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Sheet #2

Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

N v

ac

v ac

a

ac

v

2008 - 2009

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

Force and Newton’s Laws

Force

The word force usually is a push or pull. The concept of force gives us a

quantitative description of the interaction between two bodies or between a

body and its environment. When a force involves direct contact between

two bodies, we call it a contact force. Contact forces include the pushes or

pulls you exert with your hand, the force of a rope pulling on a block to

which it is tied, and the friction force that the ground exert on your feet

when sliding. There are also forces, called long-range forces, that act even

when the bodies are separated by empty space. You’ve experienced long

range forces if you’ve played with a pair of magnets. Gravity is also a long

range force; the sun exerts a gravitational pull on the earth, even over a

distance of 150 million kilometers, that keeps the earth in orbit. The force of

gravitational attraction that the earth exerts on your body is called your

weight.

Force is a vector quantity; you can push and pull a body in different

directions. Thus to describe a force, we need to describe the direction in

which it acts as well as its magnitude, the quantity that describes “how

much” or “how hard” the force pushes or pulls.

• Newton's First Law of Motion states that a body will remain at rest or

will continue to move at a constant velocity, unless an external force

is applied.

This means that in order for the acceleration of a body to change, there must

be a net force applied to the body. Put another way, if the forces on an object

balance, there will be no acceleration (the object will continue at the same

speed).

constant velocity), we know that the resultant (overall) force in any one

direction will be zero.

v

F 0

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

For this to be true, each component of the net force must be zero, so

F x 0, F

y 0

Example

The following forces are acting on a body. The body moves at a constant

speed of 5 m/s. Find force F.

If a net external force acts on a body, the body changes momentum. The net

force vector is equal to the change of momentum.

v dpv

F dt

1. The above equation is a vector equation. So we can use it in component

form

dpx dp y dpz

F x

dt

, Fy

dt

, F z

dt

means forces exerted on the body by other bodies in its environment. It’s

impossible for a body to affect its own motion by exerting a force on itself;

if it was possible, you could lift yourself to the ceiling by pulling up on your

belt!

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

v dpv d mvv v

dv

dt dt

F m

dt

v v

F ma

or we can write it in component form :

F x max , F y ma y , F

z maz

The acceleration has the same direction as the net force. Newton’s second

law is a fundamental law of nature, the basic relation between force and

motion.

N to a box with mass 40 kg resting on a level surface with negligible

friction. What is the acceleration of the box?

N

F=20 N

mg

must sum to zero. There is only one horizontal force, and we have

F x max

ax

F x

20 N 20 kg m/s 2

0.50 m/s 2

m 40 kg 40 kg

In fact, from Newton's Second Law we can derive the following equation:

This is sometimes written as F = ma, though you should make sure you

understand what this means (in particular, note that F is resultant force).

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

• This law states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction.

For example, if a ball is placed on the table, the ball will exert a force on the

table. At the same time, however, the table exerts a force on the ball (it is

this force that prevents the ball from being sucked into the table!).

This "equal and opposite reaction force" is known as the normal reaction

force, and the letter N or R is commonly used to represent it.

if body A exerts a force on a body B (an “action”), then body b exerts a force

on body A (a “reaction”). These two force have the same magnitude but are

opposite in direction. These two forces act on different bodies. The

mathematical

v v

statement of Newton’s third law is

FAon B FB on A

v

B FAon B

foot

v

FB on A

Note that the two forces described in Newton’s third law act on different

bodies. This is important in problems involving Newton’s first or second

law, which involve the forces that act on a body. For example, the net force

acting on the football in v

figure above is the vector sum of the weight of the

football and the force FAon B exerted by the kicker. You would not include the

v

force FB on A because this force acts on the kicker, not on the football.

1. Weight

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

(1). The weight W of a body is a force that pulls the body directly toward a

nearby astronomical body; in everyday circumstances that astronomical

body is the Earth. The force primarily due to an attraction called a

gravitational attraction between the two bodies. We consider situations in

which a body with mass m is located at a point where the free-fall

acceleration has magnitude g, then weight can be written as

W mg mg j

(2). Since weight is a force, its SI unit is the Newton.

(3). Normally we assume that weight is measured from an inertial frame. If it

is, instead, measured from a non-inertial frame, the measurement gives an

apparent weight instead of the actual weight.

2. The normal force: When a

body is pressed against a

surface, the body

experiences a force that is

perpendicular to the

surface. The force is called

the normal force N, as

shown in above figure, the

name coming from the

mathematical term normal,

meaning “perpendicular”.

