /rom the prison o/ se&/1!entere ness2 an see the Truths 5as they rea&&y are"8 >ithout the me itation an mora&ity pres!ri,e ,y the Bu ha2 the Truths remain as a,stra!t as a musi!a& s!ore2 .hi!h /or most o/ us !annot re0ea& its true ,eauty on the page ,ut nee s to ,e or!hestrate an interprete ,y a s6i&&e per/ormer" E0en though the Truths ma6e rationa& sense2 the te;ts emphasi9e that they i not !ome to -otama ,y means o/ is!ursi0e reasoning" As he sat me itating un er the ,o hi tree2 they 5rose up8 in him2 as /rom the epths o/ his ,eing" :e apprehen e them .ithin himse&/ ,y the 6in o/ 5 ire!t 6no.&e ge8 a!Guire ,y a yogin .ho pra!ti!es the is!ip&ines o/ yoga .ith 5 i&igen!e2 ar or an se&/1!ontro&"8 -otama .as so a,sor,e in these Truths2 the o,He!t o/ his !ontemp&ation2 that nothing interpose itse&/ ,et.een them an his o.n min an heart" :e ha ,e!ome their human em,o iment" >hen peop&e o,ser0e the .ay he ,eha0e an respon e to e0ents2 they !ou& see .hat the (hamma .as &i6e3 they !ou& see Ni,,ana in human /orm" In or er to share -otama<s e;perien!e2 .e ha0e to approa!h the Truths in a spirit o/ tota& se&/1a,an onment" >e ha0e to ,e prepare to &ea0e our o& unregenerate se&0es ,ehin " The !ompassionate mora&ity an yoga e0ise ,y -otama on&y ,rought &i,eration i/ the aspirant .as rea y to &ay asi e a&& egotism" It is signi/i!ant that at the moment he a!hie0e Ni,,ana un er the ,o hi tree2 -otama i not !ry 5I am &i,erate 28 ,ut 5It is &i,erate 78 :e ha trans!en e himse&/2 a!hie0e an ,stasis, an is!o0ere an enhan!e 5immeasura,&e8 imension o/ his humanity that he ha not 6no.n ,e/ore" >hat i the ne. Bu ha mean .hen he !&aime to ha0e rea!he Ni,,ana on that spring night@ :a he himse&/2 as the .or imp&ie 2 ,een 5snu//e out28 e;tinguishe &i6e a !an &e /&ame@ (uring his si;1year Guest2 -otama ha not maso!histi!a&&y !ourte annihi&ation ,ut ha sought en&ightenment" :e ha .ante to .a6e up to his /u&& potentia& as a human person2 not to ,e .ipe out" Ni,,ana i not mean persona& e;tin!tionD .hat ha ,een snu//e out .as not his persona&ity ,ut the /ires o/ gree 2 hatre an e&usion" As a resu&t2 he enHoye a ,&esse 5!oo&ness8 an pea!e" By tamping out the 5unhe&p/u&8 states o/ min 2 the Bu ha ha gaine the pea!e .hi!h !omes /rom se&/&essness3 it is a !on ition that those o/ us .ho are sti&& enmeshe in the !ra0ings o/ egotism2 .hi!h ma6e us hosti&e others an istort our 0ision2 !annot imagine" That is .hy the Bu ha a&.ays re/use 2 in the years /o&& his en&ightenment2 to e/ine or es!ri,e Ni,,anaD it .ou& 2 he sai 2 ,e 5improper8 to o so2 ,e!ause there are no .or s to es!ri,e su!h a state to an unen&ightene person" The attainment o/ Ni,,ana i not mean that the Bu ha .ou& ne0er e;perien!e any more su//ering" :e .ou& gro. o& 2 get si!6 an ie &i6e e0ery,o y e&se an .ou& e;perien!e pain .hi&e oing so" Ni,,ana oes not gi0e an a.a6ene person tran!e1&i6e immunity2 ,ut an inner ha0en .hi!h ena,&es a man or .oman to &i0e 0ith pain2 to ta6e possession o/ it2 a//irm it2 an e;perien!e a pro/oun pea!e o/ min in the mi st o/ su//ering" Ni,,ana2 there/ore2 is /oun .ithin onese&/2 in the 0ery heart o/ ea!h person<s ,eing" It is an entire&y natura& state3 it is not ,esto.e ,y gra!e nor a!hie0e /or us ,y a supernatura& sa01 ior3 it !an ,e rea!he ,y any,o y .ho !u&ti0ates the path to en&ightenment as assi uous&y as

-otama i " Ni,,ana is a sti&& !enter3 it gi0es meaning to &i/e" Peop&e .ho &ose tou!h .ith this Guiet p&a!e an o not orient their &i0es it !an /a&& apart" Artists2 poets an musi!ians !an on&y ,e!ome /u&&y !reati0e i/ they .or6 /rom this inner !ore o/ pea!e an integrity" On!e a person has &earne to a!!ess this nu!&eus o/ !a&m2 he or she is no &onger ri0en ,y !on/&i!ting /ears an esires2 an is a,&e to /a!e pain2 sorro. an grie/ .ith eGuanimity" An en&ightene or a.a6ene human ,eing has is!o0ere a strength .ithin that !omes /rom ,eing !orre!t&y !entere 2 ,eyon the rea!h o/ se&/ishness" On!e he ha /oun this inner rea&m o/ !a&m2 .hi!h is Ni,,ana2 -otama ha ,e!ome a Bu ha" :e .as !on0in!e that2 on!e egotism ha ,een snu//e out2 there .ou& ,e no /&ames or /ue& to spar6 a ne. e;isten!e2 ,e!ause the esire BtanhaC .hi!h ,oun him to samsara ha ,een /ina&&y Guen!he " >hen he ie 2 he .ou& attain his paranibbana, his /ina& rest" Again2 this i not mean tota& e;tin!tion2 as >esterners sometimes assume" The paranibbana .as a mo e o/ e;isten!e that 3 .e !annot !on!ei0e un&ess .e ha0e ,e!ome en&ightene ourse&0es" There are no .or s or !on!epts /or it2 ,e!ause our &anguage is eri0e /rom the sense ata o/ our unhappy2 mun ane e;isten!e3 .e !annot rea&&y imagine a &i/e in .hi!h there is no egotism o/ any 6in " But that oes not mean that su!h an e;isten!e is impossi,&e3 it ,e!ame a Bu hist heresy to maintain that an en&ightene person .ou& !ease to e;ist a/ter eath" In the same .ay2 monotheists ha0e insiste that there are no .or s that !an a eGuate&y es!ri,e the rea&ity they !a&& 5-o "8 5:e .ho has gone to his /ina& rest BparinibbanaC !annot ,e e/ine ,y any measure28 the Bu ha .ou& te&& his /o&&o.ers in &ater &i/e" 5There are no .or s !apa,&e o/ es!ri,ing him" >hat thought might !omprehen has ,een !an!e&e out2 an so has e0ery mo e o/ spee!h"8 In pure&y mun ane terms2 Ni,,ana .as 5nothing28 not ,e!ause it i not e;ist2 ,ut ,e!ause it !orrespon e to no thing that .e 6no." But those .ho ha 2 ,y int o/ the is!ip&ines o/ yoga an !ompassionate mora&ity2 manage to a!!ess this sti&& !enter .ithin /oun that they enHoye an immeasura,&y ri!her mo e o/ ,eing2 ,e!ause they ha &earne to &i0e .ithout the &imitations o/ egotism" The a!!ount o/ the Bu ha<s attainment o/ en&ightenment un er the ,o hi tree in the Pa&i te;ts !an &ea0e the mo ern rea er /ee&ing ,a//&e an /rustrate " It is one o/ the p&a!es .here these Thera0a in s!riptures ,e!ome opaGue to peop&e .ho are not e;pert yogins2 sin!e they .e&& in su!h etai& on me itati0e te!hni!a&ities" *ore he&p/u& to an outsi er is the story to& in the &ater s!ripture2 the Nidana Katha, .hi!h ma6es the notion o/ en&ightenment more a!!essi,&e to or inary morta&s" As .ith its 0ersion o/ -otama<s 5-oing Jorth28 this story e;p&ores the psy!ho&ogi!a& an spiritua& imp&i!ations o/ en&ightenment in a .ay that a &ay person or Bu hist ,eginner !an un erstan 2 ,e!ause it has no yogi! Hargon ,ut gi0es us a .ho&&y mytho&ogi!a& a!!ount o/ the en&ightenment" The author is not attempting to .rite history in our sense2 ,ut ra.s instea on time&ess imagery to sho. .hat is in0o&0e in the is!o0ery o/ Ni,,ana" :e uses moti/s !ommon in mytho&ogy2 .hi!h has ,een apt&y es!ri,e as a pre1mo ern /orm o/ psy!ho&ogy2 tra!ing the inner paths o/ the psy!he an ma6ing !&earer the o,s!ure .or& o/ the un!ons!ious min " Bu hism is an essentia&&y psy!ho&ogi!a& re&igion2 so it is not surprising that the ear&y Bu hist authors ma e su!h s6i&&/u& use o/ mytho&ogy" Again2 .e must re!a&& that none o/ these te;ts is !on!erne .ith te&&ing us .hat a!tua&&y happene 2 ,ut rather is inten e to he&p the au ien!e gain their o.n en&ightenment" The Nidana Katha emphasi9es the nee /or !ourage an eterminationD it sho.s -otama engage in a heroi! strugg&e against a&& those /or!es .ithin himse&/ .hi!h mi&itate against the a!hie0ement o/ Ni,,ana" >e rea that a/ter -otama ha eaten his ish o/ Hun6et2 he stro e as maHesti!a&&y as a &ion the ,o hi tree to ma6e his &ast ,i /or &i,eration2 etermine to rea!h his goa& that 0ery night" Jirst2 he !ir!&e the tree2 trying to /in the p&a!e .here a&& the

pre0ious Bu has ha sat .hen they ha .on through to Ni,,ana2 ,ut .here0er he stoo 2 5the ,roa earth hea0e an sun62 as though it .as a huge !art.hee& &ying on its hu,2 an some,o y .as trea ing on its rim"8 E0entua&&y2 -otama approa!he the eastern si e o/ the tree2 an .hen he stoo there2 the groun remaine sti&&" -otama e!i e that this must ,e the 5immo0a,&e spot8 on .hi!h a&& the pre0ious Bu has ha positione themse&0es2 so he sat o.n in the asana position /a!ing the east2 the region o/ the a.n2 in the /irm e;pe!tation that he .as a,out to ,e1 gin a ne. era in the history o/ humanity" 5Let my s6in an sine.s an ,ones ry up2 together .ith a&& the /&esh an ,&oo o/ my ,o y7 I .i&& .e&!ome it78 -otama 0o.e " 5But I .i&& not mo0e /rom this spot unti& I ha0e attaine the supreme an /ina& .is om"8 The te;t emphasi9es the /antasti! shu ering o/ the earth as -otama !ir!&e the ,o hi tree to remin us not to rea this story &itera&&y" This is not a physi!a& &o!ationD the .or& 1tree2 stan ing at the a;is o/ the !osmos2 is a !ommon /eature o/ sa&0ation mytho&ogy" It is the p&a!e .here the i0ine energies pour into the .or& 2 .here humanity en!ounters the A,so&ute an ,e!omes more /u&&y itse&/" >e nee on&y re!a&& the !ross o/ Kesus2 .hi!h2 a!!or ing to Christian &egen 2 stoo on the same spot as the Tree o/ Kno.&e ge o/ -oo an E0i& in the -ar en o/ E en" But in Bu hist myth2 -otama the man sits in this pi0ota& p&a!e2 not a man1-o 2 ,e!ause human ,eings must sa0e themse&0es .ithout supernatura& ai " The te;ts ma6e it !&ear that -otama ha !ome to this a;is o/ the uni0erse2 the mytho&ogi!a& !enter that ho& s the .ho&e o/ the !osmos together" The 5immo0a,&e spot8 is that psy!ho&ogi!a& state .hi!h ena,&es us to see the .or& an ourse&0es in per/e!t ,a&an!e" >ithout this psy!ho&ogi!a& sta,i&ity an this !orre!t orientation2 en&ightenment is impossi,&eD that is .hy a&& the Bu has ha to sit in this p&a!eLor a!hie0e this state o/ min L,e/ore they .ere a,&e to attain Ni,,ana" It is the A;is *un i2 the sti&& point o/ !a&m .here human ,eings2 in many .or& myths2 en!ounter the #ea& an the Mn!on itione 3 it is the 5p&a!e8 .here things that seem iametri!a&&y oppose in the pro/ane .or& !ome together in that '%in'id ntia %pp%sit%rum that !onstitutes an e;perien!e o/ the Sa!re " Li/e an eath2 emptiness an p&enitu e2 physi!a& an spiritua& merge an !onHoin2 &i6e the spo6es o/ a .hee& at its hu,2 in a .ay that is unimagina,&e to norma& !ons!iousness" >hen -otama ha rea!he the state o/ per/e!t eGui&i,rium that he ha g&impse as a !hi& un er the rose1app&e tree2 .hen his /a!u&ties .ere !on!entrate an his egotism un er !ontro&2 he .as2 he ,e&ie0e 2 rea y to sit in the 5immo0a,&e spot"8 :e .as at &ast in a position to re!ei0e the supreme insight" But the strugg&e .as not yet o0er" -otama sti&& ha to /ight those resi ua& /or!es .ithin himse&/ .hi!h !&ung to the unregenerate &i/e an i not .ant the ego to ie" *ara2 -otama<s sha o.1se&/2 appeare ,e/ore him2 e!6e out &i6e a 'akka!atti, a >or& #u&er2 .ith a massi0e army" *ara himse&/ .as mounte on an e&ephant that .as 1)0 &eagues high" :e ha sproute 12000 arms2 ea!h o/ .hi!h ,ran ishe a ea &y .eapon" *ara<s name means 5 e&usion"8 :e epitomi9e the ignoran!e .hi!h ho& s us ,a!6 /rom en&ightenment2 sin!e2 as a 'akka!atti, he !ou& on&y en0isage a 0i!tory a!hie0e ,y physi!a& /or!e" -otama .as sti&& not /u&&y en&ightene 2 so he trie to respon in 6in 2 seeing the 0irtues he ha a!Guire as e/ensi0e .eapons2 as a s.or or a shie& that .ou& estroy this ea &y army" But2 our author !ontinues2 espite *ara<s po.er2 -otama .as sitting in the 5un!onGuera,&e position28 proo/ against su!h 0u&gar !oer!ion" >hen *ara hur&e nine /ear/u& storms against him2 -otama remaine unmo0e " The go s2 .ho ha gathere aroun to .itness -otama<s attainment o/ Ni,,ana2 /&e in terror2 &ea0ing him a&one" >hen men an .omen see6 sa&0ation2 in the Bu hist 0ie.2 they !an e;pe!t no i0ine support" At this point2 *ara approa!he -otama an engage him in a strange !on0ersation" :e to& -otama to 5arise /rom this seat3 it oes not ,e&ong to you2 ,ut to me"8 -otama2 *ara thought2

ha trans!en e the .or& 3 he .as in0u&nera,&e to a&& e;terna& opposition" But *ara .as the Lor o/ this .or& 2 an it .as he2 the 'akka!atti, .ho shou& sit at its pi0ota& !enter" :e i not rea&i9e that the rage2 hatre an 0io&en!e that he ha Hust e;hi,ite isGua&i/ie him /rom ta6ing up his position un er the ,o hi tree2 .hi!h ,e&ongs on&y to the man .ho &i0es ,y !ompassion" -otama pointe out that *ara .as Guite unprepare /or en&ightenment3 he ha ne0er ma e any spiritua& e//orts2 ha ne0er gi0en a&ms2 ha ne0er pra!ti!e yoga" So2 -otama !on!&u e 2 5this seat oes not ,e&ong to you ,ut to me"8 :e .ent on to a that in his pre0ious &i0es he ha gi0en a.ay a&& his possessions an ha e0en &ai o.n his &i/e /or others" >hat ha *ara one@ Cou& he pro u!e .itnesses to testi/y that he ha per/orme su!h !ompassionate ee s@ At on!e2 *ara<s so& iers !rie as one manD 5I am his .itness78 An *ara turne triumphant&y to -otama an as6e him to 0a&i ate his o.n !&aims" But -otama .as a&one3 he ha no human ,eing or go on his si e .ho !ou& a!t as his .itness to his &ong preparation /or en&ightenment" :e there/ore i something that no 'akka!atti .ou& e0er oD he as6e /or he&p" #ea!hing out .ith his right han to tou!h the groun 2 he ,egge the earth to testi/y to his past a!ts o/ !ompassion" >ith a shattering roar2 the earth rep&ie D 5I ,ear you .itness78 In terror2 *ara<s e&ephant /e&& to its 6nees an his so& iers eserte 2 running in /ear in a&& ire!tions" The earth1.itnessing posture2 .hi!h sho.s the Bu ha sitting in the !ross1&egge asana position2 tou!hing the groun .ith his right han 2 is a /a0orite i!on in Bu hist art" It not on&y sym,o&i9es -otama<s reHe!tion o/ *ara<s steri&e ma!hismo2 ,ut ma6es the pro/oun point that a Bu ha oes in ee ,e&ong to the .or& " The (hamma is e;a!ting2 ,ut it is not against nature" There is a eep a//inity ,et.een the earth an the se&/&ess human ,eing2 something that -otama ha sense .hen he re!a&&e his tran!e un er the rose1app&e tree" The man or .oman .ho see6s en&ightenment is in tune .ith the /un amenta& stru!ture o/ the uni0erse" E0en though the .or& seems to ,e ru&e ,y the 0io&en!e o/ *ara an his army2 it is the !ompassionate Bu ha .ho is most tru&y in tune .ith the ,asi! &a.s o/ e;isten!e" A/ter this 0i!tory o0er *ara2 .hi!h .as rea&&y a 0i!tory o0er himse&/2 there .as nothing to ho& -otama ,a!6" The go s returne /rom the hea0ens an .aite ,reath&ess&y /or him to a!hie0e his /ina& re&ease2 /or they nee e his he&p as mu!h as i any human ,eing" No. -otama entere the /irst jhana an penetrate the inner .or& o/ his psy!he3 .hen he /ina&&y rea!he the pea!e o/ Ni,,ana a&& the .or& s o/ the Bu hist !osmos .ere !on0u&se 2 the hea0ens an he&&s shoo62 an the ,o hi tree raine o.n re /&orets on the en&ightene man" Throughout a&& the .or& s2 th /#%0 ring tr s b#%%m d+ th /ruit tr s 0 r 0 igh d d%0n by th burd n %/ th ir /ruit+ th trunk #%tus s b#%%m d %n th trunks %/ tr s & & & Th syst m %/ t n th%usand 0%r#ds 0as #ik a b%u3u t %/ /#%0 rs s nt 0hir#ing thr%ugh th air& The o!ean &ost its sa&ty taste2 the ,&in an the ea/ .ere a,&e to see an hear3 !ripp&es !ou& .a&6 an the /etters o/ prisoners /e&& to the groun " E0erything su en&y g&impse ne. /ree om an poten!y3 /or a /e. moments2 ea!h /orm o/ &i/e .as a,&e to ,e!ome more /u&&y itse&/" But the ne. Bu ha !ou& not sa0e the .or& 0i!arious&y" E0ery sing&e !reature .ou& ha0e to put -otama<s program into pra!ti!e to a!hie0e its o.n en&ightenment3 he !ou& not o it /or them" ?et at /irst2 it seeme that the Bu ha2 as .e must no. !a&& -otama2 ha e!i e against prea!hing the (hamma that a&one !ou& sa0e his /e&&o. !reatures" :e .ou& o/ten ,e 6no.n as Sa6yamuni2 the Si&ent One /rom the repu,&i! o/ Sa66a2 ,e!ause the 6no.&e ge he ha a!Guire .as ine//a,&e an !ou& not ,e es!ri,e in .or s" ?et throughout the -anges region2 peop&e

.ere &onging /or a ne. spiritua& 0ision2 espe!ia&&y in the !ities" This ,e!ame !&ear2 the Pa&i te;ts te&& us2 a&most imme iate&y a/ter the Bu ha<s en&ightenment2 .hen t.o passing mer!hants2 !a&&e Tapussa an Bha&&u6a2 .ho ha ,een in/orme o/ the great e0ent ,y one o/ the go s2 !ame to the Bu ha an pai homage to him" They ,e!ame his /irst &ay /o&&o.ers" ?et espite this initia& su!!ess2 the Bu ha .as sti&& re&u!tant" :is (hamma .as too i//i!u&t to e;p&ain2 he to& himse&/3 the peop&e .ou& not ,e prepare to un ergo the ar uous yogi! an mora& is!ip&ines that it reGuire " Jar /rom .ishing to renoun!e their !ra0ing2 most peop&e positi0e&y re&ishe their atta!hments an .ou& not .ant to hear his message o/ se&/1a,an onment" 5I/ I taught the (hamma28 the Bu ha e!i e 2 5peop&e .ou& not un erstan it an that .ou& ,e e;hausting an isappointing /or me"8 But then the go Brahma inter0ene 3 he ha .at!he -otama<s en&ightenment .ith !&ose attention2 an .as e0astate to hear this e!ision" I/ the Bu ha re/use to tea!h his (hamma2 Brahma !rie in ismay2 5the .or& .i&& ,e &ost2 the .or& .i&& not ha0e a !han!e78 :e e!i e to inter0ene" The Pa&i te;ts intro u!e the go s into their narrati0e Guite unse&/!ons!ious&y" The go s .ere part o/ their uni0erse2 an these &egen s2 .hi!h sho. *ara an Brahma !ontri,uting to the Bu ha<s story2 i&&ustrate the to&erant partnership that .ou& e;ist ,et.een the ne. re&igion o/ Bu hism an the o& er !u&ts" Mn&i6e the :e,re. prophets2 .ho poure s!orn on the ri0a& eities o/ their pagan neigh,ors2 the ear&y Bu hists /e&t no nee to stamp out the tra itiona& .orship sti&& enHoye ,y 0ast num,ers o/ peop&e" Instea 2 the Bu ha is sho.n a&& the go s to he&p him at !ertain 6ey moments o/ his &i/e" Li6e *ara2 Brahma may a&so ha0e represente an aspe!t o/ the Bu ha<s o.n persona&ity" This .as2 perhaps2 a .ay o/ suggesting that the go s .ere proHe!tions o/ su,!ons!ious human /or!es" The story o/ Brahma<s inter0ention may in i!ate that there .as a !on/&i!t .ithin the Bu ha<s min 2 an that .hi&e one part o/ him .ante to retire into so&itu e an enHoy the pea!e o/ Ni,,ana un istur,e 2 there .as another part o/ him that rea&i9e that he simp&y !ou& not neg&e!t his /e&&o. !reatures in this .ay" In a !omp&ete re0ersa& o/ their usua& ro&es2 Brahma &e/t his hea0en2 es!en e to earth2 an 6ne&t ,e/ore the ne. Bu ha" 5Lor 28 he praye 2 5p&ease prea!h the (hamma " " " there are peop&e .ith on&y a &itt&e esire &e/t .ithin them .ho are pining /or &a!6 o/ this metho 3 some o/ them .i&& un erstan it"8 :e p&ea e .ith the Bu ha to 5&oo6 o.n at the human ra!e .hi!h is ro.ning in pain an to tra0e& /ar an .i e to sa0e the .or& "8 Compassion ha ,een an essentia& !omponent o/ the Bu ha<s en&ightenment" One &egen has it that -otama .as ,orn /rom his mother<s si e at the &e0e& o/ her heart" It is a para,&eLnot2 o/ !ourse2 to ,e ta6en &itera&&yLo/ the ,irth o/ the spiritua& human ,eing" On&y .hen .e &earn to &i0e /rom the heart an to /ee& the su//ering o/ others as i/ it .ere our o.n o .e ,e!ome tru&y human" >here a ,estia& man or .oman puts se&/1interest /irst2 a spiritua& person &earns to re!ogni9e an see6s to a&&e0iate the pain o/ others" *any o/ us maintain ourse&0es in a state o/ e&i,erate heart&essness2 a !on ition simi&ar to the young -otama<s hea0i&y e/en e p&easure1pa&a!e" But uring his me itations an &ong preparation /or Bu hahoo 2 -otama ha opene his .ho&e se&/ to the /a!t o/ dukkha an a&&o.e the rea&ity o/ su//ering to resonate .ithin the eepest re!esses o/ his ,eing" :e ha ma e himse&/ rea&i9e the No,&e Truth o/ Su//ering .ith 5 ire!t 6no.&e ge28 unti& he ha ,e!ome one .ith it an integrate it .ho&&y" :e !ou& not remain &o!6e a.ay sa/e&y in his pri0ate Ni,,ana3 he .ou& thus ,e entering a ne. 6in o/ p&easure1pa&a!e" Su!h a .ith ra.a& .ou& 0io&ate the essentia& ynami! o/ the (hammaD the Bu ha !ou& not pra!ti!e the /our 5immeasura,&es28 sen ing out ,ene0o&ent /ee&ings to the /our !orners o/ the earth simp&y /or his o.n spiritua& ,ene/it2 .hi&e his /e&&o. !reatures &anguishe in a .or& gone a.ry" One o/ the !hie/ .ays in .hi!h he ha gaine ' t%-!imutti, the re&ease o/ en&ightenment2 ha ,een through

the !u&ti0ation o/ &o0ing16in ness an se&/&ess empathy" The (hamma eman e that he return to the mar6etp&a!e an in0o&0e himse&/ in the a//airs o/ a .or& " To his great !re it2 the go Brahma Bor the higher part o/ the Bu ha<s persona&ityC rea&i9e this" The Bu ha &istene !are/u&&y to his p&ea an 2 the Pa&i te;t te&&s us2 5out o/ !ompassion2 he ga9e upon the .or& .ith the eye o/ a Bu ha"8This is an important remar6" A Bu ha is not one .ho has simp&y attaine his o.n sa&0ation2 ,ut one .ho !an sympathi9e .ith the su//ering o/ others2 e0en though he himse&/ has .on an immunity to pain" No. the Bu ha rea&i9e that the gates o/ Ni,,ana .ere 5.i e open8 to e0ery,o y3 ho. !ou& he !&ose his heart to his /e&&o.s@ An essentia& part o/ the truth he ha 5rea&i9e 8 un er the ,o hi tree .as that to &i0e mora&&y .as to &i0e /or others" :e .ou& spen the ne;t /orty1/i0e years o/ his &i/e tramping tire&ess&y through the !ities an to.ns o/ the -anges p&ain2 ,ringing his (hamma to go s2 anima&s2 men an .omen" There !ou& ,e no &imits to this !ompassionate o//ensi0e" But .ho shou& ,e /irst to hear the message@ The Bu ha thought at on!e o/ his /ormer tea!hers A&ara Ka&ama an M a6a #amaputta2 ,ut some go s2 .ho .ere .aiting near,y2 to& him that they ha ,oth re!ent&y ie " This .as a great grie/" :is tea!hers ha ,een goo men .ho .ou& !ertain&y ha0e un erstoo his (hamma3 no.2 through no /au&t o/ their o.n2 they ha misse their !han!e an .ere !on emne to yet another &i/e o/ pain" This ne.s !ou& ha0e gi0en the Bu ha a ne. sense o/ urgen!y" :e ne;t re!a&&e the /i0e bhikkhus .ho ha pra!ti!e the penitentia& is!ip&ines o/ tapas .ith him" They ha /&e /rom him in horror .hen he ha ta6en his /irst mea&2 ,ut he !ou& not a&&o. this reHe!tion to !&ou his Hu gment" :e remem,ere ho. he&p/u& an supporti0e they ha ,een uring their time together2 an set out ire!t&y to /in them" :earing that they .ere no. &i0ing in the (eer Par6 outsi e Varanasi Bthe mo ern BenaresC2 he ,egan his Hourney2 etermine to set the >hee& o/ the (hamma in motion an 2 as he put it2 5to ,eat the rum o/ the eath&ess Ni,,ana"8 :e i not e;pe!t mu!h" The Bu ha mista6en&y ,e&ie0e that his tea!hing .ou& on&y ,e /o&&o.e /or a /e. hun re years" But peop&e ha to ,e res!ue 2 an the Bu ha .as !ompe&&e 2 ,y the 0ery nature o/ the en&ightenment that he ha a!hie0e 2 to o .hat he !ou& /or them" Chapter 4 - Dhamma BM((:A<S /irst attempt to tea!h .as a !omp&ete /ai&ure" On his .ay to -aya2 he passe an a!Guaintan!e2 Mpa6a2 a Kain2 .ho imme iate&y noti!e a !hange in his /rien " 5:o. pea!e/u& you &oo67 :o. a&ert78 he e;!&aime " 5?ou are so serene7 ?our !omp&e;ion is !&ear2 your eyes are ,right7 >ho is your Tea!her@ an .hose dhamma are you /o&& these ays@8 It .as a per/e!t opening" The Bu ha e;p&aine that he ha no tea!her an ,e&onge to no sangha& As yet2 there .as no,o y &i6e him in the .or& 2 ,e!ause he ha ,e!ome an Arahant2 an 5a!!omp&ishe one8 .ho ha .on through to the supreme en&ightenment" 5>hat78 Mpa6a !rie in!re u&ous&y" 5Sure&y you are not saying that you are a Bu ha2 a Kina2 a Spiritua& Vi!tor2 the :o&y One /or .hom .e are a&& .aiting@8 ?es2 the Bu ha rep&ie " :e ha !onGuere a&& !ra0ing an !ou& in ee ,e !a&&e a Kina" Mpa6a &oo6e at him s6epti!a&&y an shoo6 his hea D 5(ream on2 /rien 28 he sai " 5I<m going this .ay"8 A,rupt&y2 he turne o// the main roa into a si e tra!62 re/using the ire!t route to Ni,,ana" Mn eterre 2 the Bu ha !ontinue his Hourney to Varanasi2 an important !ity an a !enter o/ &earning /or the brahmins" The Bu ha i not &inger in the to.n2 ho.e0er2 ,ut .ent straight to the (eer Par6 in the su,ur, o/ Isipatana2 .here he 6ne. that his /i0e /ormer !ompanions .ere

