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Prostate cancer in Foods' Points of View

Kyle J. Norton

The widespread of prostate cancer, once considered a disease of aging male, now have become major concerns of governments and scientific community in South East Asian with tendency to effect even younger age population. Suggestions emerged of over consuming bad fats in any time in history accompanied with unhealthy diet and life style may be the possible causes of the disease, linking to the economic prosperity over 2 decades. oods for diseases! management have been prescribed in folk medicine over thousands of year as one of best medicine of nature in preventing and treating diseases, including prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth with possibility of spreading to the distant parts of the body. "ost prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during physical #rectum$ e%ams. A. Types of vegetables may reduce ris of Prostate cancer !. "ruciferous vegetables &ruciferous vegetables are the group of vegetables belonging to the family 'rassicaceae, including cauliflower, cabbage, cress, bok choy, broccoli etc.. Epidemiological studies has demonstrated reduced risk of prostate cancer in cruciferous consumption. (ndole)*)carbinol, a major chemical compound in &rucifers, are found to be effective in inhibiting prostate cancer by blocking initiation through induction of phases ( and (( deto%ification pathways and suppressing prostate cancer progression, through down)regulated cell signaling pathways#+$. (ts derivative *,*!),iindolylmethane #,("$, showed to activate the A"-.#regulator of cellular energy homeostasis$ signaling pathway, associated with suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin #mT/0$ #cell regulator$, down)regulation of androgen receptor #A0$ e%pression, and induction of apoptosis in both androgen)sensitive prostate cancer cells#2$. Erucin #E0$, derived from (sothiocyanates #(T&s$ in crucifers, may hold an anti progressive property in prostate cancer as it showed an effect in increasing significantly p2+ protein e%pression # regulator of cell cycle progression at 1+ and S phase$ and E0.+22 phosphorylation#cell regulation$ in a dose)dependent manner to inhibit -&*#3uman prostate cell line$ cell proliferation#*$. Sulforaphane #S 4$ in crucifers also inhibited prostate cancer cell line through impacting epigenetic pathways#5$. #. Tomato Tomato is a red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belonging to family Solanaceae, native to South America. 'ecause of its health benefits, tomato is grown world wide for commercial purpose and often in green house. Studies of tomato, linking to reduced risk of prostate caner have produced inconsistent results.#6$#7$#8$#9$#:$. 0egardless to these mi%ed results, intake of lycopene and specific tomato products acknowledged by many researchers is associated in reduced risk

prostate cancer. ;ycopene, a lipid soluble carotenoid molecule found in tomato and Alpha #<$)tomatine, a saponin presented in tomato, showed to e%ert its tumor suppressing effects by increased apoptosis and lower proliferation of tumor cells.#+=$#++$. According to the 4orthwestern >niversity "edical School, in a recent prospective dietary analysis identified lycopene as the carotenoid with the clearest inverse relation to the development of prostate cancer#+2$#+*$. (n Androgen)independent ,>+56 prostate cancer cells, Apo) lycopenals or other lycopene metabolites, significantly reduced cell proliferation through alteration of the normal cell cycle#+5$. (n 'A;'2c nude mice, lycopene caused ,>+56 cells to accumulate in the 1#=$21#+$ #&ell cycle$phase and to undergo apoptosis in a dose)dependent manner#+6$. $. %arlic 1arlic is a natural superfood healer for its natural antibiotic with antiviral, antifungal, anticoagulant and antiseptic properties. 1arlics intake, are related to decreased risk of prostate cancer#+8$, in a reviewed study with evidence from +*2,+:2 subjects#+9$. S)allylcysteine #SA&$ derived from garlic, suppressed the proliferation of -&)* cells and led to cell cycle arrest at the 1=21+ &ell cycle$phases, as well as inducing cell apoptosis which was accompanied by the decreased e%pression of 'cl)2 and increased e%pression of 'a% and caspase 9#+:$. ,iallyl disulfide #,A,S$ another compound in garlic, at 26 and 5= micro" concentrations induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in -&)* cells through increased e%pression of caspases#e%tent of apoptosis$#2=$ #*, :, and +=$, proapoptotic protein 'a%#Apoptosis regulator$#2+$. &. 'weet potato Sweet potato is a large, starchy, sweet tasting tuberous roots vegetable, genus (pomoea, belonging to the family &onvolvulaceae. (ts young leaves can be made into a delicious dish in &hinese foods but some species of batatas are actually poisonous. Sweet potato #(pomoea batatas$ leaves, a favor vegetable consumed e%tensively in Africa and Asia, containing rich sources of dietary polyphenols #anthocyanins and phenolic acids$ e%erted its significant antiproliferative activity in some prostate cancer cell lines without damaging to normal prostate epithelial cells. S-1E #Sweet potato e%tract$ altered cell cycle progression, reduced clonogenic survival, modulated cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory molecules and induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer -&)* cells both in vitro and in vivo#22$. (n nude mice testing, the e%tract inhibited growth and progression of prostate tumor %enografts by ?86@#2*$. (. %inger %inger )Aingiber officinale$ or ginger root is the genus Aingiber, belonging to the family Aingiberaceae, native to Tamil. (t has been used in traditional and &hinese medicine to treat dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, edema, difficult urination, colic, etc. 1inger e%tract #1E$ and 7)gingerol. a chemical constituent found in ginger root, synergistically inhibited proliferation of -&)* cells#25$. ,aily oral feeding of +== mg2kg body weight of 1E, inhibited growth and progression of -&)* %enografts by appro%imately 67 @ in nude mice and reduced proliferation inde% and widespread apoptosis compared with controls#26$. (n the comparison of 1E and an artificial Buasi) mi%ture #"i%$ formulated by combining four most)active ginger constituents at