3. Tension: When a cord (or a

rope, cable, or other such

object) is attached to a

body and pulled taut, the

cord is said to be under

tension, as shown in the

figure. It pulls on the body

with a force T, whose

direction is away from the

body and along the cord at

the point of attachment.

1. Friction

(1). If we slide or attempt to n

slide a body over a surface, the motion

Fapplied

will be resisted by a bonding between

the body and the surface. The resistance

fs

6

mg

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

is regarded as a single force f, called the frictional force, or simply friction.

This force is directed along the surface, opposite the direction of the

intended motion, as shown in the figure. If in some situation, the friction can

be negligible, the surface is then said to be frictionless.

(2). If the body does not move, then the static frictional force fs and the

component of F that is parallel to the surface are equal in magnitude, and fs

is directed opposite that component of F.

(3). The magnitude of fs has a maximum value fs,max that is given by

f s ,max = µ s N where µ s is the coefficient of static friction and N is the

magnitude of the normal force. If the magnitude of the component of F that

is parallel to the surface exceeds f s ,max , then the body begins to slide along

the surface.

(4). If the body begins to slide along the surface, the magnitude of the

frictional force rapidly decreases to a value fk given by f K = µ K N . Where µ K

is the coefficient of kinetic friction.

Example 1:

A net force of 10 Newton’s acts on a box which has a mass of 2 kg. What

will be the acceleration of the box?

Solution:

that the acceleration of an object equals the net force on it divided by its

mass:

Note that if the net force is in Newton’s and the mass is in kilograms, the

acceleration is in m/s2. Why? Here's a way to think about it. The force "1

Newton" is defined to be the amount of force that will accelerate an object of

mass 1 kg at 1 m/s2.

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

Example 2:

m/s2?

Solution:

Newton's 2nd Law relates an object's mass, the net force on it, and its

acceleration:

(with friction)

of a block up a ramp.

THEORY:

The application of Newton's 2nd Law to this block-ramp system yields

similar results as in last week's set-up except that in this lab we are including

friction.

Consider Figure 1 where the block is moving up the ramp. A hanging weight

(mass m2) is attached to the string. The string exerts a tension (T) on both

objects. Application of Newton's 2nd Law gives for the block:

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

∑ Fx = T - fk - Mg sin θ = Ma

(1)

∑ Fy = N - Mg cos θ = 0

(2)

∑ Fx = 0

(3)

∑ Fy = -T + m2 g = m2 a

(4)

(Note that we have taken down to be the positive direction for the hanging

weight so that the accelerations of the block and hanging weight have the

same sign.)

N = Mg cos θ

(5)

Solving for the kinetic friction force by combining Eqs. (1)& (4) gives:

(6)

For each ramp angle, then, there is a different sized normal force and kinetic

friction force as described by Eqs. (5)&(6). However, our model of friction

states that the ratio of the kinetic friction force to the normal force (which is

the coefficient of kinetic friction) is constant,

µ k = fk / N .

The coefficient depends only on the kind of surfaces that are in contact. It is

independent of contact area. There is a slight dependence of µ k on speed,

with µ k decreasing as the object travels faster, but we will ignore this

effect since the block will not be moving at high speeds.

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

Example

1) A 90 kg woman stands in an elevator. Find the force which the floor of the

elevator exerts on the woman a) when the elevator has an upward acceleration

of 2 m/sec2; b) when the elevator is rising at constant speed; c) when the

elevator has a downward acceleration of 2 m/sec2.

motion. We need only draw the vector force diagram for all forces

acting on the woman. There are only two forces present, these are: N

Fearth on woman = W = mg .

a

Ffloor on woman = N .

involved with the problem is the 2nd law:

Fnet = m a . W

(90)(9.8 + 2) = 1062 N.

b). a< 0; Σ Fy = N - mg = m ay N = m(g + a) = (90)(9.8 - 2) =

702 N.

c) a = 0 (equilibrium)

Σ Fy = N - mg = 0 N = mg = (90)(9.8) = 882 N.

Equilibrium

if moving with constant velocity). In 2-D,

Fx = 0, Fy = 0

upward force exerted by the table, n, (n for

mg

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

‘normal’ or perpendicular direction) and the downward pull of gravity, mg.

Thus,

Fy = n – mg = 0, or n = mg

Example: Mass suspended by ropes. Find the tensions, T1, T2, and T3, in the

ropes.

ropes pull on the knots which tie the ropes 30o 50o

together. The mass is in equilibrium, so T2

T1

Fy = T3 – mg, T3

m = 20 kg

so T3 = mg = (20 kg)(9.8 m/s2) = 196 N

The knot is in equilibrium. We show the forces acting on the knot on a x-y

coordinate system. Then

y

Fx = -T1cos(30o) + T2cos(50o) = 0

T2

T1

Fy = T1sin(30o) + T2sin(50o) – T3 = 0 30o 50o

x

Or, 0.866T2 = 0.643T1

T3

0.5T1 + 0.766T2 = 196 N

n

m = 4 kg

F = 20 N

11 mg

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

Example: A 4-kg block is pulled along a level frictionless surface by a 20-N

horizontal force. What is the acceleration of the block?