&i0ing" >hen these bhikkhus sa. him approa!hing they .ere a&arme " As /ar as they 6ne.2 -otama2 their o& mentor2 ha a,an one the ho&y &i/e an re0erte to &u;ury an se&/1 in u&gen!e" They !ou& no &onger greet him as ,e/ore2 .ith the respe!t ue to a great as!eti!" But they .ere goo men2 e i!ate to ahimsa, an i not .ant to hurt his /ee&ings" -otama2 they e!i e 2 !ou& sit .ith them /or a .hi&e2 i/ he .ishe 2 an rest a/ter his &ong .a&6" But .hen the Bu ha !ame !&oser2 they .ere !omp&ete&y isarme " Perhaps they too .ere stru!6 ,y his ne. serenity an !on/i en!e2 ,e!ause one o/ the bhikkhus ran / to greet him2 ta6ing his ro,e an his ,o.&2 .hi&e the others prepare a seat2 ,ringing .ater2 a /ootstoo& an to.e&2 so that their o& &ea er !ou& .ash his /eet" They greete him .ith a//e!tion2 !a&&ing him 5/rien "8 This .ou& o/ten happen" The !ompassion an 6in &iness o/ the Bu ha<s manner .ou& /reGuent&y e/use hosti& ty in humans2 go s an anima&s a&i6e" The Bu ha !ame straight to the point" They shou& not rea&&y !a&& him /rien any more2 he e;p&aine 2 ,e!ause his o& se&/ ha 0anishe an he ha a .ho&&y i//erent status" :e .as no. a Tathagata2 a !urious tit&e .hose &itera& meaning is 5Thus -one"8 :is egotism ha ,een e;tinguishe " They must not imagine that he ha a,an one the ho&y &i/e" $uite the re0erse .as true" There .as a !ompe&&ing !on0i!tion an urgen!y in his spee!h that his !ompanions ha ne0er hear ,e/ore" 5Listen78 he sai 2 5I ha0e rea&i9e the un ying state o/ Ni,,ana" I .i&& instru!t you7 I .i&& tea!h you the (hamma78 I/ they &istene to his tea!hings an put them into pra!ti!e2 they !ou& ,e!ome Arahants too3 they !ou& /o&&o. in his /ootsteps2 entering into the supreme truth an ma6ing it a rea&ity in their o.n &i0es" A&& they ha to o .as to gi0e him a /air hearing" The Bu ha then prea!he his /irst sermon" It has ,een preser0e in the te;ts as the Dhamma'akkappa!attana-Sutta, The (is!ourse that Set #o&&ing the >hee& o/ the (hamrna2 ,e1 !ause it ,rought the Tea!hing into the .or& an set in motion a ne. era /or humanity2 .ho no. 6ne. the !orre!t .ay to &i0e" Its purpose .as not to impart a,struse metaphysi!a& in/ormation2 ,ut to &ea the /i0e bhikkhus to en&ightenment" They !ou& ,e!ome Arahants2 &i6e himse&/2 ,ut they .ou& ne0er eGua& their tea!her2 ,e!ause the Bu ha ha a!hie0e Ni,,ana ,y himse&/2 a&one an unai e " :e ha then .on /urther istin!tion2 ,y ma6ing the e!ision to prea!h to the human ra!e2 ,e!oming a Samma SamBu ha2 a Tea!her o/ the Supreme En&ightenment" Later Bu hist tea!hing .ou& maintain that a Samma Sam,u ha .i&& on&y appear on earth e0ery %22000 years2 .hen the 6no.&e ge o/ the (hamma ha !omp&ete&y /a e /rom the earth" -otama ha ,e!ome the Bu ha o/ our age2 an ,egan his !areer in the (eer Par6 o/ Isipatana" But .hat .as he going to tea!h@ The Bu ha ha no time /or o!trines or !ree s3 he ha no theo&ogy to impart2 no theory a,out the root !ause o/ dukkha, no ta&es o/ an Origina& Sin2 an no e/inition o/ the M&timate #ea&ity" :e sa. no point in su!h spe!u&ations" Bu hism is is!on!erting to those .ho eGuate /aith .ith ,e&ie/ in !ertain inspire re&igious opinions" A person<s theo&ogy .as a matter o/ tota& in i//eren!e to the Bu ha" To a!!ept a o!trine on some,o y e&se<s authority .as2 in his eyes2 an 5uns6i&&/u&8 state2 .hi!h !ou& not &ea to en&ightenment2 ,e!ause it .as an a, i!ation o/ persona& responsi,i&ity" :e sa. no 0irtue in su,mitting to an o//i!ia& !ree " 5Jaith8 meant trust that Ni,,ana e;iste an a etermination to pro0e it to onese&/" The Bu ha a&.ays insiste that his is!ip&es test e0erything he taught them against their o.n e;perien!e an ta6e nothing on hearsay" A re&igious i ea !ou& a&& too easi&y ,e!ome a menta& i o&2 one more thing to !&ing to2 .hen the purpose o/ the dhamma .as to he&p peop&e to &et go" 5Letting go8 is one o/ the 6eynotes o/ the Bu ha<s tea!hing" The en&ightene person i not

gra, or ho& on to e0en the most authoritati0e instru!tions" E0erything .as transient an nothing &aste " Mnti& his is!ip&es re!ogni9e this in e0ery /i,er o/ their ,eing2 they .ou& ne0er rea!h Ni,,ana" E0en his o.n tea!hings must ,e Hettisone 2 on!e they ha one their Ho," :e on!e !ompare them to a ra/t2 te&&ing the story o/ a tra0e&er .ho ha !ome to a great e;panse o/ .ater an esperate&y nee e to get a!ross" There .as no ,ri ge2 no /erry2 so he ,ui&t a ra/t an ro.e himse&/ a!ross the ri0er" But then2 the Bu ha .ou& as6 his au ien!e2 .hat shou& the tra0e&er o .ith the ra/t@ Shou& he e!i e that ,e!ause it ha ,een so he&p/u& to him2 he shou& &oa it onto his ,a!6 an &ug it aroun .ith him .here0er he .ent@ Or shou& he simp&y moor it an !ontinue his Hourney@ The .as o,0ious" 5In Hust the same .ay2 bhikkhus, my tea!hings are &i6e a ra/t2 to ,e use to !ross the ri0er an not to ,e he& on to28 the Bu ha !on!&u e " 5I/ you un erstan their ra/t1&i6e nature !orre!t&y2 you .i&& e0en gi0e up goo tea!hings BdhammaC2 not to mention ,a ones78 :is (hamma .as .ho&&y pragmati!" Its tas6 .as not to issue in/a&&i,&e e/initions or to satis/y a is!ip&e<s inte&&e!tua& !uriosity a,out metaphysi!a& Guestions" Its so&e purpose .as to ena,&e peop&e to get a!ross the ri0er o/ pain to the 5/urther shore"8 :is Ho, .as to re&ie0e su//ering an he&p his is!ip&es attain the pea!e o/ Ni,,ana" Anything that i not ser0e that en .as o/ no importan!e .hatsoe0er" :en!e there .ere no a,struse theories a,out the !reation o/ the uni0erse or the e;isten!e o/ a Supreme Being" These matters might ,e interesting ,ut they .ou& not gi0e a is!ip&e en&ightenment or re&ease /rom dukkha& One ay2 .hi&e &i0ing in a gro0e o/ simsapa trees in Kosam,i2 the Bu ha p&u!6e a /e. &ea0es an pointe out to his is!ip&es that there .ere many more sti&& in the .oo " So too he ha on&y gi0en them a /e. tea!hings an .ithhe& many others" >hy@ 5Be!ause2 my is!ip&es2 they .i&& not he&p you2 they are not use/u& in the Guest /or ho&iness2 they o not &ea to pea!e an to the ire!t 6no.&e ge o/ Ni,,ana"8 :e to& one mon62 .ho 6ept pestering him a,out phi&osophy2 that he .as &i6e a .oun e man .ho re/use to ha0e treatment unti& he &earne the name o/ the person .ho ha shot him an .hat 0i&&age he !ame /romD he .ou& ie ,e/ore he got this use&ess in/ormation" In Hust the same .ay2 those .ho re/use to &i0e a!!or ing to the Bu hist metho unti& they 6ne. a,out the !reation o/ the .or& or the nature o/ the A,so&ute .ou& ie in misery ,e/ore they got an to these un6no.a,&e Guestions" >hat i//eren!e i it ma6e i/ the .or& .as eterna& or !reate in time@ -rie/2 su//ering an misery .ou& sti&& e;ist" The Bu ha .as !on!erne simp&y .ith the !essation o/ pain" 5I am prea!hing a !ure /or these unhappy !on itions here an no.28 the Bu ha to& the phi&osophi!a&&y in!&ine bhikkhu, 5so a&.ays remem,er .hat I ha0e not e;p&aine to you an the reason .hy I ha0e re/use to e;p&ain it"8 But .hen he /a!e his /i0e /ormer !ompanions in the (eer Par62 the Bu ha ha to ,egin" :o. .as he going to a&&ay their suspi!ions@ :e .ou& ha0e to gi0e some 6in o/ &ogi!a& e;p&anation o/ the Jour No,&e Truths" >e o not 6no. .hat he a!tua&&y sai to the /i0e bhikkhus that ay" It is most un&i6e&y that the is!ourse that is !a&&e the Jirst Sermon in the Pa&i te;ts is a 0er,atim report o/ his prea!hing on that o!!asion" >hen the s!riptures .ere !ompi&e 2 the e itors pro,a,&y hit upon this sutta, .hi!h !on0enient&y sets /orth the essentia&s2 an inserte it into the narrati0e at this point" But in some .ays this Jirst Sermon .as appropriate" The Bu ha .as a&.ays !are/u& to ma6e his tea!hings /it the nee s o/ the peop&e he .as a ressing" These /i0e bhikkhus .ere .orrie a,out -otama<s a,an onment o/ as!eti!ism2 an so in this sutta the Bu ha ,egan ,y reassuring them2 e;p&aining the theory ,ehin his *i &e >ay" Peop&e .ho ha 5-one Jorth8 into ho&iness2 he sai 2 shou& a0oi the t.o e;tremes o/ sensua& p&easure2 on the one han 2 an e;!essi0e morti/i!ation on the other" Neither .as he&p/u&2 ,e!ause they i not &ea to Ni,,ana" Instea 2 he ha is!o0ere the Eight/o& Path2 a happy me ium ,et.een

these t.o a&ternati0es2 .hi!h2 he !ou& guarantee2 .ou& &ea the mon6s ire!t&y to en&ightenment" Ne;t2 the Bu ha out&ine the Jour No,&e TruthsD the Truth o/ Su//ering2 the Truth o/ the Cause o/ Su//ering2 the Truth o/ the Cessation o/ Su//ering or Ni,,ana2 an the Path that &e to this &i,eration" :o.e0er2 these truths .ere not presente as metaphysi!a& theories ,ut as a pra!ti!a& program" The .or dhamma enotes not on&y .hat is2 ,ut .hat sh%u#d ,e" The Bu ha<s (hamma .as a iagnosis o/ the pro,&em o/ &i/e an a pres!ription /or !ure2 .hi!h must ,e /o&&o.e e;a!t&y" Ea!h o/ the Truths ha three !omponents in his sermon" Jirst2 he ma e the bhikkhus see the Truth" Ne;t2 he e;p&aine .hat ha to ,e one a,out itD su//ering ha to ,e 5/u&&y 6no.n83 Cra0ing2 the Cause o/ Su//ering2 ha to ,e 5gi0en up83 Ni,,ana2 the Cessation o/ Su//ering2 ha to 5,e!ome a rea&ity8 in the heart o/ the Arahant3 an the Eight/o& Path must ,e 5/o&&o.e "8 Jina&&y2 the Bu ha e;p&aine .hat he had a!hie0e D he had un erstoo dhukkha 5 ire!t&y83 he had a,an one !ra0ing3 he had e;perien!e Ni,,ana3 he had /o&&o.e the Path to its !on!&usion" It .as2 he e;p&aine 2 .hen he ha pro0e to himse&/ that his (hamma rea&&y .or6e an that he ha a!tua&&y !omp&ete the program2 that his en&ightenment ha ,een !omp&eteD 5I ha0e a!hie0e the /ina& re&ease78 he ha !rie triumphant&y" :e ha in ee ,een &i,erate /rom samsara, he 6ne. that the *i &e >ay .as the true Path2 an his o.n &i/e an person pro0e it" The Pa&i te;t te&&s us that as he &istene to the Bu ha<s sermon2 Kon anna2 one o/ the /i0e bhikkhus, ,egan to e;perien!e his tea!hing 5 ire!t&y"8 It 5rose up8 in him2 as i/ /rom the epths o/ his o.n ,eing" It .as as though he re!ogni9e itL ha a&.ays 6no.n it" This is the .ay the s!riptures a&.ays es!ri,e a ne. is!ip&e<s !on0ersion to the (hamma" This .as no mere notiona& assent to a !ree " The Bu ha .as rea&&y ho& ing an initiation !eremony in the (eer Par6" Li6e a mi .i/e2 he .as assisting at the ,irth o/ an en&ightene human ,eing2 or2 to use his o.n metaphor2 he .as the s.or /rom the s!a,,ar an the sna6e /rom its s&ough" >hen the go s2 .ho ha gathere in the (eer Par6 to &isten to this Jirst Sermon2 sa. .hat .as happening to Kon anna2 they !rie out Hoy/u&&yD 5The Lor has set the >hee& o/ the (hamma in motion in the (eer Par6 o/ Varanasi78 The !ry .as ta6en up ,y the go s in one hea0en a/ter another2 unti& it rea!he the a,o e o/ Brahma himse&/" The earth shoo6 an .as /i&&e .ith a &ight more ra iant than any o/ the go s" 5Kon anna 6no.s7 Kon anna 6no.s78 the Bu ha e;!&aime in e&ight" Kon anna ha ,e!ome .hat &ater Bu hist tra ition .ou& !a&& a 5stream1enterer8 Bs%tapannaC& :e ha not yet ,een /u&&y en&ightene 2 ,ut his ou,ts ha isappeare 2 he .as no &onger intereste in any other dhamma, an he .as rea y to immerse himse&/ in the Bu ha<s metho 2 !on/i ent that it .ou& !arry him / to Ni,,ana" :e as6e to ,e a mitte to the Bu ha<s Sangha" 5Come2 bhikkhu,- the Bu ha rep&ie " 5The (hamma has ,een prea!he to goo e//e!t" Li0e the ho&y &i/e that .i&& en your su//ering on!e an /or a&&"8 But the Pa&i te;ts in!&u e another 0ersion o/ this /irst tea!hing session in the (eer Par6" This es!ri,es a mu!h &onger an Guite i//erent pro!ess" The Bu ha instru!te the bhikkhus in pairs2 .hi&e the other three .ent o// to Varanasi to ,eg enough /oo /or a&& si; o/ them" It has ,een suggeste that in these more intimate tutoria&s2 the Bu ha .as initiating the bhikkhus in his spe!ia& yoga2 intro u!ing them to the pra!ti!e o/ 5min /u&ness8 an the 5immeasura,&es"8 Certain&y me itation .as in ispensa,&e to en&ightenment" The (hamma !ou& not ,e!ome a rea&ity or un erstoo 5 ire!t&y8 un&ess the aspirants .ere a&so sin6ing eep&y into themse&0es an &earning to put their min s an ,o ies un er the Bu ha<s yogi! mi!ros!ope" Kon anna !ou& not ha0e ,e!ome a 5stream1enterer8 an gaine his spe!ia& 5 ire!t 6no.&e ge8 o/ the (hamma simp&y ,y &istening to a sermon an a!!epting its truths on hearsay" The truths o/ Su//ering an

Cra0ing !ou& not ,e proper&y un erstoo unti& the bhikkhus ha ,e!ome a.are o/ them .ithin the minutiae o/ their o.n e;perien!e3 the Eight/o& Path2 .hi!h he prea!he 2 in!&u e the is!ip&ine o/ me itation" The instru!tion o/ these /i0e bhikkhus a&most !ertain&y too6 &onger than a sing&e morning3 e0en i/ they .ere a&rea y a!!omp&ishe yogins an 0erse in the ethi! o/ ahimsa, the (hamma nee e time to ta6e e//e!t" At a&& e0ents2 the Pa&i te;ts te&& us2 not &ong a/ter the (hamma 5rose up8 in Kon anna2 Vappa2 Bha iya2 *ahanama an AssaHi ,e!ame 5stream1 enterers8 too" The reasone /ormu&ation o/ the (hamma .as !omp&ementary to the pra!ti!e o/ me itation2 .hi!h ena,&e aspirants to 5rea&i9e8 it" Through yoga2 the bhikkhus !ou& i enti/y .ith the truths that the o!trine trie to e;press" One o/ the most /reGuent su,He!ts o/ Bu hist me itation .as .hat .as !a&&e the Chain o/ (epen ent Causation BPati''asamuppadaC, .hi!h the Bu ha pro,a,&y e0e&ope at a &ater stage as a supp&ement to the Truth o/ Su//ering2 e0en though the Pa&i te;ts say that he .as !ontemp&ating this Chain imme iate&y ,e/ore an a/ter his en&ightenment" The Chain tra!es the &i/e !y!&e o/ a sentient ,eing through t.e&0e !on itione an !on itioning &in6s2 i&&ustrating the transitory nature o/ our &i0es an ho. ea!h person is perpetua&&y ,e!oming something e&se" .n 456 ignoran!e d p nds 476 6amma3 %n 6amma d p nds 486 !ons!iousness3 %n '%ns'i%usn ss d p nds 496 name an /orm3 %n nam and /%rm d p nds 4:6 th s ns organs3 %n th s ns %rgans d p nds 4;6 !onta!t3 %n '%nta't d p nds 4<6 sensation3 %n s nsati%n d p nds 4=6 esire3 %n d sir d p nds 4>6 atta!hment3 %n atta'hm nt d p nds 45?6 e;isten!e3 %n ,ist n' d p nds 4556 ,irth3 %n birth d p nds 4576 u66ha3 %#d ag and d ath, s%rr%0, #am ntati%n, mis ry, gri / and d spair& This Chain ,e!ame !entra& to Bu hist tea!hing2 ,ut it is not easy to un erstan " Those .ho /in it some.hat aunting !an ra. !om/ort /rom the /a!t that the Bu ha on!e re,u6e a bhikkhu .ho !&aime to /in it easy" It shou& ,e regar e as a metaphor2 .hi!h see6s to e;p&ain ho. a person !an ,e re,orn .hen2 as the Bu ha .as ,eginning to !on!&u e2 there .as no Se&/ to persist /rom one &i/e to another" >hat .as it that .as ,orn again@ Is there a &a. .hi!h &in6s re,irth .ith dukkha@ The terms use in the Chain are rather o,s!ure" 5Name an /orm28 /or e;amp&e2 .as simp&y a Pa&i i iom /or a 5person83 5!ons!iousness8 B!innanaC is not the tota&ity o/ a person<s thoughts an /ee&ings2 ,ut a sort o/ etherea& su,stan!e2 the &ast i ea or impu&se o/ a ying human ,eing2 .hi!h has ,een !on itione ,y a&& the kamma o/ his or her &i/e" This 5!ons!iousness8 ,e!omes the germ o/ a ne. 5name an /orm8 in the .om, o/ its mother" The persona&ity o/ this em,ryo is !on itione ,y the Gua&ity o/ the ying 5!ons!iousness8 o/ its pre e!essor" On!e the /etus is &in6e .ith this 5!ons!iousness28 a ne. &i/e !y!&e !an ,egin" The em,ryo e0e&ops sense organs an 2 a/ter its ,irth2 these ma6e 5!onta!t8 .ith the e;terna& .or& " This sensua& !onta!t gi0es rise to 5sensations8 or /ee&ings2 .hi!h &ea to 5 esire28 the most !ause o/ dukkha& (esire &ea s to 5atta!hments8 .hi!h pre0ent our &i,eration an en&ightenment2 an .hi!h oom us to a ne. 5e;isten!e28 a ne. ,irth an /urther sorro.2 si!6ness2 grie/ an eath" The Chain ,egins .ith ignoran!e2 .hi!h thus ,e!omes the u&timate i/ not the most !ause o/ su//ering" *ost o/ the mon6s in the -anges region ,e&ie0e that esire .as the /irst !ause o/ dukkha, .hi&e the Upanisads an Sam6hya thought that ignoran!e o/ the nature o/ rea&ity .as the main ,ar to &i,eration" The Bu ha .as a,&e to !om,ine these t.o !auses" :e ,e&ie0e that ea!h person is a&i0e ,e!ause he or she .as pre!e e in a /ormer e;isten!e ,y ,eings

.ho i not 6no. the Jour Truths an !ou& not2 there/ore2 e;tri!ate themse&0es /rom Cra0ing an Su//ering" A person .ho .as not !orre!t&y in/orme !ou& ma6e serious pra!ti!a& mista6es" A yogin might imagine2 /or e;amp&e2 that one o/ the higher states o/ tran!e .as Ni,,ana an .ou& not ma6e the e;tra e//ort to a!hie0e !omp&ete re&ease" In most 0ersions o/ the Chain gi0en in the Pa&i te;ts2 the se!on &in6 is not kamma ,ut the more i//i!u&t term sankhara B/ormationC" But the t.o .or s ,oth eri0e /rom the same 0er,a& rootD kr Bto oC" Sankhara has ,een some.hat !&umsi&y trans&ate D 5states or things ,eing /orme or prepare "8 Thus our ee s BkammaC are preparing the 5!ons!iousness8 /or a /uture e;isten!e3 they are /orming an !on itioning it" Sin!e the Bu ha sa. our intentions as menta& kamma, the Chain points out that those emotions .hi!h moti0ate our e;terna& a!tions .i&& ha0e /uture !onseGuen!es3 a &i/etime o/ gree y2 e&u e !hoi!es .i&& a//e!t the Gua&ity o/ our &ast2 ying thought B!innanaC an this .i&& a//e!t the 6in o/ &i/e .e ha0e ne;t time" >as this /ina&2 ying 5!ons!iousness8 that passes into a ne. 5name an /orm8 an eterna&2 !onstant entity@ >ou& the same person &i0e again an again@ ?es an no" The Bu ha i not ,e&ie0e that 5!ons!iousness8 .as the 6in o/ permanent2 eterna& Se&/ sought ,y the yogins2 ,ut sa. it as a &ast /&i!6ering energy2 &i6e a /&ame that &eaps /rom one .i!6 to another" A /&ame is ne0er !onstant3 a /ire .hi!h is &it at night/a&& ,oth is an is not the /ire that is sti&& ,urning at ay,rea6" There are no /i;e entities in the Chain" Ea!h &in6 epen s upon another an &ea s ire!t&y to something e&se" It is a per/e!t e;pression o/ the 5,e!oming8 .hi!h the Bu ha sa. as an ines!apa,&e /a!t o/ human &i/e" >e are a&.ays trying to ,e!ome something i//erent2 stri0ing /or a ne. mo e o/ ,eing2 an in ee !annot remain in one state /or &ong" Ea!h sankhara gi0es p&a!e to the ne;t3 ea!h state is simp&y the pre&u e to another" Nothing in &i/e !an2 there/ore2 ,e regar e as sta,&e" A person shou& ,e regar e as a pro!ess2 not an un!hangea,&e entity" >hen a bhikkhu me itate on the Chain an sa. it yogi!a&&y2 ,e!oming min /u& o/ the .ay ea!h thought an sensation rose an /e&& a.ay2 he a!Guire a 5 ire!t 6no.&e ge8 o/ the Truth that nothing !ou& ,e re&ie upon2 that e0erything .as impermanent Bani''aC, an .ou& ,e inspire to re ou,&e his e//orts to e;tri!ate himse&/ /rom this en &ess Chain o/ !ause an e//e!t" This !onstant se&/1appraisa& an attention to the /&u!tuations o/ e0ery ay &i/e in u!e a state o/ !a&m !ontro&" >hen the ai&y pra!ti!e o/ min /u&ness .as !ontinue in his me itations2 it ,rought the bhikkhu an insight into the nature o/ persona&ity that .as more eep&y roote an imme iate than any that !ou& ,e pro u!e ,y rationa& e u!tion" It a&so &e to greater se&/1 is!ip&ine" The Bu ha ha no time /or the e!stati! tran!es o/ the brahmins& :e insiste that his mon6s shou& a&.ays !on u!t themse&0es .ith so,riety2 an /or,a e emotiona& isp&ay" But min /u&ness a&so ma e the bhikkhu more a.are o/ the mora&ity o/ his ,eha0ior" :e noti!e ho. his o.n 5uns6i&&/u&8 a!tions !ou& harm other peop&e an that e0en his moti0ation !ou& ,e inHurious" So2 the Bu ha !on!&u e 2 our intentions .ere kamma an ha !onseGuen!es" The intentions2 !ons!ious or un!ons!ious2 that inspire our a!tions .ere menta& a!ts that .ere Hust as important as any e;terna& ee s" This re e/inition o/ kamma as ' tana Bintention3 !hoi!eC .as re0o&utionary3 it eepene the entire Guestion o/ mora&ity2 .hi!h .as no. &o!ate in the min an heart an !ou& not mere&y ,e a matter o/ ,eha0ior" But min /u&ness BsatiC &e the Bu ha to a sti&& more ra i!a& !on!&usion" Three ays a/ter the /i0e bhikkhus ha ,e!ome 5stream1enterers28 the Bu ha e&i0ere a se!on sermon in the (eer Par62 in .hi!h he e;poun e his uniGue o!trine o/ anatta Bno1se&/C" :e i0i e the human persona&ity into /i0e 5heaps8 or 5!onstituents8 BkhandhasC: the ,o y2 /ee&ings2 per!eptions2 0o&itions B!ons!ious an un!ons!iousC an !ons!iousness2 an as6e the bhikkhus to !onsi er ea!h khandha in turn" The ,o y or our /ee&ings2 /or e;amp&e2 !onstant&y !hange /rom one

