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# Physics For Premedical Students

Sheet #2

Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

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2008 - 2009
Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009
By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim
Force and Newton’s Laws

Force
The word force usually is a push or pull. The concept of force gives us a
quantitative description of the interaction between two bodies or between a
body and its environment. When a force involves direct contact between
two bodies, we call it a contact force. Contact forces include the pushes or
pulls you exert with your hand, the force of a rope pulling on a block to
which it is tied, and the friction force that the ground exert on your feet
when sliding. There are also forces, called long-range forces, that act even
when the bodies are separated by empty space. You’ve experienced long
range forces if you’ve played with a pair of magnets. Gravity is also a long
range force; the sun exerts a gravitational pull on the earth, even over a
distance of 150 million kilometers, that keeps the earth in orbit. The force of
gravitational attraction that the earth exerts on your body is called your
weight.
Force is a vector quantity; you can push and pull a body in different
directions. Thus to describe a force, we need to describe the direction in
which it acts as well as its magnitude, the quantity that describes “how
much” or “how hard” the force pushes or pulls.

## Newton's First Law

• Newton's First Law of Motion states that a body will remain at rest or
will continue to move at a constant velocity, unless an external force
is applied.

This means that in order for the acceleration of a body to change, there must
be a net force applied to the body. Put another way, if the forces on an object
balance, there will be no acceleration (the object will continue at the same
speed).

## So, if we are told that a body is not accelerating (i.e. if it is moving at a

constant velocity), we know that the resultant (overall) force in any one
direction will be zero.

## For a body in equilibrium, the net force is zero.

v
F  0

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For this to be true, each component of the net force must be zero, so
F x  0, F
y 0

Example

The following forces are acting on a body. The body moves at a constant
speed of 5 m/s. Find force F.

## Newton's Second Law

If a net external force acts on a body, the body changes momentum. The net
force vector is equal to the change of momentum.

v dpv
 F  dt

## There are at least three important things of Newton’s second law:

1. The above equation is a vector equation. So we can use it in component
form
dpx dp y dpz
F x 
dt
, Fy 
dt
, F z 
dt

## 2. The statement of Newton’s second law refers to external forces. This

means forces exerted on the body by other bodies in its environment. It’s
impossible for a body to affect its own motion by exerting a force on itself;
if it was possible, you could lift yourself to the ceiling by pulling up on your
belt!

## 3. If mass is constant, we will have

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v dpv d mvv v
dv
 dt dt
F    m
dt
v v
 F  ma
or we can write it in component form :
F x  max , F y  ma y , F
z  maz
The acceleration has the same direction as the net force. Newton’s second
law is a fundamental law of nature, the basic relation between force and
motion.

## Example : A worker applies a constant horizontal force with magnitude 20

N to a box with mass 40 kg resting on a level surface with negligible
friction. What is the acceleration of the box?
N

F=20 N

mg

## There is no vertical acceleration, so we know that the two vertical forces

must sum to zero. There is only one horizontal force, and we have

F x  max

ax 
F x

20 N 20 kg m/s 2
  0.50 m/s 2
m 40 kg 40 kg

In fact, from Newton's Second Law we can derive the following equation:

## • Resultant Force on Body = Mass of Body × Acceleration of Body

This is sometimes written as F = ma, though you should make sure you
understand what this means (in particular, note that F is resultant force).

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## Newton's Third Law

• This law states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction.

For example, if a ball is placed on the table, the ball will exert a force on the
table. At the same time, however, the table exerts a force on the ball (it is
this force that prevents the ball from being sucked into the table!).

This "equal and opposite reaction force" is known as the normal reaction
force, and the letter N or R is commonly used to represent it.

if body A exerts a force on a body B (an “action”), then body b exerts a force
on body A (a “reaction”). These two force have the same magnitude but are
opposite in direction. These two forces act on different bodies. The
mathematical
v v
statement of Newton’s third law is
FAon B   FB on A

v
B FAon B

foot
v
FB on A

Note that the two forces described in Newton’s third law act on different
bodies. This is important in problems involving Newton’s first or second
law, which involve the forces that act on a body. For example, the net force
acting on the football in v
figure above is the vector sum of the weight of the
football and the force FAon B exerted by the kicker. You would not include the
v
force FB on A because this force acts on the kicker, not on the football.

## Some particular forces

1. Weight

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(1). The weight W of a body is a force that pulls the body directly toward a
nearby astronomical body; in everyday circumstances that astronomical
body is the Earth. The force primarily due to an attraction called a
gravitational attraction between the two bodies. We consider situations in
which a body with mass m is located at a point where the free-fall
acceleration has magnitude g, then weight can be written as
W  mg  mg j
(2). Since weight is a force, its SI unit is the Newton.
(3). Normally we assume that weight is measured from an inertial frame. If it
is, instead, measured from a non-inertial frame, the measurement gives an
apparent weight instead of the actual weight.
2. The normal force: When a
body is pressed against a
surface, the body
experiences a force that is
perpendicular to the
surface. The force is called
the normal force N, as
shown in above figure, the
name coming from the
mathematical term normal,
meaning “perpendicular”.
3. Tension: When a cord (or a
rope, cable, or other such
object) is attached to a
body and pulled taut, the
cord is said to be under
tension, as shown in the
figure. It pulls on the body
with a force T, whose
direction is away from the
body and along the cord at
the point of attachment.