A ‘freebody’ diagram is given to the right, showing all the forces acting on

the mass. Applying the 2nd law,

Fx = max, or 25 N = (5 kg)ax, or

ax = 20/4 = 5 m/s2

Example:

The block in the example above is pulled with the 20-N force at an angle of

30o above the surface.

n

right, and the forces are also shown on m = 4 kg F = 20 N

an x-y coordinate system. Now, 30o

Fx = Fcosθ = max

mg

20N cos(30o) = 17.3 N = (4 kg)ax

y

ax = 17.3/4 = 4.3 m/s2

n F

Fy = Fsinθ + n – mg = 0 θ

x

n = mg - Fsinθ

mg

= (4kg)(9.8 m/s2) –

(20N)sin(30o)

n = 29.2 N

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

y

n n

mg sinθ

mg cosθ x

θ

mg θ mg

Find the acceleration down the plane and the normal force exerted on the

block by the plane.

For simplicity, we choose a coordinate system with the y-axis perpendicular

to the plane and resolve the forces into x- and y-components. This way, we

know that ay = 0 and we only have to find ax. Then,

Fy = n – mg cosθ = ay = 0, n = mg cosθ

So the inclination of the plane reduces the normal force below that for a

level surface (mg). If θ = 30o, for example, then the normal force is 0.866

mg and the acceleration down the incline is 4.9 m/s2.

Example: n

F = 35 N

A 5-kg block is pulled along a fk

horizontal surface with a 35-N

horizontal force. The coefficient of

kinetic friction between the block and mg

the surface is 0.4. Find the acceleration

of the block.

Fy = n – mg = 0, n = mg = (5 kg)(9.8 m/s2) = 49 N

Fx = F – fk = max

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

35 N – 19.6 N = (5 kg)ax, ax = 3.1 m/s2

n

Example: F = 35 N

15 o

The block in the above example is pulled fk

with a force of 35 N at an angle of 15o

above the horizon. Find the acceleration. mg

We will refer to the diagram to the right, where we have resolved the applied

force into x- and y- components. y

Fy = n + Fsinθ – mg = 0, n

Fsinθ

n = mg - Fsinθ fk Fcosθ

x

= (5 kg)(9.8 m/s2) –(35 N)sin(15o) =

39.9 N mg

fk = µkn = 0.4(39.9 N) = 16.0 N

Fx = Fcosθ – fk = max

(35 N)cos(15o) – 16.0 N = (5 kg)ax

ax = 3.56 m/s2

Note that the acceleration is actually larger than when pulled horizontally

with the same force. Does this make sense? Would this be the case if the

angle were much larger than 15o?

m1

Two masses are connected by a string

draped over a light, frictionless pulley, as

shown to the right. The weight of the

hanging mass pulls the other mass along m2

the surface. Friction exists between mass

1 and the surface. We want to find the

tension in the cord and the acceleration of the masses.

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

Mass 1:

mass 1 n

a

Fy = n – m1g = 0, n = m1g fk T

Fx = T – fk = m1a, or m1g

T - µkm1g = m1a

T

Mass 2: mass 2

equations (boxed). If we add the two

equations (left 1 + left 2 = right 1 + right 2) we will get

( m 2 − µ k m 1 )g

or, a=

( m1 + m 2 )

rotational position, velocity, acceleration and time. Rotational dynamics will

be discussed in the next chapter. Dynamics deals with energy, momentum,

and forces. Universal gravitation is also discussed in this chapter in part

since satellite and planetary motion involves rotation.

r s

θ

Angle (θ) can be defined in terms of radius (r) and

arc length (s) on a circle as

s

θ=

r

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

direction from the positive x-axis. If s and r are measured in the same units

(e.g., m), then the above equation gives θ is in radians. Angle can also be

measured in degrees or revolutions.

∆θ

ω=

∆t

The instantaneous angular velocity is just the average angular velocity in the

limit of very short time interval. Depending on units for θ and t, units for ω

can be rad/s, deg/s, rev/s, rev/min (rpm), etc.

