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**Single-Stage Amplifiers
**

Shahriar Mirabbasi Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of British Columbia shahriar@ece.ubc.ca

**Technical contributions of Pedram Lajevardi in revising the course notes are greatly acknowledged.
**

SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 1

Overview

1. Why Amplifiers? 2. Amplifier Characteristics 3. Amplifier Trade-offs 4. Single-stage Amplifiers 5. Common Source Amplifiers 1. Resistive Load 2. Diode-connected Load 3. Current Source Load 4. Triode Load 5. Source Degeneration

SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 2

Overview

6. Common-Drain (Source-Follower) Amplifiers 1. Resistive Load 2. Current Source Load 3. Voltage Division in Source Followers 7. Common-Gate Amplifiers 6. Cascode Amplifiers

SM

Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers

3

Although. McGraw-Hill. Most of the figures in these lecture notes are © Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits. we assume long-channel MOS models (not a good assumption for deep submicron technologies) the techniques discussed here help us to develop basic circuit intuition and to better understand and predict the behavior of circuits.Reading Assignments • Reading: Chapter 3 of Razavi’s book • In this set of slides we will study low-frequency small-signal behavior of single-stage CMOS amplifiers. SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 4 . 2001.

Why Amplifiers? • Amplifiers are essential building blocks of both analog and digital systems. Amplifiers are needed for variety of reasons including: – To amplify a weak analog signal for further processing – To reduce the effects of noise of the next stage – To provide a proper logical levels (in digital circuits) • • Amplifiers also play a crucial role in feedback systems We first look at the low-frequency performance of amplifiers. Therefore. all capacitors in the small-signal model are ignored! Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 5 • SM .

. the input times a constant gain: y y = α1 x x • In real world the input-output characteristics is typically a nonlinear function: SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 6 . i.e.1 • Ideally we would like that the output of an amplifier be a linear function of the input.Amplifier Characteristics .

2 • • It is more convenient to use a linear approximation of a nonlinear function. y x • The larger the signal changes about the operating point. This is why small-signal analysis is so popular! 7 • SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers .Amplifier Characteristics . Use the tangent line to the curve at the given (operating) point. the worse the approximation of the curve by its tangent line.

we can ignore the higher-order terms (hence the name small-signal analysis) to get: y ≈ α 0 + α 1 ( x − x0 ) α0 is referred to as the operating (bias) point and α1 is the small-signal gain. • ∆y = y − f ( x0 ) = y − α 0 ≈ α 1 ∆x SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 8 .3 • A well-behaved nonlinear function in the vicinity of a given point can be approximated by its corresponding Taylor series: f ' ' ( x0 ) f n ( x0 ) 2 y ≈ f ( x0 ) + f ' ( x0 ) ⋅ ( x − x0 ) + ⋅ ( x − x0 ) + L + ⋅ ( x − x0 ) n n! 2! • f n ( x0 ) Let α n = to get: n! y ≈ α 0 + α 1 ( x − x0 ) + α 2 ( x − x0 ) 2 + L + α n ( x − x0 ) n • If x-x0=∆x is small.Amplifier Characteristics .

SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 9 . when designing an amplifier. Typically.Amplifier Trade-offs • In practice. we need to choose an acceptable compromise. therefore. we need to optimize for some performance parameters. these parameters trade performance with each other.

Cascode and Folded Cascode • Each of these amplifiers have some advantages and some disadvantages. Common Drain (Source Follower ) 3. SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 10 . Common Gate 4. Often.Single-Stage Amplifiers • We will examine the following types of amplifiers: 1. designers have to utilize a cascade combination of these amplifiers to meet the design requirements. Common Source 2.

• We can divide common source amplifiers into two groups: 1.1 • In common-source amplifiers. With source degeneration (have to take body effect into account for the main transistor): SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 11 . the input is (somehow!) connected to the gate and the output is (somehow!) taken from the drain.Common Source Basics . Without source degeneration (no body effect for the main transistor): 2.

2 In a simple common source amplifier: • • • gate voltage variations times gm gives the drain current variations. Therefore. drain current variations times the load gives the output voltage variations. one can expect the small-signal gain to be: Av = g m ⋅ RD SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 12 .Common Source Basics .

Diode-connected Load 3. Small-signal gain 2. Triode Load The following parameters of amplifiers are very important: 1. Resistive Load 2.Common Source Basics . Current Source Load 4. Voltage swing • SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 13 .3 • Different types of loads can be used in an amplifier: 1.

Resistive Load . 2. The region of operation of M1 depends on its size and the values of Vin and R. Small-signal model Large-signal analysis SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 14 . We are interested in the small-signal gain and the headroom (which determines the maximum voltage swing).1 • • • • Let’s use a resistor as the load. We will calculate the gain using two different methods 1.