moment to the ne;t" They !ause us pain2 &et us o.n an /rustrate us" The same ha to ,e sai o/ our per!eptions an 0o&itions" Thus ea!h khandha, su,He!t as it .as to dukkha, /&a.e an transitory2 !ou& not !onstitute or in!&u e the Se&/ sought ,y so many o/ the as!eti!s an yogins" >as it not true2 the Bu ha as6e his is!ip&es2 that a/ter e;amining ea!h khandha, an honest person /oun that he !ou& not .ho&&y i enti/y .ith it2 ,e!ause it .as so unsatis/a!tory@ :e .as ,oun to say2 5This is not mine3 this is not .hat I rea&&y am3 this is not my se&/"8 But the Bu ha i not simp&y eny the e;isten!e o/ the eterna&2 a,so&ute Se&/" :e no. !&aime that there .as no sta,&e2 &o.er1!ase se&/ either" The terms 5se&/8 an 5myse&/8 .ere simp&y !on0entions" The persona&ity ha no /i;e or !hange&ess !ore" As the Chain sho.e 2 e0ery sentient ,eing .as in a state o/ !onstant /&u;3 he or she .as mere&y a su!!ession o/ temporary2 muta,&e states o/ e;isten!e" The Bu ha presse this message home throughout his &i/e" >here the se0enteenth1!entury Jren!h phi&osopher #ene (es!artes .ou& e!&are 5I thin62 there/ore I am28 the Bu ha !ame to the opposite !on!&usion" The more he thought2 in the min /u&2 yogi! .ay he ha e0e&ope 2 the !&earer it seeme that .hat .e !a&& the 5se&/8 is a e&usion" In his 0ie.2 the more !&ose&y .e e;amine ourse&0es2 the har er it ,e!omes to /in anything that .e !an pinpoint as a /i;e entity" The human persona&ity .as not a stati! ,eing to .hi!h things happene " Put un er the mi!ros!ope o/ yogi! ana&ysis2 ea!h person .as a pro!ess" The Bu ha &i6e to use su!h metaphors as a ,&a9ing /ire or a rushing stream to es!ri,e the persona&ity3 it ha some 6in o/ i entity2 ,ut .as ne0er the same /rom one moment to another" At ea!h se!on 2 a /ire .as i//erent3 it ha !onsume an re!reate itse&/2 Hust as peop&e i " In a parti!u&ar&y 0i0i simi&e2 the Bu ha !ompare the human min to a mon6ey ranging through the /orestD 5it gra,s one ,ran!h2 an then2 &etting that go2 sei9es another"8 >hat .e e;perien!e as the 5se&/8 is rea&&y Hust a !on0enien!e1term2 ,e!ause .e are !onstant&y !hanging" In the same .ay2 mi&6 !an ,e!ome2 su!!essi0e&y2 !ur s2 ,utter2 ghee2 an /ine e;tra!t o/ ghee" There is no point in !a&&ing any one o/ these trans/ormations 5mi&628 e0en though there is a sense in .hi!h it is !orre!t to o so" The eighteenth1!entury S!ottish empiri!ist (a0i :ume !ame to a simi&ar !on!&usion2 ,ut .ith an important i//eren!eD he i not e;pe!t his insight to a//e!t the mora& !on u!t o/ his rea ers" But in A;ia& Age In ia2 6no.&e ge ha no signi/i!an!e un&ess it .as /oun to ,e trans/ormati0e" A dhamma .as an imperati0e to a!tion2 an the o!trine o/ anatta .as not an a,stra!t phi&osophi!a& proposition ,ut reGuire Bu hists to b ha! as though the ego i not e;ist" The ethi!a& e//e!ts o/ this are /ar1rea!hing" Not on&y oes the i ea o/ 5se&/8 &ea to uns6i&&/u& thoughts a,out 5me an mine8 an inspire our se&/ish !ra0ings3 egotism !an argua,&y ,e es!ri,e as the sour!e o/ a&& e0i&D an e;!essi0e atta!hment to the se&/ !an &ea to en0y or hatre o/ ri0a&s2 !on!eit2 mega&omania2 pri e2 !rue&ty2 an 2 .hen the se&/ /ee&s threatene 2 to 0io&en!e an the estru!tion o/ others" >estern peop&e o/ten regar the Bu ha<s o!trine o/ anatta as nihi&isti! an epressing2 ,ut at their ,est a&& the great .or& re&igions /orme uring the A;ia& Age see6 to !ur, the 0ora!ious2 /rightene ego that oes so mu!h harm" The Bu ha2 ho.e0er2 .as more ra i!a&" :is tea!hing o/ anatta i not see6 to annihi&ate the se&/" :e simp&y enie that the se&/ ha e0er e;iste " It .as a mista6e to thin6 o/ it as a !onstant rea&ity" Any su!h mis!on!eption .as a symptom o/ that ignoran!e .hi!h 6ept us ,oun to the !y!&e o/ su//ering" Anatta, &i6e any Bu hist tea!hing2 .as not a phi&osophi!a& o!trine ,ut .as primari&y pragmati!" On!e a is!ip&e ha a!Guire 2 through yoga an min /u&ness2 a 5 ire!t8 6no.&e ge o/ anatta, he .ou& ,e e&i0ere /rom the pains an peri&s o/ egotism2 .hi!h .ou& ,e!ome a &ogi!a& impossi,i&ity" In the A;ia& !ountries2 .e ha0e seen that peop&e /e&t su en&y a&one an &ost in the .or& 2 in e;i&e /rom E en an the sa!re imension that gi0es &i/e meaning an 0a&ue"

*u!h o/ their pain sprang /rom inse!urity in a .or& o/ heightene in i0i ua&ism in the ne. mar6et e!onomy" The Bu ha trie to ma6e his bhikkhus see that they i not ha0e a 5se&/8 that nee e to ,e e/en e 2 in/&ate 2 /&attere 2 !aHo&e an enhan!e at the e;pense o/ others" On!e a mon6 ha ,e!ome pra!ti!e in the is!ip&ine o/ min /u&ness2 he .ou& see ho. ephemera& .hat .e !a&& the 5se&/8 rea&&y .as" :e .ou& no &onger introHe!t his ego into these passing menta& states an i enti/y .ith them" :e .ou& &earn to regar his esires2 /ears an !ra0ings as remote phenomena that ha &itt&e to o .ith him" On!e he ha attaine this ispassion an eGuanimity2 the Bu ha e;p&aine to the /i0e bhikkhus at the en o/ his Se!on Sermon2 he .ou& /in that he .as ripe /or en&ightenment" 5:is gree /a es a.ay2 an on!e his !ra0ings isappear2 he e;perien!es the re&ease o/ his heart"8 :e ha a!hie0e his goa& an !ou& utter the same triumphant !ry as the Bu ha himse&/2 .hen he ha attaine en&ightenment" 5The ho&y &i/e has ,een &i0e out to its !on!&usion7 >hat ha to ,e one has ,een a!!omp&ishe 3 there is nothing e&se to o78 An 2 in ee 2 it .as .hen they hear the Bu ha e;p&aining anatta that a&& /i0e bhikkhus attaine their /u&& en&ightenment an ,e!ame Arahants" The te;ts te&& us that this tea!hing /i&&e their hearts .ith Hoy" This might seem strangeD .hy shou& they ,e so happy to hear that the se&/ that .e a&& !herish oes not e;ist@ The Bu ha 6ne. that anatta !ou& ,e /rightening" An outsi er2 hearing the o!trine /or the /irst time2 might pani!2 thin6ingD 5I am going to ,e annihi&ate an estroye 3 I .i&& no &onger e;ist78 But the Pa&i te;ts sho. that peop&e a!!epte anatta .ith enormous re&ie/ an e&ight2 as the /i0e bhikkhus i 2 an this2 as it .ere2 5pro0e 8 that it .as true" >hen peop&e &i0e as though the ego i not e;ist2 they /oun that they .ere happier" They e;perien!e the same 6in o/ en&argement o/ ,eing as !ame /rom a pra!ti!e o/ the 5immeasura,&es28 .hi!h .ere esigne to ethrone the se&/ /rom the !enter o/ our pri0ate uni0erse an put other ,eings in its p&a!e" Egotism is !onstri!ting3 .hen .e see things on&y /rom a se&/ish point o/ 0ie.2 our 0ision is &imite " To &i0e ,eyon the rea!h o/ gree 2 hatre 2 an the /ears that !ome .ith an a!ute an;iety a,out our status an sur0i0a& is &i,erating" Anatta may soun ,&ea6 .hen propose as an a,stra!t i ea2 ,ut .hen it .as &i0e out it trans/orme peop&e<s &i0es" By &i0ing as th%ugh they ha no se&/2 peop&e /oun that they ha !onGuere their egotism an /e&t a great ea& ,etter" By un erstan ing anatta .ith the 5 ire!t 6no.&e ge8 o/ a yogin2 they /oun that they ha !rosse o0er into a ri!her2 /u&&er e;isten!e" Anatta must2 there/ore2 te&& us something true a,out the human !on ition2 e0en though .e !annot pro0e empiri!a&&y that the se&/ oes not e;ist" The Bu ha ,e&ie0e that a se&/&ess &i/e .ou& intro u!e men an .omen to Ni,,ana" *onotheists .ou& say that it .ou& ,ring them into the presen!e o/ -o " But the Bu ha /oun the notion o/ a persona&i9e eity too &imiting2 ,e!ause it suggeste that the supreme Truth .as on&y another ,eing" Ni,,ana .as neither a persona&ity nor a p&a!e &i6e :ea0en" The Bu ha a&.ays enie the e;isten!e o/ any a,so&ute prin!ip&e or Supreme Being2 sin!e this !ou& ,e another thing to !&ing to2 another /etter an impe iment to en&ightenment" Li6e the o!trine o/ the Se&/2 the notion o/ -o !an a&so ,e use to prop up an in/&ate the ego" The most sensiti0e monotheists in Ku aism2 Christianity an Is&am .ou& a&& ,e a.are o/ this anger an .ou& spea6 o/ -o in .ays that are reminis!ent o/ the Bu ha<s reti!en!e a,out Ni,,ana" They .ou& a&so insist that -o .as not another ,eing2 that our notion o/ 5e;isten!e8 .as so &imite that it .as more a!!urate to say that -o i not e;ist an that 5he8 .as Nothing" But on a more popu1 &ar &e0e&2 it is !ertain&y true that 5-o 8 is o/ten re u!e to an i o& !reate in the image an &i6eness o/ 5his8 .orshippers" I/ .e imagine -o to ,e a ,eing &i6e ourse&0es .rit &arge2 .ith &i6es an is&i6es simi&ar to our o.n2 it is a&& too easy to ma6e 5him8 en orse some o/ our most

un!harita,&e2 se&/ish an e0en &etha& hopes2 /ears an preHu i!es" This &imite -o has thus !ontri,ute to some o/ the .orst re&igious atro!ities in history" The Bu ha .ou& ha0e es!ri,e ,e&ie/ in a eity .ho gi0es a sea& o/ sa!re appro0a& to our o.n se&0es as 5uns6i&&/u&8D it !ou& on&y em,e the ,e&ie0er in the amaging an angerous egotism that he or she .as suppose to trans!en " En&ightenment eman s that .e reHe!t any su!h /a&se prop" It seems that a 5 ire!t8 yogi! un erstan ing o/ anatta .as one o/ the !hie/ .ays in .hi!h the ear&y Bu hists e;perien!e Ni,,ana" An 2 in ee 2 the A;ia& Age /aiths a&& insist in one .ay or another that .e .i&& on&y /u&/i& ourse&0es i/ .e pra!ti!e tota& se&/1a,an onment" To go into re&igion to 5get8 something2 su!h as a !om/orta,&e retirement in the a/ter&i/e2 is to miss the point" The /i0e bhikkhus .ho attaine en&ightenment in the (eer Par6 ha un erstoo this at a pro/oun &e0e&" No. they ha to ,ring the (hamma to others" As the Bu ha himse&/ ha &earne 2 an un erstan ing o/ the Jirst No,&e Truth o/ dukkha meant empathi9ing .ith the sorro. o/ others3 the o!trine o/ anatta imp&ie that an en&ightene person must &i0e not /or her1 or himse&/ ,ut /or others" There .ere no. si; Arahants2 ,ut they .ere sti&& too /e. to ,ring &ight to a .or& engu&/e in pain" Then2 seeming&y out o/ the ,&ue2 the Bu ha<s &itt&e sangha got an in/&u; o/ ne. mem,ers" The /irst .as ?asa2 the son o/ a ri!h mer!hant o/ Varanasi" Li6e the young -otama he ha &i0e in the &ap o/ &u;ury2 ,ut one night he a.o6e to /in his ser0ants &ying as&eep a&& roun his ,e 2 &oo6ing so ug&y an unseem&y that he .as /i&&e .ith isgust" The /a!t that other te;ts2 su!h as the Nidana Katha, .ou& &ater2 .ithout apo&ogy2 te&& e;a!t&y the same ta&e a,out the young -otama sho.s the ar!hetypa& nature o/ the story" It .as a sty&i9e .ay o/ es!ri,ing the a&ienation that so many peop&e in the -anges region .ere e;perien!ing" The Pa&i story te&&s us that ?asa /e&t si!6 at heart an that he !rie in istressD 5This is terri/ying7 :orri,&e78 The .or& seeme su en&y pro/ane2 meaning&ess an 2 there/ore2 un,eara,&e" At on!e2 ?asa e!i e to 5-o Jorth8 an see6 something ,etter" :e s&ippe on a pair o/ go& s&ippers2 !rept out o/ his /ather<s house2 an ma e his .ay to the (eer Par62 sti&& mutteringD 5Terri/ying7 :orri,&e78 Then he !ame upon the Bu ha2 .ho ha risen ear&y an .as enHoying a .a&6 in the !oo& &ight o/ a.n" >ith the enhan!e menta& o/ an en&ightene man2 the Bu ha re!ogni9e ?asa2 an motione him to a seat2 saying .ith a smi&eD 5It is not terri/ying3 it is not horri,&e" Come an sit o.n2 ?asa2 an I .i&& tea!h you the (hamma"8 The Bu ha<s serenity an gent&eness reassure ?asa at on!e" :e no &onger /e&t that si!6ening rea 2 ,ut .as happy N an hope/u&" >ith his heart Hoy/u& an at pea!e2 he .as in e;a!t&y the right moo /or en&ightenment" :e too6 o// his s&ippers an sat o.n ,esi e the Bu ha2 .ho instru!te him in the *i &e >ay2 step ,y step2 ,eginning .ith 0ery ,asi! tea!hing a,out the importan!e o/ a0oi ing tanha an sensua& p&easure2 an es!ri,ing the ,ene/its o/ the ho&y &i/e" But .hen he pa. that ?asa .as re!epti0e an rea y2 he .ent on to tea!h him the Jour No,&e Truths" As ?asa &istene 2 5the pure 0ision o/ the (hamma rose up in him28 an the truths san6 into his sou&2 as easi&y2 .e are to& 2 as a ye penetrates an !o&ors a !&ean pie!e o/ !&oth" On!e ?asa<s min ha ,een 5 ye 8 ,y the (hamma2 there .as no .ay o/ separating the t.o" This .as 5 ire!t 6no.&e ge28 ,e!ause ?asa ha e;perien!e the (hamma at su!h a pro/oun &e0e& that he ha .ho&&y i enti/ie .ith it" It ha trans/orme him an 5 ye 8 his entire ,eing" This .ou& ,e a !ommon e;perien!e .hen peop&e hear the (hamma /or the /irst time2 espe!ia&&y .hen instru!te ,y the Bu ha himse&/" They /e&t that the (hamma /it their nee s per/e!t&y2 that it .as entire&y natura& an !ongenia& to them2 an that2 in some sense2 they ha a&.ays 6no.n it" >e o not /in in the Pa&i te;ts any agoni9e or ramati! !on0ersions2 simi&ar to St" Pau&<s on the roa to (amas!us" Any su!h .ren!hing e;perien!e .ou& ha0e ,een regar e ,y the Bu ha as 5un1 s6i&&/u&"8 Peop&e must ,e in tune .ith their natures2 as he himse&/ ha ,een un er the rose1app&e

tree" Kust as ?asa ha ,e!ome a 5stream1enterer28 the Bu ha noti!e an o& er mer!hant !oming them an rea&i9e that this must ,e ?asa<s /ather3 he then ha re!ourse to the iddhi or spiritua& po.ers that .ere thought to !ome .ith a 0an!e pro/i!ien!y in yoga2 an ma e ?asa isappear" ?asa<s /ather .as great&y istresse 3 the .ho&e househo& .as sear!hing /or ?asa2 ,ut he ha /o&&o.e the print o/ the go& en s&ippers .hi!h ,rought him ire!t&y to the Bu ha" Again2 the Bu ha ma e the mer!hant sit o.n2 hinting that he .ou& see ?asa 0ery soon2 an instru!te the /ather as he ha the son" The mer!hant .as imme iate&y impresse D 5Lor 2 that is super,7 $uite super,78 he !rie " 5The (hamma has ,een ma e so !&ear that it is as though you are ho& ing up a &amp in the ar6ness an putting right something that has gone pro/oun &y .rong"8 :e .as then the /irst to ma6e .hat has sin!e ,e!ome 6no.n as the Trip&e #e/ugeD an assertion o/ !omp&ete !on/i en!e in the Bu ha2 the (hamma2 an the Sangha o/ bhikkhus& :e a&so ,e!ame one o/ the /irst &ay /o&&o.ers2 .ho !ontinue to &i0e as a househo& er ,ut pra!ti!e a mo i/ie /orm o/ the Bu hist metho " As ?asa2 unseen ,y his /ather2 &istene to the Bu ha2 he attaine /u&& en&ightenment an entere into Ni,,ana" At this point2 the Bu ha re0ea&e him to his /ather2 an the mer!hant ,egge ?asa to return home2 i/ on&y /or his mother<s sa6e" The Bu ha2 ho.e0er2 gent&y e;p&aine that ?asa ha ,e!ome an Arahant an .ou& no. /in it impossi,&e to &i0e the &i/e o/ a househo& er" :e .as no &onger a//&i!te ,y the !ra0ings an esires that .ou& ena,&e him to /u&/i&& a househo& er<s repro u!ti0e an e!onomi! uties3 he .ou& reGuire hours o/ si&en!e an pri0a!y /or me itation that .ou& not ,e possi,&e in a /ami&y home" :e !ou& not return" ?asa<s /ather un erstoo 2 ,ut ,egge the Bu ha to ine at his house that &ay2 .ith ?asa as his atten ant mon6" (uring the mea&2 the Bu ha instru!te ?asa<s mother an his /ormer .i/e2 an they ,e!ame the Bu ha<s /irst .omen &ay is!ip&es" But the ne.s sprea ,eyon the househo& " Jour o/ ?asa<s /rien s2 .ho !ame /rom Varanasi<s &ea ing mer!hant /ami&ies2 .ere so impresse .hen they hear that he .as no. .earing the ye&&o. ro,e that they !ame to the Bu ha /or instru!tion" So i /i/ty o/ ?asa<s /rien s /rom brahmin an ksatriya /ami&ies in the surroun ing !ountrysi e" A&& these young men /rom the no,&e an aristo!rati! !astes soon a!hie0e en&ightenment2 so that in a 0ery short spa!e o/ time2 there .ere2 the te;ts te&& us2 si;ty1one Arahants in the .or& 2 in!&u ing the Bu ha himse&/" The Sangha .as ,e!oming a si9ea,&e se!t2 ,ut the ne. Arahants !ou& not ,e a&&o.e to &u;uriate in their ne./oun &i,eration" Their 0o!ation .as not a se&/ish retreat /rom the .or& 3 they too ha to return to the mar6etp&a!e to he&p others /in re&ease /rom pain" They .ou& no. &i0e /or others2 as the (hamma enHoine " 5-o no.28 the Bu ha to& his si;ty bhikkhus, and tra! # /%r th 0 #/ar and happin ss %/ th p %p# , %ut %/ '%mpassi%n /%r th 0%r#d, /%r th b n /it, 0 #/ar and happin ss %/ g%ds and m n& N% t0% %/ y%u g% th sam 0ay& T a'h th Dhamma, ,hi66hus, and m ditat %n th h%#y #i/ & Th r ar b ings 0ith %n#y a #itt# d sir # /t 0ithin th m 0h% ar #anguishing /%r #a'k %/ h aring th Dhamma+ th y 0i## und rstand it& Bu hism .as not a o!trine /or a pri0i&ege e&ite3 it .as a re&igion /or 5the peop&e28 /or 5the many BbahujanaC"8 In pra!ti!e2 it appea&e most&y to the upper !&asses an to inte&&e!tua&s2 ,ut in prin!ip&e it .as open to any,o y2 an no,o y2 .hate0er his or her !aste2 .as e;!&u e " Jor the /irst time in history2 some,o y ha en0isage a re&igious program that .as not !on/ine to a sing&e group2 ,ut .as inten e /or the .ho&e o/ humanity" This .as no esoteri! truth2 &i6e that prea!he ,y the sages o/ the Upanisads& It .as out in the open2 in the to.ns2 the ne. !ities an

a&ong the tra e routes" >hene0er they hear the (hamma2 peop&e starte to throng into the Sangha2 .hi!h ,e!ame a /or!e to ,e re!6one .ith in the -anges p&ain" The mem,ers o/ the ne. Or er .ere 6no.n as 5The Or aine Jo&&o.ers o/ the Tea!her /rom Sa66a28 ,ut they !a&&e themse&0es simp&y the Mnion o/ @hikkus B@hikkhu-SanghaC" Peop&e .ho Hoine /oun that they ha 5.o6en up8 to .ho&e regions o/ their humanity .hi!h ha hitherto &ain ormant3 a ne. so!ia& an re&igious rea&ity ha !ome into ,eing" Chapter 5 - Mission usua&&y epi!ts the Bu ha sitting a&one2 &ost in so&itary me itation2 ,ut in /a!t the greater part o/ his &i/e2 on!e he ha ,egun to prea!h the (hamma2 .as spent surroun e ,y &arge2 noisy !ro. s o/ peop&e" >hen he tra0e&e 2 he .as usua&&y a!!ompanie ,y hun re s o/ bhikkhus, .ho ten e to !hatter so &ou &y that o!!asiona&&y the Bu ha ha to p&ea /or a &itt&e Guiet" :is &ay is!ip&es o/ten /o&&o.e the pro!ession o/ mon6s a&ong the roa s2 in !hariots an .agons &oa e .ith pro0isions" The Bu ha &i0e in to.ns an !ities2 not in remote /orest hermitages" But e0en though the &ast /orty1/i0e years o/ his &i/e .ere passe in the pu,&i! eye2 the te;ts treat this &ong an important phase rather per/un!tori&y2 &ea0ing the ,iographer &itt&e to .or6 .ith" It is Guite the opposite .ith Kesus" The -ospe&s te&& us ne;t to nothing a,out Kesus<s ear&y &i/e an on&y serious&y ,egin their story .hen he starts his prea!hing mission" The Bu hist s!riptures2 ho.e0er2 re!or the Bu ha<s sermons an es!ri,e the /irst /i0e years o/ his tea!hing !areer in some etai&2 ,ut a/ter that the Bu ha /a es /rom 0ie. an the &ast t.enty years o/ his &i/e are a&most entire&y unre!or e " The Bu ha .ou& ha0e appro0e o/ this reti!en!e" The &ast thing he .ante .as a persona&ity !u&t2 an he a&.ays insiste that it .as the (hamma an not himse&/ that .as important" As .e ha0e note 2 he use to say2 5:e .ho sees me sees the (hamma2 an he .ho sees the (hamma sees me"8 Jurthermore2 a/ter his en&ightenment nothing e&se !ou& rea&&y happen to him" :e ha no 5se&/28 his egotism ha ,een e;tinguishe 2 an he .as 6no.n as the Tathagata2 one .ho ha 2 Guite simp&y2 5gone"8 E0en .hen the Pa&i te;ts o re!ount the ear&y years o/ his mission2 they are &ess intereste in histori!a& /a!t an more intereste in the sym,o&i! meaning o/ their stories" The Bu ha ha ,e!ome an ar!hetype o/ the spiritua& &i/e2 an em,o iment o/ the (hamma an o/ Ni,,ana" :e .as a ne. 6in o/ human ,eingD no &onger !aught in the toi&s o/ gree an hatre 2 he ha &earne to manipu&ate his psy!he in or er to &i0e .ithout egotism" :e .as sti&& &i0ing in the .or& 2 ,ut inha,ite another sa!re imension2 too2 .hi!h monotheists .ou& !a&& the i0ine presen!e" In their a!!ount o/ these /irst tea!hing years2 the te;ts te&& us nothing a,out the Bu ha<s thoughts an /ee&ings2 there/ore2 ,ut use his a!ti0ities to sho. ho. the ear&y Bu hists re&ate to the ur,an2 !ommer!ia&2 po&iti!a& an re&igious .or& o/ north In ia" The s!riptures say that the Bu ha attaine Ni,,ana in &ate Apri& or ear&y *ay2 ,ut they o not re0ea& the year in .hi!h this important e0ent too6 p&a!e" The !on0entiona& ate has &ong ,een he& to ,e )2A B"C"E"2 though some mo ern s!ho&arship .ou& put it as &ate as ')0" I/ .e /o&&o. the possi,&y a!!e&erate !hrono&ogy o/ the Pa&i te;ts2 the Bu ha might ha0e sent the si;ty mon6s out to tea!h in Septem,er2 a/ter the en o/ the monsoon" Li6e the other sanghas, the Bu ha<s ne. Or er .as a &oose2 peripateti! organi9ation" The mon6s s&ept rough2 .here0er they !ou& D 5in the .oo s2 in the roots o/ trees2 un er o0erhanging ro!6s2 in ra0ines2 in hi&&si e !a0es2 in !emeteries2 in Hung&e gro0es2 in the open2 on heaps o/ stra."8 But e0ery ay they spent time in

me itation an prea!he to the peop&e .ho nee e the (hamma2 espe!ia&&y those .ho &i0e in the ne. !ities .here the ma&aise o/ the time .as most a!ute&y /e&t" Their prea!hing .as su!!ess/u&D they not on&y attra!te &ay is!ip&es ,ut ne. re!ruits to the Sangha2 an the Bu ha authori9e the si;ty to re!ei0e no0i!es themse&0es an or ain them as /u&&y /&e ge mon6s" Le/t to himse&/ on!e more2 the Bu ha returne to Mru0e&a" On his .ay2 he prea!he the (hamma to thirty ro. y young men in hot pursuit o/ a &o!a& !ourtesan2 .ho ha e!ampe .ith their money" 5>hi!h is ,etter /or you@8 the Bu ha as6e " 5To &oo6 /or a .oman or to /in yourse&0es@8 The in!i ent .as a graphi! a&&egory o/ humanity<s point&ess stampe e a/ter p&easure2 .hi!h !an on&y /rustrate an impo0erish" A/ter &istening to the Bu ha2 the youths a&& ,e!ame 5stream1enterers8 an Hoine the Sangha" But .hen he rea!he Mru0e&a2 the Bu ha a!hie0e a /ar more start&ing !on0ersion2 .hen he su!!ess/u&&y initiate a .ho&e sangha o/ one thousan brahmins, .ho .ere &i0ing in the /orests aroun Mru0e&a2 -aya an ,esi e the ri0er NeranHara2 un er the &ea ership o/ the three Kassapa ,rothers" This ta&e shou& pro,a,&y ,e rea as a para,&e2 epi!ting the ear&y Bu hists< !on/rontation .ith the o& Ve i! tra ition" These brahmins ha 5-one Jorth8 an &et their hair gro. .i& an matte as a sign o/ their repu iation o/ the sett&e 2 or ere &i/esty&e o/ norma& so!iety2 ,ut they sti&& o,ser0e the o& rites s!rupu&ous&y an ten e the three sa!re /ires" The Bu ha spent the .inter .ith the Mru0e&a !ommunity an .or6e a num,er o/ impressi0e mira!&es" :e tame a high&y angerous !o,ra2 a popu&ar sym,o& o/ the i0ine2 .hi!h the brahmins house in their sa!re /ire !ham,er" :e entertaine go s2 .ho 0isite his hermitage at night an &it the .ho&e .oo .ith unearth&y ra ian!e" :e sp&it &ogs mira!u&ous&y /or the /ire !eremonies2 as!en e to the hea0ens an ,rought ,a!6 a !e&estia& /&o.er2 an sho.e the Kassapa .ho .as &ea er o/ the Mru0e&a group that he !ou& rea his min " Both the Pa&i te;ts an the &ater ,iographies !ontain stories o/ su!h signs an .on ers per/orme ,y the Bu ha2 .hi!h is2 at /irst g&an!e2 surprising" The pra!ti!e o/ yoga .as thought to gi0e a s6i&&e yogin po.ers BiddhiC, .hi!h sho.e the ominion o/ a traine min o0er matter2 ,ut yogins genera&&y .arne against the e;er!ise o/ iddhi, ,e!ause it .as a&& too easy /or a spiritua& man to egenerate into a mere magi!ian"The Bu ha himse&/ .as high&y !riti!a& o/ su!h e;hi,itionism2 an /or,a e his is!ip&es to e;er!ise iddhi in pu,&i!" But the mon6s .ho !ompose the Pa&i te;ts .ou& ha0e ,e&ie0e that su!h /eats .ere possi,&e2 an they pro,a,&y use these ta&es as a po&emi!" In their prea!hing2 the Thera0a in mon6s .ho !ompose these te;ts may ha0e /oun it use/u& to re&ate that the Bu ha ha these impressi0e po.ers" Jurther2 .hen isputing .ith brahmins an o//i!ia&s o/ Ve i! re&igion2 it .as he&p/u& to ,e a,&e to re&ate that the Bu ha ha ta6en on the o& go s B&i6e the sa!re !o,ra in the /ire !ham,erC an soun &y e/eate them3 e0en though he .as a mere ksatriya, he ha more than i brahmins& Later the te;ts te&& us that the Bu ha !ha&&enge the .ho&e !aste systemD 5It is not simp&y ,irth that ma6es a person a brahmin or an out!aste28 he insiste 2 5,ut our a!tions BkammaC"8 #e&igious status epen e on mora& ,eha0ior2 not upon the a!!i ent o/ here ity" As a&.ays2 the Bu ha2 &i6e the other great A;ia& sages2 argue that /aith must ,e in/orme ,y ethi!s2 .ithout .hi!h ritua& .as use&ess" It .as mora&ity2 not the e;er!ise o/ the Bu ha<s mira!u&ous po.ers2 .hi!h /ina&&y !on0in!e Kassapa" :ere again2 the te;ts may a&so ha0e ,een suggesting that a sho.y isp&ay o/ iddhi !ou& ,e !ounterpro u!ti0eD it !ertain&y i not !on0in!e a s6epti!" A/ter ea!h mira!&e2 Kassapa mere&y sai to himse&/D 5This great mon6 is impressi0e an ,ut he is not an Arahant &i6e me"8 E0entua&&y2 the Bu ha sho!6e him out o/ his pri e an !omp&a!en!y" 5Kassapa28 he sai 2 5you are not an Arahant2 an i/ you !ontinue &i6e this2 you .i&& ne0er a!hie0e en&ightenment"8 Su!h rampant egotism .as Guite in!ompati,&e .ith the spiritua& &i/e" The re,u6e hit home" As a