1. Friction
(1). If we slide or attempt to n
slide a body over a surface, the motion
Fapplied
will be resisted by a bonding between
the body and the surface. The resistance
fs

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is regarded as a single force f, called the frictional force, or simply friction.
This force is directed along the surface, opposite the direction of the
intended motion, as shown in the figure. If in some situation, the friction can
be negligible, the surface is then said to be frictionless.
(2). If the body does not move, then the static frictional force fs and the
component of F that is parallel to the surface are equal in magnitude, and fs
is directed opposite that component of F.
(3). The magnitude of fs has a maximum value fs,max that is given by
f s ,max = µ s N where µ s is the coefficient of static friction and N is the
magnitude of the normal force. If the magnitude of the component of F that
is parallel to the surface exceeds f s ,max , then the body begins to slide along
the surface.
(4). If the body begins to slide along the surface, the magnitude of the
frictional force rapidly decreases to a value fk given by f K = µ K N . Where µ K
is the coefficient of kinetic friction.

Example 1:

A net force of 10 Newton’s acts on a box which has a mass of 2 kg. What
will be the acceleration of the box?

Solution:

## This is about as straightforward as it can get - Newton's Second Law says

that the acceleration of an object equals the net force on it divided by its
mass:

Note that if the net force is in Newton’s and the mass is in kilograms, the
acceleration is in m/s2. Why? Here's a way to think about it. The force "1
Newton" is defined to be the amount of force that will accelerate an object of
mass 1 kg at 1 m/s2.

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Example 2:

## How much horizontal net force is required to accelerate a 1000 kg car at 2

m/s2?

Solution:

Newton's 2nd Law relates an object's mass, the net force on it, and its
acceleration:

(with friction)

## OBJECTIVE: To examine our model of friction by investigating the sliding

of a block up a ramp.

THEORY:
The application of Newton's 2nd Law to this block-ramp system yields
similar results as in last week's set-up except that in this lab we are including
friction.

Consider Figure 1 where the block is moving up the ramp. A hanging weight
(mass m2) is attached to the string. The string exerts a tension (T) on both
objects. Application of Newton's 2nd Law gives for the block:

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∑ Fx = T - fk - Mg sin θ = Ma
(1)
∑ Fy = N - Mg cos θ = 0
(2)

## and for the hanging weight:

∑ Fx = 0
(3)
∑ Fy = -T + m2 g = m2 a
(4)

(Note that we have taken down to be the positive direction for the hanging
weight so that the accelerations of the block and hanging weight have the
same sign.)

## Eq. (2) yields the normal force as:

N = Mg cos θ
(5)

Solving for the kinetic friction force by combining Eqs. (1)& (4) gives:

## fk = (m2 - M sin θ ) g - (m2 + M) a

(6)

For each ramp angle, then, there is a different sized normal force and kinetic
friction force as described by Eqs. (5)&(6). However, our model of friction
states that the ratio of the kinetic friction force to the normal force (which is
the coefficient of kinetic friction) is constant,

µ k = fk / N .

The coefficient depends only on the kind of surfaces that are in contact. It is
independent of contact area. There is a slight dependence of µ k on speed,
with µ k decreasing as the object travels faster, but we will ignore this
effect since the block will not be moving at high speeds.

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Example
1) A 90 kg woman stands in an elevator. Find the force which the floor of the
elevator exerts on the woman a) when the elevator has an upward acceleration
of 2 m/sec2; b) when the elevator is rising at constant speed; c) when the
elevator has a downward acceleration of 2 m/sec2.

## Solution: We have a simple application of Newton's 2nd Law of y

motion. We need only draw the vector force diagram for all forces
acting on the woman. There are only two forces present, these are: N

Fearth on woman = W = mg .
a
Ffloor on woman = N .

## We select a CS with 'y' chosen upwards. The basic equation

involved with the problem is the 2nd law:

Fnet = m a . W

## a). ay > 0; Σ Fy = N - mg = m ay  N = m(g + a) =

(90)(9.8 + 2) = 1062 N.
b). a< 0; Σ Fy = N - mg = m ay  N = m(g + a) = (90)(9.8 - 2) =
702 N.

c) a = 0 (equilibrium)
Σ Fy = N - mg = 0  N = mg = (90)(9.8) = 882 N.

Equilibrium

## If the sum of the forces on an object is zero, then it is in equilibrium (even

if moving with constant velocity). In 2-D,

Fx = 0, Fy = 0

## The two forces acting on the mass are the

upward force exerted by the table, n, (n for

mg

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‘normal’ or perpendicular direction) and the downward pull of gravity, mg.
Thus,

Fy = n – mg = 0, or n = mg

Example: Mass suspended by ropes. Find the tensions, T1, T2, and T3, in the
ropes.

## The tensions are the forces with which the

ropes pull on the knots which tie the ropes 30o 50o
together. The mass is in equilibrium, so T2
T1

Fy = T3 – mg, T3

m = 20 kg
so T3 = mg = (20 kg)(9.8 m/s2) = 196 N

The knot is in equilibrium. We show the forces acting on the knot on a x-y
coordinate system. Then
y
Fx = -T1cos(30o) + T2cos(50o) = 0
T2
T1
Fy = T1sin(30o) + T2sin(50o) – T3 = 0 30o 50o
x
Or, 0.866T2 = 0.643T1
T3
0.5T1 + 0.766T2 = 196 N

## Then, T2 = 0.643T1/0.866 = 0.643(183)/0.866, or T2 = 136 N

n
m = 4 kg
F = 20 N

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Example: A 4-kg block is pulled along a level frictionless surface by a 20-N
horizontal force. What is the acceleration of the block?