∆ω

α=

∆t

D. Thus, we can get the equations for constant angular acceleration from

those for constant linear acceleration by appropriately changing the

variables.

constant α

∆x = v 0 t + 12 a t 2 ∆θ = ω 0 t + 21 α t 2

x →θ

v = v0 + a t ω = ω0 + α t

v →ω

2 2

v 2 = v 0 + 2 a ∆x a →α ω 2 = ω0 + 2 α ∆θ

example, if α is in rad/s2, then ω should be in rad/s, t in s, and you will get θ

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

in rad. Also, don’t mix the left and right equations above. For example, the

equation ∆θ = v 0 t + 21 α t 2 would not make sense. Also, don’t confuse α and

a, although they look similar.

Example:

A wheel increases its rotational velocity from 200 rpm to 300 rpm in 10 sec.

ω = ( 300 rev / min)( 1 min/ 60 s )( 2π rad / rev ) = 31.4 rad / s

∆ω ω − ω 0 31.4 rad / s − 20.9 rad / s

α= = = = 1.05 rad / s 2

∆t ∆t 10 s

θ

no . turns = = 41.6

2π

(ω + ω )

( Or , use θ = ω t = 0 t )

2

Since s = rθ, then it follows that

∆s ∆θ

=r , or vt = rω

∆t ∆t

∆v t ∆ω

=r , or at = rα

∆t ∆t

In the above, vt is the tangential speed of a point going around a circle and at

is the component of acceleration tangent to the circle.

Example:

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

A merry-go-round rotates at a constant angular speed. It takes 20 sec to

make a complete revolution. What is the speed of a rider who is 4 m from

the center?

∆θ 2π rad

ω= = = 0.314 rad / s

∆t 20 s

v t = rω = ( 4 m )( 0.314 rad / s ) = 1.26 m / s

Centripetal acceleration

to its path if it has an angular acceleration ( at = rα ). This is related to the

change in the speed. In addition, the object can have a radial component

(towards or away from the center) because it is moving in a curved path,

even is its speed is constant. This is also called the centripetal acceleration.

These two components of acceleration

v1 v1

are

v2 ∆v ∆θ

∆s

∆θ v2

∆v v2 r

at = ac = .

∆t r

v = |v1| =v |v2|

The diagram to the right shows how the

ac

centripetal acceleration is obtained for v ac

uniform circular motion (constant

speed). Because of the change in direction, the ac

velocity changes by an amount ∆v which is directed v

the triangles formed by sides ∆s and r and by ∆v and v, we have

∆s ∆v

∆θ = =

r v

v∆s

∆v =

r

∆v v ∆s v v2

ac = = = v=

∆t r ∆t r r

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

So, for uniform circular motion, the acceleration is always directed toward

the center of the circle even though the speed is constant.

Example:

speed of 1 minute. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the car?

∆s 2000 m

v= = = 33.3 m / s

∆t 60 s

∆s 2000 m

r= = = 318 m

2π 2π

v 2 ( 33.3 m / s ) 2

ac = = = 3.5 m / s 2

r 318 m

tangential and radial (centripetal) components of

acceleration if its speed is changing and it is ac

changing direction. Since these are mutually

perpendicular components of the acceleration, then the magnitude of the

total acceleration is

∆v v2

2

a = at + ac

2

, where a t = and a c =

∆t r

Centripetal force

By Newton’s 2nd law, an object moving in a circle with constant speed must

have a net force directed toward the center of the circle given by

v2

Fc = ma c = m

r

Example:

Suppose that the car going around the track in the above example has a mass

of 1500 kg. The net force acting on the car is then

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

the car going around the track? n

centripetal force is entirely due to friction Fc

between the tires and the track. This would

require a coefficient of friction given by mg

f s Fc 5250 N

µs = = = = 0.36

n mg ( 1500 kg )( 9.8 m / s 2 )

(Note: This might be considered static friction even though the car is

moving if the tires are not sliding.)

n

the car skidding because of θ

n cosθ

not enough friction, the track

can be banked so that the n sinθ

normal force has a radial

component. Then at just the mg

mg

right bank angle no friction

is required and

v2

Fc = m = n sin θ

r

mg = n cos θ

v2

tan θ = .

gr

Example:

What is the effective weight of a person when at the top and when at the

bottom of a Ferris wheel?

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

n = Weff

ac

ac

mg

mg

The effective weight is the normal force

exerted by the Ferris wheel seat on the person. At the bottom,

v2

n − mg = ma c = m

r

2

v v2

W eff = n = m( g + ) = mg ( 1 + )

r gr

At the top,

v2

mg − n = ma c = m

r

2

v v2

W eff = n = m ( g − ) = mg ( 1 − )

r gr

So, the person ‘weighs’ more at the bottom and less at the top. The

v2

fractional change in his effective weight is ±

gr .