/amous as!eti!2 Kassapa .ou& ha0e 6no.n a&& a,out the angers o/ su!h se&/1esteem" :e prostrate himse&/ on the groun an ,egge /or a mission to the Sangha" :e .as /o&&o.e ,y ,oth his ,rothers an a&& their thousan is!ip&es" There .ere no. a host o/ ne. no0i!es2 .ho sha0e o// their matte &o!6s2 thre. a.ay their sa!re utensi&s2 an ,e!ame 5stream1enterers"8 Then they a&& gathere together at -aya to hear the Bu ha<s thir great sermon" A@hikkhus,- the Bu ha ,egan2 5e0erything is ,urning"8 The senses an e0erything that they /ee upon in the e;terna& .or& 2 the ,o y2 the min an the emotions .ere a&& a,&a9e" >hat !ause this !on/&agration@ The three /ires o/ gree 2 hatre an e&usion" As &ong as peop&e /e these /&ames2 they .ou& !ontinue to ,urn an !ou& ne0er rea!h the !oo&ness o/ Ni,,ana" The /i0e khandha Bthe 5heaps8 or 5!onstituents8 o/ the persona&ityC .ere thus ta!it&y !ompare to 5,un &es8 o/ /ire.oo " There .as a pun a&so in the .or upadana B5!&inging8C2 .hose root meaning is 5/ue&"8 It .as our grasping esire /or the things o/ this .or& .hi!h 6ept us a,&a9e an impe e our en&ightenment" As a&.ays2 this gree an !ra0ing .as !oup&e .ith the hatre .hi!h is responsi,&e /or so mu!h o/ the e0i& an 0io&en!e in the .or& " As &ong as the thir /ire o/ ignoran!e !ontinue to rage2 a person !ou& not rea&i9e the Jour No,&e Truths2 .hi!h .ere essentia& /or re&ease /rom the smo& ering !y!&e o/ 5,irth2 o& age an eath2 .ith sorro.2 mourn1 ing2 pain2 grie/ an espair"8 A bhikkhu must2 there/ore2 ,e!ome ispassionate" The art o/ min /u&ness .ou& tea!h him to ,e!ome eta!he /rom his /i0e khandha an ouse the /&ames" Then he .ou& e;perien!e the &i,eration an pea!e o/ Ni,,ana" The Jire Sermon .as a ,ri&&iant !ritiGue o/ the Ve i! system" Its sa!re sym,o&2 /ire2 .as an image o/ e0erything the Bu ha /e&t to ,e .rong .ith &i/eD it represente the hearth an home /rom .hi!h a&& earnest see6ers must 5-o Jorth28 an .as an e&oGuent em,&em o/ the rest&ess2 estru!ti0e ,ut transient /or!es that ma6e up human !ons!iousness" The three /ires o/ gree 2 hatre an ignoran!e .ere an ironi! !ounterpart to the three ho&y /ires o/ the Ve asD ,y ten ing these in the mista6en ,e&ie/ that they /orme a priest&y e&ite2 the brahmins .ere simp&y /ue&ing their o.n egotism" The sermon .as a&so an i&&ustration o/ the Bu ha<s s6i&& in a apting his (hamma to his au ien!e2 so that he !ou& tru&y spea6 to their !on ition" A/ter the /ormer /ire1 .orshippers ha &istene to the Bu ha<s sermon2 .hi!h spo6e so to their re&igious !ons!iousness2 they a&& a!hie0e Ni,,ana an ,e!ame Arahants" In &ate (e!em,er2 the Bu ha set out /or #aHagaha2 the !apita& o/ *aga ha2 a!!ompanie ,y these thousan ne. bhikkhus& Their arri0a& !ause a stir" Peop&e in the !ities .ere hungry /or ne. spiritua&ity2 an as soon as King Bim,isara hear that a man .ho !&aime to ,e a Bu ha .as en!ampe outsi e the !ity in the Sap&ing -ro0e2 he .ent to 0isit him .ith a huge entourage o/ brahmin househo& ers" They .ere a&& astonishe to /in that Kassapa2 the /ormer hea o/ the Mru0e&a !ommunity2 .as no. the Bu ha<s is!ip&e2 an .ere great&y impresse .hen Kassapa e;p&aine to them the reasons .hy he ha a,an one /ire1.orship" >hen they hear the Bu ha prea!h2 a&& the househo& ersLthe Pa&i te;t te&&s us that there .ere 1202000 o/ themL,e!ame &ay /o&&o.ers2 an &ast o/ a&&2 King Bim,isara prostrate himse&/ ,e/ore the Bu ha an ,egge to ,e re!ei0e as a &ay is!ip&e too" E0er sin!e he .as a ,oy2 the 6ing ha hope to &isten to a Bu ha prea!hing a (hamma that he !ou& un erstan " No. his .ish ha ,een grante " It .as the start o/ a &ong partnership ,et.een the Bu ha an the 6ing2 .ho in0ite him to inner that night" (uring the mea&2 the 6ing ga0e the Sangha a gi/t that .ou& ha0e a e!isi0e in/&uen!e on the e0e&opment o/ the Bu hist Or er" :e onate a p&easure1par6 BaramaC 6no.n as the Bam,oo -ro0e o/ Ve&u0ana2 Hust outsi e #aHagaha2 as a home /or the Sangha o/ Bhi66hus" The mon6s !ou& &i0e there in a Guiet2 pea!e/u& p&a!e that .as at the same time a!!essi,&e to the !ity an to the peop&e .ho .ou& nee to !onsu&t them" The -ro0e .as neither 5too /ar /rom the to.n2 nor

too near " " " a!!essi,&e to the peop&e2 ,ut pea!e/u&2 an se!&u e "8 The Bu ha a!!epte the gi/t2 .hi!h .as a per/e!t so&ution" The 5se!&usion8 o/ his mon6s .as to ,e a psy!ho&ogi!a& one2 not a tota& physi!a& segregation /rom the .or& " The Or er e;iste /or the peop&e2 not simp&y /or the mon6s< persona& san!ti/i!ation" The bhikkhus .ou& nee a egree o/ Guiet /or me itation2 .here they !ou& e0e&op the ispassion an interna& so&itu e that &e to Ni,,ana2 ,ut i/ they .ere to &i0e entire&y /or others2 as the (hamma eman e 2 &ay /o&6 must ,e a,&e to 0isit them an &earn ho. to assuage their o.n su//ering" The gi/t o/ the Bam,oo -ro0e set a pre!e ent2 an .ea&thy onors o/ten ga0e the Sangha simi&ar par6s in the su,ur,s2 .hi!h ,e!ame the regiona& hea Guarters o/ the .an ering bhikkhus& The Bu ha remaine in the ne. arama /or t.o months2 an it .as uring this time that his t.o most important is!ip&es Hoine the Sangha" Sariputta an *ogga&&ana ha ,oth ,een ,orn to brahmin /ami&ies in sma&& 0i&&ages outsi e #aHagaha" They renoun!e the .or& on the same ay2 an Hoine the sangha o/ the S6epti!s2 &e ,y SanHaya" But neither attaine /u&& en&ightenment2 an they ma e a pa!t that .hi!he0er o/ them a!hie0e Ni,,ana /irst .ou& te&& the other imme iate&y" At the time o/ the Bu ha<s 0isit the t.o /rien s .ere &i0ing in #aHagaha2 an one ay Sariputta sa. AssaHi Bone o/ the origina& /i0e bhikkhusC ,egging /or a&ms" :e .as at on!e stru!6 ,y the serenity an poise o/ the mon6 an .as !on0in!e that this man ha /oun a spiritua& so&ution2 so he hai&e him in the tra itiona& .ay2 as6ing AssaHi .hi!h tea!her an dhamma he /o&&o.e " P&ea ing that he .as a mere ,eginner in the ho&y &i/e2 AssaHi ga0e on&y a ,rie/ summary o/ the (hamma2 ,ut that .as enough" Sariputta ,e!ame a 5stream1enterer8 on the spot2 an hurrie to te&& *ogga&&ana the ne.s" :is /rien a&so ,e!ame a 5stream1enterer28 an they .ent together to the Bam,oo -ro0e to as6 the Bu ha /or a mission to the Sangha2 ta6ing2 to SanHaya<s !hagrin2 2)0 o/ his is!ip&es .ith them" >hen the Bu ha sa. Sariputta an *ogga&&ana approa!hing2 he instin!ti0e&y 6ne. ho. gi/te they .ere" 5These .i&& ,e my !hie/ is!ip&es28 he to& the bhikkhus& 5They .i&& o great things /or the Sangha"8 An so it pro0e " The t.o /rien s ,e!ame the inspiration /or the t.o main s!hoo&s o/ Bu hism that e0e&ope some 200 to %00 years a/ter the Bu ha<s eath" The more austere an monasti!a&&y in!&ine Thera0a a regar Sariputta as a se!on /oun er" :e .as o/ an ana&yti!a& !ast o/ min an !ou& e;press the (hamma in a .ay that .as easy to memori9e" But his piety .as too ry /or the more popu&ist *ahayana s!hoo&2 .hose 0ersion o/ Bu hism is more emo!rati! an emphasi9es the importan!e o/ !ompassion" The *ahayana has ta6en *ogga&&ana as their mentor3 he .as 6no.n /or his iddhi, .ou& as!en mysti!a&&y to the hea0ens an 2 through his yogi! po.ers2 ha an un!anny a,i&ity to rea peop&e<s min s" The /a!t that the Bu ha praise ,oth Sariputta an *ogga&&ana sho.s that ,oth s!hoo&s are regar e as authenti!2 an in ee they ha0e !oe;iste more pea!e/u&&y than2 /or e;amp&e2 Catho&i!s an Protestants ha0e in the Christian .or& " Not e0ery,o y .as enamore o/ the Bu ha2 ho.e0er" (uring his stay in the Bam,oo -ro0e2 many o/ the !iti9ens o/ #aHagaha .ere un erstan a,&y .orrie a,out the ramati! o/ the Sangha" Jirst the .i& 1haire brahmins, no. SanHaya<s S6epti!sL.ho .ou& ,e ne;t@ By ta6ing a.ay a&& the young men2 the mon6 -otama .as ma6ing them a&& !hi& &ess an turning their .omen into .i o.s" Soon their /ami&ies .ou& ie out7 But .hen this .as ,rought to the Bu ha<s attention2 he to& the bhikkhus not to .orry3 this .as on&y a se0en1 ay .on er2 an 2 sure enough2 a/ter a .ee6 or so the trou,&e stoppe " At a,out this time2 the Pa&i te;ts te&& us2 the Bu ha ma e a 0isit to his /ather<s house in Kapi&a0atthuL,ut they gi0e us no etai&s" The &ater s!riptures an !ommentaries2 ho.e0er2 /&esh out the ,are ,ones o/ the Pa&i te;t2 an these post1!anoni!a& ta&es ha0e ,e!ome part o/ the Bu ha<s &egen " They te&& us "that Su ho ana hear that his son2 no. a /amous Bu ha2

prea!hing in #aHagaha2 an sent a messenger to him2 ith a huge entourage2 to in0ite him to pay a 0isit to ipi&a0atthu" But .hen this !ro. o/ Sa6yans hear the Bu ha prea!h2 they a&& ,e!ame Arahants an /orgot Su ho ana<s messageLa seGuen!e o/ e0ents that happene nine times" Jina&&y2 the in0itation .as passe on to the Bu ha2 .ho set out /or his home to.n .ith t.enty thousan bhikkhus& The Sa6yans put the Nigro ha Par6 outsi e Kapi&a0atthu at the bhikkhus( isposa&2 an this ,e!ame the Sangha<s !hie/ hea Guarters in Sa66a2 ,ut2 the pri e an hauteur /or .hi!h they .ere /amous2 the Sa6yans re/use to pay homage to the Bu ha" So2 es!en ing2 as it .ere2 to their &e0e&2 the Bu ha stage a stri6ing isp&ay o/ iddhi& :e &e0itate 2 Hets o/ /ire an .ater gushe /rom his &im,s2 an /ina&&y he .a&6e a&ong a He.e&e !ause.ay in the s6y" Perhaps he .as trying2 as .as his .ont2 to spea6 to the Sa6yans in a .ay that they !ou& un erstan an enter into their min 1set" :is /ather Su ho ana ha .ante him to ,e a 'akka!atti, a >or& #u&er2 an this &egen ary /igure2 it .as sai 2 .ou& a&so stri e maHesti!a&&y through the s6ies" In Mru0e&a2 the Bu ha ha sho.n the brahmin as!eti!s that he !ou& o0er!ome their go s3 no. he sho.e the Sa6yans that he .as more than eGua& to any 'akka!atti& An the spe!ta!&e ha an e//e!t2 though a super/i!ia& one" The Sa6yans .ere stunne into a!1 Guies!en!e an ,o.e o.n ,e/ore the Bu ha" But2 as usua&2 iddhi !ou& not a!hie0e a &asting resu&t" The ne;t ay2 Su ho ana .as s!an a&i9e to see his son ,egging /or /oo in Kapi&a0atthuD ho. are he ,ring the /ami&y name into su!h isrepute7 But the Bu ha sat his /ather o.n an e;p&aine the (hamma to him2 an Su ho ana<s heart so/tene " :e imme iate&y ,e!ame a 5stream1enterer28 e0en though he i not reGuest or ination in the Sangha" :e too6 the Bu ha<s ,o.& /rom him an &e him into the house2 .here2 uring the mea& that .as prepare in his honor2 a&& the .omen o/ the househo& ,e!ame &ay is!ip&es2 .ith one nota,&e e;!eption" The Bu ha<s /ormer .i/e remaine a&oo/2 sti&&2 perhaps un erstan a,&y2 hosti&e to the man .ho ha a,an one her .ithout saying goo 1 ,ye" The Pa&i te;ts re!or that at some unspe!i/ie time a/ter this 0isit to Kapi&a0atthu2 some o/ the &ea ing youths o/ Sa66a ma e the -oing Jorth an Hoine the Sangha2 in!&u ing the Bu ha<s se0en1year1o& son #ahu&a2 .ho ha to .ait unti& he .as t.enty ,e/ore he .as or aine 2 an three o/ the Bu ha<s 6ins/o&6D his !ousin2 Anan a3 his ha&/1,rother2 Nan a3 an (e0a atta2 his ,rother1in1&a." They .ere a!!ompanie ,y their ,ar,er2 Mpa&i2 .ho ha ,een ta6en a&ong to sha0e the ne. bhikkhus( hea s2 ,ut as6e /or a mission himse&/" :is !ompanions as6e that the ,ar,er ,e a mitte ,e/ore them2 to hum,&e their Sa6yan pri e" Some o/ these Sa6yans ,e!ame nota,&e /igures in the Or er" Mpa&i ,e!ame the &ea ing e;pert in the ru&e o/ the monasti! &i/e2 an Anan a2 a gent&e2 s!rupu&ous man2 ,e!ame the Bu ha<s persona& atten ant uring his &ast t.enty years" Be!ause Anan a .as !&oser to the Bu ha than any,o y e&se an .as .ith him a&most a&& o/ the time2 he ,e!ame e;treme&y 6no.&e gea,&e a,out the Bu ha<s sermons an sayings2 ,ut he .as not a s6i&&e yogin" (espite the /a!t that he ,e!ame the most &earne authority on the (hamma2 .ithout the a,i&ity to me itate2 he i not attain Ni,,ana uring the Bu ha<s &i/etime" As /or (e0a atta2 the s!riptures2 .e sha&& see2 assign him a ro&e that is simi&ar to that o/ Ku as in the -ospe& story" The mention o/ the -ospe&s2 .ith their !o&or/u& portraits o/ Kesus<s is!ip&es2 ma6es a >estern rea er &ong to 6no. more a,out these ear&y Bu hists" >ho .ere these peop&e .ho /&o!6e into the Sangha ,y the thousan @ >hat re. them to the Bu ha@ The Pa&i te;ts te&& us &itt&e" The &egen s in i!ate that the /irst re!ruits !ame /rom the brahmin an ksatriya !astes2 though the message .as prea!he to 5the many28 an e0ery,o y .as .e&!ome to Hoin" *er!hants .ere a&so attra!te to the Or er3 &i6e the mon6s2 they .ere the 5ne. men8 o/ the e0e&oping so!iety2 an

nee e a /aith that re/&e!te their essentia&&y !aste&ess status" But there are no etai&e stories o/ in i0i ua& !on0ersions2 su!h as the -ospe& ta&es o/ /ishermen ropping their nets an ta; !o&&e!tors &ea0ing their !ounting houses" Anan a an (e0a atta stan out /rom the !ro. o/ bhikkhus, ,ut their portraits are sti&& em,&emati! an sty&i9e !ompare .ith the more 0i0i !hara!ter stu ies o/ some o/ Kesus<s is!ip&es" E0en Sariputta an *oga&&ana2 the &ea ing is!ip&es o/ the Bu ha2 are presente as !o&or&ess /igures .ith apparent&y &itt&e persona&ity" There are no tou!hing 0ignettes a,out the Bu ha<s re&ationship .ith his sonD #ahu&a appears in the Pa&i &egen s simp&y as another mon6" The Bu ha instru!ts him in me itation2 as he .ou& any other bhikkhu, an there is nothing in the narrati0e to suggest that they are /ather an son" >e are &e/t .ith images2 not .ith persona&ities2 an .ith our >estern &o0e o/ in i0i ua&ity2 .e !an /ee& issatis/ie " But this is to misun erstan the nature o/ the Bu hist e;perien!e" *any o/ these ear&y mon6s a!hie0e en&ightenment pre!ise&y ,y !ontemp&ating the o!trine o/ anatta& This ena,&e them to trans!en se&/3 in ee 2 the Bu ha enie that there .as any su!h thing as a !onstant persona&ity" :e .ou& ha0e regar e the o,stinate ,e&ie/ in a sa!re 2 irre u!i,&e nu, o/ se&/hoo as an 5uns6i&&/u&8 e&usion that .ou& get in the .ay o/ en&ightenment" As a resu&t o/ the spiritua&ity o/ anatta, the Bu ha himse&/ is presente in the Pa&i Canon as a type rather than an in i0i ua&" :e !onten s .ith other typesD .ith S6epti!s2 brahmins an Kains" :e o.e his &i,eration pre!ise&y to the e;tin!tion o/ the uniGue traits an i iosyn!rasies that >estern peop&e pri9e in their heroes" The same goes /or his is!ip&es" There is &itt&e to istinguish the Bu ha /rom his bhikkhus, .ho are a&& epi!te as minor Bu has" Li6e him2 they ha0e ,e!ome impersona& an ha0e 0anishe as in i0i ua&s" The Canoni!a& te;ts preser0e this anonymity ,y e!&ining to e&0e into the se!rets o/ their hearts" Nor .i&& they re0ea& the &o0a,&e Guir6s in their !hara!ters ,e/ore the a!hie0ement o/ en&ightenment" It may ,e no a!!i ent that it is (e0a atta an Anan a .ho stan out /rom the ran6 an /i&e" (e0a atta is /i&&e .ith egotism2 an the gent&e Anan a has /ai&e to a!hie0e en&ightenment an !onseGuent&y has more o,ser0a,&e persona& traits than2 say2 a spiritua& giant &i6e Sariputta" >e see /arther into Anan a<s heart uring the &ast ays o/ the Bu ha<s &i/e2 ,ut2 as .e sha&& see2 he !annot share the Bu ha<s perspe!ti0e" To a >esterner2 .ho .ou& e!ry this &oss o/ persona&ity2 the bhikkhus .ou& pro,a,&y rep&y that the surren er o/ the ego .as a pri!e .orth paying /or the inner pea!e o/ Ni,,ana2 .hi!h is pro,a,&y impossi,&e /or any,o y .ho is sti&& immure in se&/hoo " But the impersona&ity o/ the Bu ha an his is!ip&es i not mean that they .ere !o& an un/ee&ing" They .ere not on&y gent&e an !ompassionate2 ,ut eep&y so!ia,&e2 an their attempt to rea!h out to 5the many8 attra!te peop&e .ho /oun this &a!6 o/ egotism !ompe&&ing" Li6e a&& his mon6s2 the Bu ha .as !onstant&y on the roa 2 prea!hing to as .i e an au ien!e as possi,&e2 ,ut uring the three months o/ the monsoon2 .hen tra0e& .as i//i!u&t2 he too6 to staying in the Bam,oo -ro0e outsi e #aHagaha" E0en though the par6 no. ,e&onge to the Sangha2 the bhikkhus ha not ,ui&t in it2 ,ut sti&& &i0e in the open" A ri!h mer!hant2 ho.e0er2 0isite the -ro0e2 &i6e .hat he sa.2 an o//ere to ,ui& si;ty huts /or the mon6s2 an the Bu ha ga0e his permission" The mer!hant then in0ite the Bu ha an his mon6s to a mea&" It .as no sma&& matter to /ee su!h a &arge gathering2 an on the morning o/ the inner2 the househo& .as in an uproar as the ser0ants prepare a e&i!ious mea& o/ ,roth2 ri!e2 sau!es2 an s.eets" The mer!hant .as so ,usy hurrying a,out an gi0ing or ers that he s!ar!e&y ha time to greet his ,rother1in1&a.2 Anathapin i6a2 a mer!hant /rom Sa0atthi2 .ho ha !ome to #aHagaha on ,usiness" 5>hate0er is going on@8 Anathapin i6a as6e in ,e.i& erment" Msua&&y .hen he 0isite the househo& his ,rother1in1&a. !ou& not o enough /or him" >as there a .e ing@ Or