A ‘freebody’ diagram is given to the right, showing all the forces acting on
the mass. Applying the 2nd law,

Fx = max, or 25 N = (5 kg)ax, or

ax = 20/4 = 5 m/s2

## Or, n – mg = 0, or n = mg = (4kg)(9.8 m/s2) = 39.2 N

Example:

The block in the example above is pulled with the 20-N force at an angle of
30o above the surface.

## The free body diagram is given to the

n
right, and the forces are also shown on m = 4 kg F = 20 N
an x-y coordinate system. Now, 30o

Fx = Fcosθ = max
mg
20N cos(30o) = 17.3 N = (4 kg)ax
y
ax = 17.3/4 = 4.3 m/s2
n F
Fy = Fsinθ + n – mg = 0 θ
x

n = mg - Fsinθ
mg
= (4kg)(9.8 m/s2) –
(20N)sin(30o)

n = 29.2 N

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## Example: Inclined plane without friction.

y
n n

mg sinθ
mg cosθ x
θ
mg θ mg

Find the acceleration down the plane and the normal force exerted on the
block by the plane.
For simplicity, we choose a coordinate system with the y-axis perpendicular
to the plane and resolve the forces into x- and y-components. This way, we
know that ay = 0 and we only have to find ax. Then,

Fy = n – mg cosθ = ay = 0, n = mg cosθ

## Fx = mg sinθ = max, ax = g sinθ

So the inclination of the plane reduces the normal force below that for a
level surface (mg). If θ = 30o, for example, then the normal force is 0.866
mg and the acceleration down the incline is 4.9 m/s2.

Example: n

F = 35 N
A 5-kg block is pulled along a fk
horizontal surface with a 35-N
horizontal force. The coefficient of
kinetic friction between the block and mg
the surface is 0.4. Find the acceleration
of the block.

Fy = n – mg = 0, n = mg = (5 kg)(9.8 m/s2) = 49 N

## fk = µkn = µkmg = 0.4(5 kg)(9.8 m/s2) = 19.6 N

Fx = F – fk = max

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35 N – 19.6 N = (5 kg)ax, ax = 3.1 m/s2
n
Example: F = 35 N
15 o
The block in the above example is pulled fk
with a force of 35 N at an angle of 15o
above the horizon. Find the acceleration. mg

We will refer to the diagram to the right, where we have resolved the applied
force into x- and y- components. y

Fy = n + Fsinθ – mg = 0, n
Fsinθ
n = mg - Fsinθ fk Fcosθ
x
= (5 kg)(9.8 m/s2) –(35 N)sin(15o) =
39.9 N mg
fk = µkn = 0.4(39.9 N) = 16.0 N

Fx = Fcosθ – fk = max
(35 N)cos(15o) – 16.0 N = (5 kg)ax
ax = 3.56 m/s2

Note that the acceleration is actually larger than when pulled horizontally
with the same force. Does this make sense? Would this be the case if the
angle were much larger than 15o?

## Example: Mass and pulley system.

m1
Two masses are connected by a string
draped over a light, frictionless pulley, as
shown to the right. The weight of the
hanging mass pulls the other mass along m2
the surface. Friction exists between mass
1 and the surface. We want to find the
tension in the cord and the acceleration of the masses.

## We apply Newton’s 2nd law to each mass separately.

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Mass 1:
mass 1 n
a
Fy = n – m1g = 0, n = m1g fk T

Fx = T – fk = m1a, or m1g

T - µkm1g = m1a
T
Mass 2: mass 2

## There are two unknowns (T and a) and two m1g

equations (boxed). If we add the two
equations (left 1 + left 2 = right 1 + right 2) we will get

## m2g - µkm1g = (m1 + m2)a

( m 2 − µ k m 1 )g
or, a=
( m1 + m 2 )

## This chapter deals with rotational kinematics – the relationships between

rotational position, velocity, acceleration and time. Rotational dynamics will
be discussed in the next chapter. Dynamics deals with energy, momentum,
and forces. Universal gravitation is also discussed in this chapter in part
since satellite and planetary motion involves rotation.

## Angular displacement, velocity, and acceleration

r s
θ
Angle (θ) can be defined in terms of radius (r) and
arc length (s) on a circle as

s
θ=
r

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## Unless otherwise stated, θ is usually measured in the counterclockwise

direction from the positive x-axis. If s and r are measured in the same units
(e.g., m), then the above equation gives θ is in radians. Angle can also be
measured in degrees or revolutions.

## Average angular velocity is given by

∆θ
ω=
∆t

The instantaneous angular velocity is just the average angular velocity in the
limit of very short time interval. Depending on units for θ and t, units for ω
can be rad/s, deg/s, rev/s, rev/min (rpm), etc.

∆ω
α=
∆t

## The relationships above are mathematically similar to those for motion in 1-

D. Thus, we can get the equations for constant angular acceleration from
those for constant linear acceleration by appropriately changing the
variables.