concentrations eBuivalent, 1E showed 2.5)fold higher tumor growth)inhibitory efficacy than "i% in human prostate tumor %enografts#27$. *. 'pinac+ Suggestion of intake of typical green and yellowvegetable and spinach were associated to reduced risk factors for prostate cancer#28$ and risk of aggressive prostate cancer decreased with increasing spinach consumption#29$. Spinach e%tract #4A/$ e%erted its anti profileration of the human -&A cell line -&* by 4A/)induced 1+ delay and prolonged cell cycle prolongation as a result of downregulation of the protein e%pression of pp0b#tumour suppressor pathway$#2:$and E2 transcription factors#*=$. (n human prostatic cancer #-&A$ cell lines ,>+56 and -&*, showed an inhibition of cellular proliferation occurred in a dose)dependent manner, increasing numbers of 1+ cells #&ell cycle$and reducing 0/S#reactive o%ygen species$ levels#*+$. ,. "+ili pepper &hili pepper is the fruit of plants from the genus &apsicum, belonging to the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The fruit has been used in human history for spices and cultivated for commercial profits. &apsaicin, a chemical constituent of chili pepper e%erted its antiproliferative activity correlates with o%idative stress induction and apoptosis and potently suppresses the growth of human prostate carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo#*2$, inducing the apoptosis of both androgen receptor #A0$)positive #;4&a-$ and )negative #-&)*, ,>)+56$ prostate cancer cell lines associated with an increase of p6*, p2+, and 'a%#**$#*5$. &apsaicin in other study showed to induce apoptosis in -&)* cells#-rostate cancer$ via 0/S#reactive o%ygen species$ generation, C4.#tumorigenetic regulator$ activation, ceramide accumulation, and second, e%tracellular signal)regulated protein kinase #E0.$ activation#*6$. -. "arrot Studies of ,ietary intake of the carotenoids beta)carotene and lycopene found in carrot for its reduced risk of prostate cancer has produced inconsistent results. Some studies suggested that dietary intake of beta)carotene and its main vegetable sources was largely unassociated with prostate cancer risk, whereas intake of lycopene and tomato)based foods was weakly associated with a reduced risk#*7$. (n antio%idant study, some researchers suggested that beta)carotene supplementation in men with low dietary beta) carotene intakes were associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer#*8$ and vegetable and carotene intake was associated with lower risk of prostate cancer among Capanese#*9$. >nfortunately, there is a report of intake of beta)carotene supplement may increase prostate cancer incidence, 2*@ higher and mortality, +6@ higher in comparison with those not receiving#*:$. .. /us+room "ushroom is a standard name of white button mushroom, the fleshy, spore)bearing fruiting body of a fungus produced above ground on soil or on its food source, (t is a genus A. "uscaria, belonging to the family Amanitaceae and has been cultivation in many cultures all over the world for foods and health benefits.

"ushroom (nonotus obliBuus #(. obliBuus$ petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions was found effectively against human prostate cancer cell line -&* by inhibition effects on 4/ production and 4 )D' luciferase activity in cells produced by the differentiation of white blood cells in 0AE 275.8 cells and cytoto%icity#5=$. Also in human androgen) independent cancer -&)* cells, water)soluble e%tract #-/E$ of the fresh oyster mushroom e%erted most significant cytoto%icity on -&)* cells comparisin to 2 other mushroom species with cytoto%icity and induced apoptosis mediated in dose)dependent manner#5+$. -olysaccharide).F #-S.$, an e%tract of the mushroom, induced significantly tumor suppression in a reduction of tumor proliferation and apoptosis enhanced, by lowering the decrease in number of white blood cells, accompanied by increased numbers of tumor)infiltrating &,5G and &,9G T cells.#52$. !0. 1ean sprouts eaten raw or cooked, bean sprouts are common ingredient in Asian cuisine, made from sprouting beans. (soliBuiritigenin isolated from bean sprout, used in treatment on the migration, invasion and adhesion characteristics of ,>+56 human prostate cancer showed to inhibit basal and E1 )induced cell#proliferation2 migration, invasion in doses dependent#5*$ and cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in ,>+56 human prostate cancer cells and "AT) ;y;u #";;$ rat prostate cancer cells, through inhibition of Erb'* signaling and the -(*.2Akt ##anti)apoptosis and increased cell proliferation$pathway#55$. /ther researchers also suggested that these inhibition are associated with an evident disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the release of cytochrome c and Smac2,iablo#a mitochondrial protein$, and the activation of caspase):#apoptosis$#56$. 1. Types of fruit may reduce ris of prostate cancer !. /angosteen fruit "angosteen fruit, a tropical fruit growth in South East Asia is a tropical evergreen tree originated in the Sunda (slands and the "oluccas of (ndonesia. (n 220v+ and ;4&a-, and prostate epithelial cells #-rE&s$, standardiHed mangosteen fruit e%tract #" E$, showed its inhibited effect by suppressing tumor growth in a %enograft tumor model without causing damage to non)tumorigenic prostate epithelial cell and induced to%icity#57$. -olyphenols, the main chemical constituent of the fruit e%tract also targeted multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis in prostate cancer#58$. <)"angostin, a %anthone derived from -olyphenols of mangosteen fruit, targeted cell cycle)related proteins involved in prostate carcinogenesis#59$. #. 3ong Pepper or 4ndian long pepper >sed as a spice and seasoning, ;ong -epper or (ndian long pepper is a flowering vine in the family -iperaceae. -iperlongumine #-;$, a natural alkaloid presented in the fruit of the ;ong pepper, e%erted its effect on prostate cancer by downregulation of Akt downstream signaling#apoptosis, cell proliferation$ resulted in decrease of mT/0&+ #nutrient2energy$activity and autophagy #cell degradation$stimulation#5:$. -; also found to induce rapid depletion of the Androgen receptor #A0$ in prostate cancer #-&$ cells which is an early indication of