.as the /ami&y a,out to entertain King Bim,isara@ 5Not at a&&28 rep&ie the mer!hant3 the Bu ha an his mon6s .ere !oming to inner" Anathapin i6a !ou& har &y ,e&ie0e his ears" 5(i you say Nthe Bu ha<@8 he as6e in!re u&ous&y3 ha an en&ightene Bu ha tru&y !ome into the .or& @ Cou& he go to 0isit him at on!e@ 5This is not the time28 the mer!hant sai testi&y2 hurrying o// again" 5?ou !an go to ta&6 to him ear&y tomorro. morning"8 Anathapin i6a .as so e;!ite that he !ou& s!ar!e&y s&eep2 an at a.n he hurrie to the Bam,oo -ro0e" As soon as he &e/t the !ity2 ho.e0er2 he .as o0er!ome .ith the rea that .as so .i esprea in the A;ia& !ountries" :e /e&t 0u&nera,&e" 5Light raine /rom the .or& 2 an he !ou& see on&y ar6ness ahea "8 Jear/u&&y he presse on2 unti& he sa. the Bu ha pa!ing up an o.n in the morning &ight" >hen the Bu ha sa. Anathapin i6a2 he &e him to a seat an !a&&e him ,y name" Li6e ?asa ,e/ore him2 the mer!hant .as imme iate&y !heere 2 an as he &istene to the Bu ha he /e&t the tea!hing rising /rom .ithin .ith su!h authority that it seeme ins!ri,e in his eepest sou&" 5Super,2 Lor 78 he !rie 2 an ,egge the Bu ha to a!!ept him as a &ay is!ip&e" The ne;t ay2 he entertaine the Bu ha at his ,rother1in1 &a.<s house an in0ite him to 0isit his o.n !ity o/ Sa0atthi2 the !apita& o/ the 6ing om o/ Kosa&a" Sa0atthi .as pro,a,&y the most a 0an!e o/ a&& the !ities in the -anges ,asin in the &ate si;th !entury" It .as ,ui&t on the south ,an6 o/ the #i0ati ri0er2 at the Hun!tion o/ t.o tra e routes2 an .as inha,ite ,y some I02000 /ami&ies" A &ea ing !enter o/ !ommer!e2 it .as home to many .ea&thy ,usinessmen &i6e Anathapin i6a2 an the !ity<s name .as sai to eri0e /rom the .or sar!amatthi, sin!e it .as a p&a!e .here 5e0erything .as attaina,&e"8 Sa0atthi .as prote!te ,y imposing .a&&s an .at!hto.ers /orty to /i/ty /eet high3 the main roa s entere the !ity /rom the south an !on0erge in a &arge open sGuare in the to.n !enter" ?et espite Sa0atthi<s prosperity2 Anathapin i6a<s /e0erish e;!itement at the prospe!t o/ meeting a rea& Bu ha sho.s that many peop&e /e&t a nagging 0oi opening up in their &i0es" It .as e;a!t&y the p&a!e /or the Sangha" Anathapin i6a spare no e;pense in setting up a ,ase /or the Bu ha" :e sear!he har /or a suita,&e p&a!e2 an e0entua&&y e!i e on a par6 ,y Prin!e Keta2 heir apparent to the throne o/ Kosa&a" The prin!e .as re&u!tant to se&&Lunti& Anathapin i6a ,rought !art&oa s o/ go& !oins2 .hi!h he sprea a&& o0er the par6&an unti& the groun .as entire&y !o0ere .ith the money that he .as prepare to o//er" On&y a sma&& spa!e near the gate remaine 2 an Prin!e Keta2 rea&i9ing ,e&ate &y that this .as no or inary pur!hase an that it might ,e a 0isa,&e to ma6e a !ontri,ution2 thre. it in /or /ree2 ,ui& ing a gate1house on the spot" Then Anathapin i6a ma e Keta<s -ro0e rea y /or the Sangha" :e ha 5open terra!es &ai out2 gates !onstru!te 2 au ien!e ha&&s ere!te 2 /ire rooms2 storehouses an !up,oar s ,ui&t2 .a&6s &e0e&e 2 .e&&s prepare 2 ,aths an ,athrooms insta&&e 2 pon s e;!a0ate an pa0i&ions ma e"8 This .ou& ,e!ome one o/ the most important !enters o/ the Sangha" ?et these .ere 0ery e&a,orate arrangements /or men .ho ha em,ra!e 5home&essness"8 >ithin a short spa!e o/ time2 the Bu ha ha a!Guire three &arge par6s2 at #aHagaha2 Kapi&a0atthu an Sa0atthi2 .here the mon6s !ou& &i0e an me itate2 surroun e ,y &otus poo&s2 &ush mango trees an sha y !&oisters o/ pa&ms" Other onors Gui!6&y /o&&o.e Anathapin i6a<s e;amp&e" As soon as they hear that the Bu ha .as tea!hing in Sa0atthi2 three ,an6ers /rom Kosam,i on the Kumna ri0er !ame to hear him prea!h in Keta<s -ro0e an prompt&y in0ite him to their o.n !ity" Ea!h eGuippe a 5p&easure1par68 BaramaC /or the Sangha there" They not on&y raise ,ui& ings at their o.n e;pense2 ,ut2 &i6e the other onors2 they maintaine the arama, pro0i ing /or its up6eep themse&0es" King Bim,isara emp&oye so many ser0ants /or the Bam,oo -ro0e that they /i&&e an entire 0i&&age" But the mon6s .ere not &i0ing in &u;ury" Though

amp&e2 the a!!ommo ation .as simp&e an the huts sparse&y /urnishe 2 as ,e/itte /o&&o.ers o/ the *i &e >ay" Ea!h bhikkhu ha his o.n !e&&2 ,ut this .as o/ten Hust a partitione 1o// area !ontaining on&y a ,oa to s&eep on an a seat .ith Hointe &egs" The bhikkhus i not &i0e in these aramas year1roun 2 ,ut sti&& spent most o/ their time on the roa " At /irst2 most e0en tra0e&e uring the monsoon2 ,ut /oun that this ga0e o//ense" Other se!ts2 su!h as the Kains2 re/use to tra0e& uring the rains2 ,e!ause they .ou& o too mu!h amage to the .i& &i/e2 an this 0io&ate the prin!ip&e o/ ahimsa& >hy i these /o&&o.ers o/ Sa6yamuni !ontinue their Hourneys uring the monsoon2 peop&e ,egan to as62 5tramp&ing o.n the ne. grass2 istressing p&ants2 an hurting many &itt&e !reatures@8 E0en the 0u&tures2 they pointe out2 staye in the treetops uring this season" >hy i the Bu ha<s mon6s a&one /ee& o,&ige to tru ge aroun the mu y paths an roa s2 ta6ing no hee o/ any,o y ,ut themse&0es@ The Bu ha .as sensiti0e to this 6in o/ !riti!ism2 an .hen he hear a,out these !omp&aints2 he ma e the monsoon retreat B!assaC o,&igatory /or a&& Sangha mem,ers" But he .ent one step /urther than the other .an erers2 an in0ente the monasti! !ommuna& &i/e" *on6s in the other se!ts either &i0e a&one uring the !assa, or they put up .here0er they happene to ,e2 sharing a /orest !&earing .ith as!eti!s .ho /o&&o.e Guite i//erent dhammas& The Bu ha or ere his bhikkhus to &i0e together uring the 0assa2 not .ith mem,ers o/ other se!ts3 they !ou& !hoose one o/ the aramas or a !ountry sett&ement Ba!asaC2 .hi!h the mon6s ,ui&t ea!h year /rom s!rat!h" Ea!h arama an a!asa ha /i;e ,oun aries3 no mon6 .as a&&o.e to &ea0e the retreat /or more than a .ee6 uring the three months o/ the monsoon2 e;!ept /or a 0ery goo reason" -ra ua&&y2 the mon6s ,egan to e0o&0e a !ommunity &i/e" They e0ise simp&e !eremonies2 .hi!h too6 p&a!e in the assem,&y ha&& o/ their sett&ement" In the morning2 they .ou& me itate an &isten to the instru!tions gi0en ,y the Bu ha or one o/ the senior mon6s" Then they set o// .ith their ,o.&s to the to.n to see6 the ay<s pro0isions2 an ate their main mea&" In the a/ternoon there .ou& ,e a siesta2 /o&&o.e ,y more me itation in the e0ening" But a,o0e a&&2 the bhikkhus ha to &earn to &i0e together ami!a,&y" The ine0ita,&e i//i!u&ties o/ &i0ing .ith peop&e .hom they might not /in persona&&y !ongenia& .ou& put the eGuanimity they .ere suppose to ha0e a!Guire in me itation to the test" It .as no goo ra iating !ompassion to the /our Guarters o/ the earth i/ bhikkhus !ou& not ,e 6in to one another" There .ere times .hen the Bu ha ha to ta6e his mon6s to tas6" On!e he re,u6e them /or /ai&ing to ta6e !are o/ a bhikkhu .ho ha ysentery" On another o!!asion2 .hen the Bu ha an his entourage .ere tra0e&ing to Sa0atthi2 a !&iGue o/ mon6s .ent ahea to one o/ their &o!a& sett&ements an se!ure a&& the ,e s" Poor Sariputta2 .ho seems to ha0e ha a ,a !ough2 ha to spen the night outsi e un er a tree" Su!h ru eness2 the Bu ha to& the gui&ty mon6s2 un ermine the .ho&e mission o/ the Sangha2 sin!e it .ou& put peop&e o// the (hamma" But gra ua&&y2 the ,est o/ the bhikkhus &earne to set asi e their o.n se&/ish in!&inations an !onsi er their /e&&o.s" The person .ho returne /irst /rom to.n .ith the a&ms1/oo ma e the hut rea y /or the others2 setting out the seats an preparing the .ater /or !oo6ing" The one .ho arri0e home &ast ate the &e/to0ers an put e0erything a.ay" 5>e are 0ery i//erent in ,o y2 Lor 28 one o/ the mon6s to& the Bu ha a,out his !ommunity2 5,ut .e ha0e2 I thin62 on&y one min "8 >hy shou& he not ignore his o.n &i6es an is&i6es2 an o on&y .hat the others .ishe @ This bhikkhu /e&t &u!6y to ,e &i0ing the ho&y &i/e .ith su!h !ompanions" In the !ommuna& &i/e o/ the !assa, the Bu ha ha /oun another .ay to tea!h his mon6s to &i0e /or others" King Pasene i o/ Kosa&a .as 0ery impresse ,y the /rien &iness an !heer/u&ness o/ &i/e in the Bu hist aramas& It .as in mar6e !ontrast to that o/ the !ourt2 he to& the Bu ha2 .here

se&/ishness2 gree an aggression .ere the or er o/ the ay" Kings Guarre&e .ith other 6ings2 brahmins .ith other brahmins+ /ami&ies an /rien s .ere !onstant&y at &oggerhea s" But in the arama, he sa. bhikkhus 5&i0ing together as un!ontentious&y as mi&6 .ith .ater an &oo6ing at one another .ith 6in eyes"8 In other se!ts2 he noti!e that the as!eti!s &oo6e so s6inny an misera,&e that he !ou& on&y !on!&u e that their &i/esty&e i not agree .ith them" 5But here I see bhikkhus smi&ing an !ourteous2 sin!ere&y happy " " " a&ert2 !a&m an un/&ustere 2 &i0ing on a&ms2 their min s remaining as gent&e as .i& eer"8 >hen he sat in !oun!i&2 the 6ing remar6e .ry&y2 he .as !onstant&y interrupte an e0en he!6&e " But .hen the Bu ha a resse a huge !ro. o/ mon6s2 none o/ them e0en !oughe or !&eare his throat" The Bu ha .as !reating an a&ternati0e .ay o/ &i/e that ,rought the short!omings o/ the ne. to.ns an states into sharp /o!us" Some s!ho&ars ,e&ie0e that the Bu ha sa. su!h ru&ers as Pasene i an Bim,isara as partners in a program o/ po&iti!a& an so!ia& re/orm" They suggest that the Sangha .as esigne to !ounter the rampant in i0i ua&ism that .as ine0ita,&e as so!iety progresse /rom a tri,a&2 !ommuna& ethos to a !ompetiti0e2 !utthroat mar6et e!onomy" The Sangha .ou& ,e a ,&ueprint /or a i//erent type o/ so!ia& organi9ation2 an its i eas .ou& gra ua&&y /i&ter o.n to the peop&e" They point to the /reGuent Hu;taposition o/ the Bu ha an the 'akka!atti in the te;tsD the Bu ha .as to re/orm human !ons!iousness2 they suggest2 .hi&e the 6ings intro u!e so!ia& re/orms" *ore re!ent&y2 ho.e0er2 other s!ho&ars ha0e argue that /ar /rom en orsing monar!hy an .or6ing .ith it in this .ay2 the Bu ha seeme high&y !riti!a& o/ 6ingship an pre/erre the repu,&i!an sty&e o/ go0ernment that sti&& pre0ai&e in his nati0e Sa66a" It seems un&i6e&y that the Bu ha ha su!h po&iti!a& am,itions3 he .ou& sure&y ha0e regar e any in0o&0ement .ith a so!ia& program as an unhe&p/u& 5!&inging8 to the pro/ane .or& " But the Bu ha .as !ertain&y trying to /orge a ne. .ay o/ ,eing human" The e0i ent !ontentment o/ his bhikkhus sho.e that the e;periment .as .or6ing" The mon6s ha not ,een in/use ,y supernatura& gra!e or re/orme at the ,ehest o/ a go " The metho e0ise ,y the Bu ha .as a pure&y human initiati0e" :is mon6s .ere &earning to .or6 on their natura& po.ers as s6i&&/u&&y as a go& smith might /ashion a pie!e o/ u&& meta& an ma6e it shining an ,eauti/u&2 he&ping it to ,e!ome more /u&&y itse&/ an a!hie0e its potentia&" It seeme that it .as possi,&e to train peop&e to &i0e .ithout se&/ishness an to ,e happy" I/ the bhikkhus ha ,een g&oomy or /rustrate 2 this .ou& pro,a,&y sho. that their &i/esty&e .as oing 0io&en!e to their humanity" 5Mns6i&&/u&8 states2 su!h as anger2 gui&t2 un6in ness2 en0y an gree 2 .ere a0oi e not ,e!ause they ha ,een /or,i en ,y a go or .ere 5sin/u&8 ,ut ,e!ause the in u&gen!e o/ su!h emotions .as /oun to ,e amaging to human nature" The !ompassion2 !ourtesy2 !onsi eration2 /rien &iness an 6in ness reGuire ,y the monasti! &i/e !onstitute the ne. as!eti!ism" But un&i6e the o& 2 e;treme tapas, it !reate harmony an ,a&an!e" I/ !u&ti0ate assi uous&y2 it !ou& e0o6e the ' t%!imutti o/ Ni,,ana2 another eminent&y natura& psy!ho&ogi!a& state" But the /u&& (hamma .as on&y possi,&e /or mon6s" The noise an ,ust&e o/ the or inary In ian househo& .ou& ma6e me itation an yoga impossi,i&ities2 so on&y a mon6 .ho ha &e/t this .or& !ou& a!hie0e Ni,,ana" A &ayman su!h as Anathapin i6a2 .ho engage in !ommer!ia& an repro u!ti0e a!ti0ities that .ere /ue&e ,y esire2 !ou& not hope to e;tinguish the three /ires o/ gree 2 hatre an e&usion" The ,est that a &ay is!ip&e !ou& a!hie0e .as re,irth ne;t time in !ir!umstan!es that .ere more /a0ora,&e to en&ightenment" The No,&e Truths .ere not /or &aymen3 they ha to ,e 5rea&i9e 8 an this 5 ire!t8 6no.&e ge !ou& not ,e a!hie0e .ithout yoga2 .hi!h .as essentia& to the /u&& Bu hist regimen" >ithout the is!ip&ine o/ min /u&ness2 a o!trine su!h as anatta .ou& ma6e no sense" But the Bu ha i not ignore the &ay /o&6" It

seems that there .ere t.o main &ines o/ prea!hingD one /or mon6s an another /or the &aity" This ,e!omes e0i ent in the poignant story o/ Anathapin i6a<s eath" >hen he ,e!ame morta&&y i&&2 Sariputta an Anan a .ent to 0isit him2 an Sariputta prea!he a short sermon on the 0a&ue o/ eta!hmentD Anathapin i6a shou& train himse&/ not to !&ing to the senses2 sin!e this !onta!t .ith the e;terna& .or& .ou& trap him in samsara& This2 one might thin62 .as ,asi! Bu hist tea!hing2 ,ut Anathapin i6a ha ne0er hear it ,e/ore" As he &istene 2 tears ran o.n his /a!e" 5>hat is the matter2 househo& er@8 Anan a as6e an;ious&y" NAre you /ee&ing .orse@8 No2 Anathapin i6a proteste 3 that .as not the pro,&em" It grie0e him that 5e0en though I ha0e .aite on the *aster an the !ontemp&ati0e bhikkhus /or so many years2 I ha0e ne0er hear ta&6 on the (hamma &i6e that ,e/ore"8 This tea!hing .as not gi0en to the &ay peop&e2 Sariputta e;p&aine " It .as on&y /or those .ho ha &e/t the househo& &i/e ,ehin " That .as not right2 Anathapin i6a rep&ie " :ouseho& ers shou& ,e instru!te in su!h mattersD there .ere some .ith on&y a &itt&e esire in them2 .ho .ere ripe /or en&ightenment an !ou& 2 there/ore2 a!hie0e Ni,,ana" Anathapin i6a ie that night an 2 .e are to& 2 .as re,orn in hea0en as a 5stream1enterer8 .ith on&y se0en more &i0es ahea o/ him" This .as ou,t&ess seen as a ,&essing2 ,ut it seems a poor /or his generosity an e0ote ser0i!e" To 6eep su!h essentia& tea!hing /rom &ay /o&6 seems un/air2 ,ut the i ea that e0ery,o y shou& ,e on the same spiritua& /ooting is essentia&&y mo ern" Premo ern re&igion .as near&y a&.ays !on u!te on t.o tiers2 .ith an e&ite .ho spent their .ho&e &i0es stu ying an me itating on s!ripture2 an ga0e instru!tion to the ine0ita,&y more ignorant &aity" Ju&& re&igious eGua&ity on&y ,e!omes a possi,i&ity .hen e0ery,o y is &iterate an has a!!ess to the s!riptures" The Bu hist !anon .as not .ritten o.n unti& the /irst !entury B"C"E"2 an e0en then manus!ripts .ere rare" Any,o y .ho .ante to hear the (hamma .ou& ha0e to go to the Bu ha or to one o/ the mon6s" >hat i the Sangha prea!h to the &aity@ Lay peop&e ha 5ta6en re/uge8 .ith the Bu ha /rom the 0ery /irst" Lay men an .omen .ou& /ee the mon6s an support them2 a!Guiring merit that .ou& get them goo re,irths" The mon6s .ou& a&so tea!h the &aity ho. to &i0e mora&&y an per/orm goo 2 puri/ying kamma that .ou& a 0an!e their spiritua& prospe!ts" E0ery,o y regar e this as a /air e;!hange" Some &ay peop&e2 su!h as Anathapin i6a2 .ou& spen a &ot o/ time .ith the Bu ha an the bhikkhus& They .ere en!ourage to ta6e /i0e mora& 0o.sLa (hamma /or ,eginners" They must not ta6e &i/e3 they must not stea&2 &ie or ta6e into;i!ants3 they must a0oi se;ua& promis!uity" These .ere mu!h the same as the pra!ti!es reGuire o/ Kain &ay is!ip&es" On the Guarter Bup%sathaC ays o/ ea!h month2 the Bu hist &aity ha spe!ia& is!ip&ines to rep&a!e the /asting an a,stinen!e o/ the o& Ve i! upa!asatha, .hi!h2 in pra!ti!e2 ma e them &i0e &i6e no0i!es to the Sangha /or t.enty1/our hoursD they a,staine /rom se;2 i not .at!h entertainments2 resse so,er&y2 an ate no so&i /oo unti& mi ay" This ga0e them a taste o/ a /u&&er Bu hist &i/e an might ha0e inspire some to ,e!ome mon6s" Li6e any yogin2 ,e/ore the Bu hist mon6 !ou& e0en ,egin to me itate2 he ha to un ergo a mora& training in !ompassion2 se&/1!ontro& an min /u&ness" The &aity .ere ne0er a,&e to gra uate to serious yoga2 so they !on!entrate on this mora&ity Bsi#%C, .hi!h the Bu ha a apte to their station o/ &i/e" Laymen an 1.omen .ere thus ,ui& ing the /oun ation /or a /u&&er spiritua&ity2 .hi!h .ou& stan them in goo stea in their ne;t e;isten!e" >here mon6s &earne 5s6i&&/u&8 te!hniGues in me itation2 the &ay person /o!use on 5s6i&&/u&8 mora&ity" -i0ing a&ms to a bhikkhu, te&&ing the truth at a&& times an ,eha0ing 6in &y an Hust&y others he&pe them to e0e&op a more .ho&esome state o/ min 2 an to mitigate2 i/ not .ho&&y stamp out2 the /ires o/ egotism" This mora&ity a&so ha a pra!ti!a& a 0antageD it !ou& en!ourage others to ,eha0e them in

a simi&ar manner" As a resu&t2 ,esi es a!!ruing merit in their ne;t &i0es2 they .ere &earning .ays o/ ,eing happier in this one" The (hamma .as 0ery appea&ing to mer!hants an ,an6ers &i6e Anathapin i6a .ho ha no p&a!e in the Ve i! system" The ,usinessmen !ou& appre!iate the Bu ha<s 5s6i&&/u&8 ethi!s2 ,e!ause it .as ,ase on the prin!ip&e o/ shre. in0estment" It .ou& yie& a pro/ita,&e return2 in this e;isten!e an the ne;t" *on6s .ere traine to ,e min /u& o/ their /&eeting menta& states3 &ay /o&&o.ers .ere ire!te to appanada Battenti0enessC in their /inan!ia& an so!ia& ea&ings" The Bu ha to& them to sa0e /or an emergen!y2 &oo6 a/ter their epen ents2 gi0e a&ms to bhikkhus, a0oi e,t2 ma6e sure that they ha enough money /or the imme iate nee s o/ their /ami&ies2 an in0est money !are/u&&y" They .ere to ,e thri/ty2 sensi,&e an so,er" In the Siga#a!ada Sutta, the most e0e&ope sermon on &ay mora&ity2 Siga&a .as instru!te to a0oi a&!oho&2 &ate nights2 gam,&ing2 &a9iness an ,a !ompany" There is a &ay 0ersion o/ the Jire Sermon2 in .hi!h the is!ip&e is urge to ten the three 5goo /ires8D ta6ing !are o/ his epen ents3 !aring /or his .i/e2 !hi& ren an ser0ants3 an supporting the bhikkhus in a&& the i//erent sanghas& But2 as a&.ays2 the !ar ina& 0irtue .as !ompassion" One ay King Pasene i an his .i/e ha a is!ussion in .hi!h ea!h a mitte that nothing .as earer to them than their o.n se&0es" This .as o,0ious&y not a 0ie. that the Bu ha !ou& share2 ,ut .hen the 6ing to& him a,out this !on0ersation2 the Bu ha i not !hi e him2 &aun!h into a is!ussion o/ anatta, or prea!h a sermon on the Eight/o& Path" Instea 2 as usua&2 he entere into Pasene i<s 0ie.point2 an ,ui&t on .hat .as in his min Lnot on .hat the Bu ha thought shou& ,e there" :e i not2 there/ore2 te&& the 6ing that the se&/ .as a e&usion2 ,e!ause .ithout a &i/e o/ regu&ar yoga2 he .ou& not ,e a,&e to 5see8 this" Instea 2 he to& him to !onsi er thisD i/ he /oun that there .as nothing earer to him than himse&/2 it must a&so ,e true that other peop&e a&so !herishe their 5separate se&0es"8 There/ore2 the Bu ha !on!&u e 2 5a person .ho &o0es the se&/2 shou& not harm the se&/ o/ others"8 :e shou& /o&&o. .hat other tra itions ha0e !a&&e the -o& en #u&eD 5(o not o unto others as you .ou& not ha0e one unto you"8 Laymen !ou& not e;tinguish their egotism entire&y2 ,ut they !ou& use their e;perien!e o/ se&/ishness to empathi9e .ith other peop&e<s 0u&nera,i&ity" This .ou& ta6e them ,eyon the e;!esses o/ ego an intro u!e them to ahimsa& >e see the .ay the Bu ha prea!he to &ay peop&e in his /amous sermon to the Ka&amans2 a peop&e .ho &i0e on the northernmost /ringe o/ the -anges ,asin an .ho ha on!e run a tri,a& repu,&i!2 ,ut .ere no. su,He!t to Kosa&a" -ra ua&&y2 they .ere ,eing ra.n into the ne. ur,an !i0i&i9ation an .ere /in ing the e;perien!e unsett&ing an un ermining" >hen the Bu ha passe through their to.n o/ Kesaputta2 they sent a e&egation to as6 his a 0i!e" One as!eti!2 one tea!her a/ter another ha es!en e upon them2 they e;p&aine 3 ,ut ea!h mon6 an brahmin e;poun e his o.n o!trines an re0i&e e0ery,o y e&se<s" Not on&y i these dhammas !ontra i!t one another2 they .ere a&so a&ien2 !oming as they i /rom the sophisti!ate mainstream !u&ture" 5>hi!h o/ these tea!hers .as right an .hi!h .rong@8 they as6e " The Bu ha rep&ie that he !ou& see .hy the Ka&amans .ere so !on/use " As a&.ays2 he entere !omp&ete&y into their position" :e i not a to their !on/usion ,y ree&ing o// his o.n (hamma2 an gi0ing them one more o!trine to !onten .ith2 ,ut he& an impromptu tutoria& Breminis!ent o/ the Guestion1an te!hniGues o/ su!h other A;ia& sages as So!rates an Con/u!iusC to he&p the Ka&amans .or6 things out /or themse&0es" :e starte ,y te&&ing them that one o/ the rea1 sons /or their ,e.i& erment .as that they .ere e;pe!ting other peop&e to te&& them the ans.er2 ,ut .hen they &oo6e into their o.n hearts2 they .ou& /in that in /a!t they 6ne. .hat .as right a&rea y"

5Come2 Ka&amans28 he sai 2 5 o not ,e satis/ie .ith hearsay or ta6ing truth on trust"8 Peop&e must ma6e up their o.n min s on Guestions o/ mora&ity" >as gree 2 /or e;amp&e2 goo or ,a @ 5Ba 2 Lor 28 the Ka&amans rep&ie " :a they noti!e that .hen some,o y is !onsume ,y esire an etermine to get .hat he .ants2 that he is &i6e&y to 6i&&2 stea& or &ie@ ?es2 the Ka&amans ha o,ser0e this" An i not this type o/ ,eha0ior ma6e the se&/ish person unpopu&ar an 2 there/ore2 unhappy@ An .hat a,out hatre 2 or !&inging to .hat .ere o,0ious&y e&usions instea o/ trying to see things as they rea&&y .ere@ (i not these emotions a&& &ea to pain an su//ering@ Step ,y step2 he as6e the Ka&amans to ra. upon their o.n e;perien!e an per!ei0e the e//e!t o/ the 5three /ires8 o/ gree 2 hatre an ignoran!e" By the en o/ their is!ussion2 the Ka&amans /oun that in /a!t they ha 6no.n the Bu ha<s (hamma a&rea y" 5That is .hy I to& you not to re&y on any tea!her28 the Bu ha !on!&u e " 5>hen you 6no. in yourse&0es that these things are Nhe&p/u&< Bkusa#aC an those Nunhe&p/u&< Bakusa#aC, then you shou& pra!ti!e this ethi! an sti!6 to it2 .hate0er any,o y e&se te&&s you"8 :e ha a&so !on0in!e the Ka&amans that .hi&e they shou& a0oi gree 2 hatre an e&usion2 it .ou& a&so o,0ious&y ,e ,ene/i!ia& to pra!ti!e the opposite 0irtuesD 5non1gree 2 non1hatre an non1 e&usion"8 I/ they !u&ti0ate ,ene0o&en!e2 6in ness an generosity2 an trie to a!Guire a soun un erstan ing o/ &i/e2 they .ou& /in that they .ere happier peop&e" I/ there .as another &i/e to !ome Bthe Bu ha i not impose the o!trine o/ rein!arnation upon the Ka&amans2 .ho might not ha0e ,een /ami&iar .ith itC2 then this goo kamma might get them re,orn as go s in hea0en ne;t time" I/ there .as no other .or& 2 then this !onsi erate an genia& &i/esty&e might en!ourage others to ,eha0e in &i6e manner themse&0es" At the 0ery &east2 they .ou& 6no. that they ha ,eha0e .e&&Lan that .as a&.ays a !om/ort" To he&p the Ka&amans ,ui& up this 5s6i&&/u&8 menta&ity2 the Bu ha taught them a me itati0e te!hniGue that .as a &ay person<s 0ersion o/ the 5immeasura,&es"8 Jirst they must try to ri their min s o/ en0y2 /ee&ings o/ i&& .i&& an e&usion" Then they shou& ire!t /ee&ings o/ &o0ing16in ness in e0ery ire!tion" As they i so2 they .ou& e;perien!e an enhan!e 2 en&arge e;isten!e" They .ou& /in that they .ere im,ue .ith 5a,un ant2 e;a&te 2 measure&ess &o0ing16in ness83 they .ou& ,rea6 out o/ the !on/ines o/ their o.n &imite 0ie.point an em,ra!e the .ho&e .or& " They .ou& trans!en the pettiness o/ egotism an 2 /or a moment2 e;perien!e an e!stasy that too6 them out o/ themse&0es2 5a,o0e2 ,e&o.2 aroun an e0ery.here28 an .ou& /ee& their hearts e;pan .ith isintereste eGuanimity" Laymen an 1.omen might not ,e a,&e to attain the permanen!e o/ Ni,,ana2 ,ut they !ou& ha0e intimations o/ that /ina& re&ease" The Bu ha .as2 there/ore2 tea!hing mon6s an &ay /o&6 a&i6e a !ompassionate o//ensi0e to mitigate the egotism that pre0ai&e in the aggressi0e ne. so!iety an that e,arre human ,eings /rom the sa!re imension o/ &i/e" The s6i&&/u& state that he .as trying to promote is .e&& e;presse in this poem in the Pa&i CanonD $ t a## b ings b happyB 2 ak %r str%ng, %/ high, midd# %r #%0 stat , sma## %r gr at, !isib# %r in!isib# , n ar %r /ar a0ay, a#i! %r sti## t% b b%rnCmay th y a## b ntir #y happyB $ t n%b%dy #i t% anyb%dy %r d spis any sing# b ing any0h r & May n%b%dy 0ish harm t% any sing# 'r atur , %ut %/ ang r %r hatr dB $ t us 'h rish a## 'r atur s, as a m%th r h r %n#y 'hi#dB May %ur #%!ing th%ughts /i## th 0h%# 0%r#d, ab%! , b #%0, a'r%ss C0ith%ut #imit+ a b%und# ss g%%d0i## t%0ard th 0h%# 0%r#d, unr stri't d, /r %/ hatr d and nmityB