## 1-D motion with constant a Rot. motion with

constant α

∆x = v 0 t + 12 a t 2 ∆θ = ω 0 t + 21 α t 2
x →θ
v = v0 + a t ω = ω0 + α t
v →ω
2 2
v 2 = v 0 + 2 a ∆x a →α ω 2 = ω0 + 2 α ∆θ

## It is important that the units in the above equations be compatible. For

example, if α is in rad/s2, then ω should be in rad/s, t in s, and you will get θ

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in rad. Also, don’t mix the left and right equations above. For example, the
equation ∆θ = v 0 t + 21 α t 2 would not make sense. Also, don’t confuse α and
a, although they look similar.

Example:

A wheel increases its rotational velocity from 200 rpm to 300 rpm in 10 sec.

## ω 0 = ( 200 rev / min)( 1 min/ 60 s )( 2π rad / rev ) = 20.9 rad / s

ω = ( 300 rev / min)( 1 min/ 60 s )( 2π rad / rev ) = 31.4 rad / s
∆ω ω − ω 0 31.4 rad / s − 20.9 rad / s
α= = = = 1.05 rad / s 2
∆t ∆t 10 s

## θ = ω 0 t + 21 α t 2 = ( 20.9 rad / s )( 10 s ) + 21 ( 1.05 rad / s 2 )( 10 s ) 2 = 261.5 rad

θ
no . turns = = 41.6

(ω + ω )
( Or , use θ = ω t = 0 t )
2

## Relationship between angular and linear motion

Since s = rθ, then it follows that

∆s ∆θ
=r , or vt = rω
∆t ∆t

∆v t ∆ω
=r , or at = rα
∆t ∆t

In the above, vt is the tangential speed of a point going around a circle and at
is the component of acceleration tangent to the circle.

Example:

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A merry-go-round rotates at a constant angular speed. It takes 20 sec to
make a complete revolution. What is the speed of a rider who is 4 m from
the center?

ω= = = 0.314 rad / s
∆t 20 s
v t = rω = ( 4 m )( 0.314 rad / s ) = 1.26 m / s

## The speed of a rider increases as he moves further from the center.

Centripetal acceleration

## An object moving in a circle can have a component of acceleration tangent

to its path if it has an angular acceleration ( at = rα ). This is related to the
change in the speed. In addition, the object can have a radial component
(towards or away from the center) because it is moving in a curved path,
even is its speed is constant. This is also called the centripetal acceleration.
These two components of acceleration
v1 v1
are
v2 ∆v ∆θ
∆s
∆θ v2
∆v v2 r
at = ac = .
∆t r
v = |v1| =v |v2|
The diagram to the right shows how the
ac
centripetal acceleration is obtained for v ac
uniform circular motion (constant
speed). Because of the change in direction, the ac
velocity changes by an amount ∆v which is directed v

## toward the center of the circle. From the similarity of

the triangles formed by sides ∆s and r and by ∆v and v, we have

∆s ∆v
∆θ = =
r v
v∆s
∆v =
r
∆v v ∆s v v2
ac = = = v=
∆t r ∆t r r

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So, for uniform circular motion, the acceleration is always directed toward
the center of the circle even though the speed is constant.

Example:

## A car goes around a circular track of circumference 2000 m with constant

speed of 1 minute. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the car?

∆s 2000 m
v= = = 33.3 m / s
∆t 60 s
∆s 2000 m
r= = = 318 m
2π 2π
v 2 ( 33.3 m / s ) 2
ac = = = 3.5 m / s 2
r 318 m

## As mentioned previously, an object can have both a

tangential and radial (centripetal) components of
acceleration if its speed is changing and it is ac
changing direction. Since these are mutually
perpendicular components of the acceleration, then the magnitude of the
total acceleration is

∆v v2
2
a = at + ac
2
, where a t = and a c =
∆t r

Centripetal force

By Newton’s 2nd law, an object moving in a circle with constant speed must
have a net force directed toward the center of the circle given by
v2
Fc = ma c = m
r

Example:

Suppose that the car going around the track in the above example has a mass
of 1500 kg. The net force acting on the car is then

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## What is the origin of the centripetal force on

the car going around the track? n

## If the track is flat with no banking, then the

centripetal force is entirely due to friction Fc
between the tires and the track. This would
require a coefficient of friction given by mg

f s Fc 5250 N
µs = = = = 0.36
n mg ( 1500 kg )( 9.8 m / s 2 )

(Note: This might be considered static friction even though the car is
moving if the tires are not sliding.)

## To avoid the possibility of n

n
the car skidding because of θ
n cosθ
not enough friction, the track
can be banked so that the n sinθ
normal force has a radial
component. Then at just the mg
mg
right bank angle no friction
is required and

v2
Fc = m = n sin θ
r
mg = n cos θ

## which gives for the optimum angle of bank

v2
tan θ = .
gr

Example:

What is the effective weight of a person when at the top and when at the
bottom of a Ferris wheel?

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## Bottom: Top: n = Weff

n = Weff

ac
ac
mg

mg
The effective weight is the normal force
exerted by the Ferris wheel seat on the person. At the bottom,
v2
n − mg = ma c = m
r
2
v v2
W eff = n = m( g + ) = mg ( 1 + )
r gr

At the top,
v2
mg − n = ma c = m
r
2
v v2
W eff = n = m ( g − ) = mg ( 1 − )
r gr

So, the person ‘weighs’ more at the bottom and less at the top. The
v2
fractional change in his effective weight is ±
gr .

Example:

A Ferris wheel has radius r = 8 m and it takes 30 sec to make one revolution.
What is the effective change in the weight of a 160 lb person at the bottom
and top of the Ferris wheel?