Example:

A Ferris wheel has radius r = 8 m and it takes 30 sec to make one revolution.

What is the effective change in the weight of a 160 lb person at the bottom

and top of the Ferris wheel?

2π r 2π ( 8 m )

v= = = 1.68 m / s

∆t 30 s

v2 ( 1.68 m / s ) 2

= = 0.036

g r ( 9.8 m / s 2 )( 8 m )

v2

∆W = ± mg = ± ( 160 lb )( 0.036 ) = ± 5.7 lb

gr

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

Work Done

direction. Then the work done by the force is the component of F in the

direction of motion × the distance the body moves as a result. Work done is

measured in joules (which has symbol J).

a distance s (meters) along a flat surface, the work done is F × s joules.

Now suppose that this force is at an angle of a to the horizontal. If the body

moves a distance of s meters along the ground, then the work done is F cos a

× s (since F cos a is the component of the force in the direction of motion).

Now suppose that the force we are considering is one which causes a body

to be lifted off of the ground. We call the work done by the force the "work

done against gravity". This is equal to mgs joules, where s is the vertical

distance moved by the body, m is the mass of the body and g is the

acceleration due to gravity. [Compare with "gravitational potential energy"

below].

Energy

Kinetic Energy

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

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The kinetic energy (K.E.) of a body is the energy a body has as a result of its

motion. A body which isn't moving will have zero kinetic energy, therefore.

• K.E. = ½ mv2

its height above the ground.

• G.P.E. = mgh

There are also other types of potential energy (such as elastic potential

energy). Basically, the total potential energy measures the energy of the body

due to its position.

Conservation of Energy

If gravity is the only external force which does work on a body, then the

total energy of the body will remain the same, a property known as the

conservation of energy.

In other words, the work done is equal to the change in energy. For example,

the work done against gravity is equal to the change in the potential energy

of the body and the work done against all resistive forces is equal to the

change in the total energy.

Power

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

Power is the rate at which work is done (measured in watts (W)), in other

words the work done per second.

For example, if the engine of a car is working at a constant rate of 10kW, the

forward force generated is power/velocity = 10 000 / v, where v is the

velocity of the car (the 10 was changed to 10 000 so that we are using the

standard unit of W rather than kW).

Example

A car of mass 500kg is traveling along a horizontal road. The engine of the

car is working at a constant rate of 5kW. The total resistance to motion is

constant and is 250N. What is the acceleration of the car when its speed is

5m/s?

v

when v = 5:

500a = 750

a = 1.5

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

p = mv [kg⋅m/s]

D

px = mvx, py = mvy

Momentum is not the same as kinetic energy. K = ½ mv2 is a scalar and has

no direction. Also, K depends on the square of the speed. Because of this

difference, two different objects can have the same momentum but have

different kinetic energies.

Example:

Car A has a mass of 2000 kg and is traveling at 10 m/s north. Car B has a

mass of 1000 kg and is traveling at 20 m/s north. Both cars have the same

momentum –

KA = ½ (2000 kg)(10 m/s)2 = 100,000 J

dp

F=

dt

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Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

dp d ( m v ) dv

F= = =m = ma .

dt dt dt

Impulse

Impulse is defined as

The impulse exerted by a force depends on the time of application and the

average force during that time. From Newton’s 2nd law, the impulse on an

object is the same as its change in momentum:

Example: vi

speed of 40 m/s toward a batter. The batter hits the

ball straight back towards the pitcher with a speed of

30 m/s. A baseball has a mass of about 145 g.

Assume right = + , left = -

Impulse = ∆p = mvf – mvi = m(vf – vi) = (0.145 kg)(30 m/s – (-40 m/s))

If the contact time was 5 milliseconds, what was the average force exerted

by the bat on the ball?

∆p 10.15 kg ⋅ m / s

F= = = 2030 N

∆t 0.005 s

26

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

If the force varies during a contact, then the impulse depends on the average

force during the contact. This is equivalent to finding the impulse from the

area under the force versus time graph.

F

area = Fave ∆t

Fave

t

∆t

(A point of possible confusion - The above is similar to, but not the same as,

the work energy theorem, which states that Fave∆x ( = area under F vs x

curve) = ∆KE.)

The damage that results from a collision is a consequence of the size of the

impact force. So, to reduce the damage we need to spread out the time of

impact.

Example:

An egg dropped from a height of 1 m onto a concrete floor will break, but it

will not break if dropped from the same height onto a pillow. Why? The

impulse is the same in both cases (same ∆p). The pillow increases time of

contact (∆t) and thus reduces the average force (F).

a flexile bumper on a car, …

Consider a collision between two balls. During

the collision the balls exert equal and oppositely 1 2

F12 - F12

directed forces on each other (Newton’s 3rd law).