prostate cancer#6=$. (n human prostate cancer ,>+56, -&)* and ;4&a- cells, piperine, another an alkaloid from black and long peppers, e%hibited anti)proliferative effect in human prostate cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and autophagy#6+$. $. Pomegranate Pomegranates is a fruit)bearing small tree, genus -unica, belonging to family ;ythraceae, native to (ran but has been cultivated in Asian since ancient time. -/"%, a omegranate #-E$ formula currently approved for clinical trials, effectively inhibited survivin #baculoviral inhibitor$, induced apoptosis, retarded the rate of tumor growth in skeleton#62$. -olyphenols, main chemical compounds from pomegranate fruit e%tracts #- Es$, slightly decreased secretion of matri% metalloproteinase #""-$)2 but not ""-): #e%pression usually seen in invasive and highly tumorigenic cancers$ from both prostate cell lines#6*$. /ther polyphenol derivative, ellagic acid #EA$ than to urolithin #>A$ converted from Ellagitannins #ETs$ from pomegranate juice #-C$, sgnificantly decreased cell proliferation by e%hibiting synergism in -&)* cells#65$. &. 'trawberry Strawberries is a genius of ragaria I ananassa belongs to the family 0oseaceae. They have been grown all over the world with suitable climate for commercial profits and for health benefits. 'erry juice study, including strawberry, showed to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation, not involve caspase)dependent apoptosis, but in cell)cycle arrest, by down) regulation of the e%pression of cdk5, cdk7, cyclin ,+ and cyclin ,*#,ecrease the proliferative activity #66$. (n fact major classes of berry phenolics, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, ellagitannins, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids are found to be effective in inhibition the growth of many human cancer cell lines, including prostate #;4&a-$ tumor cell lines at concentrations ranging from 26 to 2== micro g2m;.#67$. &rude e%tracts #26= microg2m;$ from strawberry and its pure compounds #+== microg2m;$also found to inhibit prostate #;4&a-, ,>+56$ cancer cells#68$. (. %rapes 1rape is a woody vines of the genus Jitis, belong to the family Jitaceae, native to southern Turkey. isetin, a chemical compound found in grape inhibited prostate cancer cell lines through downregulation of the -(*.2Akt #anti)apoptosis and increased cell proliferation$and the mT/0#energy sources$ pathways#69$. Another chemical constituent pterostilbene, in dose)dependent inhibited cellular proliferation, through activation of e%pression of A"-.#cellular energy homeostasis$ and the p6*#antigens$ but in p6* positive ;4&a- cells, pterostilbene blocked the progression of cell cycle at 1+ phase by inducing p6* e%pression and further up)regulating p2+ e%pression and in p6* negative, induced apoptosis in -&* cells#6:$. -iceatannol found in grape, e%hibited potential anticancer properties by suppressing proliferation of a wide variety of tumor cells, through cell)cycle arrest, upregulation of antibody antigens and apoptotic activity and down)regulation of cancer cell

proliferation#7=$. *. Apple Apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, a species of the rose family 0osaceae. (t is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. The tree is originated in &entral Asia. Apple peel e%tract #A-E$, e%erted its anti cancer effects by significant decreasing in growth and enhancing clonogenic survival of human prostate carcinoma &E0220nu+ and ,>+56 cells, through a 1=)1+#&ell cycle$ phase arrest#7+$. (n the study of ,oes an apple a day keep the oncologist awayK showed an inverse association of apple intake and incidence of cancer#72$. ,. Papaya -apaya is a species of &arica -apaya, belongs to the family &aricaceae and native to the tropics of the Americas, and was first cultivated in "e%ico and several centuries. 'enHylisothiocyanate #'(T&$, a solvent of papaya fruit inhibited cancer cell line through induced apoptosis by converging two major pathwaysL the death receptor mediated e%trinsic and the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway#7*$. (n the role of diet, papaya is found effectively #more than 22.8 g2d #6=th percentile$ in reduced prostate cancer risk by 8.5 #Adjusted /0 8.5 #:6@ &( +.+8)57.9$#75$. ;ycopene, a major chemical constituent in tomato, also in papaya, in prospective and retrospective epidemiological studies indicated of an inverse relationship between lycopene intake and prostate cancer risk in vitro and in vivo e%periments#76$. -. Apricot Apricot tree is about 9M+2 m tall and a trunk up to 5= cm diameter belonging to the family 0osaceae. Apricot is classified with the family of the plum and has yellow to orange, often tinged red on the side which is e%posed to the sun. Ethanolic e%tracts #*=@$ of apricot showed to inhibit the growth of -&)* and ;4&a#-rostate cancer cell lines$ cellsN induce apoptosis and alter cell kineticsN down regulated E0alpha #estrogen receptor <$, $ and -.&)alpha#interaction with the cell membrane$ protein, and demonstrate good binding ability to both mouse uterine estrogen receptors and ;4&a- human androgen receptors#77$. .. Avocado Avocados are a commercially valuable fruit and are cultivated in tropical climates throughout the world, it is a green)skinned, pear)shaped fruit that ripens after harvesting and native to the &aribbean, "e%ico, South America. Ehole)blood fatty acids testing indicated that higher intakes of dietary "> A#monounsaturated fatty$ with principal source of dietary avocado intake was inversely related to prostate cancer#78$. Acetone e%tract of avocado, containing carotenoids and tocopherols showed to inhibit the growth of both androgen)dependent #;4&a-$ and androgen)independent #-&)*$ prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. (ncubation of -&)* cells with the avocado e%tract led to 1#2$2" cell cycle arrest accompanied by an increase in p28#cell cycle inhibitor$ protein e%pression#79$.