A &ay person .ho a!hie0e this attitu e .ou& ha0e a 0an!e a &ong .ay a&ong the spiritua& path" The s!riptures o gi0e us a /e. e;amp&es o/ &ay is!ip&es .ho pra!ti!e me itation outsi e the Sangha an rea!he Ni,,ana2 ,ut these so&itary !irtu%si .ere the e;!eption rather than the ru&e" It .as thought that an Arahant !ou& not !ontinue to &i0e the &i/e o/ a househo& erD a/ter a!hie0ing en&ightenment2 he .ou& either Hoin the Sangha imme iate&y or he .ou& ie" This2 apparent&y2 is .hat happene to Su ho ana2 the Bu ha<s /ather2 .ho attaine Ni,,ana in the /i/th year o/ his son<s tea!hing mission an ie the ne;t ay" >hen the Bu ha hear the ne.s2 he returne to Kapi&a0atthu an staye /or a .hi&e in Nigro ha Par6" This e0ent &e to a ne. e1 0e&opment in the Sangha2 .hi!h2 it seems2 the Bu ha i not initia&&y .e&!ome" >hi&e he .as &i0ing in the Nigro ha arama, the Bu ha .as 0isite ,y his /ather<s .i o.2 PaHapati -otamiD she .as a&so the Bu ha<s aunt2 an ha ,e!ome his /oster1mother a/ter the eath o/ his o.n mother" Sin!e she .as no. /ree2 she to& her nephe.2 she .ante to ,e or aine in the Sangha" The Bu ha a amant&y re/use " There .as no Guestion o/ a mitting .omen to the Or er" :e .ou& not !hange his min 2 e0en though PaHapati ,egge him three times to re!onsi er an she &e/t his presen!e 0ery sa &y" A /e. ays &ater2 the Bu ha set out /or Vesa&i2 the !apita& o/ the repu,&i! o/ Vi eha on the northern ,an6 o/ the -anges" :e o/ten staye in the arama there2 .hi!h ha a ha&& .ith a high1ga,&e roo/" One morning2 Anan a .as horri/ie to /in PaHapati so,,ing on the por!h .ith a !ro. o/ other Sa6yan .omen" She ha !ut o// her hair2 put on the ye&&o. ro,e an ha .a&6e a&& the .ay /rom Kapi&a0atthu" :er /eet .ere s.o&&en2 an she .as /i&thy an e;hauste " 5-otami28 !rie Anan a3 5>hat are you oing here in su!h a state@ An .hy are you !rying@8 5Be!ause the B&esse One .i&& not ha0e .omen in the Sangha28 PaHapati rep&ie " Anan a .as !on!erne " 5>ait here28 he sai 2 5I .i&& as6 the Tathagata a,out this"8 But the Bu ha sti&& re/use to !onsi er the matter" This .as a serious moment" I/ he !ontinue to ,ar .omen /rom the Sangha2 it meant that he !onsi ere that ha&/ o/ the human ra!e .as ine&igi,&e /or en&ightenment" But the (hamma .as suppose to ,e /or e0ery,o yD /or go s2 anima&s2 ro,,ers2 men o/ a&& !astesL.ere .omen a&one to ,e e;!&u e @ >as re,irth as a man the ,est they !ou& hope /or@ Anan a trie another ta!6" 5Lor 28 he as6e 2 5are .omen !apa,&e o/ ,e!oming Nstream1enterers< an 2 e0entua&&y2 Arahants@8 5They are2 Anan a28 the Bu ha rep&ie " 5Then sure&y it .ou& ,e a goo thing to or ain PaHapati28 Anan a p&ea e 2 an remin e his master o/ her 6in ness to him a/ter his mother ha ie " The Bu ha re&u!tant&y !on!e e e/eat" PaHapati !ou& enter the Sangha i/ she a!!epte eight stri!t ru&es" These pro0isions ma e it !&ear that the nuns Bbhikkhun#sC .ere an in/erior ,ree " A nun must a&.ays stan .hen in the presen!e o/ a ma&e bhikkhu, e0en one .ho .as young or ne.&y or aine 3 nuns must a&.ays spen the !assa retreat in an arama .ith ma&e mon6s2 not ,y themse&0es3 they must re!ei0e instru!tion /rom a bhikkhu on!e e0ery /ortnight3 they !ou& not ho& their o.n !eremonies3 a nun .ho ha !ommitte a gra0e o//ense must o penan!e ,e/ore the mon6s as .e&& as the bhikkhun#s+ a nun must reGuest or ination /rom ,oth the ma&e an the /ema&e Sangha3 she must ne0er re,u6e a bhikkhu, though any mon6 !ou& re,u6e her3 nor !ou& she prea!h to bhikkhus& PaHapati g&a &y a!!epte these regu&ations an .as u&y or aine 2 ,ut the Bu ha .as sti&& uneasy" I/ .omen ha not ,een a mitte 2 he to& Anan a2 the (hamma .ou& ha0e ,een pra!ti!e /or a thousan years3 no. it .ou& &ast a mere /i0e hun re years" A tri,e .ith too many .omen .ou& ,e!ome 0u&nera,&e an ,e estroye 3 simi&ar&y2 no Sangha .ith .omen mem,ers !ou& &ast &ong" They .ou& /a&& upon the Or er &i6e mi& e. on a /ie& o/ ri!e" >hat are .e to ma6e o/ this misogyny@ The Bu ha ha a&.ays prea!he to .omen as .e&&

as to men" On!e he ha gi0en permission2 thousan s o/ .omen ,e!ame bhikkhun#s, an the Bu ha praise their spiritua& attainments2 sai that they !ou& ,e!ome the eGua&s o/ the mon6s2 an prophesie that he .ou& not ie unti& he ha enough .ise mon6s and nuns2 &ay men and &ay .omen /o&&o.ers" There seems to ,e a is!repan!y in the te;ts2 an this has &e some s!ho&ars to !on!&u e that the story o/ his gru ging a!!eptan!e o/ .omen an the eight regu&ations .as a e &ater an re/&e!ts a !hau0inism in the Or er" By the /irst !entury B"C"E"2 some o/ the mon6s !ertain&y ,&ame .omen /or their o.n se;ua& esires2 .hi!h .ere impe ing them /rom en&ightenment2 an regar e .omen as uni0ersa& o,sta!&es to spiritua& a 0an!e" Other s!ho&ars argue that the Bu ha2 en&ightene as he .as2 !ou& not es!ape the so!ia& !on itioning o/ the time2 an that he !ou& not imagine a so!iety that .as not patriar!ha&" They point out that2 espite the Bu ha<s initia& re&u!tan!e2 the or ination o/ .omen .as a ra i!a& a!t that2 perhaps /or the /irst time2 ga0e .omen an a&ternati0e to omesti!ity" >hi&e this is true2 there is a i//i!u&ty /or .omen that shou& not ,e g&osse o0er" In the Bu ha<s min 2 .omen may .e&& ha0e ,een insepara,&e /rom the 5&ust8 that ma e en&ightenment an impossi,i&ity" It i not o!!ur to him to ta6e his .i/e .ith him2 as some o/ the renoun!ers i 2 .hen he &e/t home to ,egin his Guest" :e simp&y assume that she !ou& not ,e the partner in his &i,eration" But this .as not ,e!ause he /oun se;ua&ity isgusting2 &i6e the Christian Jathers o/ the Chur!h2 ,ut ,e!ause he .as atta!he to his .i/e" The s!riptures !ontain a passage .hi!h2 s!ho&ars agree2 is a&most !ertain&y a mon6ish interpo&ation" 5Lor 2 ho. are .e to treat .omen@8 Anan a as6e the Bu ha in the &ast ays o/ his &i/e" 5(o not &oo6 at them2 Anan a"8 5I/ .e o not see them2 ho. shou& .e treat them@8 5(o not spea6 to them2 Anan a"8 5An i/ .e ha0e to spea6 to them@8 5*in /u&ness must ,e o,ser0e 2 Anan a"8 The Bu ha may not ha0e persona&&y su,s!ri,e to this /u&&1,&o.n misogyny2 ,ut it is possi,&e that these .or s re/&e!t a resi ua& unease that he !ou& not o0er!ome" I/ the Bu ha i har,or negati0e /ee&ings a,out .omen2 this .as typi!a& o/ the A;ia& Age" Sa to say2 !i0i&i9ation has not ,een 6in to .omen" Ar!heo&ogi!a& is!o0eries in i!ate that .omen .ere sometimes high&y esteeme in pre1ur,an so!ieties2 ,ut the rise o/ the mi&itary states an the spe!ia&i9ation o/ the ear&y !ities &e to a e!&ine in their position" They ,e!ame the property o/ men2 .ere e;!&u e /rom most pro/essions2 an .ere su,He!te to the sometimes ra!onian !ontro& o/ their hus,an s in some o/ the an!ient &a. !o es" E&ite .omen manage to ho& on to some shre s o/ po.er2 ,ut in the A;ia& !ountries .omen su//ere a /urther &oss o/ status at a,out the time that the Bu ha .as prea!hing in In ia" In Iran2 IraG2 an 2 &ater2 in the :e&&enisti! states2 .omen .ere 0ei&e an !on/ine in harems2 an misogynisti! i eas /&ourishe " The .omen o/ !&assi!a& Athens B)001%2%C .ere parti!u&ar&y isa 0antage an a&most entire&y se!&u e /rom so!iety3 their !hie/ 0irtues .ere sai to ,e si&en!e an su,mission" The ear&y :e,re. tra itions ha e;a&te the e;p&oits o/ su!h .omen as *iriam2 (e,orah an Kae&2 ,ut a/ter the propheti! re/orm o/ the /aith2 .omen .ere re&egate to se!on 1!&ass status in Ke.ish &a." It is nota,&e that in a !ountry su!h as Egypt2 .hi!h i not parti!ipate initia&&y in the A;ia& Age2 there .as a more &i,era& attitu e to .omen" It seems that the ne. spiritua&ity !ontaine an inherent hosti&ity the /ema&e that has &aste unti& our o.n ay" The Bu ha<s Guest .as mas!u&ine in its heroismD the etermine !asting o// o/ a&& restraints2 the reHe!tion o/ the omesti! .or& an .omen2 the so&itary strugg&e2 an the penetration o/ ne. rea&ms are attitu es that ha0e ,e!ome em,&emati! o/ ma&e 0irtue" It is on&y in the mo ern .or& that this attitu e has ,een !ha&&enge " >omen ha0e sought their o.n 5&i,eration8 Bthey ha0e e0en use the same .or as the Bu haC3 they too ha0e reHe!te the o& authorities2 an set o// on their o.n &one&y Hourney" The Bu ha pre i!te that .omen .ou& ,&ight the Or er2 ,ut in /a!t the /irst maHor !risis in

the Sangha .as !ause ,y a !&ash o/ ma&e egos" A!!or ing to Bu hist prin!ip&es2 a /au&t is not !u&pa,&e un&ess the perpetrator rea&i9es that he has one .rong" In Kosam,i2 a sin!ere an &earne mon6 .as suspen e 2 ,ut proteste that his punishment .as un/air2 sin!e he ha not rea&i9e that he .as !ommitting an o//ense" The Kosam,i bhikkhus at on!e i0i e into hosti&e /a!tions an the Bu ha .as so istresse ,y the s!hism that at one point he .ent o// to &i0e ,y himse&/ in the /orest2 /orming a /rien ship .ith an e&ephant .ho ha a&so su//ere /rom aggressi0e peers" :atre 2 the Bu ha sai 2 .as ne0er appease ,y more hatre 3 it !ou& on&y ,e e/use ,y /rien ship an sympathy" :e !ou& see that ,oth !amps ha right on their si e2 ,ut the egotism o/ a&& the bhikkhus in0o&0e ma e it impossi,&e /or them to see the other point o/ 0ie.2 e0en though the Bu ha trie to ma6e ea!h /a!tion un erstan the position o/ the other" :e to& Sariputta an PaHapati2 no. hea o/ the .omen<s Sangha2 to treat ,oth si es .ith respe!t3 Anathapin i6a .as instru!te to gi0e onations impartia&&y to ,oth !amps" But the Bu ha i not impose a so&utionD the must !ome /rom the parti!ipants themse&0es" E0entua&&y2 the suspen e bhikkhu !&im,e o.n3 e0en though he ha not 6no.n it at the time2 he had !ommitte a /au&t" Imme iate&y2 he .as reinstate an the Guarre& !ame to an en " The story te&&s us a goo ea& a,out the ear&y Sangha" There .as no tight organi9ation an no !entra& authority" It .as !&oser to the sanghas o/ the o& repu,&i!s2 .here a&& the mem,ers o/ the !oun!i& .ere eGua&2 than to the ne. monar!hies" The Bu ha re/use to ,e an authoritati0e an !ontro&&ing ru&er2 an i not resem,&e the Jather Superior o/ &ater Christian re&igious or ers" In ee 2 it .as pro,a,&y ina!!urate to spea6 o/ an Or er3 there .ere rather a num,er o/ i//erent or ers2 ea!h o/ them situate in a parti!u&ar region o/ the -anges ,asin" Ne0erthe&ess2 the mem,ers a&& share the same (hamma an /o&&o.e the same &i/esty&e" E0ery si; years2 the s!attere bhikkhus an bhikkhunis .ou& !ome together to re!ite a !ommon !on/ession o/ /aith2 !a&&e the Patimo66ha B5,on 8C" As its name imp&ies2 its purpose .as to ,in the Sangha togetherD D /raining /r%m a## that is harm/u#, Attaining 0hat is ski##/u#, And puri/ying %n (s %0n mind+ This is 0hat th @uddhas t a'h& E%rb aran' and pati n' ar th high st %/ a## aust riti s+ And th @uddhas d '#ar that Nibbana is th supr m !a#u & N%b%dy 0h% hurts an%th r has tru#y AF%n E%rth- /r%m th h%m #i/ & N%b%dy 0h% injur s %th rs is a tru m%nk& N% /au#t/inding, n% harming, r straint, Kn%0ing th ru# s r garding /%%d, th sing# b d and 'hair, App#i'ati%n in th high r p r' pti%n d ri! d /r%m m ditati%nC This is 0hat th A0ak n d .n s t a'h& The Bu ha atta!he great importan!e to this !eremony2 .hi!h !orrespon e to the p&enary assem,&ies that ha !hara!teri9e the repu,&i!s" No,o y .as a&&o.e to miss the Patimo66ha2 sin!e it .as the on&y thing that he& the ear&y Sangha together" *u!h &ater2 a/ter the Bu ha<s eath2 this simp&e re!itation .as rep&a!e ,y a more e&a,orate an !omp&e; assem,&y2 he& ,y ea!h &o!a& !ommunity in ea!h region on!e a /ortnight2 on the up%satha ays" This !hange mar6e the transition o/ the Sangha /rom a se!t to an Or er" Instea o/ !hanting the (hamma2 .hi!h istinguishe them /rom the other se!ts2 the mon6s an nuns

no. re!ite the ru&es o/ the Sangha an !on/esse their transgressions to one another" By this time2 the Sangha<s regu&ations .ere more numerous than they ha ,een in the Bu ha<s ay" Some s!ho&ars argue that it too6 t.o or three !enturies /or the #u&e2 as re!or e in the Vinaya2 to ta6e its /ina& /orm2 ,ut some ,e&ie0e that2 at &east su,stantia&&y2 the spirit o/ the Or er !an ,e tra!e ,a!6 to the Bu ha himse&/" The Sangha is the heart o/ Bu hism2 ,e!ause its &i/esty&e em,o ies e;terna&&y the inner state o/ Ni,,ana" *on6s an nuns must 5-o Jorth28 not on&y /rom the househo& &i/e ,ut e0en /rom their o.n se&0es" A bhikkhu an bhikkhuni, a&msman an a&ms.oman2 ha0e renoun!e the 5!ra0ing8 that goes .ith getting an spen ing2 epen entire&y on .hat they are gi0en an &earn to ,e happy .ith the ,are minimum" The &i/esty&e o/ the Sangha ena,&es its mem,ers to me itate2 an thus to ispe& the /ires o/ ignoran!e2 gree an hatre that ,in us to the .hee& o/ su//ering" The i ea& o/ !ompassion an !ommuna& &o0e tea!hes them to &ay asi e their o.n egotism an &i0e /or others" By ma6ing these attitu es ha,itua&2 nuns an mon6s !an a!Guire that unsha6a,&e inner pea!e .hi!h is Ni,,ana2 the goa& o/ the ho&y &i/e" The Sangha is one o/ the o& est sur0i0ing 0o&untary institutions on earth3 on&y the Kain or er !an ,oast a simi&ar antiGuity" Its en uran!e te&&s us something important a,out humanity an human &i/e" The great empires2 manne ,y 0ast armies o/ so& iers2 ha0e a&& !rum,&e 2 ,ut the !ommunity o/ bhikkhus has &aste some 22)00 years" It is a po&arity a um,rate in the ear&y Bu hist &egen s that Hu;tapose the Bu ha .ith the 'akka!atti& The message seems to ,e that it is not ,y prote!ting an e/en ing yourse&/ that you sur0i0e2 ,ut ,y gi0ing yourse&/ a.ay" But e0en though the mem,ers o/ the Sangha ha a&& turne their ,a!6s on the &i/esty&e o/ the 0ast maHority o/ the popu&ation2 the peop&e at &arge i not resent them ,ut /oun them pro/oun &y attra!ti0e" The &ay /o&6 i not see the bhikkhus an bhikkhunis as grim renoun!ers2 ,ut sought them out" This again te&&s us that the &i/esty&e e0ise ,y the Bu ha .as /e&t not to ,e inhuman ,ut to ,e eep&y humane" The aramas .ere not &one&y outposts3 6ings2 brahmins, mer!hants2 ,usinessmen2 !ourtesans2 aristo!rats2 an mem,ers o/ the other se!ts /&o!6e to them" Pasene i an Bim,isara !onstant&y roppe in to as6 the Bu ha<s a 0i!e2 .hi&e he .as sitting in the e0ening ,esi e a &otus poo&2 or re!&ining in the por!h o/ his hut2 .at!hing the moths /&y into the !an &e /&ame" >e rea o/ !ro. s o/ as!eti!s pouring into the Bu hist sett&ements3 e&egations .ou& !ome to as6 the Bu ha a Guestion3 no,&emen an mer!hants .ou& arri0e2 mounte on e&ephants2 an the gi& e youth o/ a istri!t .ou& ri e out en masse to in0ite the Bu ha to inner" In the mi st o/ a&& this e;!itement an a!ti0ity .as the Guiet2 !ontro&&e /igure o/ the Bu ha2 the ne.2 5a.a6ene 8 man" :e remains opaGue an un6no.a,&e to those o/ us .ho are in!apa,&e o/ his !omp&ete se&/1a,an onment2 ,e!ause a/ter his en&ightenment he ,e!ame impersona&2 though ne0er un6in or !o& " There is no sign o/ strugg&e or e//ort on his part3 as he e;!&aime on the night o/ his en&ightenment2 he ha !omp&ete e0erything that he ha to o" :e .as the Tathagata2 the man .ho ha isappeare " :e ha no persona& atta!hments an ha no aggressi0e&y o!trinaire opinions" In the Pa&i te;ts he is o/ten !ompare to nonhuman ,eings2 not ,e!ause he .as !onsi ere unnatura&2 ,ut ,e!ause peop&e i not 6no. ho. to !&assi/y him" One ay2 a brahmin /oun the Bu ha sitting un er a tree2 !ompose an !ontemp&ati0e" 5:is /a!u&ties .ere at rest2 his min .as sti&&2 an e0erything a,out him ,reathe se&/1 is!ip&ine an serenity"8 The sight /i&&e the brahmin .ith a.e" The Bu ha remin e him o/ a tus6er e&ephant3 there .as the same impression o/ enormous strength an massi0e potentia& ,rought un er !ontro& an !hanne&e into a great pea!e" There .ere is!ip&ine2 restraint an !omp&ete serenity" The brahmin ha ne0er seen a man &i6e that ,e/ore" 5Are you a go 2 sir@8 he as6e " 5No28 rep&ie the

Bu ha" 5Are you ,e!oming an ange&""" or a spirit@8 persiste the brahmin& Again2 the .as 5No"8 5Are you a human ,eing@8 as6e the brahmin, as a &ast resort2 ,ut again the Bu ha rep&ie that he .as not" :e ha ,e!ome something e&se" The .or& ha not seen humanity &i6e this sin!e the &ast Bu ha ha &i0e on earth2 thousan s o/ years ago" On!e he ha ,een a go in a pre0ious &i/e2 the Bu ha e;p&aine 3 he ha &i0e as an anima& an as an or inary man2 ,ut e0erything that ha !on/ine him to the o& 2 unregenerate humanity ha ,een e;tinguishe 2 5!ut o// at the root2 !hoppe o// &i6e a pa&m stump2 one a.ay .ith"8 :a the brahmin e0er seen a re &otus that ha ,egun its &i/e un er.ater rising a,o0e the pon 2 unti& it no &onger tou!he the sur/a!e@ the Bu ha as6e " 5So I too .as ,orn an gre. up in the .or& 28 he to& his 0isitor2 5,ut I ha0e trans!en e the .or& an am no &onger tou!he ,y it"8 By attaining Ni,,ana in this &i/e2 he ha re0ea&e a ne. potentia& in human nature" It .as possi,&e to &i0e in this .or& o/ pain2 at pea!e2 in !ontro& an in harmony .ith onese&/ an the rest o/ !reation" But to a!hie0e this tranGui& immunity2 a man or .oman ha to ,rea6 /ree o/ his or her egotism an &i0e entire&y /or other ,eings" Su!h a eath to se&/ .as not a ar6ness2 ho.e0er /rightening it might seem to an outsi er3 it ma e peop&e /u&&y a.are o/ their o.n nature2 so that they &i0e at the pea6 o/ their !a1 pa!ity" :o. shou& the brahmin !ategori9e the Bu ha@ 5#emem,er me28 the Bu ha to& him2 5as one .ho has .o6en up"8 Chapter - !arini""ana

/orty1/i0e years a/ter the Bu ha<s en&ightenment2 King Pasene i !a&&e on him une;pe!te &y in the to.n o/ *e a&umpa in Sa66a" :e .as no. an o& man2 an ha remar6e re!ent&y to the Bu ha that po&iti!a& &i/e .as ,e!oming more an more 0io&ent" Kings .ere 5 run6 .ith authority28 5o,sesse .ith gree 28 an !onstant&y engage in 5/ighting ,att&es using e&ephants2 horses2 !hariots an in/antry"8 The -anges ,asin seeme a,&a9e .ith estru!ti0e egotism" Jor years2 Kosa&a ha ,een /en ing o// the *aga han army2 .hi!h .as ma6ing a ,i to a!hie0e so&e hegemony in the region" An Pasene i himse&/ .as eso&ate" :is ,e&o0e .i/e ha ie re!ent&y2 an he ha /a&&en into a pro/oun epression" This .as .hat happene .hen you put your trust in other mori,un human ,eings" Pasene i no &onger /e&t at home in the .or& 3 in a paro y o/ the .an ering mon6<s 5-oing Jorth28 he ha ta6en to &ea0ing his pa&a!e an ri0ing /or mi&es .ith his army2 going aim&ess&y /rom one p&a!e to another" :e ha ,een out on one o/ these point&ess e;!ursions into Sa66a .hen he hear that the Bu ha .as staying in the 0i!inity" Imme iate&y he /e&t a great &onging to ,e in his presen!e" The2 he re/&e!te 2 remin e him o/ a huge treeD he .as Guiet2 a&oo/2 a,o0e the petty istur,an!es o/ the .or& 2 ,ut you !ou& she&ter there in a !risis" Imme iate&y2 he ro0e to *e a&umpa2 an .hen the roa ,e!ame impassa,&e2 he ismounte 2 &e/t his s.or an roya& tur,an .ith his genera&2 (igha Karayana2 an ma e his .ay to the Bu ha<s hut on /oot" >hen the Bu ha opene the oor2 Pasene i 6isse his /eet" 5>hy are you oing this poor o& ,o y su!h honor@8 as6e the Bu ha" Be!ause the arama .as su!h a !om/ort to him2 rep&ie the 6ing3 ,e!ause the pea!e o/ the Sangha .as so i//erent /rom the se&/ishness2 0io&en!e an gree o/ his !ourt" But a,o0e a&&2 Pasene i !on!&u e D 5The B&esse One is eighty an I am eighty"8 They .ere t.o o& men together2 an they shou& e;press their a//e!tion /or ea!h other in this ar6 .or& " >hen Pasene i &e/t the hut an returne to the p&a!e .here he ha &e/t (igha Karayana2 he /oun that the genera& ha gone an ha ta6en the roya& insignia .ith him" :e hurrie to the p&a!e .here the army ha en!ampe an /oun the spot eserte 3 on&y one o/ the &a ies1in1

.aiting remaine ,ehin 2 .ith one horse an a sing&e s.or " (igha Karayana ha gone ,a!6 to Sa0atth&2 she to& the 6ing2 an .as organi9ing a !oup to put Prin!e Vi u a,ha2 Pasene i<s heir2 on the throne" Pasene i shou& not return to Sa0atth& i/ he 0a&ue his &i/e" The o& 6ing e!i e to go to *aga ha2 sin!e he .as re&ate to its roya& house ,y marriage" But it .as a &ong Hourney2 an on the .ay2 Pasene i ha to eat !oarser /oo than usua& an rin6 /eti .ater" >hen he arri0e in #aHagaha the gates ha !&ose 2 an Pasene i .as /or!e to s&eep in a !heap &o ging house" That night2 he ,e!ame 0io&ent&y i&& .ith ysentery an ie ,e/ore a.n" The ser0ing &a y2 .ho ha one her ,est /or the o& man2 ,egan to rouse the .ho&e !ityD 5*y &or the 6ing o/ Kosa&a2 .ho ru&e t.o !ountries2 has ie a pauper<s eath an is no. &ying in a !ommon pauper<s rest home outsi e a /oreign !ity78 The Bu ha ha a&.ays seen o& age as a sym,o& o/ the dukkha .hi!h a//&i!te a&& morta& ,eings" As Pasene i ha remar6e 2 he himse&/ .as no. o& " Anan a2 .ho .as /ar /rom young himse&/2 ha re!ent&y ,een ismaye ,y the !hange in his master" :is s6in .as .rin6&e 2 his &im,s .ere /&a!!i 2 his ,o y .as ,ent an his senses seeme to ,e /ai&ing" 5So it is2 so it is2 Anan a28 the Bu ha agree " O& age .as in ee !rue&" But the story o/ the Bu ha<s &ast years .e&&s &ess on the aestheti! isaster o/ aging than on the 0u&nera,i&ity o/ the o& " Am,itious young men rise up against their e& ers2 sons 6i&& their o.n /athers" In this /ina& phase o/ the Bu ha<s &i/e2 the te;ts .e&& on the terror o/ a .or& .here a&& sense o/ sa!re ness is &ost" Egotism reigns supreme3 en0y2 hatre 2 gree an am,ition are unmitigate ,y !ompassion an &o0ing16in ness" Peop&e .ho stan in the .ay o/ a man<s !ra0ing are ruth&ess&y e&iminate " A&& e!en!y an respe!t ha0e isappeare " By stressing the angers that the Bu ha ha trie to !ounter /or near&y /i/ty years2 the s!riptures /or!e us to !on/ront the ruth&essness an 0io&en!e o/ the so!iety against .hi!h he ha &aun!he his !ampaign o/ se&/&essness an &o0ing16in ness" Not e0en the Sangha .as immune /rom this pro/ane spirit" Eight years ear&ier2 the Or er ha on!e again ,een threatene ,y s!hism an ha ,een imp&i!ate in a p&ot to 6i&& King Bim,isara2 another o& man2 .ho ha ,een the Bu ha<s e0ote /o&& /or thirty1se0en years" >e /in a /u&& a!!ount o/ this re,e&&ion on&y in the Vinaya" It may not ,e entire&y histori!a&2 ,ut it issues a .arningD e0en the prin!ip&es o/ the Sangha !ou& ,e su,0erte an ma e &etha&" A!!or ing to the Vinaya2 the !u&prit .as (e0a atta2 the Bu ha<s ,rother1in1&a.2 .ho ha entere the Sangha a/ter the Bu ha<s /irst trip home to Kapi&a0atthu" The &ater !ommentaries te&& us that (e0a atta ha ,een ma&i!ious /rom his youth2 an ha a&.ays ,een the s.orn enemy o/ the young -otama .hen the t.o .ere up together" The Pa&i te;ts2 ho.e0er2 6no. nothing o/ this an present (e0a atta as an une;!eptiona&&y e0out mon6" :e appears to ha0e ,een a ,ri&&iant orator2 an as the Bu ha got o& er2 (e0a atta ,e!ame resent/u& o/ his ho& o0er the Or er" :e e!i e to ,ui& his o.n ,ase" (e0a atta ha &ost a&& sense o/ the re&igious &i/e2 an ,egan ruth&ess&y to promote himse&/" :is hori9ons ha narro.e D instea o/ rea!hing out e;pansi0e&y to the /our !orners o/ the earth in &o0e2 he .as !entere so&e&y on his o.n !areer an !onsume ,y hatre an en0y" Jirst he approa!he Prin!e AHatasattu2 son an heir o/ King Bim,isara an !omman er1in1!hie/ o/ the *aga han army" :e impresse the prin!e .ith /&ashy isp&ays o/ iddhi, a sure sign that he .as pro/aning his yogi! po.ers" But the prin!e ,e!ame (e0a atta<s patronD e0ery ay2 he sent /i0e hun re !arriages to (e0a atta in the arama o/ Vu&ture<s Pea62 Hust outsi e #aHagaha2 together .ith unseem&y moun s o/ /oo /or the bhikkhus& (e0a atta ,e!ame a /a0ore !ourt mon63 the /&attery .ent to his hea an he e!i e to sei9e !ontro& o/ the Sangha" But .hen the Bu ha .as .arne o/ his ,rother1in1&a.<s a!ti0ities2 he .as not istur,e " Mns6i&&/u& ,eha0ior on this s!a&e !ou& on&y ,ring (e0a atta to an unsa0ory en " (e0a atta ma e his /irst mo0e .hi&e the Bu ha .as staying in the Bam,oo -ro0e outsi e

