1.1K views

Uploaded by pi194043

application of normalized convolution towards image interpolation

save

You are on page 1of 6

Pi19404

February 4, 2014

Contents

Contents

Normalized convolution for Image Interpolation

0.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

3 6

2 | 6

Normalized convolution for Image Interpolation

**Normalized convolution for Image Interpolation
**

0.1 Introduction

In this article we will look at the concept for normalized convolution for image interpolation and how a sparsely and ununiformaly sampled grid can be used for image reconstruction.

Convolution is a neighborhood operation. For 1D case,the convolution of a signal f (t) with a filter h(t) can be expressed as

y (n) =

Xh k f n k

( ) (

k

)

(1)

Thus result of convolution at point n is weighted sum of samples in the neighborhood of sample point n. Interpolation is process of estimation of value of signal at unknown point based on set of known points. Many times we require analysis of irregularily sampled data, which is more compilated than regularily sampled data.It is often required to reconstruct the irregularily sampled signal or resample it onto a regular grid. One method to do this is to use interpolation techniques obtain a regularily sampled signal.The missing values in the regularily sampled grid are computed using intepolation which is implemented using convolution operations. Let us consider a signal 1D signal x(t) = [x1 ; 0; 0; x4 ; x5 ; 0; 0] and h(t) = [1=3; 1=3; 1=3]. The result of convolution is given by y (t)

x5 =3; x4 + x5 =3; x5 =3; x1 =3]

= [x1 =3; x1 =3; x4 =3; x4 +

convolution can be expressed as weighted average about a local neighborhood.

3 | 6

Normalized convolution for Image Interpolation

In general Let x1 ; : : : ; xn be set of values and w1 ; : : : ; wn be the associated weights The convolution is given by

xavg

=

P w i f x i Pwi

i

( ) (

i

)

( )

(2)

The convolution can be made more effective by a normalized operation which takes into account the missing samples.One of applications of normalized convolution which is a method of interpolating irregularily sampled data points.The conceptual basis for the method is the signal/certainty philosophy separating the values of a signal from the certainty of the measurements. Normalized Convolution can, for each neighborhood of the signal, geometrically be interpreted as a projection into a subspace which is spanned by some analysis functions The idea of normalized convolution is to associate each signal with a certainty component which expresses the level of confidence in the reliability of each measure of the signal. Certainty associated with missing samples is 0 ,while that of known samples is 1. Thus we can express a map c(t) associated with signal f (t) which has the same dimensions as the signal f (t).The certanity map associated with a signal is simple the locations at which samples are to be found. In case of the above examples the certainty map is given by

c(t) = [1; 0; 0; 1; 1; 0; 0]

Having both signal and associated certainty map leads to main concept behind normalized convolution

yc (t) = [1=3; 1=3; 1=3; 2=3; 2=3; 1=3; 1=3]

Let us consider the convolution of certainty map by filter h(t)

In normalized convolution we have two distinct weights ,a certainty c(t) which is associate with the signal and applicability a(t) which is associatedd with neighborhood. the applicability function determines neighborhood of convolution as well as weights associated with neighborhood pixel.

4 | 6

Normalized convolution for Image Interpolation

For 1D signals it can be expressed as

xavg

=

sumk f (x k ) £ c(x k ) £ a(k ) k c(x k )a(k ) (fc) £ x xavg = c£a

P

(3) (4)

in case of above examples we get

y (t) = [x1 ; x1 ; x4 ; (x4 + x5 )=2; (x4 + x5 )=2; x5 ; x1 ]

This is an approximation of original signal,where components x1 ; x5 have been retained while the other components are interpolated values in the neighborhood. The division of certainty matrix ensures than the signal values remain within a valid range and is primary reason for better performance. when signal value increases due to applicability function ,the certainty values also increases by the same ammount and this will compensate for the increase in the signal values and provide a normalized measure.This behavior is also observed when the signal value is reduced. Let us consider a gaussian applicability function.Only parameter that neeeds to be controlled is the standard deviation of the gaussian function and the aperture/neighborhood size of the gaussian. Due to normalization property we get a much better result than a standard convolution would yeild The matlab code for the 2D normalized convolution is given below.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

im=double(imread('lena.png')); figure(1);colormap(gray);imagesc(im); cert = double(rand(size(im)) > 0.8); imcert = im.*cert; figure(2);colormap(gray);imagesc(imcert); %applicability function 3x3 gaussian with variance of 1 x = ones(7,1)*(-3:3) y = x'; a = exp(-(x.^2+y.^2)/4); figure(3);mesh(a);

5 | 6

Normalized convolution for Image Interpolation

(a) orignal

(b) sampled

(c) filter

**(d) gaussian interpola- (e) normalized convotion lution
**

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

imlp = conv2(imcert, a, 'same'); figure(4);colormap(gray);imagesc(imlp); %convolution with certainty map G=conv2(cert,a,'same'); %normalized convolution c = imlp./G; figure(5);colormap(gray);imagesc(c);