!0. "itrus fruits ruits of the genus &itrus, native to southern and southeast Asia, include grapefruit, lemon, orange, etc. Study of incidence of prostate caner in 4orth (ndia compared to South (ndia, showed a positive decreased risk of increasing dietary consumption of tea, citrus fruits and melon#7:$. &itrus consumption is associated with reduced all)cancer incidences, according to the study of cancer incidence among 52,58= Capanese adults in the /hsaki 4ational 3ealth (nsurance &ohort#8=$. /ral administration of 1old ;otion #1;$, an e%tract of multiple varieties of citrus peels containing abundant flavonoid, showed the deduction of both the weights #68@)+==@ inhibition$ and volumes #89@):5@ inhibition$ of the tumors without any adverse to%icity, accompanied by mechanistic down)regulation of the protein levels of inflammatory enHymes #inducible nitric o%ide synthase, i4/S and cycloo%ygenase)2, &/O)2$, metastasis #matri% metallopeptidase)2, ""-)2 and ""-) :$, angiogenesis #vascular endothelial growth factor, JE1 $, and proliferative molecules, as well as by the induction of apoptosis in prostate tumors#8+$. >nfortunately, some studies did not show an association between intake of citrus fruits and the risk of prostate cancer#82$. !!. 1itter melon 'itter melon, a e%tremely bitter fruit, is a tropical and subtropical vine belonging to the family &ucurbitaceae, native in Asia, Africa, and the &aribbean. Treatment of bitter melon e%tract #'"E$ in prostate cancer, enhanced 'a% e%pression#involved in p6*) mediated apoptosis$ and induced -A0-#a nuclear protein implicated in ,4A repair$ cleavage#during apoptosis$, delayed the progression to high)grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia #precede the development of prostate adenocarcinoma$ and displayed appro%imately 6+@ reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen e%pression in mice#8*$. "&-*=, from bitter melon seeds induced apoptosis in -(4 and -&a cell lines in vitro and suppressed -&)* growth in vivo with no effect on normal prostate cells#85$. 'itter melon leaf e%tract #'";E$ inhibited the secretion of ""-)2, ""-):#metastasis$ and urokinase plasminogen activator #u-A$#invasion and metastasis$ from rat prostate cancer cell line #-;S+=$#86$. ". 5t+ers !. Fla6seed la% seed is native to the region of the eastern "editerranean to (ndia and also known as common fla% or linseed. la% is an erect annual plant, it can grow to +.2 m tall. The leaves are 2=M5= mm long and * mm broad. Enterolactone and enterodiol, mammalian lignans derived from dietary fla%seed may obstruct or delay the progressed prostate cancer cell proliferation via vascular endothelial growth factor#JE1 $)associated pathways#87$. /ther study indicated that diet supplemented with 6@ fla%seed inhibits the growth and development of prostate cancer in the T0A"- model#88$ and la%seed)supplemented diet showed to lower prostate cancer proliferation rates and associated with biological alterations that may be protective for prostate cancer#89$. #. Vegetable oil

Jegetables oil is a triglyceride e%tracted from a plant. (ncreased levels of "> A)rich vegetable oil##including olive oil, canola or peanut oil$$ intake were associated with a progressive reduction in prostate cancer risk#8:$. 3ydrogenated soybean oil #S3S/$ showed remarkably strong anticarcinogenic activity against prostate cancer in the rat model and 6@ dietary supplementation with S3S/ inhibited the growth of prostate cancer by 9=@ in vivo#9=$. $. 7oney The rich golden liBuid is the miraculous product made by bees using nectar from flowers. (t is considered as one of healthy sweet food for replacing the use of white sugar and artificial sweetener by many people. &hrysin, a natural flavone commonly found in honey, and honey itself showed to e%ert its antiproliferative effect on -&)* cells in a dose) and time)dependent manner#9+$ &. "+ic pea 1arbanHo beans also known as chickpea is an edible legume of genus &icer and the family abaceae, high in protein and minerals. (t is one of the earliest cultivated vegetables, native to "iddle East. 8 protease inhibitor concentrates #-(&s$ isolated from chickpea showed a significant inhibition the ;4&a- prostate cancer cells in concentrations tested of 26)5== Pg2ml#92$. (. 5live oil E%tra virgin olive oil #EJ//$, was found to significantly affect the growth of 3&T ++7 tumours %enografted in athymic mice#9*$. -olyphenols, found in E%tra virgin olive oil #EJ//$, e%erted chemopreventive effects towards different organ specific cancers, affecting the overall process of carcinogenesis by inhibition of ,4A synthesis, modulation of 0/S production, regulation of cell cycle arrest, modulation of survival2proliferation pathways#95$. /ther study suggested that -olyphenols can directly interact with specific steps and2or proteins regulating the apoptotic process in different ways depending on their concentration, the cell system, the type or stage of the pathological process#96$. *. 1lac pepper 'lack pepper, is a flowering vine in the family -iperaceae, its fruits used as a spice and seasoning -iperine, a major alkaloid constituent of black pepper, inhibited the proliferation of ;4&a-, -&)*, 220J+ and ,>)+56 prostate cancer cells in a dose dependent manner and induced apoptosis resulted in caspase activation in ;4&a- and -&)* cells#97$. Q) caryophyllene o%ide #&-/$, a sesBuiterpene isolated from essential oils of medicinal plants such as guava #-sidium guajava$, oregano #/riganum vulgare ;.$, cinnamon #&innamomum spp.$ clove #Eugenia caryophyllata$, and black pepper #-iper nigrum ;.$ not only inhibited the constitutive activation of -(*.2A.T2mT/02S7.+ #anti)apoptosis and increased cell proliferation and nutrientMhormonal signaling network$ pathway signaling cascade but also down)regulated the e%pression of various downstream gene products that mediate cell proliferation #cyclin ,+$, survival #bcl)2, bcl)%;, survivin, (A-)+, and (A-)2$, metastasis #&/O)2$, angiogenesis #JE1 $, and increased the

e%pression of p6* and p2+#98$. ,. %reen tea 1reen tea containing more amount of antio%idants than any drinks or food with the same volume, is the leaves of &amellia sinensis, undergone minimal o%idation during processing, originated from &hina. 1reen tea has been a precious drink in traditional &hinese culture and used e%ceptional in socialiHation for more than 5=== thousand years. 'ecause of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world. 1reen tea catechins #1T&s$, a potent chemical constituent containing #)$) epigallocathechin, #)$)epicatechin, #)$)epigallocatechin)*)gallate, #)$)epicatechin)*) gallate, in treatment of preprostate cancer men reduced lower urinary tract symptoms, improved coe%istent benign prostate hyperplasia and reached a statistical significance in the case of (nternational -rostate Symptom Scores#99$. (n green tea polyphenols study, epigallocatechin)*)gallate #E1&1$ e%erted its anti cancer effect on signaling pathways in -&a#9:$. Also combination admiration of Buercetin and green tea, showed a significant increase in the inhibition of proliferation, androgen receptor and phosphatidylinositol *)kinase2Akt signaling#tumor genesis in early stage$, and stimulation of apoptosis#:=$. (n short, 1reen tea, a potent anti prostate cancer with activities of heritable alterations of gene e%pression and chromatin organiHation without changes in ,4A seBuence induced multistep process of carcinogenesis#:+$ may be considered as a natural treatment in vary types of cancer. -. Fermented soybean products ermented soybean products are made from fermenting soybeans and filamentous fungus, along with water and salt after a period of sometime. (n the Capan, incidence of prostate caner in aging men are low compared with the Eestern world, suggestion of these result may be tradition Capanese diet related. &onsumption of fish, all soybean products, tofu #bean curds$, and natto #fermented soybeans$ was associated with decreased risk of /0s #Estimates of age)adjusted odds ratios$ which supported traditional Capanese diet rich in soybean products and fish against prostate cancer#:2$. (n &hina, suggestion of reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with consumption of soy foods and isoflavones found abundantly in fermented soybean products#:*$. >nfortunately, the epidemiological data, linking ferment soybean products to reduced risk of prostate cancer are inconsistent including miso. The prevalence and widespread of prostate cancer may be diet, demographic and life style related disease#:5$#:6$#:7$. Suggestions and intentions are for prevention of prostate cancer to develop in the first place or used conjunction with conventional medicine in treating the disease. Eating healthy, with plenty of vegetables and fruits has always been considered as a preventive engagement in human history. R;et foods be your medicine and let medicine be your foodsR by 1reek physician 3ippocrates #57=)*88 '&$. "+inese 'ecrets To Fatty 3iver And 5besity 8eversal >se The 0evolutionary indings To Achieve