2π r 2π ( 8 m )
v= = = 1.68 m / s
∆t 30 s
v2 ( 1.68 m / s ) 2
= = 0.036
g r ( 9.8 m / s 2 )( 8 m )
 v2 
∆W = ± mg   = ± ( 160 lb )( 0.036 ) = ± 5.7 lb
 gr 

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Work Done

## Suppose a force F acts on a body, causing it to move in a particular

direction. Then the work done by the force is the component of F in the
direction of motion × the distance the body moves as a result. Work done is
measured in joules (which has symbol J).

## So if we have a constant force of magnitude F newtons, which moves a body

a distance s (meters) along a flat surface, the work done is F × s joules.

Now suppose that this force is at an angle of a to the horizontal. If the body
moves a distance of s meters along the ground, then the work done is F cos a
× s (since F cos a is the component of the force in the direction of motion).

## Work Done Against Gravity

Now suppose that the force we are considering is one which causes a body
to be lifted off of the ground. We call the work done by the force the "work
done against gravity". This is equal to mgs joules, where s is the vertical
distance moved by the body, m is the mass of the body and g is the
acceleration due to gravity. [Compare with "gravitational potential energy"
below].

Energy

## The energy of a body is a measure its ability to do work.

Kinetic Energy

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The kinetic energy (K.E.) of a body is the energy a body has as a result of its
motion. A body which isn't moving will have zero kinetic energy, therefore.

• K.E. = ½ mv2

## Gravitational potential energy (G.P.E.) is the energy a body has because of

its height above the ground.

• G.P.E. = mgh

## where h is the height of the body above the ground.

There are also other types of potential energy (such as elastic potential
energy). Basically, the total potential energy measures the energy of the body
due to its position.

Conservation of Energy

If gravity is the only external force which does work on a body, then the
total energy of the body will remain the same, a property known as the
conservation of energy.

## If energy is not conserved, then it is used to do work.

In other words, the work done is equal to the change in energy. For example,
the work done against gravity is equal to the change in the potential energy
of the body and the work done against all resistive forces is equal to the
change in the total energy.

Power

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Power is the rate at which work is done (measured in watts (W)), in other
words the work done per second.

## • Power = Force × Velocity

For example, if the engine of a car is working at a constant rate of 10kW, the
forward force generated is power/velocity = 10 000 / v, where v is the
velocity of the car (the 10 was changed to 10 000 so that we are using the
standard unit of W rather than kW).

Example

A car of mass 500kg is traveling along a horizontal road. The engine of the
car is working at a constant rate of 5kW. The total resistance to motion is
constant and is 250N. What is the acceleration of the car when its speed is
5m/s?

v

when v = 5:
500a = 750
a = 1.5

## Linear Momentum and Collisions

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p = mv [kg⋅m/s]

## Momentum is a vector whose direction is the same as the velocity. So, in 2-

D

px = mvx, py = mvy

Momentum is not the same as kinetic energy. K = ½ mv2 is a scalar and has
no direction. Also, K depends on the square of the speed. Because of this
difference, two different objects can have the same momentum but have
different kinetic energies.

Example:

Car A has a mass of 2000 kg and is traveling at 10 m/s north. Car B has a
mass of 1000 kg and is traveling at 20 m/s north. Both cars have the same
momentum –

## However, they have different kinetic energies -

KA = ½ (2000 kg)(10 m/s)2 = 100,000 J

dp
F=
dt

## This is the same as F = ma, since

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dp d ( m v ) dv
F= = =m = ma .
dt dt dt

Impulse

Impulse is defined as

## Impulse = Fdt = Fave t [N⋅s = kg⋅m/s]

The impulse exerted by a force depends on the time of application and the
average force during that time. From Newton’s 2nd law, the impulse on an
object is the same as its change in momentum:

Example: vi

## A pitcher throws a baseball toward a batter with a Vf

speed of 40 m/s toward a batter. The batter hits the
ball straight back towards the pitcher with a speed of
30 m/s. A baseball has a mass of about 145 g.

## What is the impulse exerted on the ball by the bat?

Assume right = + , left = -

Impulse = ∆p = mvf – mvi = m(vf – vi) = (0.145 kg)(30 m/s – (-40 m/s))

## = (0.145 kg)(70 m/s) = 10.15 kg-m/s

If the contact time was 5 milliseconds, what was the average force exerted
by the bat on the ball?

∆p 10.15 kg ⋅ m / s
F= = = 2030 N
∆t 0.005 s

## Impulse from a variable force

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If the force varies during a contact, then the impulse depends on the average
force during the contact. This is equivalent to finding the impulse from the
area under the force versus time graph.
F
area = Fave ∆t

Fave
t
∆t

(A point of possible confusion - The above is similar to, but not the same as,
the work energy theorem, which states that Fave∆x ( = area under F vs x
curve) = ∆KE.)

## Reducing the impact force during a collision

The damage that results from a collision is a consequence of the size of the
impact force. So, to reduce the damage we need to spread out the time of
impact.

Example:

An egg dropped from a height of 1 m onto a concrete floor will break, but it
will not break if dropped from the same height onto a pillow. Why? The
impulse is the same in both cases (same ∆p). The pillow increases time of
contact (∆t) and thus reduces the average force (F).