That is,

F12 = -F21

27

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

Since the contact times are the same for both masses,

F12 ∆t = -F21 ∆t

If all other forces can be neglected, then from Newton’s 2nd law

∆p1 = - ∆p2

then the total momentum of a system remains constant in time.

Example:

bullet with a speed of 300

m/s. What would be the

recoil speed of the gun? Assume the gun is held lightly so that its recoil is

not restricted.

pf = pi

mbvb + mgvg = 0

Note: If you hold the gun tightly, its recoil speed will be much less since

your mass adds to the gun in the above calculation.

Collisions

kinetic energy is conserved. In an inelastic collision kinetic energy is not

conserved. When two colliding objects stick together the collision is

28

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

referred to as completely inelastic. In a completely inelastic collision you

have the maximum loss of kinetic energy; however, not all the kinetic energy

is necessarily lost.

Two colliding billiard balls may be nearly elastic (but not completely). If

you throw a piece of putty and it sticks to a wall, then the collision is

completely inelastic.

conserved.

Example:

kg car traveling at 30 m/s. The car and truck become entangled and stick

together on impact. What is their common velocity immediately after the

collision?

Choose the initial direction of motion of the truck as the positive direction.

Then

p f = pi

( m t + m c )v f = m t v t + m c v c

m t v t + m c v c ( 5000 )( 10 ) + ( 1000 )( −30 )

vf = = = 3.33 m / s

mt + mc 5000 + 1000

Note that we used -30 m/s for the velocity of the car. The fact that we got

+3.3 m/s means that the entangled vehicles move in the direction of the

truck’s initial velocity.

1) A freight car weighing 25 tons runs into another freight car of the same

weight. The first was moving at 6 mi/hr (8.8 ft/sec) and the second was at rest.

If the cars are coupled together after the collision, what is their final speed?

and 'after' pictures and select a coordinate system as shown. We have

conservation of linear momentum: pAi ⊕ pB i = pA f ⊕ pB f .

29

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

Before

After

vo vf

A Santa Fe B Santa Fe A Santa Fe B Santa Fe

x x

v2i = (m1 + m2) vf

m1 v1 + 0 = (m1 + m2) vf .

Since m1 = m2 , we have:

2) Two blocks are travelling toward each other. The first has a speed of 10

cm/sec and the second a speed of 60 cm/sec. After the collision the second is

observed to be travelling with a speed of 20 cm/sec in a direction opposite to

its initial velocity. If the weight of the first block is twice that of the second,

determine: (a) the velocity of the first block after collision; (b) whether the

collision was elastic or inelastic.

and 'after' pictures and select a coordinate system as shown.

Before After

vA vA vB

i vB i

f f

A B A B

x x

or the normal, then the net force acting on the system is 0, and we have

conservation of linear momentum:

30

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

v2f

Since m1 = 2 m2 we find:

2 v1i - v2i = 2 v1f + v2f (2)(10) - (60) = 2 v1f + 20

08-2

KEI = (1/2) m1 (v1I)2 + (1/2) m2 (v2I)2 . This gives:

KEf = (1/2) m1 (v1f)2 + (1/2) m2 (v2f)2 . This gives:

surface, makes a head-on, elastic collision with a block of unknown mass,

initially at rest. After the collision the velocity of the 200 g block is 4 cm/sec in

the same direction as its initial velocity. Determine the mass of the 2nd block

and its speed after the collision.

and 'after' pictures and select a coordinate system as shown.

Before After

vA i vA vB

f f

A B A B

x x

31

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

Since the surface is frictionless, and since no work is performed by either mg

or the normal, then the net force acting on the system is 0, and we have

conservation of linear momentum:

This gives: (200)(12) = (200)(4) + m2 v2f .

Since we have 2 unknowns we look for an 'energy condition'. We are told that

the collision is elastic. Hence, we also have conservation of KE and write:

(200)(4)2 + m2(v2f)2 .

Thus (m2 v2f) v2f = (200)(8) v2f = (200)(144) - (200)(16) or 8 v2f = 128.

block which is the bob of a ballistic pendulum. Find the speed at which the

block and bullet leave the equilibrium position, and the height which the center

of gravity of the bullet-block system reaches above the initial position of the

center of gravity.

muzzle velocity of a gun. The bullet is fired horizontally into the block of

wood and becomes imbedded in the block. The block is attached to a light rod

and can swing like a pendulum. After the collision the 'bob' swings upward

and the maximum height it reaches is determined. From this information plus

the masses of the bullet and block, one can determine the velocity of the bullet.