/ptimal 3ealth And ;oose Eeight /varian &ysts And -&/S Elimination 3olistic System (n E%istence That Eill Show Sou 3ow To -ermanently Eliminate All Types of /varian &ysts Eithin 2 "onths 'ack to "ost common Types of &ancer httpL22kylejnorton.blogspot.ca2p2blog)page.html 'ack to .yle C. 4orton 3ome page httpL22kylejnorton.blogspot.ca 8eferences #+$ -hytochemicals from cruciferous vegetables, epigenetics, and prostate cancer prevention by E Eatson 1, " 'eaver ;, E Eilliams ,, 3 ,ashwood 0, 3o E.#-ub"ed$ #2$ Activation of A"-)activated protein kinase by *,*!),iindolylmethane #,("$ is associated with human prostate cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo by &hen ,, 'anerjee S, &ui T&, .ong ,, Sarkar 3, ,ou T-.#-ub"ed$ #*$ Antiproliferative activity of the dietary isothiocyanate erucin, a bioactive compound from cruciferous vegetables, on human prostate cancer cells by "elchini A, Traka "3, &atania S, "iceli 4, Taviano " , "aimone -, rancisco ", "ithen 0 , &osta &. #-ub"ed$ #5$ -romoter de)methylation of cyclin ,2 by sulforaphane in prostate cancer cells by 3su A, Eong &-, Su A, Eilliams ,E, ,ashwood 03, 3o E.#-ub"ed$ #6$ ;ow prostate concentration of lycopene is associated with development of prostate cancer in patients with high)grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia by "ariani S+, ;ionetto ;2, &avallari "*, Tubaro A5, 0asio ,6, ,e 4unHio &7, 3ong 1"8, 'orro "9, Simmaco ":.#-ub"ed$ #7$ A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk by 1iovannucci E, 0imm E', ;iu S, Stampfer "C, Eillett E&.#-ub"ed$ #8$ A prospective study of lycopene and tomato product intake and risk of prostate cancer by .irsh JA, "ayne ST, -eters >, &hatterjee 4, ;eitHmann " , ,i%on ;', >rban ,A, &rawford E,, 3ayes 0'#-ub"ed$ #9$ ;ycopene2Tomato consumption and the risk of prostate cancerL a systematic review and meta)analysis of prospective studies by &hen C, Song S, Ahang ;.#-ub"ed$ #:$ The role of tomato products and lycopene in the prev2:ntion of prostate cancerL a meta)analysis of observational studies by Etminan ", Takkouche ', &aamaUo)(sorna . #-ub"ed$ #+=$ Alpha)tomatine attenuation of in vivo growth of subcutaneous and orthotopic %enograft tumors of human prostate carcinoma -&)* cells is accompanied by inactivation of nuclear factor)kappa ' signaling by ;ee ST, Eong - , 3e 3, 3ooper C,, "ustafa "0.#-ub"ed$ #++$ Alpha)tomatine induces apoptosis and inhibits nuclear factor)kappa ' activation on human prostatic adenocarcinoma -&)* cells by ;ee ST, Eong - , &heah S&, "ustafa "0.#-ub"ed$ #+2$ ;ower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levelsL results of a prospective analysis by 1ann -3, "a C, 1iovannucci E, Eillett E, Sacks ", 3ennekens &3, Stampfer "C.#-ub"ed$

#+*$ (nverse associations between plasma lycopene and other carotenoids and prostate cancer by ;u TS, 3ung C&, 3eber ,, 1o J;, 0euter JE, &ordon)&ardo &, Scher 3(, "arshall C0, Ahang A .#-ub"ed$ #+5$ ;ycopene and apo)+2!)lycopenal reduce cell proliferation and alter cell cycle progression in human prostate cancer cells by ord 4A, Elsen A&, Auniga ., ;indshield ';, Erdman CE Cr.#-ub"ed$ #+6$ ;ycopene inhibits the growth of human androgen)independent prostate cancer cells in vitro and in 'A;'2c nude mice by Tang ;, Cin T, Aeng O, Eang CS.#-ub"ed$ #+7$ Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancerL evidence from +*2,+:2 subjects by Ahou O , ,ing AS, ;iu 4'.#-ub"ed$ #+8$ Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancerL a population)based study by 3sing AE, &hokkalingam A-, 1ao ST, "adigan "-, ,eng C, 1ridley 1, raumeni C Cr. #-ub"ed$ #+9$ Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancerL a population)based study by 3sing AE, &hokkalingam A-, 1ao ST, "adigan "-, ,eng C, 1ridley 1, raumeni C Cr. #-ub"ed$$ #+:$ S)allylcysteine induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in androgen)independent human prostate cancer cells by ;iu A, ;i ", &hen ., Sang C, &hen 0, Eang T, ;iu C, Sang E, Se A#-ub"ed$. #2=$ E%pression of caspases *, 7 and 9 is increased in parallel with apoptosis and histological aggressiveness of the breast lesion by Jakkala ", -VVkkW -, Soini S. #-ub"ed$ #2+$ Effects of diallyl disulfide #,A,S$ on e%pression of apoptosis associated proteins in androgen independent human prostate cancer cells #-&)*$ by 1ayathri 0, 1unadharini ,4, Arunkumar A, Senthilkumar ., .rishnamoorthy 1, 'anudevi S, Jignesh 0&, Arunakaran C.#-ub"ed$ #22$ -olyphenol)rich sweet potato greens e%tract inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by .arna -, 1undala S0, 1upta "J, Shamsi SA, -ace 0,, Sates &, 4arayan S, Aneja 0.#-ub"ed$ #2*$ -olar biophenolics in sweet potato greens e%tract synergiHe to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth by 1undala S0, Sang &, ;akshminarayana 4, Asif 1, 1upta "J, Shamsi S, Aneja 0.#-ub"ed$ #25$ 1inger phytochemicals e%hibit synergy to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation by 'rahmbhatt ", 1undala S0, Asif 1, Shamsi SA, Aneja 0.#-ub"ed$ #26$ 'enefits of whole ginger e%tract in prostate cancer by .arna -, &hagani S, 1undala S0, 0ida -&, Asif 1, Sharma J, 1upta "J, Aneja 0.#-ub"ed$ #27$ Enterohepatic re)circulation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth)inhibitory activity of ginger e%tract by 1undala S0, "ukkavilli 0, Sang &, Sadav -, Tandon J, Jangala S, -rakash S, Aneja 0.#-ub"ed$ #28$ A case)control study of prostatic cancer with reference to dietary habits by /ishi ., /kada ., Soshida /, Samabe 3, /hno S, 3ayes 0', Schroeder 3.#-ub"ed$ #29$ -rospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer by .irsh JA, -eters >, "ayne ST, Subar A , &hatterjee 4, Cohnson &&, 3ayes 0'N -rostate, ;ung, &olorectal and /varian &ancer Screening Trial.#-ub"ed$ #2:$ Enterohepatic re)circulation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth)inhibitory activity of ginger e%tract by 1undala S0, "ukkavilli