## Other examples would include a safety airbag in a car, a padded dashboard,

a flexile bumper on a car, …

## Conservation of Linear Momentum

Consider a collision between two balls. During
the collision the balls exert equal and oppositely 1 2
F12 - F12
directed forces on each other (Newton’s 3rd law).
That is,

F12 = -F21

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Since the contact times are the same for both masses,

F12 ∆t = -F21 ∆t

If all other forces can be neglected, then from Newton’s 2nd law

∆p1 = - ∆p2

## The above argument applies to an arbitrary number of particles. If Fext = 0,

then the total momentum of a system remains constant in time.

Example:

## A 10-kg gun fires a 25-g

bullet with a speed of 300
m/s. What would be the
recoil speed of the gun? Assume the gun is held lightly so that its recoil is
not restricted.

pf = pi

mbvb + mgvg = 0

## vg = -mbvb/mg = -(0.025)(300)/10 = - 0.75 m/s

Note: If you hold the gun tightly, its recoil speed will be much less since
your mass adds to the gun in the above calculation.

Collisions

## Collisions can be classified as elastic or inelastic. In an elastic collision

kinetic energy is conserved. In an inelastic collision kinetic energy is not
conserved. When two colliding objects stick together the collision is

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referred to as completely inelastic. In a completely inelastic collision you
have the maximum loss of kinetic energy; however, not all the kinetic energy
is necessarily lost.

Two colliding billiard balls may be nearly elastic (but not completely). If
you throw a piece of putty and it sticks to a wall, then the collision is
completely inelastic.

conserved.

Example:

## A 5000-kg truck traveling at 10 m/s makes a head-on collision with a 1000-

kg car traveling at 30 m/s. The car and truck become entangled and stick
together on impact. What is their common velocity immediately after the
collision?

Choose the initial direction of motion of the truck as the positive direction.
Then

p f = pi
( m t + m c )v f = m t v t + m c v c
m t v t + m c v c ( 5000 )( 10 ) + ( 1000 )( −30 )
vf = = = 3.33 m / s
mt + mc 5000 + 1000

Note that we used -30 m/s for the velocity of the car. The fact that we got
+3.3 m/s means that the entangled vehicles move in the direction of the
truck’s initial velocity.

1) A freight car weighing 25 tons runs into another freight car of the same
weight. The first was moving at 6 mi/hr (8.8 ft/sec) and the second was at rest.
If the cars are coupled together after the collision, what is their final speed?

## Solution: We have a collision problem in 1-dimension. We draw both 'before'

and 'after' pictures and select a coordinate system as shown. We have
conservation of linear momentum: pAi ⊕ pB i = pA f ⊕ pB f .

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Before
After
vo vf
A Santa Fe B Santa Fe A Santa Fe B Santa Fe
x x

## We have a perfectly inelastic collision problem. Hence: m 1 v1i ⊕ m2

v2i = (m1 + m2) vf

## For x-components this becomes :

m1 v1 + 0 = (m1 + m2) vf .

Since m1 = m2 , we have:

## vf = (1/2) v1 = 3 mi/hr (4.4 ft/sec).

2) Two blocks are travelling toward each other. The first has a speed of 10
cm/sec and the second a speed of 60 cm/sec. After the collision the second is
observed to be travelling with a speed of 20 cm/sec in a direction opposite to
its initial velocity. If the weight of the first block is twice that of the second,
determine: (a) the velocity of the first block after collision; (b) whether the
collision was elastic or inelastic.

## Solution: We have a collision problem in 1-dimension. We draw both 'before'

and 'after' pictures and select a coordinate system as shown.

Before After
vA vA vB
i vB i
f f
A B A B
x x

## Since the surface is frictionless, and since no work is performed by either mg

or the normal, then the net force acting on the system is 0, and we have
conservation of linear momentum:

## p1i ⊕ p2i = p1i ⊕ p1f

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## Thus adding the x-components we have: m1v1i - m2v2i = m1 v1f + m2

v2f

Since m1 = 2 m2 we find:
2 v1i - v2i = 2 v1f + v2f  (2)(10) - (60) = 2 v1f + 20

08-2

## The initial KE is given by:

KEI = (1/2) m1 (v1I)2 + (1/2) m2 (v2I)2 . This gives:

## The final KE is:

KEf = (1/2) m1 (v1f)2 + (1/2) m2 (v2f)2 . This gives:

## 3) A block of mass 200 g, sliding with a speed of 12 cm/sec on a smooth level

surface, makes a head-on, elastic collision with a block of unknown mass,
initially at rest. After the collision the velocity of the 200 g block is 4 cm/sec in
the same direction as its initial velocity. Determine the mass of the 2nd block
and its speed after the collision.

## Solution: We have a collision problem in 1-dimension. We draw both 'before'

and 'after' pictures and select a coordinate system as shown.

Before After
vA i vA vB
f f
A B A B
x x

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Since the surface is frictionless, and since no work is performed by either mg
or the normal, then the net force acting on the system is 0, and we have
conservation of linear momentum:

## Thus adding the x-components we have: m1v1I + 0 = m1 v1f + m2 v2f .

This gives: (200)(12) = (200)(4) + m2 v2f .

Since we have 2 unknowns we look for an 'energy condition'. We are told that
the collision is elastic. Hence, we also have conservation of KE and write:

## We may cancel the (1/2) factors, and we obtain: (200)(12) 2 + 0 =

(200)(4)2 + m2(v2f)2 .

Thus (m2 v2f) v2f = (200)(8) v2f = (200)(144) - (200)(16) or 8 v2f = 128.