The critical point to note in this problem is that we have two distinct problems:

and energy relation. Problem 2: A work-energy type problem. Apply

conservation of total mechanical energy.

32

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

After

Before

x

x

M+m v f

M

vA i

relation' since the collision was a perfectly inelastic collision. That is the two

objects had the same final velocity. This condition is equivalent to an 'energy

relation', since for such a collision the loss of KE is a maximum possible

amount).

Part 2: In the work-energy part of the problem we note that the only force

which performs work is gravity. Hence, we have only conservative forces

present, and we have conservation of total mechanical energy.

situations. We may choose the 0 level for Pendulum

gravitational potential energy anywhere we like.

Hence, select UI = 0. h

M+m

Then: KEI + UI = KEf + Uf .

v f

2

(1/2)(m + M) vf = 0 + (m + M)g h

Here vf is the 'initial' velocity in this part of the problem ( 0.75 m/sec) and

(m+M) is the combined mass of bullet & block.

33

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

Note the reversal of this problem. If we know the masses and measure 'h', then

from part 2 we can calculate 'v f' (the initial velocity of bullet & block in the

2nd part of the problem). This is the same as vf , the final velocity in the

collision problem. Thus using this we can calculate vAi the 'muzzle' velocity

of the bullet.

energy. If the same object is raised twice as high it gains __________.

b.twice as much potential energy

c.neither of these

Answer: B

object above the ground (or some other arbitrary "zero-level") in accordance

with the equation

PE = m*g*h

If the h in the equation is doubled (the object is raised twice as high), then the

PE is doubled as well.

energy. If the same object is lifted 20 meters, its potential energy is _____.

d. four times as much e. more than 4 time as much

Answer: C

object above the ground (or some other arbitrary "zero-level") in accordance

34

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

PE = m*g*h

doubled as well.

3. A 1000 kg car and a 2000 kg car are hoisted the same distance at constant

speed in a gas station. Raising the more massive car requires ____________.

c. twice as much

a. less work b. as much work

work.

d. four times as much e. more than 4 times as much

work work

Answer: C

The amount of work done by a force to displace an object is found from the

equation

W = F*d*cos(Theta)

The force required to raise the car at constant speed is equivalent to the

weight (m*g) of the car. Since the 2000-kg car weight 2X as much as the

1000-kg car, it would require twice as much work to lift it the same distance.

d. at rest e. none of these

Answer: A

Pay attention to the keywords "must be." Kinetic energy is the energy of

motion and an object must be moving if it has kinetic energy. The object

could be falling and could be at an elevated position; the object must not be

at rest if it has kinetic energy.

35

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

5. An object that has potential energy has this energy because of its

_____________.

Answer: D

Potential energy is the energy of position and any object which has potential

energy owes this PE to the fact that it has some given position other than the

so-called "zero-level position."

horizontally, the arrow will have a kinetic energy of ________.

Answer: C

A drawn arrow has 40 J of stored energy due to the stretch of the bow and

string. When released, this energy is converted into kinetic energy such that

the arrow will have 40 J of kinetic energy upon being fired. Of course, this

assumes no energy is lost to air resistance, friction or any other external forces

and that the arrow is shot horizontally.

potential energy of the mass with respect to the ground?

a. 20 J b. 40 J c. 60 J d. 80 J e. none of these

Answer: D

PE = m*g*h

chugging into this equation yields PE=(2 kg)*(10 m/s/s)*(4 m) = 80 J.

36

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

8. A 2 kg mass has 40 J of potential energy with respect to the ground.

Approximately how far is it located above the ground?

a. 1 m b. 2 m c. 3 m d. 4 m e. none of these

Answer: B

PE = m*g*h

chugging into this equation yields 40 J = (2 kg)*(10 m/s/s)*(h); rearranging

and solving for h yields an answer of 2 m.

9. A ball is projected into the air with 100 J of kinetic energy which is

transformed to gravitational potential energy at the top of its trajectory.

When it returns to its original level after encountering air resistance, its

kinetic energy is ____________.

a. less than 100 J b. 100 J c. more than 100 J d. not enough information given

Answer: A

During any given motion, if external forces do work upon the object, then the

total mechanical energy will be changed. If external forces do negative work

(i.e., F*d*cos(Theta) is a negative number), then the final TME is less than

the initial TME. In this case, air resistance does negative work to remove

energy from the system. Thus, when the ball returns to its original height,

their is less TME than immediately after it was thrown. At this same starting

height, the PE is the same as before. The reduction in TME is made up for by

the fact that the kinetic energy has been reduced; the final KE is less than the

initial KE.

10. A woman lifts a box from the floor. She then carries with constant speed

to the other side of the room, where she puts the box down. How much work

does she do on the box while walking across the floor at constant speed?