0, Sang &, Sadav -, Tandon J, Jangala S, -rakash S, Aneja 0.#-ub"ed$ #*=$ >niBue natural antio%idants #4A/s$ and derived purified components inhibit cell cycle progression by downregulation of pp0b and E2 in human -&* prostate cancer cells by 'akshi S, 'ergman ", ,ovrat S, 1rossman S.#-ub"ed$ #*+$ Slowing tumorigenic progression in T0A"- mice and prostatic carcinoma cell lines using natural anti)o%idant from spinach, 4A/))a comparative study of three anti)o%idants by 4yska A, Suttie A, 'akshi S, ;omnitski ;, 1rossman S, 'ergman ", 'en)Shaul J, &rocket -, 3aseman C., "oser 1, 1oldsworthy T;, "aronpot 00.#-ub"ed$ #*2$ Effect of capsaicin on prostate cancer cells by ,XaH);aviada (.#-ub"ed$ #**$ &apsaicin, a component of red peppers, inhibits the growth of androgen) independent, p6* mutant prostate cancer cells by "ori A, ;ehmann S, /!.elly C, .umagai T, ,esmond C&, -ervan ", "c'ride E3, .iHaki ", .oeffler 3-.#-ub"ed$ #*5$ &apsaicin, a component of red peppers, induces e%pression of androgen receptor via -(*. and "A-. pathways in prostate ;4&a- cells by "alagarie)&aHenave S, /lea) 3errero 4, Jara ,, ,XaH);aviada (.#-ub"ed$ #*6$ Apoptosis induced by capsaicin in prostate -&)* cells involves ceramide accumulation, neutral sphingomyelinase, and C4. activation by SYncheH A", "alagarie) &aHenave S, /lea 4, Jara ,, &hiloeches A, ,XaH);aviada (.#-ub"ed$ #*7$ -rostate cancer and dietary carotenoids by 4orrish AE, Cackson 0T, Sharpe SC, Skeaff &".#-ub"ed$ #*8$ Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta)carotene, and vitamin & intakes and prostate cancer risk by .irsh JA, 3ayes 0', "ayne ST, &hatterjee 4, Subar A , ,i%on ;', Albanes ,, Andriole 1;, >rban ,A, -eters >N -;&/ Trial.#-ub"ed$ #*9$ 0elationship between vegetable and carotene intake and risk of prostate cancerL the CA&& study by >mesawa ", (so 3, "ikami ., .ubo T, SuHuki ., Eatanabe S, "ori ", "iki T, Tamakoshi AN CA&& Study 1roup#-ub"ed$ #*:$ -rostate cancer and supplementation with alpha)tocopherol and beta)caroteneL incidence and mortality in a controlled trial by 3einonen /-, Albanes ,, Jirtamo C, Taylor -0, 3uttunen C., 3artman A", 3aapakoski C, "alila 4, 0autalahti ", 0ipatti S, "VenpVV 3, Teerenhovi ;, .oss ;, Jirolainen ", Edwards '..#-ub"ed$ #5=$Anti)inflammatory and anticancer activities of e%tracts and compounds from the mushroom (nonotus obliBuus by "a ;, &hen 3, ,ong -, ;u O.#-ub"ed$ #5+$&ytoto%ic effect of oyster mushroom -leurotus ostreatus on human androgen) independent prostate cancer -&)* cells by 1u S3, Sivam 1.#-ub"ed$ #52$ -olysaccharide). augments doceta%el)induced tumor suppression and antitumor immune response in an immunocompetent murine model of human prostate cancer by Eenner &A, "artHen "0, ;u 3, Jerneris "0, Eang 3, Slaton CE.#-ub"ed$ #5*$ (soliBuiritigenin inhibits migration and invasion of prostate cancer cellsL possible mediation by decreased C4.2A-)+ signaling by .won 1T, &ho 3C, &hung ES, -ark .., "oon A, -ark C3.#-ub"ed$ #55$ (soliBuiritigenin #(S;$ inhibits Erb'* signaling in prostate cancer cells by Cung C(, &hung E, Seon "0, Shin 3., .im EC, ;im SS, &hung ES, -ark .., -ark C3. #-ub"ed$ #56$ (soliBuiritigenin induces apoptosis by depolariHing mitochondrial membranes in prostate cancer cells by Cung C(, ;im SS, &hoi 3C, &ho 3C, Shin 3., .im EC, &hung ES, -ark .., -ark C3.#-ub"ed$

