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With the increasing numbers of gas turbines powered devices, it has become an important aspect to understand the basic construction and operation of the gas turbine engines. The gas turbine is an internal combustion engine in which air is compressed, fuel added, mixture ignited, and the rapid expansion of the resultant hot gas hence power is produced.

1.1 Theory
Gas turbines usually operate on an open cycle. Fresh air at ambient conditions is drawn into the compressor, where its temperature and pressure are raised. The high pressure air proceeds into the combustion chamber, where the fuel is burned at constant pressure. The resulting high-temperature gases then enter the turbine, where they expand to atmospheric pressure while producing power. The exhaust gases leaving the turbine are thrown out (not recirculated), causing the cycle to be classified as an open cycle. The open gas-turbine cycle described above can be modeled as a closed cycle, by utilizing the air-standard assumptions. The compression and expansion processes remain the same, but the combustion process is replaced by a constant-pressure heat-addition process from an external source, and the exhaust process is replaced by a constant pressure heat-rejection process to the ambient air. The ideal cycle that the working fluid undergoes in this closed loop is the Brayton cycle, which is made up of four internally reversible processes: 1-2 Isentropic compression (in a compressor) 2-3 Constant-pressure heat addition 3-4 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine) 4-1 Constant-pressure heat rejection

Compressor The compressor draws air into the engine, pressurizes it and delivers it to the combustion chamber. It is driven from the turbine by a shaft. There are two types of compressors namely the centrifugal flow impeller type and the axial flow type which has several stages of alternate rotating and stationary aerofoil blades. Compression is achieved in a repeated dual process. Firstly, the working fluid (air) is accelerated in a moving blade row to a high

absolute velocity associated with rise of static pressure. Further rise in static pressure is achieved by a diffusion process in a stationary blade row. Combustion chamber The combustion chamber receives air from the compressor which mixes with fuel sprayed from nozzles in the front of the chamber. The mixture is burned at temperatures up to 2000C to generate the maximum possible heat energy. Heat transfer to the working fluid is: = 3 2 = (3 2 ) Turbine The turbine section of the gas turbine engine has the task of producing usable output shaft power to drive the propeller. In addition, it must also provide power to drive the compressor and all engine accessories. It does this by expanding the high temperature, pressure, and velocity gas and converting the gaseous energy to mechanical energy in the form of shaft power. Each stage of the turbine consists of a row of stationary vanes followed by a row of rotating blades. This is the reverse of the order in the compressor. In the compressor, energy is added to the gas by the rotor blades, then converted to static pressure by the stator vanes. In the turbine, the stator vanes increase gas velocity, and then the rotor blades extract energy. Heat transfer from the working fluid: = 4 1 = (4 1 ) If the compressor and the turbine were 100% efficient, the compressor would supply all the air needed by the turbine. At the same time, the turbine would supply the necessary power to drive the compressor. In this case, a perpetual motion machine would exist. However, frictional losses and mechanical system inefficiencies do not allow a perpetual motion machine to operate. Additional energy must be added to the air to accommodate for these losses. Power output is also desired from the engine (beyond simply driving the compressor); thus, even more energy must be added to the air to produce this excess power. Energy addition to the system is accomplished in the combustor. Chemical energy from fuel as it is burned is converted to gaseous energy in the form of high temperatures and high velocity as the air passes through the combustor. The gaseous energy is converted back to mechanical energy in the turbine, providing power to drive the compressor and the output shaft. Thermal efficiency of the ideal Brayton cycle under the cold-air standard assumptions: 1 (4 1) (4 1 ) 1 , = = 1 = 1 =1 ( ) 3 2 2 (3 1) 2 Processes 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic, and 2 = 3 , 4 = 1. 2 2 (1) 3 (1) 3 = ( ) = ( ) = 1 1 4 4 , = 1 1

= = compressor ratio, k= specific heat ratio

2 1