#aHagaha" In /ront o/ a huge assem,&y o/ bhikkhus, (e0a atta /orma&&y as6e the Bu ha to resign an han o0er the Sangha to him" 5The B&esse One is no. o& 2 age 2 ,ur ene .ith years " 2 " an has rea!he the &ast stage o/ his &i/e28 he sai un!tuous&y" 5Let him no. rest"8 The Bu ha a amant&y re/use D he .ou& not e0en han the Sangha o0er to Sariputta an *ogga&&ana2 his t.o most eminent is!ip&es" >hy shou& he appoint su!h a &ost sou& as (e0a atta to the position@ :umi&iate an /urious2 (e0a atta &e/t the arama re0enge" The Bu ha .as not mu!h !on!erne a,out the &ea ership o/ the Or er" :e ha a&.ays main1 taine that the Sangha i not nee a !entra& authority /igure2 sin!e ea!h mon6 .as responsi,&e /or himse&/" But any attempt to so. issension2 as (e0a atta ha one2 .as anathema" An atmosphere o/ egotism2 am,ition2 hosti&ity an !ompetiti0eness .as a,so&ute&y in!ompati,&e .ith the spiritua& &i/e an .ou& negate the raison <etre o/ the Sangha" The Bu ha2 there/ore2 pu,&i!&y isso!iate himse&/ an his Or er /rom (e0a atta an to& Sariputta to enoun!e him in #aHagaha" 5Jormer&y28 he e;p&aine 2 5(e0a atta ha one nature3 no. he has another"8 But the amage ha ,een one" Some o/ the to.ns/o&6 ,e&ie0e that the Bu ha .as Hea&ous o/ (e0a atta<s ne. popu&arity .ith the prin!e3 the more Hu i!ious2 ho.e0er2 reser0e Hu gment" *ean.hi&e2 (e0a atta approa!he Prin!e AHatasattu .ith a proposition" In the o& ays2 he sai 2 peop&e &i0e &onger than they i no." King Bim,isara .as &ingering on2 an perhaps AHatasattu .ou& ne0er sit on the throne" >hy i he not s&ay his /ather2 .hi&e he2 (e0a atta2 6i&&e the Bu ha@ >hy shou& these t.o o& men stan in their .ay@ Together2 (e0a atta an AHatasattu .ou& ma6e a great team an a!hie0e mar0e&ous things" The prin!e &i6e the i ea2 ,ut .hen he trie to s&ip into the 6ing<s inner san!tum .ith a agger strappe to his thigh2 he .as arreste an !on/esse a&&" Some o/ the o//i!ers o/ the army .ante to put the .ho&e Sangha to eath .hen they hear o/ (e0a atta<s ro&e in the assassination attempt2 ,ut Bim,isara pointe out that the Bu ha ha a&rea y repu iate (e0a atta an !ou& not ,e he& responsi,&e /or the ee s o/ this mis!reant" >hen AHatasattu .as ,rought ,e/ore him2 the 6ing as6e him sa &y .hy he ha .ante to 6i&& him" 5I .ant the 6ing om2 sire28 AHatasattu rep&ie .ith isarming /ran6ness" Bim,isara ha not ,een the Bu ha<s is!ip&e /or so &ong /or nothing" 5I/ you .ant the 6ing om2 Prin!e28 he sai simp&y2 5it is yours"8 Li6e Pasene i2 he .as pro,a,&y a.are o/ the uns6i&&/u& an aggressi0e passions that .ere reGuire in po&iti!s2 an perhaps .ante to e0ote his &ast years to the spiritua& &i/e" :is a, i!ation i him no goo 2 ho.e0er" >ith the support o/ the army2 AHatasattu arreste his /ather an star0e him to eath" The ne. 6ing then ,a!6e (e0a atta<s s!heme to 6i&& the Bu ha2 pro0i ing him .ith traine assassins /rom the army" But as soon as the /irst o/ these approa!he the Bu ha .ith a ,o. an arro.2 he .as o0er!ome .ith terror an roote to the spot" 5Come /rien 28 the Bu ha sai gent&y" 5(o not ,e a/rai "8 Be!ause he ha seen the error o/ his .ays2 his !rime .as /orgi0en" The Bu ha then ga0e the so& ier instru!tion appropriate /or the &ayman an in a 0ery short time the repentant 6i&&er ha ,e!ome a is!ip&e" One ,y one2 his /e&&o. !onspirators /o&&o.e suit" A/ter this2 (e0a atta .as /or!e to ta6e the matter into his o.n han s" Jirst he pushe a huge ,ou& er o0er a !&i// hoping to !rush the Bu ha2 ,ut su!!ee e on&y in gra9ing the Bu ha<s /oot" Ne;t he hire a /amous&y /ero!ious e&ephant !a&&e Na&igiri2 .hi!h he &et &oose on the Bu ha" But as soon as Na&igiri sa. his prey2 he .as o0er!ome ,y the .a0es o/ &o0e that emanate /rom the Bu ha2 &o.ere his trun62 an stoo sti&& .hi&e the Bu ha stro6e his /orehea 2 e;p&aining to him that 0io&en!e .ou& not he&p him in his ne;t &i/e" Na&igiri too6 ust o// the Bu ha<s /eet .ith his trun62 sprin6&e it o0er his o.n /orehea 2 an retreate ,a! 2 ga9ing yearning&y at the Bu ha a&& the .hi&e unti& he .as out o/ sight" Then he am,&e pea!ea,&y ,a!6 to the sta,&es2 a re/orme ,east /rom that ay /orth"

Seeing that the Bu ha seeme proo/ against these assau&ts2 the !onspirators !hange their ta!ti!s" AHatasattu2 .ho ha su!!ee e in his o.n ,i /or po.er2 roppe (e0a atta an ,e!ame one o/ the Bu ha<s &ay is!ip&es" (e0a atta .as no. on his o.n an trie to /in support .ithin the Sangha" :e appea&e to some o/ the younger an more ine;perien!e mon6s o/ Vesa&&2 arguing that the Bu ha<s *i &e >ay .as an una!!epta,&e e0iation /rom tra ition" Bu hists shou& return to the tougher i ea&s o/ the more tra itiona& as!eti!s" (e0a atta propose /i0e ne. ru&esD a&& mem,ers o/ the Sangha shou& &i0e in the /orests rather than in the aramas uring the monsoon3 they must re&y so&e&y on a&ms an must not a!!ept in0itations to eat at the houses o/ the &aity3 instea o/ ne. ro,es2 they must .ear on&y !ast1o// rags pi!6e up /rom the streets3 they must s&eep in the open instea o/ in huts3 an they must ne0er eat the /&esh o/ any &i0ing ,eing" These /i0e ru&es may represent the histori!a& 6erne& in the story o/ (e0a atta<s e/e!tion" Some o/ the more !onser0ati0e bhikkhus may .e&& ha0e ,een !on!erne that stan ar s .ere s&ipping an !ou& ha0e attempte to ,rea6 a.ay /rom the main Sangha" (e0a atta might ha0e ,een asso!iate .ith this re/orm mo0ement2 an his enemies2 the proponents o/ the Bu ha<s *i &e >ay2 !ou& ha0e ,&a!6ene (e0a atta<s name ,y in0enting the ramati! &egen s that .e /in in the Vinaya" >hen (e0a atta pu,&ishe his /i0e ru&es an as6e the Bu ha to ma6e them o,&igatory /or the .ho&e Sangha2 the Bu ha re/use 2 pointing out that any mon6 .ho .ishe to &i0e in this .ay .as per/e!t&y /ree to o so2 ,ut that !oer!ion in these matters .as against the spirit o/ the Or er" *on6s must ma6e up their o.n min s an not ,e /or!e to /o&&o. any,o y e&se<s ire!ti0es" (e0a atta .as Hu,i&ant" The Bu ha ha re/use his pious reGuest7 :e announ!e triumphant&y to his /o&&o.ers that the Bu ha .as gi0en o0er to &u;ury an se&/1in u&gen!e an that it .as their uty to .ith ra. /rom their !orrupt ,rethren" >ith /i0e hun re young mon6s2 (e0a atta e!ampe to -ayasisa :i&& outsi e #aHagaha2 .hi&e the Bu ha ispat!he Sariputta an *ogga&&ana to .in the re,e&&ious bhikkhus ,a!6" >hen (e0a atta sa. them approa!hing2 he imme iate&y assume that they ha eserte the Bu ha an !ome to Hoin him" E&ate 2 he !a&&e an assem,&y an a resse his is!ip&es /ar into the night" Then2 p&ea ing that his ,a!6 .as paining him2 he retire to ,e 2 han ing the /&oor to Sariputta an *ogga&&ana" On!e these t.o &oya& e& ers ,egan to spea62 they .ere soon a,&e to persua e the bhikkhus to return to the Bu ha2 .ho re!ei0e them ,a!6 .ithout reprisa&s" Some te;ts te&& us that (e0a atta !ommitte sui!i e3 others that he ie ,e/ore he .as a,&e to ,e re!on!i&e .ith the Bu ha" >hate0er the truth o/ these stories2 they ma6e a te&&ing point a,out the su//ering o/ o& age3 they a&so /orm a !autionary ta&e" E0en the Sangha .as not immune to the se&/ishness2 am,ition an issension that .as so rampant in pu,&i! &i/e" The Bu ha re/&e!te on this anger in the &ast year o/ his &i/e" :e .as no. eighty years o& " King AHatasattu .as ,y this time /irm&y esta,&ishe on the throne o/ *aga ha an /reGuent&y 0isite the Bu ha" :e .as p&anning an o//ensi0e against the repu,&i!s o/ *a&&a2 Vi eha2 Li!!ha0i2 Ko&iya an VaHHi2 a&& to the east o/ his 6ing om2 .ho ha /orme a e/ensi0e !on/e era!y 6no.n !o&&e!ti0e&y as 5the VaHHians"8 The 6ing .as etermine to .ipe them o// the map an a,sor, them into his 6ing om2 ,ut ,e/ore he &aun!he his atta!62 he sent his minister Vassa6ara2 a brahmin, to te&& the Bu ha .hat he .as a,out to o an to &isten !are/u&&y to his !omments" The Bu ha .as !rypti!" :e to& Vassa6ara that as &ong as the VaHHians remaine true to the repu,&i!an tra itions3 he& 5/reGuent an .e&&1atten e meetings83 &i0e together in !on!or 3 respe!te the o& er men2 &istening !are/u&&y to their a 0i!e3 an o,ser0e the &a.s an pieties o/ their an!estors2 King AHatasattu .ou& not ,e a,&e to e/eat them" Vassa6ara &istene attenti0e&y an to& the Bu ha that2 sin!e the VaHHians at present met a&& these !on itions2 they

.ere in /a!t impregna,&e" :e .ent ,a!6 to ,rea6 the ne.s to the 6ing" Bu hist tra ition2 ho.e0er2 has it that short&y a/ter this2 King AHatasattu i manage to e/eat the VaHHiansD he a!hie0e this /eat ,y sen ing spies into the repu,&i!s to so. is!or among the &ea ers" So there .as a poignan!y an urgen!y in the Bu ha<s ne;t .or s2 a/ter the oor ha !&ose ,ehin Vassa6ara" :e app&ie the same !on itions to the SanghaD as &ong as its mem,ers respe!te the senior bhikkhus, he& /reGuent assem,&ies2 an remaine a,so&ute&y true to the (hamma2 the Sangha .ou& sur0i0e" The tri,a& repu,&i!s .ere oome " They ,e&onge to the past an .ou& short&y ,e s.ept a.ay ,y the ne. mi&itant monar!hies" King Pasene i<s son .ou& soon e/eat an massa!re the Sa6yans2 the Bu ha<s o.n peop&e" But the Bu ha<s Sangha .as a ne.2 up1to1 ate2 an spiritua&&y s6i&&/u& 0ersion o/ the o& repu,&i!an go0ernments" It .ou& ho& true to 0a&ues that the more 0io&ent an !oer!i0e monar!hies .ere in anger o/ /orgetting" But this .as a angerous .or& " The Sangha !ou& not sur0i0e the interna& issension2 isrespe!t /or e& ers2 &a!6 o/ &o0ing1 6in ness2 an super/i!ia&ity that ha sur/a!e uring the (e0a atta s!an a&" @hikkhus an bhikkhunis must ,e min /u&2 spiritua&&y a&ert2 energeti! an /aith/u& to the me itati0e is!ip&ines that a&one !ou& ,ring them en&ightenment" The Or er .ou& not e!&ine as &ong as mon6s a0oi e su!h uns6i&&/u& pursuits as 5gossiping2 &a9ing aroun 2 an so!ia&i9ing3 as &ong as they ha0e no unprin!ip&e /rien s an a0oi /a&&ing un er su!h peop&e<s spe&&3 as &ong as they o not stop ha&/.ay in their Guest an remain satis/ie .ith a me io!re &e0e& o/ spiritua&ity"8 I/ they /ai&e in this2 the Sangha .ou& ,e!ome in istinguisha,&e /rom any se!u&ar institution3 it .ou& /a&& prey to the 0i!es o/ the monar!hies an ,e!ome hope&ess&y !orrupt" A/ter the meeting .ith Vassa6ara2 the Bu ha e!i e to &ea0e #aHagaha an tra0e& north in or er to spen the !assa retreat in Vesa&&" It is as though the re0e&ation o/ King AHatasattu<s p&ans to 5e;terminate an estroy8 the VaHHians ha momentari&y repe&&e him an ma e him a.are o/ the a//inity he /e&t /or the ,e&eaguere repu,&i!s" :e ha spent most o/ his .or6ing &i/e in Kosa&a an *agha a an ha /u&/i&&e an important mission there" But no.2 an o& man .ho ha himse&/ su//ere /rom the aggression that /ue&e the po&iti!a& &i/e o/ these 6ing oms2 he hea e out into the more margina& regions o/ the -anges ,asin" S&o.&y2 .ith a &arge entourage o/ mon6s2 the Bu ha Hourneye through *aga han territory2 /irst to Na&an a an then to Pata&igama Bthe mo ern PatnaC2 &ater the !apita& o/ the great Bu hist 6ing Aso6aB!" 2+=12%2 B"C"E"C2 .ho .ou& !reate a monar!hy that es!he.e 0io&en!e an trie to em,o y the !ompassionate ethi! o/ the (hamma" The Bu ha noti!e the great /ortresses that .ere ,eing ,ui&t ,y the *aga han ministers in preparation /or the !oming .ar .ith the VaHHians2 an prophesie the !ity<s /uture greatness" There a e&egation o/ &ay is!ip&es put a rest house at the Bu ha<s isposa&2 &aying o.n !arpets an hanging a great oi& &amp2 an the Bu ha sat up a&& night prea!hing the 0ersion o/ the (hamma that ha ,een a apte to the nee s o/ the &aity" :e pointe out that the pru en!e o/ s6i&&/u& ,eha0ior !ou& ,ene/it a 0irtuous man or .oman e0en in this .or& 2 an .ou& ensure that in their ne;t &i0es they .ou& ,e /arther a&ong the route to en&ightenment" Jina&&y2 the Bu ha arri0e at Vesa&&" At /irst e0erything seeme as it ha a&.ays ,een" :e &o ge in a mango gro0e ,e&onging to Am,apa&i2 one o/ the to.n<s &ea ing !ourtesans" She !ame out to greet the Bu ha .ith a /&eet o/ state !arriages2 sat at his /eet to &isten to the (hamma2 an in0ite him to ine" Kust as he ha gi0en his !onsent2 the mem,ers o/ the Li!!ha0i tri,e .ho .ere &i0ing in Vesa&& sa&&ie /orth in a ,o y to in0ite the Bu ha themse&0es2 ri ing in a sp&en i pro!ession o/ ,ri&&iant&y !o&ore !arriages" It .as a mar0e&ous sight2 an the Bu ha smi&e .hen he sa. it2 te&&ing his bhikkhus that no. they ha some i ea o/ the magni/i!en!e o/ the go s in

hea0en" The Li!!ha0is sat aroun the Bu ha2 .ho 5spurre them on2 inspire an en!ourage 8 them .ith ta&6 o/ the (hamma" At the en o/ this is!ourse2 the Li!!ha0is issue their in0itation to inner2 an .hen the Bu ha to& them that he .as a&rea y engage to eat .ith Am,apa&i2 they i I not &ose their goo humor2 ,ut snappe their /ingers2 !rying I 5Oh the mango gir& has ,eaten us2 the mango gir& has out.itte us78 That night2 at inner2 the !ourtesan onate the mango gro0e to the Sangha2 an the Bu ha staye /or a .hi&e there2 prea!hing to his bhikkhus& There .as the usua& ,ust&e2 g&amour an e;!itement aroun the Bu ha an 2 at its heart2 the !onstant e;hortation to an intense interior &i/e o/ min /u&ness an me itation" But then the pi!ture ,egan to ar6en" The Bu ha &e/t Vesa&i .ith his mon6s an too6 up resi en!e in the near,y 0i&&age o/ Be&u0agama6a" A/ter they ha staye there a .hi&e2 he su en&y ismisse his mon6sD they shou& go ,a!6 to Vesa&i an put up /or the monsoon retreat .here0er they !ou& " :e an Anan a .ou& stay on in Be&u0agama6a" A ne. so&itu e ha entere the Bu ha<s &i/e2 an /rom this point he seeme to shun the &arger !ities an to.ns an to see6 out e0er more o,s!ure &o!ations" It .as as though he .ere a&rea y ,eginning to &ea0e the .or& " A/ter the bhikkhus ha &e/t2 the Bu ha ,e!ame serious&y i&&2 ,ut .ith great se&/1!ontro& he suppresse the pain an o0er!ame his si!6ness" It .as not right /or him to ie yet an attain the M&timate Ni,,ana BparinibbanaC, .hi!h .ou& !omp&ete the en&ightenment he ha .on un er the ,o hi tree" Jirst he must ,i the Sangha /are.e&&" The Bu ha2 there/ore2 re!o0ere 2 &e/t his si!6room2 an !ame out to sit .ith Anan a on the por!h o/ the hut in .hi!h he .as staying" :is i&&ness ha sha6en Anan a to the !ore" 5I am use to seeing the B&esse One hea&thy an /it28 he to& the Bu ha tremu&ous&y as he sat o.n ,esi e him" Jor the /irst time he ha rea&i9e that his master !ou& ie" 5I /e&t my ,o y go rigi 28 he sai 2 5I !ou& not see straight2 my min .as !on/use "8 But he ha /oun !om/ort in one thoughtD the Bu ha .ou& not ie unti& he ha ma e some pra!ti!a& arrangements a,out the su!!ession an the go0ernment o/ the Sangha2 .hi!h .ou& ha0e to !hange on!e the master ha eparte " The Bu ha sighe " 5>hat oes the Sangha e;pe!t o/ me2 Anan a@8 he as6e patient&y" The bhikkhus a&& 6ne. e0erything he ha to tea!h them" There .as no se!ret o!trine /or a /e. !hosen &ea ers" Su!h thoughts as 5I must go0ern the Sangha8 or 5The Sangha epen s on me8 i not o!!ur to an en&ightene man" 5I am an o& man2 Anan a2 eighty years o& 28 the Bu ha .ent on ine;ora,&y" 5*y ,o y !an on&y get a,out .ith the he&p o/ ma6eshi/ts2 &i6e an o& !art"8 The one a!ti0ity that ,rought him ease an re/reshment .as me itation2 .hi!h intro u!e him to the pea!e an re&ease o/ Ni,,ana" An so it must ,e /or e0ery sing&e bhikkhu an bhikkhui#& 5Ea!h o/ you must ma6e himse&/ his is&an 2 ma6e himse&/ an no one e&se his re/uge"8 No Bu hist !ou& epen upon another person an nee one o/ their num,er to &ea the Or er" 5The (hammaLan the (hamma a& his re/uge"8 :o. !ou& the bhikkhus ,e!ome se&/1re&iant@ They 6ne. the a&rea yD ,y me itation2 !on!entration2 min /u&ness an a is!ip&ine eta!hment /rom the .or& " The Sangha nee e no one to go0ern it2 no !entra& authority" The .ho&e point o/ the Bu hist &i/esty&e .as to a!hie0e an inner resour!e that ma e su!h epen en!e Guite &u i!rous" But Anan a ha not yet a!hie0e Ni,,ana" :e .as not a s6i&&e yogin an ha not manage to a!hie0e this egree o/ se&/1su//i!ien!y" :e .as persona&&y atta!he to his master an .ou& ,e!ome the mo e& o/ those Bu hists .ho .ere not rea y /or su!h yogi! heroism2 ,ut nee e a more human e0otion BbhakhtiC to the Bu ha to en!ourage them" Anan a ha another sho!6 a /e. ays &ater2 .hen a no0i!e ,rought them ne.s o/ the eaths o/ Sariputta an *ogga&&ana in Na&an a" ?et again2 the Bu ha .as mi& &y e;asperate to see Anan a<s istress" >hat i he e;pe!t@ >as it not the essen!e o/ the (hamma that nothing &aste /ore0er an that there .as a&1 .ays separation /rom e0erything an e0ery,o y that .e &o0e@ (i Anan a imagine that

Sariputta ha ta6en .ith him the &a.s an insights ,y .hi!h Bu hists &i0e 2 or that the !o e o/ 0irtue an the 6no.&e ge o/ me itation ha a&so eparte /rom the Sangha@ 5No2 Lor 28 proteste the hap&ess Anan a" It .as Hust that he !ou& not he&p remem,ering ho. generous Sariputta ha ,een to them a&&2 ho. he ha enri!he an ai e them ,y his tire&ess e;position o/ the (hamma" It ha ,een heart,rea6ing to see his ,egging ,o.& an ro,e2 .hi!h the no0i!e ha ,rought to the Bu ha .hen he !ame to ,rea6 the ne.s" 5Anan a28 sai the Bu ha again2 5ea!h o/ you shou& ma6e himse&/ his is&an 2 ma6e himse&/ an no one e&se his re/uge3 ea!h o/ you must ma6e the (hamma his is&an 2 the (hamma an nothing e&se his re/uge"8 Jar /rom ,eing istresse a,out the eaths o/ his t.o !&osest is!ip&es2 the Bu ha .as o0erHoye that they ha attaine their parinibbana, their u&timate re&ease /rom the /rai&ties o/ morta&ity" It .as a Hoy to him to ha0e ha t.o su!h is!ip&es2 .ho .ere so ,e&o0e ,y the .ho&e Sangha7 :o. !ou& he ,e sorro./u& an &ament2 .hen they ha rea!he the /ina& goa& o/ their Guest@ Ne0erthe&ess2 /or the unen&ightene 2 there is a poignan!y an sa ness in the Bu ha<s en " None o/ the inner !ir!&e .as &e/t e;!ept /or Anan a" The te;ts try to isguise it2 ,ut there .ere no more e;!ite !ro. s an !o&or/u& inners .ith /rien s" Instea 2 the Bu ha an Anan a2 t.o o& men2 strugg&e on a&one2 e;perien!ing the .eariness o/ sur0i0a& an the passing a.ay o/ !ompanions .hi!h !onstitutes the true trage y o/ o& age" That e0en the Bu ha may ha0e ha some intimations o/ this an /e&t potentia&&y ,ere/t is suggeste ,y the &ast appearan!e o/ *ara2 his sha o.1se&/2 in his &i/e" :e an Anan a ha Hust spent the ay a&one together at one o/ the many shrines in Vesa&i2 an the Bu ha remar6e that it .as possi,&e /or a /u&&y en&ightene man &i6e himse&/ to &i0e out the rest o/ this perio o/ history2 i/ he .ishe " :e .as2 the te;ts te&& us2 gi0ing Anan a a ,roa hint" I/ he ,egge him to stay in the .or& 2 out o/ !ompassion /or the go s an men .ho nee e his gui an!e2 the Bu ha ha the to &i0e on" But2 yet again2 poor Anan a .as simp&y not up to the o!!asion2 i not un erstan 2 an 2 there/ore2 i not as6 the Bu ha to remain .ith the Sangha unti& the en o/ this histori!a& era" It .as an omission /or .hi!h some mem,ers o/ the ear&y Sangha ,&ame Anan aLa poor /or the years o/ e1 0ote ser0i!e to his master2 .hi!h the Bu ha himse&/ !ertain&y appre!iate " But .hen the Bu ha ha roppe his hint2 Anan a i not see its signi/i!an!e2 ma e a po&ite an non!ommitta& reHoin er2 an .ent o// to sit at the /oot o/ a near,y tree" Jor a .hi&e2 perhaps2 e0en the Bu ha may ha0e ha a /&eeting .ish /or a !ompanion .ho !ou& un erstan more /u&&y .hat .as in his min 2 as he /e&t his &i/e e,,ing a.ay2 ,e!ause Hust at this point2 *ara2 his sha o.1se&/2 appeare " 5Let the Tathagata a!hie0e his parinibbana no.28 *ara .hispere se u!ti0e&y" >hy go on@ :e eser0e his /ina& rest3 there .as no point in /urther strugg&e" Jor the &ast time2 the Bu ha repe&&e *ara" :e .ou& not enter the ,&iss o/ his Jina& Ni,,ana unti& his mission .as !omp&ete an he .as !ertain that the Or er an the ho&y &i/e .ere proper&y esta,&ishe " But2 he a e 2 that .ou& ,e 0ery soonD 5In three months time28 he to& *ara2 5the Tathagata .i&& attain his parinibbana"8 It .as then2 the s!riptures te&& us2 at the Capa&a Shrine in Vesa&i2 that the Bu ha !ons!ious&y an e&i,erate&y 5a,an one the .i&& to &i0e"8 It .as a e!ision that re0er,erate throughout the !osmos" The .or& o/ men .as sha6en ,y an earthGua6e2 .hi!h ma e e0en Anan a rea&i9e that something momentous .as a/oot2 an in the hea0ens a so&emn rum ,egan to ,eat" It .as too &ate2 the Bu ha to& the no. !ontrite Anan a2 /or his atten ant to ,eg him to &i0e on" :e must no. spea6 to the Sangha an ,i his mon6s a /orma& /are.e&&" In the great painte ha&& o/ the Vesa&i arama, he spo6e to a&& the bhikkhus .ho .ere resi ing in the neigh,orhoo " :e ha nothing ne. to te&& them" 5I ha0e on&y taught you things that I ha0e e;perien!e /u&&y /or myse&/28 he sai " :e ha ta6en nothing on trust an they too must ma6e the (ha