The current through RD: i = g ⋅v D m IN Output Voltage: v Small-signal Gain: OUT = −i ⋅ R = − g ⋅ v ⋅ R D D m IN D A = v v v OUT = −g ⋅ R m D IN SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 15 .2 Gain – Method 1: Small-Signal Model • • • • This is assuming that the transistor is in saturation. and channel length modulation is ignored.Resistive Load .

V 1 W = V − R ⋅ i = V − R ⋅ ⋅ µ ⋅ C ⋅ ⋅ (V − V ) 2 L ∂V W A = = − R ⋅ µ ⋅ C ⋅ ⋅ (V − V ) = − R ⋅ g L ∂V OUT dd D D dd D n ox IN TH OUT v D n ox IN TH D m IN 2 • As VIN increases. M1 is off.3 Gain – Method 2: Large-Signal Analysis • If VIN<VTH.VTH ≈0). W 1 V = V − R ⋅ i = V − R ⋅ ⋅ µ ⋅ C ⋅ ⋅ (V − V ) = (V − V ) 2 L 2 OUT dd D D dd D n ox IN TH IN TH SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 16 . VOUT = VDD − RD ⋅ iD = VDD Av = ∂VOUT =0 ∂VIN • As VIN becomes slightly larger than VTH. and M1 goes into triode when VIN. VDS decreases.Resistive Load . M1 turns on and goes into saturation (VDS≈ VDD > VGS.VTH = VOUT. and VOUT= VDD = VDS. We can find the value of VIN that makes M1 switch its region of operation.

It will depend on both VIN and VOUT. VDS decreases. VOUT W = VDD − RD ⋅ iD = VDD − RD ⋅ µ n ⋅ Cox ⋅ L 2 ⎡ VOUT ⋅ ⎢(VIN − VTH ) ⋅VOUT − 2 ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ∂VOUT W = − RD ⋅ µ n ⋅ Cox ⋅ ∂VIN L ⎡ ∂V ∂V ⋅ ⎢(VIN − VTH ) ⋅ OUT + VOUT − VOUT ⋅ OUT ∂VIN ∂VIN ⎢ ⎣ • • We can find Av from above. VOUT = VDD − RD ⋅ iD = VDD − RD ⋅ µ n ⋅ Cox ⋅ VOUT = VDD W 1 + RD ⋅ µ n ⋅ Cox ⋅ ⋅ (VIN L W ⋅ (VIN − VTH ) ⋅ VOUT L RON VDD = = VDD ⋅ 1 RON + RD − VTH ) 1 + RD ⋅ RON 17 SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers .VTH). If VIN increases further.Resistive Load . and M1 goes into triode.4 Gain – Method 2: Large-Signal Analysis (Continued) • As VIN increases. M1 goes into deep triode if VOUT<< 2(VIN.

5 Example: Sketch the drain current and gm of M1 as a function of VIN. so if VIN changes by a large amount the smallsignal approximation will not be valid anymore. Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 18 SM . • • gm depends on VIN. we don’t want gain to depend on parameters like gm which depend on the input signal.Resistive Load . In order to have a linear amplifier.

3. the bandwidth becomes smaller (why?). bandwidth. ID increases (more power) and VRD increases.6 • Gain of common-source amplifier: Av = − g m ⋅ RD = − µ nCox W V W VRD − 2 ⋅ VRD (VIN − VTH ) ⋅ RD = − 2 µ nCox ⋅ = L ID L Veff ID • To increase the gain: 1. the gain will increase. 2. and voltage swings. Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 19 . the gain will not change. • SM Notice the trade-offs between gain. Either way.Resistive Load . If ID is reduced by decreasing W. Increase RD and keep ID constant (gm and power remain constant). which limits the voltage swing. But. VRD increases which limits the voltage swing. Since RD is increased. If ID is reduced by decreasing VIN (bias). Increase gm by increasing W or VIN (DC portion or bias). Increase RD and reduce ID so VRD remains constant.

we will calculate the gain in two different methods 1. 2.7 • Now let’s consider the simple common-source circuit with channel length modulation taken into account. Small-signal Model Large Signal Analysis • • SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 20 . Channel length modulation becomes more important as RD increases (in the next slide we will see why!).Resistive Load . Again.

Resistive Load .8 Gain – Method 1: Small-Signal Model • • • • This is assuming that the transistor is in saturation. The current through RD: i = g ⋅v D m IN Output Voltage: v Small-signal Gain: OUT = −i ⋅ (R r ) = − g ⋅ v ⋅ (R r ) D D o m IN D o A = v v v OUT = − g ⋅ (R r ) m D o IN SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 21 .