## 4) A 0.005 kg bullet going 300 m/sec strikes and is imbedded in a 1.995 kg

block which is the bob of a ballistic pendulum. Find the speed at which the
block and bullet leave the equilibrium position, and the height which the center
of gravity of the bullet-block system reaches above the initial position of the
center of gravity.

## Solution: A 'ballistic pendulum' is a device which can be used to measure the

muzzle velocity of a gun. The bullet is fired horizontally into the block of
wood and becomes imbedded in the block. The block is attached to a light rod
and can swing like a pendulum. After the collision the 'bob' swings upward
and the maximum height it reaches is determined. From this information plus
the masses of the bullet and block, one can determine the velocity of the bullet.
The critical point to note in this problem is that we have two distinct problems:

## Problem 1: A collision problem. Apply Conservation of Linear Momentum

and energy relation. Problem 2: A work-energy type problem. Apply
conservation of total mechanical energy.

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After
Before
x
x
M+m v f
M
vA i

## (Note: We were able to 'solve' the collision problem without an 'energy

relation' since the collision was a perfectly inelastic collision. That is the two
objects had the same final velocity. This condition is equivalent to an 'energy
relation', since for such a collision the loss of KE is a maximum possible
amount).

Part 2: In the work-energy part of the problem we note that the only force
which performs work is gravity. Hence, we have only conservative forces
present, and we have conservation of total mechanical energy.

## We draw the figure indicating 'initial' and 'final'

situations. We may choose the 0 level for Pendulum
gravitational potential energy anywhere we like.
Hence, select UI = 0. h
M+m
Then: KEI + UI = KEf + Uf .
v f
2
(1/2)(m + M) vf = 0 + (m + M)g h

Here vf is the 'initial' velocity in this part of the problem ( 0.75 m/sec) and
(m+M) is the combined mass of bullet & block.

## Thus: h = v f2/2g = (.75)2/(2)(9.8) = .0287 m or 2.87 cm.

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Note the reversal of this problem. If we know the masses and measure 'h', then
from part 2 we can calculate 'v f' (the initial velocity of bullet & block in the
2nd part of the problem). This is the same as vf , the final velocity in the
collision problem. Thus using this we can calculate vAi the 'muzzle' velocity
of the bullet.

## 1. An object is raised above the ground gaining a certain amount of potential

energy. If the same object is raised twice as high it gains __________.

## a.four times as much potential energy

b.twice as much potential energy
c.neither of these

## The potential energy of an object is directly proportional to the height of the

object above the ground (or some other arbitrary "zero-level") in accordance
with the equation

PE = m*g*h

If the h in the equation is doubled (the object is raised twice as high), then the
PE is doubled as well.

## 2. When an object is lifted 10 meters, it gains a certain amount of potential

energy. If the same object is lifted 20 meters, its potential energy is _____.

## a. less b. the same c. twice as much

d. four times as much e. more than 4 time as much

## The potential energy of an object is directly proportional to the height of the

object above the ground (or some other arbitrary "zero-level") in accordance

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PE = m*g*h

## If the h in the equation is doubled (say from 10 m to 20 m), then the PE is

doubled as well.

3. A 1000 kg car and a 2000 kg car are hoisted the same distance at constant
speed in a gas station. Raising the more massive car requires ____________.

c. twice as much
a. less work b. as much work
work.
d. four times as much e. more than 4 times as much
work work

The amount of work done by a force to displace an object is found from the
equation

W = F*d*cos(Theta)

The force required to raise the car at constant speed is equivalent to the
weight (m*g) of the car. Since the 2000-kg car weight 2X as much as the
1000-kg car, it would require twice as much work to lift it the same distance.

## a. moving b. falling c. at an elevated position

d. at rest e. none of these

Pay attention to the keywords "must be." Kinetic energy is the energy of
motion and an object must be moving if it has kinetic energy. The object
could be falling and could be at an elevated position; the object must not be
at rest if it has kinetic energy.

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5. An object that has potential energy has this energy because of its
_____________.

## a. speed b. acceleration c. momentum d. position e. none of these

Potential energy is the energy of position and any object which has potential
energy owes this PE to the fact that it has some given position other than the
so-called "zero-level position."

## 6. An arrow is drawn so that it has 40 J of potential energy. When fired

horizontally, the arrow will have a kinetic energy of ________.

## a. less than 40 J b. more than 40 J c. 40 J

A drawn arrow has 40 J of stored energy due to the stretch of the bow and
string. When released, this energy is converted into kinetic energy such that
the arrow will have 40 J of kinetic energy upon being fired. Of course, this
assumes no energy is lost to air resistance, friction or any other external forces
and that the arrow is shot horizontally.

## 7. A 2 kg mass is held 4 m above the ground. What is the approximate

potential energy of the mass with respect to the ground?

a. 20 J b. 40 J c. 60 J d. 80 J e. none of these

PE = m*g*h

## where m is mass, h is height, and g=10 m/s/s (approx.). Plugging and

chugging into this equation yields PE=(2 kg)*(10 m/s/s)*(4 m) = 80 J.

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8. A 2 kg mass has 40 J of potential energy with respect to the ground.
Approximately how far is it located above the ground?

a. 1 m b. 2 m c. 3 m d. 4 m e. none of these

PE = m*g*h

## where m is mass, h is height, and g=10 m/s/s (approx.). Plugging and

chugging into this equation yields 40 J = (2 kg)*(10 m/s/s)*(h); rearranging
and solving for h yields an answer of 2 m.