ma a rea&ity /or themse&0es" They must thorough&y &earn a&& the truths he ha imparte 2 ma6e them2 ,y means o/ me itation2 a &i0ing e;perien!e2 so that they too 6ne. them .ith the 5 ire!t 6no.&e ge8 o/ a yogin" A,o0e a&&2 they must &i0e /or others" The ho&y &i/e ha not ,een e0ise simp&y to ,ene/it the en&ightene 2 an Ni,,ana .as not a pri9e .hi!h any bhikkhu !ou& se&/ish&y 6eep to himse&/" They must &i0e the (hamma 5/or the sa6e o/ the peop&e2 /or the .e&/are an happiness o/ the mu&titu e2 out o/ !ompassion /or the .ho&e .or& 2 an /or the goo an .e&&1 ,eing o/ go s an men"8 The ne;t morning2 a/ter the Bu ha an Anan a ha ,egge /or their /oo in the to.n2 the Bu ha turne roun an ga9e /or a &ong time at Vesa&i3 it .as the &ast time that he .ou& e0er see it" They then too6 the path to the 0i&&age o/ Bhan agama" Jrom this point2 the Bu ha<s .an erings seeme to ,e hea ing o// the map o/ the !i0i&i9e .or& " A/ter he ha staye /or a .hi&e in Bhan agama2 instru!ting the bhikkhus there2 the Bu ha tra0e&e .ith Anan a s&o.&y 2 through the 0i&&ages o/ :atthigama2 Am,agama2 Kam,ugama an Bhoganagama Ba&& o/ .hi!h ha0e isappeare .ithout tra!eC unti& he arri0e at Pa0a2 .here he &o ge in the gro0e ,e&onging to one Cun a2 the son o/ a go& smith" Cun a i homage to the Bu ha2 &istene attenti0e&y to his instru!tion an then in0ite him to an e;!e&&ent inner2 .hi!h in!&u e some sukaramadda!a B5pigs< so/t /oo 8C" No,o y is Guite sure .hat this ish rea&&y .asD some o/ the !ommentaries say that it .as su!!u&ent por6 a&rea y on sa&e in the mar6et Bthe Bu ha ne0er ate the /&esh o/ an anima& that ha ,een 6i&&e espe!ia&&y /or himC3 others argue that it .as either a /orm o/ min!e por6 or a ish o/ the tru//&e mushrooms enHoye ,y pigs" Some maintain that it .as a spe!ia& e&i;ir2 .hi!h Cun a2 .ho .as a/rai that the Bu ha .ou& ie an attain his parinibbana that ay2 ,e&ie0e .ou& pro&ong his &i/e in e/inite&y" At a&& e0ents2 the Bu ha insiste on eating the sukaramadda!a an to& the bhikkhus to eat the other /oo on the ta,&e" >hen he ha /inishe 2 he to& Cun a to ,ury .hat .as &e/t2 sin!e no,o yLnot e0en a go L !ou& igest it" This !ou& simp&y ,e an a 0erse appraisa& o/ Cun a<s !u&inary s6i&&s2 ,ut some mo ern s!ho&ars ha0e suggeste that the Bu ha rea&i9e that the sukkaramadda!a ha ,een poisone D they see the &one&iness o/ the Bu ha<s en an the remoteness o/ the &o!ation as a sign o/ a istan!e ,et.een the Bu ha an the Sangha an ,e&ie0e that2 &i6e the t.o o& 6ings2 he too ie a 0io&ent eath" The Pa&i te;ts2 ho.e0er2 o not e0en !onsi er this appa&&ing possi,i&ity" The Bu ha<s reGuest that Cun a ,ury the /oo .as strange2 ,ut he ha ,een i&& /or some time an e;pe!te to ie short&y" That night he ,egan to 0omit ,&oo an .as grippe ,y a 0io&ent pain2 ,ut yet again he mastere his i&&ness an set o// .ith Anan a to Kusinara" :e .as no. in the repu,&i! o/ *a&&a2 .hose inha,itants o not seem to ha0e ,een intereste in the Bu ha<s i eas" The te;ts te&& us that he .as a!!ompanie ,y the usua& retinue o/ mon6s2 ,ut apart /rom Anan a2 no senior mem,er o/ the Or er .as .ith him" On his .ay to Kusinara2 the Bu ha ,e!ame tire an as6e /or some .ater" E0en though the stream .as stagnant an mu y2 the .ater ,e!ame !&ear as soon as Anan a approa!he it .ith the Bu ha<s ,o.&" The s!riptures emphasi9e su!h in!i ents to mitigate the ,&ea6 so&itu e o/ these &ast ays" >e hear that on the /ina& &eg o/ his Hourney2 the Bu ha !on0erte a passing *a&&ian2 .ho2 /itting&y2 ha ,een a /o&& o/ his o& tea!her2 A&ara Ka&ama" This man .as so impresse ,y the Gua&ity o/ the Bu ha<s !on!entration that he ma e the Trip&e #e/uge on the spot an presente the Bu ha an Anan a .ith t.o ro,es ma e o/ !&oth o/ go& " But .hen the Bu ha put his on2 Anan a e;!&aime that it &oo6e Guite u&& ,esi e the ,rightness o/ his s6inD the Bu ha e;p&aine that this .as a sign that he .ou& 0ery short&yL .hen he rea!he KusinaraLa!hie0e his Jina& Ni,,ana" A &itt&e &ater2 he to& Anan a that no,o y shou& ,&ame Cun a /or his eathD it .as an a!t o/ great merit to gi0e a Bu ha his &ast a&ms/oo

,e/ore he attaine his parinibbana& >hat .as this parinibbana) >as it simp&y an e;tin!tion@ An i/ so2 .hy .as this Nothingness regar e as su!h a g&orious a!hie0ement@ :o. .ou& this 5/ina&8 Ni,,ana i//er /rom the pea!e that the Bu ha ha attaine un er the ,o hi tree@ The .or nibbana, it .i&& ,e re!a&&e 2 means 5!oo&ing o//8 or 5going out28 &i6e a /&ame" The term /or the attainment o/ Ni,1 ,ana in this &i/e in the te;ts is saupadi-s sa& An Arahant ha e;tinguishe the /ires o/ !ra0ing2 hatre an ignoran!e2 ,ut he sti&& ha a 5resi ue8 Bs saC o/ 5/ue&8 BupadiC as &ong as he &i0e in the ,o y2 use his senses an min 2 an e;perien!e emotions" There .as a potentia& /or a /urther !on/&agration" But .hen an Arahant ie 2 these khandha !ou& ne0er ,e ignite again2 an !ou& not /ee the /&ame o/ a ne. e;isten!e" The Arahant .as2 there/ore2 /ree /rom samsara an !ou& ,e a,sor,e .ho&&y into the pea!e an immunity o/ Ni,,ana" But .hat i that mean@ >e ha0e seen that the Bu ha a&.ays re/use to e/ine Ni,,ana2 ,e!ause .e ha0e no terms that are a eGuate /or this e;perien!e that trans!en s the rea!h o/ the senses an the min " Li6e those monotheists .ho pre/erre to spea6 o/ -o in negati0e terms2 the Bu ha sometimes pre/erre to e;p&ain .hat Ni,,ana .as n%t& It .as2 he to& his is!ip&es2 a state 0h r th r is n ith r arth n%r 0at r, #ight n%r air+ n ith r in/inity %r spa' + it is n%t in/inity %/ r as%n but n%r is it an abs%#ut !%id &&& it is n ith r this 0%r#d %r an%th r 0%r#d+ it is b%th sun and m%%n& That i not mean that it .as rea&&y 5nothing83 .e ha0e seen that it ,e!ame a Bu hist heresy to !&aim that an Arahant !ease to e;ist in Ni,,ana" But it .as an e;isten!e ,eyon the se&/2 an ,&iss/u& ,e!ause there .as no se&/ishness" Those o/ us .ho are unen&ightene 2 an .hose hori9ons are sti&& !onstri!te ,y egotism2 !annot imagine this state" But those .ho ha a!hie0e the eath o/ the ego 6ne. that se&/&essness .as not a 0oi " >hen the Bu ha trie to gi0e his is!ip&es a hint o/ .hat this pea!e/u& E en in the heart o/ the psy!he .as &i6e2 he mi;e negati0e .ith positi0e terms" Ni,,ana .as2 he sai 2 5the e;tin!tion o/ gree 2 hatre an e&usion83 it .as the Thir No,&e Truth3 it .as 5Taint&ess28 5Mn.ea6ening28 5Mn isintegrating28 5In0io&a,&e28 5Non1 istress28 5Non1a//&i!tion28 an 5Mnhosti&ity"8 A&& these epithets emphasi9e that Ni,,ana !an!e&e out e0erything that .e /in into&era,&e in &i/e" It .as not a state o/ annihi&ationD it .as 5(eath&ess"8 But there .ere positi0e things that !ou& ,e sai o/ Ni,,ana tooD it .as 5the Truth28 5the Su,t&e28 5the Other Shore28 5the E0er&asting28 5Pea!e28 5the Superior -oa&28 5Sa/ety28 5Purity2 Jree om2 In epen en!e2 the Is&an 2 the She&ter2 the :ar,or2 the #e/uge2 the Beyon "8 It .as th supreme goo o/ humans an go s a&i6e2 an in!omprehensi,&e Pea!e2 an an utter&y sa/e re/uge" *any o/ these images are reminis!ent o/ .or s that monotheists ha0e use to es!ri,e -o " In ee 2 Ni,,ana .as 0ery mu!h &i6e the Bu ha himse&/" Later Bu hists o/ the *ahayana s!hoo& .ou& !&aim that he .as so .ho&&y in/use ,y Ni,,ana that he .as i enti!a& .ith it" Kust as Christians see .hat -o might ,e &i6e .hen they !ontemp&ate the man Kesus2 these Bu hists !ou& see the Bu ha as the human e;pression o/ this state" E0en in his o.n &i/e2 peop&e ha intimations o/ this" The brahmin .ho !ou& not !&assi/y the Bu ha2 sin!e he no &onger /it into any mun ane or !e&estia& !ategory2 ha sense that2 &i6e Ni,,ana2 the Bu ha .as 5Something E&se"8 The Bu ha ha to& him that he .as 5one .ho ha .o6en up28 a man .ho ha she the reary2 pain/u& &imitations o/ pro/ane humanity an a!hie0e something Beyon " King Pasene i ha a&so seen the Bu ha as a re/uge2 a p&a!e o/ sa/ety an purity" >hen he ha &e/t home2 he ha

e;perimente .ith his human nature unti& he is!o0ere this ne. region o/ pea!e .ithin" But he .as not uniGue" Any,o y .ho app&ie himse&/ or herse&/ serious&y to the ho&y &i/e !ou& /in this E eni! serenity .ithin" The Bu ha ha &i0e /or /orty1/i0e years as a human .ithout egotism3 he ha 2 there/ore2 ,een a,&e to &i0e .ith pain" But no. that he .as approa!hing the en o/ his &i/e2 he .as a,out to she the &ast in ignities o/ age3 the khandha, the 5,un &es o/ /ire.oo 8 that ha ,&a9e .ith gree an e&usion in his youth2 ha &ong ,een e;tinguishe 2 an !ou& no. ,e thro.n a.ay" :e .as a,out to rea!h the Other Shore" So he .a&6e /ee,&y ,ut .ith great !on/i en!e the o,s!ure &itt&e to.n .here he .ou& attain the parinibbana& The Bu ha an Anan a2 t.o o& men2 !rosse the :irarina0ati ri0er .ith their !ro. o/ bhikkhus, an turne into a gro0e o/ sa& trees on the roa that &e into Kusinara" By no. the Bu ha .as in pain" :e &ay o.n an the sa& trees imme iate&y ,urst into /& an roppe their peta&s upon him2 e0en though it .as not the season /or ,&ossom" The p&a!e .as /i&&e .ith go s2 the Bu ha sai 2 .ho ha !ome to .itness his &ast triumph" But .hat ga0e a Bu ha /ar more honor .as the /i e&ity o/ his /o&&o.ers to the (hamma he ha ,rought them" As he &ay ying2 the Bu ha ga0e ire!tions a,out his /unera&" :is ashes .ere to ,e treate &i6e those o/ a 'akka!atti+ his ,o y shou& ,e .rappe in a !&oth an !remate .ith per/ume .oo s2 an the remains ,urie at the !rossroa s o/ a great !ity" Jrom /irst to &ast2 the Bu ha ha ,een paire .ith the 'akka!atti, an a/ter his en&ightenment ha o//ere the .or& an a&ternati0e to a ,ase on aggression an !oer!ion" :is /unera& arrangements re. attention to this ironi! !ounterpoint" The great 6ings o/ the region2 .ho ha appeare to ,e so potent .hen the young -otama ha arri0e in *aga ha an Kosa&a2 ha ,oth ,een snu//e out" The 0io&en!e an !rue&ty o/ their eaths sho.e that the monar!hies .ere /ue&e ,y se&/ishness2 gree 2 am,ition2 en0y2 hatre an estru!tion" They ha ,rought prosperity an !u&tura& a 0an!ement3 they represente the mar!h o/ progress an ,ene/ite many peop&e" But there .as another .ay o/ &i/e that i not ha0e to impose itse&/ so 0io&ent&y2 that .as not e i!ate to se&/1aggran i9ement2 an that ma e men an .omen happier an more humane" The /unera& arrangements .ere Hust too mu!h /or Anan a" :is p&ight uring these &ast ays remin s us o/ the immense gu&/ that separates the unen&ightene /rom the Arahant" Anan a 6ne. a&& a,out Bu hism inte&&e!tua&&y2 ,ut this 6no.&e ge .as no su,stitute /or the 5 ire!t 6no.&e ge8 o/ the yogin" It !ou& ,e o/ no he&p to him .hen he starte to e;perien!e the pain o/ the &oss o/ his master" This .as in/inite&y .orse than the eath o/ Sariputta" :e un erstoo the No,&e Truth o/ Su//ering .ith his mun ane2 rationa& min 2 ,ut he ha not a,sor,e it so that it /use .ith his .ho&e ,eing" :e sti&& !ou& not a!!ept the /a!t that e0erything .as transient an .ou& pass a.ay" Be!ause he .as not a pro/i!ient yogin2 he !ou& not 5penetrate8 these o!trines an ma6e them a &i0ing rea&ity" Instea o/ /ee&ing a yogi! !ertainty2 he /e&t on&y ra. pain" A/ter he ha &istene to the Bu ha<s uninipassione ire!tions a,out his ashes2 Anan a &e/t his master<s ,e si e an /&e to one o/ the other huts in the gro0e" Jor a &ong time2 he stoo .eeping2 resting his hea against the &inte&" :e /e&t a !omp&ete /ai&ureD 5I am sti&& on&y a ,eginner28 .ept the e& er&y bhikkhu& 5I ha0e not rea!he the goa& o/ the ho&y &i/e3 my Guest is un/u&/i&&e "8 :e &i0e in a !ommunity o/ spiritua& giants .ho ha rea!he Ni,,ana" >ho .ou& he&p him no.@ >ho .ou& e0en ,other .ith him@ 5*y Tea!her is a,out to attain his parinibbanaLmy !ompassionate Tea!her .ho .as a&.ays 6in to me"8 >hen the Bu ha hear a,out Anan a<s tears2 he sent /or him" 5That is enough2 Anan a28 he sai " 5(on<t ,e sorro./u&3 on<t grie0e"8 :a he not e;p&aine 2 o0er an o0er again2 that nothing .as permanent ,ut that separation .as the &a. o/ &i/e@ 5An Anan a28 the Bu ha !on!&u e 2 5/or years you ha0e .aite on me .ith !onstant &o0e an 6in ness" ?ou ha0e ta6en !are o/ my

physi!a& nee s2 an ha0e supporte me in a&& your .or s an thoughts" ?ou ha0e one a&& this to he&p me2 Hoy/u&&y an .ith your .ho&e heart" ?ou ha0e earne merit2 Anan a" Keep trying2 an you .i&& soon ,e en&ightene too"8 But Anan a .as sti&& strugg&ing" 5Lor 28 he !rie 2 5 o not go to your Jina& #est in this reary &itt&e to.n2 .ith mu .a&&s3 this heathen2 Hung&e outpost2 this ,a!6.ater"8 The Bu ha ha spent the greater part o/ his .or6ing &i/e in su!h great !ities as #aHagaha2 Kosam,i2 Sa0atti2 an Varanas&" >hy !ou& he not return to one o/ these !ities2 an /inish his Guest surroun e ,y a&& his no,&e is!ip&es2 instea o/ ying here a&one2 among these ignorant un,e&ie0ers@ The te;ts sho. that the ear&y Sangha .as em,arrasse ,y the o,s!urity o/ Kusinara an the /a!t that their Tea!her ie /ar a.ay in the Hung&e" The Bu ha trie to !heer Anan a2 pointing out that Kusinara ha on!e ,een a thri0ing !ity an the great !apita& o/ a 'akka!atti& But the Bu ha<s !hoi!e o/ Kusinara a&most !ertain&y ha a eeper reason" No Bu hist !ou& e0er rest on past a!hie0ements3 the Sangha must a&.ays press / to ,ring he&p to the .i er .or& " An a Bu ha .ou& not see a isma& &itt&e to.n &i6e Kusinara in the same .ay as .ou& an unen&ightene man" Jor years he ha traine his !ons!ious an his un!ons!ious min to see rea&ity /rom an entire&y i//erent perspe!ti0e2 /ree /rom the istorting aura o/ egotism that !&ou s the Hu gment o/ most human ,eings" :e i not nee the e;terna& prestige upon .hi!h many o/ us re&y in or er to prop up our sense o/ se&/" As a Tathagata2 his egotism ha 5gone"8 A Bu ha ha no time to thin6 o/ himse&/2 e0en on his eath,e " #ight up to the &ast2 he !ontinue to &i0e /or others2 in0iting the *a&&ians o/ Kusinara to !ome to the gro0e in or er to share his triumph" :e a&so too6 the time to instru!t a passing men i!ant2 .ho ,e&onge to another se!t ,ut .as ra.n to the Bu ha<s tea!hing2 e0en though Anan a proteste that the Bu ha .as i&& an e;hauste " Jina&&y2 he turne ,a!6 to Anan a2 a,&e .ith his usua& sympathy to enter into his thoughts" 5?ou may ,e thin6ing2 Anan aD NThe .or o/ the Tea!her is no. a thing o/ the past3 no. .e ha0e no more Tea!her"< But that is not ho. you shou& see it" Let the (hamma an the (is!ip&ine that I ha0e taught you ,e your Tea!her .hen I am gone"8 :e ha a&.ays to& his /o&&o.ers to &oo6 not at him ,ut at the (hamma3 he himse&/ ha ne0er ,een important" Then he turne to the !ro. o/ bhikkhus .ho ha a!!ompanie him on this &ast Hourney2 an remin e them yet again that NA&& in i0i ua& things pass a.ay" See6 your &i,eration .ith i&igen!e"8 :a0ing gi0en his &ast a 0i!e to his /o&&o.ers2 the Bu ha /e&& into a !oma" Some o/ the mon6s /e&t a,&e to tra!e his Hourney through the higher states o/ !ons!iousness that he ha e;p&ore so o/ten in me itation" But he ha gone ,eyon any state 6no.n to human ,eings .hose min s are sti&& ominate ,y sense e;perien!e" >hi&e the go s reHoi!e 2 the earth shoo6 an those bhikkhus .ho ha not yet a!hie0e en&ightenment .ept2 the Bu ha e;perien!e an e;tin!tion that .as2 para o;i!a&&y2 the supreme state o/ ,eing an the /ina& goa& o/ humanityD As a /#am b#%0n %ut by th 0ind F% s t% r st and 'ann%t b d /in d, S% th n#ight n d man /r d /r%m s #/ishn ss F% s t% r st and 'ann%t b d /in d& F%n b y%nd a## imag sC F%n b y%nd th p%0 r %/ 0%rds&

#$%&&'R( 'himsaD 5:arm&essness83 the ethi! a opte ,y many o/ the as!eti!s o/ North In ia to !ounter the aggression o/ the ne. states" ')usalaD 5Mns6i&&/u&8 or 5unhe&p/u&8 states2 .hi!h .i&& impe e the Guest /or En&ightenment" 'nattaD 5No1Sou&83 the o!trine that enies the e;isten!e o/ a !onstant2 sta,&e an persona&ity" 'rahantD An NA!!omp&ishe One2< .ho has attaine Ni,,ana" 'ramaD P&easure1par6 onate to the Bu hist Or er /or a sett&ement" is!rete

'sanaD The !orre!t position /or yogi! me itation2 .ith straight ,a!6 an !rosse &egs" '*asaD #ura& sett&ements2 o/ten ,ui&t /rom s!rat!h ea!h year ,y the Bu monsoon retreats" hist mon6s2 /or the

'tmanD The eterna&2 un!hangea,&e Se&/ sought ,y the yogins2 as!eti!s an /o&&o.ers o/ the Sam6hya phi&osophy" It .as ,e&ie0e in the Upanisads to ,e i enti!a& .ith brahman& '+atanaD *e itati0e p&anes a!hie0e ,y a 0ery a 0an!e yogin" Bhi))huD An 5a&msman28 a men i!ant mon6 .ho ,egs /or his ai&y /oo 3 the /eminine /orm is ,hi66huniD nun" BodhisattaD A man or .oman .ho is estine to a!hie0e en&ightenment" Sans6ritD b%ddhisat!a& BrahmanD The /un amenta&2 supreme an a,so&ute prin!ip&e o/ the !osmos in Ve i! an Mpanisa i! re&igion" Brahmin, A mem,er o/ the priest&y !aste in Aryan so!iety2 responsi,&e /or sa!ri/i!e an the transmission o/ the Ve as" Brahmacari+a, The ho&y &i/e o/ !hastity2 the Guest /or en&ightenment an &i,eration /rom pain" Buddha, An En&ightene or A.a6ene person" Ca))a*atti, The >or& #u&er or Mni0ersa& King o/ In ian /o&6&ore2 .ho .ou& go0ern the .ho&e .or& an impose Husti!e an righteousness ,y /or!e" Ceto-*imutti, The 5re&ease o/ the min 83 a synonym /or en&ightenment an the a!hie0ement o/ Ni,,ana" Dhamma, Origina&&y2 the natura& !on ition o/ things2 their essen!e2 the /un amenta& &a. o/ their

e;isten!e3 thenD re&igious truth2 the o!trines an pra!ti!es that ma6e up a parti!u&ar re&igious system" Sans6ritD dharma& Dharana, A yogi! termD 5!on!entration"8 A pro!ess o/ interna& 0isua&i9ation2 uring .hi!h the yogin ,e!omes !ons!ious o/ his o.n !ons!iousness" Du))ha, NA.ry2 /&a.e 2 unsatis/a!tory83 o/ten simp&y trans&ate as 5su//ering"8 E)agrata, In yoga2 the !on!entration o/ the min 5on a sing&e point"8 #otami, The name o/ any .oman ,e&onging to the -otama tri,e" Iddhi, The ominion o/ spirit o0er matter3 the 5mira!u&ous8 po.ers thought to !ome .ith pro/i!ien!y in yoga2 e"g"2 &e0itation or the a,i&ity to !hange shape at .i&&" -hana, A yogi! tran!e3 a !urrent o/ uni/ie thought that eepens in /our istin!t stages" Sans6ritD dhyana& -ina, A !onGueror2 an honorary tit&e o/ Bu .amma, A!tions3 ee s" Sans6ritD Karman& .handha, 5:eaps2 ,un &es2 &umps83 the !onstituents o/ the human persona&ity in the Bu ha<s theory o/ anatta& The /i0e 5heaps8 are ,o y2 /ee&ings2 per!eption2 0o&ition an !ons!iousness" .satri+a, The !aste o/ .arriors2 no,&emen an aristo!rats responsi,&e in Aryan so!iety /or go0ernment an e/ense" .usala, The 5s6i&&/u&8 or 5he&p/u&8 states o/ min an heart that Bu or er to a!hie0e en&ightenment" hists shou& !u&ti0ate in ha2 use ,y Kains"

/i""ana, 5E;tin!tion3 ,& out8D the e;tin!tion o/ se&/ .hi!h ,rings en&ightenment an &i,eration /rom pain BdukkhaC& Sans6ritD Nir!ana& /i)a+a, 5Co&&e!tions8 o/ is!ourses in the Pa&i Canon" /i+amas, The ,o i&y an psy!ho&ogi!a& is!ip&ines .hi!h are a prereGuisite /or yogi! me itation" !a""a00a, 5-oing Jorth83 the a!t o/ renoun!ing the .or& in or er to &i0e the ho&y &i/e o/ a mon6" Later2 the /irst step in Bu hist or ination" !ali, The North In ian ia&e!t use in the most important !o&&e!tion o/ Bu hist s!riptures"

!arini""ana, The 5Jina& Ni,,ana83 the /ina& rest o/ an en&ightene person a!hie0e at eath2 sin!e he or she .i&& not ,e re,orn into another e;isten!e"

!atimo))ha, 5Bon 83 a !eremony .here,y the ear&y mon6s !ame together e0ery si; years to re!ite the Bu hist (hamma3 &ater2 a/ter the Bu ha<s eath2 this ,e!ame a re!itation o/ the monasti! ru&e o/ the Or er an a !on/ession o/ transgressions2 .hi!h .as he& on!e a /ortnight" !ra)tri, Nature3 the natura& .or& in the phi&osophy o/ Sam6hya" !rana+ama, The ,reathing e;er!ises o/ yoga2 .hi!h in u!e a state o/ tran!e an .e&&1,eing" !rat+ahara, In yoga2 a 5.ith ra.a& o/ the senses28 the a,i&ity to !ontemp&ate an o,He!t .ith the inte&&e!t a&one" !urusa, The A,so&ute Spirit that per0a es a&& ,eings in the phi&osophy o/ Sam6hya" &a)+amuni, 5The Sage o/ the #epu,&i! o/ Sa66a28 a tit&e gi0en to the Bu ha"

&amadhi, ?ogi! !on!entration3 me itation3 one o/ the !omponents o/ the Eight/o& Path to en&ightenment" &am)h+a, 5(is!rimination8D a phi&osophy2 a6in to yoga2 .hi!h .as /irst prea!he ,y the sage Kapi&a in the se!on !entury B"C"E" &amma &amBuddha, A Tea!her o/ En&ightenment2 one o/ .hom !omes to humanity e0ery %22000 years3 Si hatta -otama is the Samma SamBu ha o/ our o.n age" &amsara, 5Keeping going83 the !y!&e o/ eath an re,irth2 .hi!h prope&s peop&e /rom one &i/e to the ne;t3 the transien!e an rest&essness o/ mun ane e;isten!e" &angha, Origina&&y a tri,a& assem,&y2 an an!ient go0erning ,o y in the o& repu,&i!s o/ North In ia3 &ater a se!t pro/essing the dhamma o/ a parti!u&ar tea!her3 /ina&&y2 the Bu hist Or er o/ Bhi66hus" &an)hara, 5Jormation83 the /ormati0e e&ement in kamma, .hi!h etermines an shapes one<s ne;t e;isten!e" &utta, A re&igious is!ourse" Sans6ritD Sutra& 1anha, The 5!ra0ing8 or 5 esire8 .hi!h is the most !ause o/ su//ering" 1apas, As!eti!ism3 se&/1morti/i!ation" 1athagata, 5Thus -one28 the tit&e gi0en to the Bu trans&ate as 5the Per/e!t One"8 ha a/ter en&ightenment2 sometimes

1ipita)a, Litera&&y 5Three Bas6ets28 the three main i0isions o/ the Pa&i Canon"

2padana, 5C&inging28 atta!hment3 it is etymo&ogi!a&&y re&ate to upadi, /ue&" 2posatha, The ays o/ /asting an a,stinen!e in the Ve i! tra ition" 2panisad, The esoteri! te;ts that e0e&ope a mysti!a& an spiritua&i9e un erstan ing o/ the Ve as2 an .hi!h .ou& /orm the ,asis o/ :in uism" 3assa, The retreat uring the monsoon rains /rom Kune to Septem,er" 3eda, The inspire te;ts2 re!ite an interprete ,y the brahmins, in the Aryan re&igious system" 3ina+a, The monasti! !o e o/ the Bu hist Or er3 one o/ the 5Three Bas6ets8 o/ the Tipita6a"

3ais+a, The thir !aste o/ /armers an sto!6,ree ers in the Aryan system" 3asana, The su,!ons!ious a!ti0ities o/ the min " (ama, The 5prohi,itions8 o,ser0e ,y yogins an as!eti!s2 .ho .ere /or,i en to stea&2 &ie2 ha0e se;2 ta6e into;i!ants or to 6i&& or harm another ,eing" (oga, The is!ip&ine o/ 5yo6ing8 the po.ers o/ the min in or er to !u&ti0ate a&ternati0e states o/ !ons!iousness an insight" (ogin, A pra!titioner o/ yoga"