#57$ Selective modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in prostate cancer cells by a standardiHed mangosteen fruit e%tract by ;i 1+, -etiwala S"+, -ierce ,0+, 4onn ;2, Cohnson C#-ub"ed$ #58$ -olyphenols from the mangosteen #1arcinia mangostana$ fruit for breast and prostate cancer by ;i 1, Thomas S, Cohnson CC.#-ub"ed$ #59$ <)"angostin, a %anthone from mangosteen fruit, promotes cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer and decreases %enograft tumor growth by Cohnson CC, -etiwala S", Syed ,4, 0asmussen CT, Adhami J", SiddiBui (A, .ohl A", "ukhtar 3.#-ub"ed$ #5:$ -iperlongumine promotes autophagy via inhibition of Akt2mT/0 signalling and mediates cancer cell death by "akhov -, 1olovine ., Teper E, .utikov A, "ehraHin 0, &orcoran A, Tulin A, >HHo 01, .olenko J".#-ub"ed$ #6=$ -iperlongumine induces rapid depletion of the androgen receptor in human prostate cancer cells by 1olovine .J, "akhov -', Teper E, .utikov A, &anter ,, >HHo 01, .olenko J".#-ub"ed$ #6+$ -iperine inhibits the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells via induction of cell cycle arrest and autophagy by /uyang ,S, Aeng ;3, -an 3, Ou ;3, Eang S, ;iu .-, 3e O3.#-ub"ed$ #62$ -omegranate e%tract inhibits the bone metastatic growth of human prostate cancer cells and enhances the in vivo efficacy of doceta%el chemotherapy by Eang S, Ahang S, (Bbal S, &hen A, Eang O, Eang SA, ;iu ,, 'ai ., 0itenour &, .ucuk /, Eu ,. #-ub"ed$ #6*$ Ellagic acid inhibits migration and invasion by prostate cancer cell lines by -itchakarn -, &hewonarin T, /gawa ., SuHuki S, Asamoto ", Takahashi S, Shirai T, ;imtrakul -.#-ub"ed$ #65$ -omegranate Cuice "etabolites, Ellagic Acid and >rolithin A, Synergistically (nhibit Androgen)(ndependent -rostate &ancer &ell 1rowth via ,istinct Effects on &ell &ycle &ontrol and Apoptosis by JicinanHa 0, Ahang S, 3enning S", 3eber ,.#-ub"ed$ #66$ (nhibition of cancer cell proliferation and suppression of T4 )induced activation of 4 kappa' by edible berry juice by in ,, 'lanchette ", 'arrette S, "oghrabi A, 'Zliveau 0.#-ub"ed$ #67$'lackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry e%tracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro by Seeram 4-, Adams ;S, Ahang S, ;ee 0, Sand ,, Scheuller 3S, 3eber ,.#-ub"ed$ #68$(solation and identification of strawberry phenolics with antio%idant and human cancer cell antiproliferative properties by Ahang S, Seeram 4-, ;ee 0, eng ;, 3eber ,. #-ub"ed$ #69$ ,ietary flavonoid fisetinL a novel dual inhibitor of -(*.2Akt and mT/0 for prostate cancer management by Adhami J", Syed ,4, .han 4, "ukhtar 3.#-ub"ed$ #6:$ Activation of A"-. by pterostilbene suppresses lipogenesis and cell)cycle progression in p6* positive and negative human prostate cancer cells by ;in J&, Tsai S&, ;in C4, an ;;, -an "3, 3o &T, Eu CS, Eay T,.#-ub"ed$ #7=$ 'iological activity of piceatannolL leaving the shadow of resveratrol by -iotrowska 3, .ucinska ", "urias ".#-ub"ed$ #7+$ Antiproliferative effects of apple peel e%tract against cancer cells by 0eagan)Shaw S, Eggert ,, "ukhtar 3, Ahmad 4.#-ub"ed$ #72$ ,oes an apple a day keep the oncologist away by 1allus S, Talamini 0, 1iacosa A,

"ontella ", 0amaHHotti J, ranceschi S, 4egri E, ;a Jecchia &.#-ub"ed$ #7*$ ,ietary isothiocyanate mediated apoptosis of human cancer cells is associated with 'cl)%; phosphorylation by 'asu A, 3aldar S.#-ub"ed$ #75$ 0oles of diet, lifetime physical activity and o%idative ,4A damage in the occurrence of prostate cancer among men in .lang Jalley, "alaysia by Shahar S, Shafurah S, 3asan Shaari 4S, 0ajikan 0, 0ajab 4 , 1olkhalkhali ', Aainuddin A". #-ub"ed$ #76$ "ultitargeted therapy of cancer by lycopene by van 'reemen 0', -ajkovic 4. #-ub"ed$ #77$ -hytosterol -ygeum africanum regulates prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo by Shenouda 4S, Sakla "S, 4ewton ;1, 'esch)Eilliford &, 1reenberg 4", "ac,onald 0S, ;ubahn ,'.#-ub"ed$ #78$Associations of whole)blood fatty acids and dietary intakes with prostate cancer in Camaica by Cackson ",, Ealker S-, Simpson)Smith &", ;indsay &", Smith 1, "c arlane)Anderson 4, 'ennett (, &oard .&, Aiken E,, Tulloch T, -aul TC, Ean 0;. #-ub"ed$ #79$(nhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado e%tractL role of lipid)soluble bioactive substances by ;u TS, Arteaga C0, Ahang T, 3uerta S, 1o J;, 3eber ,#-ub"ed$ #7:$ A case control study on prostate cancer in ,elhi by Tyagi ', "anoharan 4, 0aina J. #-ub"ed$ #8=$ &itrus consumption and cancer incidenceL the /hsaki cohort study by ;i ET, .uriyama S, ;i T, 4agai ", 3oHawa A, 4ishino S, Tsuji (.#-ub"ed$ #8+$ -otent anti)cancer effects of citrus peel flavonoids in human prostate %enograft tumors by ;ai &S, ;i S, "iyauchi S, SuHawa ", 3o &T, -an "3.#-ub"ed$ #82$ &itrus fruits intake and prostate cancer riskL a Buantitative systematic review by 'ae C", ;ee EC, 1uyatt 1.#-ub"ed$ #8*$ 'itter melon e%tract impairs prostate cancer cell)cycle progression and delays prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in T0A"- model by 0u -, Steele 0, 4erurkar -J, -hillips 4, 0ay 0'.#-ub"ed$ #85$ 0ibosome)inactivating proteins isolated from dietary bitter melon induce apoptosis and inhibit histone deacetylase)+ selectively in premalignant and malignant prostate cancer cells by Oiong S,, Su ., ;iu O3, Sin ;3, .irschenbaum A, Sao S, 4arla 1, ,i eo A, Eu C', Suan S, 3o S", ;am SE, ;evine A&.#-ub"ed$ #86$ "omordica charantia leaf e%tract suppresses rat prostate cancer progression in vitro and in vivo by -itchakarn -, /gawa ., SuHuki S, Takahashi S, Asamoto ", &hewonarin T, ;imtrakul -, Shirai T.#-ub"ed$ #87$ la%seed)derived enterolactone is inversely associated with tumor cell proliferation in men with localiHed prostate cancer by AHrad ", Jollmer 0T, "adden C, ,ewhirst ", -olascik TC, Snyder ,&, 0uffin "T, "oul CE, 'renner ,E, ,emark)Eahnefried E. #-ub"ed$ #88$ Effect of fla%seed supplementation on prostatic carcinoma in transgenic mice 'S ;in O, 1ingrich C0, 'ao E, ;i C, 3aroon AA, ,emark)Eahnefried E.#-ub"ed$ #89$ la%seed supplementation #not dietary fat restriction$ reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery by ,emark)Eahnefried E, -olascik TC, 1eorge S;, SwitHer '0, "adden C , 0uffin "T 5th, Snyder ,&, /wHar ., 3ars J, Albala ,",