Answer: A

For any given situation, the work done by a force can be calculated using the

37

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

equation

W = F*d*cos(Theta)

where F is the force doing the work, d is the displacement of the object, and

Theta is the angle between the force and the displacement. In this specific

situation, the woman is applying an upward force on the box (she is carrying

it) and the displacement of the box is horizontal. The angle between the force

(vertical) and the displacement (upward) vectors is 90 degrees. Since the

cosine of 90-degrees is 0, the woman does not do any work upon the box. A

detailed discussion of a similar situation

11. A car moving at 50 km/hr skids 20 m with locked brakes. How far will

the car skid with locked brakes if it is traveling at 150 km/hr?

a. 20 m b. 60 m. c. 90 m d. 120 m e. 180 m

Answer: E

When a car skids to a stop, the work done by friction upon the car is equal to

the change in kinetic energy of the car. Work is directly proportional to the

displacement of the car (skidding distance) and the kinetic energy is directly

related to the square of the speed (KE=0.5*m*v^2). For this reason, the

skidding distance is directly proportional to the square of the speed. So if the

speeds is tripled from 50 km/hr to 150 km/hr, then the stopping distance is

increased by a factor of 9 (from 20 m to 9*20 m; or 180 m).

12. Which has greater kinetic energy, a car traveling at 30 km/hr or a half-

as-massive car traveling at 60 km/hr?

a. the 30 km/hr car b. the 60 km/hr car c. both have the same kinetic energy

Answer: B

This problem is complicated by the fact that no mass is given for the two cars;

only the ratio of mass is known. The complication can be resolved in one of

two ways: 1) make up a mass for each car - such as 10 kg and 5 kg, or 2)

assign m as the mass of one of the cars and (1/2)m as the mass of the second

car. Then use the kinetic equation

KE = 0.5*m*v2

38

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

and plug and chug. The mass can then be determined for each car and

compared. Using the second method yields the following results for the two

cars:

13. A diver who weighs 500 N steps off a diving board that is 10 m above

the water. The diver hits the water with kinetic energy of ___________.

Answer: D

The use of the work-energy theorem and a simple analysis will yield the

solution to this problem. Initially, there is only PE; finally, there is only KE.

Assuming negligible air resistance, the kinetic energy of the diver upon

hitting the water is equal to the potential energy of the diver on top of the

board.

PEi = KEf

m*g*hi = KEf

Substituting 500 N for m*g (500 N is the weight of the diver, not the mass)

and 10 m for h will yield the answer of 5000 J.

14. A 2500 N pile driver ram falls 10 m and drives a post 0.1 m into the

ground. The average impact force on the ram is _________.

Answer: C

39

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

The use of the work-energy theorem and a simple analysis will yield the

solution to this problem. Initially, there is only PE; finally, there is neither PE

nor KE; external work has been done by an applied force upon the pile driver.

Assuming negligible air resistance, the kinetic energy of the diver upon

hitting the water is equal to the potential energy of the diver on top of the

board.

PEi + Wext = 0

PEi = - Wext

m*g*hi = - F*d*cos(Theta)

Substituting 2500 N for m*g (2500 N is the weight of the driver, not the

mass); 10 m for h; 0.1 m for the displacement of the driver as caused by the

upward applied force exerted by the ram; and 90 degrees for Theta (the angle

between the applied force and the displacement of the ram) will yield the

answer of 250000 N for F.

15. A person on the edge of a roof throws a ball downward. It strikes the

ground with 100 J of kinetic energy. The person throws another identical ball

upward with the same initial speed, and this too falls to the ground.

Neglecting air resistance, the second ball hits the ground with a kinetic

energy of ______________.

a. 100 J b. 200 J c. less than 100 J d. more than 200 J e. none of these

Answer: A

Quite surprisingly to many, each ball would hit the ground with the same

speed. In each case, the PE+KE of the balls immediately after being thrown is

the same (they are thrown with the same speed from the same height). Upon

hitting the ground, they must also have the same PE+KE. Since the PE is zero

(on the ground) for each ball, it stands to reason that their KE is also the same.

That's a little physics and a lot of logic - and try not to avoid the logic part by

trying to memorize the answer.

40

Physics For Premedical Students Sheet #2 2008-2009

By Dr Maan A. Ibrahim

____________.

Answer: A

The KE of any object can be computed if the mass (m) and speed (v) are

known. Simply use the equation

KE=0.5*m*v2

In this case, the 10-N object has a mass of 1 kg (use Fgrav = m*g). The speed is

1 m/s. Now plug and chug to yield KE=0.5 J.

41

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