9. A ball is projected into the air with 100 J of kinetic energy which is
transformed to gravitational potential energy at the top of its trajectory.
When it returns to its original level after encountering air resistance, its
kinetic energy is ____________.

a. less than 100 J b. 100 J c. more than 100 J d. not enough information given

During any given motion, if external forces do work upon the object, then the
total mechanical energy will be changed. If external forces do negative work
(i.e., F*d*cos(Theta) is a negative number), then the final TME is less than
the initial TME. In this case, air resistance does negative work to remove
energy from the system. Thus, when the ball returns to its original height,
their is less TME than immediately after it was thrown. At this same starting
height, the PE is the same as before. The reduction in TME is made up for by
the fact that the kinetic energy has been reduced; the final KE is less than the
initial KE.

10. A woman lifts a box from the floor. She then carries with constant speed
to the other side of the room, where she puts the box down. How much work
does she do on the box while walking across the floor at constant speed?

## a. zero J b. more than zero J c. more information needed to determine

For any given situation, the work done by a force can be calculated using the

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equation

W = F*d*cos(Theta)

where F is the force doing the work, d is the displacement of the object, and
Theta is the angle between the force and the displacement. In this specific
situation, the woman is applying an upward force on the box (she is carrying
it) and the displacement of the box is horizontal. The angle between the force
(vertical) and the displacement (upward) vectors is 90 degrees. Since the
cosine of 90-degrees is 0, the woman does not do any work upon the box. A
detailed discussion of a similar situation

11. A car moving at 50 km/hr skids 20 m with locked brakes. How far will
the car skid with locked brakes if it is traveling at 150 km/hr?

a. 20 m b. 60 m. c. 90 m d. 120 m e. 180 m

When a car skids to a stop, the work done by friction upon the car is equal to
the change in kinetic energy of the car. Work is directly proportional to the
displacement of the car (skidding distance) and the kinetic energy is directly
related to the square of the speed (KE=0.5*m*v^2). For this reason, the
skidding distance is directly proportional to the square of the speed. So if the
speeds is tripled from 50 km/hr to 150 km/hr, then the stopping distance is
increased by a factor of 9 (from 20 m to 9*20 m; or 180 m).

12. Which has greater kinetic energy, a car traveling at 30 km/hr or a half-
as-massive car traveling at 60 km/hr?

a. the 30 km/hr car b. the 60 km/hr car c. both have the same kinetic energy

This problem is complicated by the fact that no mass is given for the two cars;
only the ratio of mass is known. The complication can be resolved in one of
two ways: 1) make up a mass for each car - such as 10 kg and 5 kg, or 2)
assign m as the mass of one of the cars and (1/2)m as the mass of the second
car. Then use the kinetic equation

KE = 0.5*m*v2

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and plug and chug. The mass can then be determined for each car and
compared. Using the second method yields the following results for the two
cars:

## KE = 450*m km2/hr2 KE = 900*m km2/hr2

13. A diver who weighs 500 N steps off a diving board that is 10 m above
the water. The diver hits the water with kinetic energy of ___________.

## a. 10 J b. 500 J c. 510 J d. 5000 J e. more than 5000 J.

The use of the work-energy theorem and a simple analysis will yield the
solution to this problem. Initially, there is only PE; finally, there is only KE.
Assuming negligible air resistance, the kinetic energy of the diver upon
hitting the water is equal to the potential energy of the diver on top of the
board.

PEi = KEf

m*g*hi = KEf

Substituting 500 N for m*g (500 N is the weight of the diver, not the mass)
and 10 m for h will yield the answer of 5000 J.

14. A 2500 N pile driver ram falls 10 m and drives a post 0.1 m into the
ground. The average impact force on the ram is _________.

## a. 2500 N b. 25000 N c. 250,000 N d. 2,500,000 N

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The use of the work-energy theorem and a simple analysis will yield the
solution to this problem. Initially, there is only PE; finally, there is neither PE
nor KE; external work has been done by an applied force upon the pile driver.
Assuming negligible air resistance, the kinetic energy of the diver upon
hitting the water is equal to the potential energy of the diver on top of the
board.

PEi + Wext = 0

PEi = - Wext

m*g*hi = - F*d*cos(Theta)

Substituting 2500 N for m*g (2500 N is the weight of the driver, not the
mass); 10 m for h; 0.1 m for the displacement of the driver as caused by the
upward applied force exerted by the ram; and 90 degrees for Theta (the angle
between the applied force and the displacement of the ram) will yield the
answer of 250000 N for F.

15. A person on the edge of a roof throws a ball downward. It strikes the
ground with 100 J of kinetic energy. The person throws another identical ball
upward with the same initial speed, and this too falls to the ground.
Neglecting air resistance, the second ball hits the ground with a kinetic
energy of ______________.

a. 100 J b. 200 J c. less than 100 J d. more than 200 J e. none of these

Quite surprisingly to many, each ball would hit the ground with the same
speed. In each case, the PE+KE of the balls immediately after being thrown is
the same (they are thrown with the same speed from the same height). Upon
hitting the ground, they must also have the same PE+KE. Since the PE is zero
(on the ground) for each ball, it stands to reason that their KE is also the same.
That's a little physics and a lot of logic - and try not to avoid the logic part by
trying to memorize the answer.

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____________.