6 | 6

- polynomial approximation of a 2D signalUploaded bypi194043
- Modified Canny Edge DetectionUploaded bypi194043
- Polynomial Approximation of 1D signalUploaded bypi194043
- Multi Class Logistic Regression Training and TestingUploaded bypi194043
- Gaussian Multivariate Distribution -Part 1Uploaded bypi194043
- Fast Asymmetric Learning for Cascade Face Detection Training/Testing UtilityUploaded bypi194043
- SubPixel Corner Localization AlgorithmUploaded bypi194043
- Random Ferns for Patch DescriptionUploaded bypi194043
- Polynomial Approximation of 2D image patch -Part 2Uploaded bypi194043
- Fast 2D Separable Symmetric/Anti-Symmmetric ConvolutionUploaded bypi194043
- Continuous Emission Hidden Markov Model for sequence classificationUploaded bypi194043
- Dense optical flow expansion based on polynomial basis approximationUploaded bypi194043
- A linear channel filterUploaded bypi194043
- ARM Neon Optimization for image interleaving and deinterleavingUploaded bypi194043
- Adaptive Skin Color DetectorUploaded bypi194043
- Computing Rectangular Haar Features for Cascade Detection TrainingUploaded bypi194043
- Feature Detection - Overview of Harris Corner Feature DetectionUploaded bypi194043
- Android OpenCV Face detectionUploaded bypi194043
- OpenCL 2D Convolution Using Separable Filters -Box FilterUploaded bypi194043
- Local Binary PatternUploaded bypi194043
- Fast 3D Extension of Fast Feature Detection for SpatioTemporal Corner DetectionUploaded bypi194043
- OpenCL Image Convolution Filter - Box FilterUploaded bypi194043
- Image enhancement using FusionUploaded bypi194043
- Uniform Color QuantizationUploaded bypi194043
- A simple color balance algorithmUploaded bypi194043
- Control Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization for Image EnhancementUploaded bypi194043
- Android OpenCV Simple Face TrackerUploaded bypi194043
- OpenVision Library Gaussian Mixture Model ImplementationUploaded bypi194043
- A detailed descriptions and results for different color constancy algorithmsUploaded bypi194043
- OpenCL Heterogenenous program for Image Processing - ColorSpace conversion BGR-HSV,HSV-BGR,BGR-GRAYUploaded bypi194043

- Compiling Native C/C++ library for AndroidUploaded bypi194043
- Polynomial Approximation of 2D image patch -Part 2Uploaded bypi194043
- Fast 2D Separable Symmetric/Anti-Symmmetric ConvolutionUploaded bypi194043
- Continuous Emission Hidden Markov Model for sequence classificationUploaded bypi194043
- Dense optical flow expansion based on polynomial basis approximationUploaded bypi194043
- A linear channel filterUploaded bypi194043
- ARM Neon Optimization for image interleaving and deinterleavingUploaded bypi194043
- Adaptive Skin Color DetectorUploaded bypi194043
- OpenVision Library Gaussian Mixture Model ImplementationUploaded bypi194043
- Markov chain implementation in C++ using EigenUploaded bypi194043
- Implementation of discrete hidden markov model for sequence classification in C++ using EigenUploaded bypi194043
- C++ Const,Volatile Type QualifiersUploaded bypi194043
- C++ InheritanceUploaded bypi194043
- Local Binary PatternUploaded bypi194043
- Mean Shift AlgorithmUploaded bypi194043
- C++ Class Members and friendsUploaded bypi194043
- Embedded Systems Programming with ARM on Linux - Blinking LEDUploaded bypi194043
- Random Ferns for Patch DescriptionUploaded bypi194043
- Integral Image for Computation of Mean And VarianceUploaded bypi194043
- C++ static members and functionUploaded bypi194043
- C++ virtual functions and abstract classUploaded bypi194043
- Tan and Triggs Illumination normalizationUploaded bypi194043
- Mean Shift TrackingUploaded bypi194043
- Uniform Local Binary Pattern and Spatial Histogram ComputationUploaded bypi194043

- Fourier TransformUploaded bythắng
- VLSI_bookUploaded bydeveloper_2k11
- dspa course fileUploaded byhima_srtist
- memtech2013.pdfUploaded byAnonymous 7wk2G5BX
- Dsp Lab Sample Viva QuestionsUploaded bymachnik1486624
- AN OPTIMIZED APPROACH FOR FAKE CURRENCY DETECTION USING DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORMUploaded byJames Moreno
- fpgaUploaded bySudhiStar
- ug073Uploaded bydcesenther
- Image Compression ModelUploaded bySumanta Das
- Edge Detection by Modified OTSU MethodUploaded byCS & IT
- EE407 Digital Signal ProcessingUploaded bybibuthomas
- AU - CBE - 5th SemUploaded bySushanth Rajkumar
- EC370 Digital Image ProcessingUploaded byAnand Krishna
- A review on Development of novel algorithm by combining Wavelet based Enhanced Canny edge Detection and Adaptive Filtering Method for Human Emotion RecognitionUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- TLE4942-1,1CUploaded byTomás Ferreiro
- DSP(TC)Uploaded byLakshmi Krishna
- Chapter 1_ Basic Concepts of Digital Filtering and Types of Digital FiltersUploaded bySanjay Balwani
- DSP MSE 2010 Solutions(2)Uploaded byDALAL101
- FPGA Implementation of a Multimode TransmultiplexerUploaded bysjpritchard
- The Research of Feature Extraction Based on MFCCUploaded bypravin2275767
- Synopsis of Digital Signal ProcessingUploaded byGaurav Sharma
- GPSsignalqualtyUploaded bycomert
- Compressed Image ProcessingUploaded bysriramecstud
- Predictive Current Control of a Voltage Source InverterUploaded bynhatvp
- ezdsp5535_TechRef_RevCUploaded byAndrei Bogdan
- Performance Evaluation of 2D Adaptive Bilateral Filter For Removal of Noise From Robust ImagesUploaded byAI Coordinator - CSC Journals
- Comprehensive Exam (B.tech ECE-2013)Uploaded byPavan Kumar
- Grid interface design based on master-slave hardware architecture.pdfUploaded bypacoruz
- Wjarosz Convolution 2001Uploaded by_leviathan_
- IJTC201604001-Restoration of Image Using KNN AlgorithmUploaded byInternational Journal of Technology and Computing (IJTC)