Ealther -C, 0obertson &4, "oul CE, ,unn '., 'renner ,, "inasian ;, Stella -, Jollmer 0T.#-ub"ed$ #8:$ "en who consume vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated fatL their dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer #4ew Aealand$ by 4orrish AE, Cackson 0T, Sharpe SC, Skeaff &".#-ub"ed$ #9=$ Selectively hydrogenated soybean oil e%erts strong anti)prostate cancer activities by Cung "S, &hoi 4C, /h &3, Shin 3., Soon S3.#-ub"ed$ #9+$ &hrysin reduces proliferation and induces apoptosis in the human prostate cancer cell line pc)* by Samarghandian S, Afshari CT, ,avoodi S.#-ub"ed$ #92$&hickpea #&icer arietinum$ and other plant)derived protease inhibitor concentrates inhibit breast and prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro. by "agee -C, /wusu) Apenten 0, "c&ann "C, 1ill &(, 0owland (0.#-ub"ed$ #9*$ Analgesic, anti)inflammatory and anticancer activities of e%tra virgin olive oil by eHai ", Senovilla ;, Cema[ ", 'en)Attia "#-ub"ed$. #95$ "odulatory effects of polyphenols on apoptosis inductionL relevance for cancer prevention by ,!Archivio ", Santangelo &, ScaHHocchio ', Jar\ 0, ilesi &, "asella 0, 1iovannini &.#-ub"ed$ #96$ Apoptosis in cancer and atherosclerosisL polyphenol activities by 1iovannini &, ScaHHocchio ', Jar\ 0, Santangelo &, ,!Archivio ", "asella 0.#-ub"ed$ #97$ -iperine, a 'ioactive &omponent of -epper Spice E%erts Therapeutic Effects on Androgen ,ependent and Androgen (ndependent -rostate &ancer &ells by Samykutty A, Shetty AJ, ,akshinamoorthy 1, 'artik "", Cohnson 1;, Eebb ', Aheng 1, &hen A, .alyanasundaram 0, "unirathinam 1.#-ub"ed$ #98$ Q)&aryophyllene o%ide inhibits growth and induces apoptosis through the suppression of -(*.2A.T2mT/02S7.+ pathways and 0/S)mediated "A-.s activation by -ark .0, 4am ,, Sun 3", ;ee S1, Cang 3C, Sethi 1, &ho S., Ahn .S.#-ub"ed$ #99$ &hemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high)grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasiaL a preliminary report from a one)year proof)of)principle study by 'ettuHHi S, 'rausi ", 0iHHi , &astagnetti 1, -eracchia 1, &orti A.#-ub"ed$ #9:$ "odulation of signaling pathways in prostate cancer by green tea polyphenols by .han 4, "ukhtar 3.#-ub"ed$ #:=$Enhanced inhibition of prostate cancer %enograft tumor growth by combining Buercetin and green tea by Eang -, Jadgama CJ, Said CE, "agyar &E, ,oan 4, 3eber ,, 3enning S".#-ub"ed$ #:+$ Epigenetic effects of green tea polyphenols in cancer by 3enning S", Eang -, &arpenter &;, 3eber ,.#-ub"ed$ #:2$ A case)control study of diet and prostate cancer in CapanL possible protective effect of traditional Capanese diet by Sonoda T, 4agata S, "ori ", "iyanaga 4, Takashima 4, /kumura ., 1oto ., 4aito S, ujimoto ., 3irao S, Takahashi A, Tsukamoto T, ujioka T, AkaHa 3.#-ub"ed$ #:*$ Soy and isoflavone consumption in relation to prostate cancer risk in &hina by ;ee "", 1omeH S;, &hang CS, Eey ", Eang 0T, 3sing AE.#-ub"ed$ #:5$ Soy intake and cancer riskL a review of the in vitro and in vivo data by "essina "C, -ersky J, Setchell .,, 'arnes S.#-ub"ed$ #:5$ "editerranean ,iet and -rostate &ancer 0isk and "ortality in the 3ealth

-rofessionals ollow)up Study by .enfield SA, ,upre 4, 0ichman E;, Stampfer "C, &han C", 1iovannucci E;.#-ub"ed$ #:6$ A prospective study of demographics, diet, and prostate cancer among men of Capanese ancestry in 3awaii by Severson 0., 4omura A", 1rove CS, Stemmermann 14.#-ub"ed$ #:7$ Alcohol consumption, smoking, and other risk factors and prostate cancer in a large health plan cohort in &alifornia #>nited States$ by 3iatt 0A, Armstrong "A, .latsky A;, Sidney S.#-ub"ed$