VOUT = VDD − RD ⋅ I D = VDD − RD ⋅ W 1 ⋅ µ n ⋅ Cox ⋅ ⋅ (VIN − VTH ) 2 ⋅ (1 + λ ⋅ VOUT ) L 2 ⎤ ⎡ ∂VOUT ∂V W 1 = − RD ⋅ µ n ⋅ Cox ⋅ ⋅ (VIN − VTH ) ⋅ ⎢(1 + λ ⋅ VOUT ) + ⋅ (VIN − VTH ) ⋅ λ ⋅ OUT ⎥ L 2 ∂VIN ∂VIN ⎦ ⎣ W − RD ⋅ µ n ⋅ Cox ⋅ ⋅ (VIN − VTH ) ⋅ (1 + λ ⋅ VOUT ) − RD ⋅ g m − RD ⋅ g m L Av = = = W 1 1 + RD ⋅ I D ⋅ λ 1 + R ⋅ 1 1 + ⋅ RD ⋅ µ n ⋅ Cox ⋅ ⋅ (VIN − VTH ) 2 ⋅ λ D L ro 2 = − ro ⋅ RD ⋅ g m = − g m ⋅ RD ro ro + RD ( ) SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 22 .VTH ≈0). M1 turns on and goes into saturation (VDS≈ VDD > VGS.9 Gain – Method 2: Large-Signal Analysis • As VIN becomes slightly larger than VTH.Resistive Load .

Resistive Load - 10

Example: • Assuming M1 is biased in active region, what is the small-signal gain of the following circuit? • I1 is a current source and ideally has an infinite impedance. A =

v

v v

OUT

= − g ⋅ (∞ r ) = − g ⋅ r

m o m

o

IN

•

This is the maximum gain of this amplifier (why?), and is known as the intrinsic gain. How can VIN change if I1 is constant? W 1 I = ⋅ µ ⋅ C ⋅ ⋅ (V − V ) ⋅ (1 + λ ⋅ V ) L 2 Here we have to take channel-length modulation into account. As VIN changes, VOUT also changes to keep I1 constant.

2

D n ox IN TH OUT

•

•

SM

Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers

23

**Diode Connected Load - 1
**

• • Often, it is difficult to fabricate tightly controlled or reasonable size resistors on chip. So, it is desirable to replace the load resistor with a MOS device. Recall the diode connected devices:

Body Effect RX (when λ≠0) RX (when λ=0)

NO

R =r

X

o

1 g

R =

X

m

1 g

m

YES

1 R =r g +g

X o m

R =

X mb

1 g +g

m

mb

SM

Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers

24

**Diode Connected Load - 2
**

• Now consider the common-source amplifier with two types of diode connected loads: 1. PMOS diode connected load: (No body effect)

2. NMOS diode connected load: (Body effect has to be taken into account)

SM

Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers

25

3 PMOS Diode Connected Load: • Note that this is a common source configuration with M2 being the load. We have: ⎞ ⎛ 1 v ⎟ A = r r = − g ⋅ (R r ) = − g ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ v ⎠ ⎝g OUT v m1 X o1 m1 o2 o1 IN m2 • Ignoring the channel length modulation (ro1=ro2=∞). we can write: ⎛W µn ⋅ ⎜ ⎞ ⎛ 1 g ⎝ L ⎟ = − m1 = − Av = − g m1 ⋅ ⎜ = − ∞ ∞ ⎟ ⎜g g m2 ⎛W ⎠ ⎝ m2 ⎛W ⎞ µ ⋅ ⎜ p 2µ p ⋅ Cox ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ I D 2 ⎝ L L ⎝ ⎠2 2 ⋅ I D1 VSG 2 − VTH 2 −V V g Av = − m1 = − GS1 TH 1 = − 2 ⋅ I D2 g m2 VGS1 − VTH 1 VSG 2 − VTH 2 ⎛W 2µ n ⋅ Cox ⋅ ⎜ ⎝ L ⎞ ⎟ ⋅ I D1 ⎠1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎠1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎠2 SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 26 .Diode Connected Load .

note that this is a common source configuration with M2 being the load. we can write: ⎞ ⎛ g m1 g m1 1 ⎟=− Av = − g m1 ⋅ ⎜ = − ∞ ∞ ⎟ ⎜g +g g m 2 + g mb 2 g m 2 ⋅ (1 + η ) mb 2 ⎠ ⎝ m2 1 1+η ⎞ ⎟ 1 VGS 2 − VTH ⎠1 =− ⋅ 1 + η VGS1 − VTH ⎛W ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠2 ⎛W ⎜ ⎝ L Av = − SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 27 .4 NMOS Diode Connected Load: • Again. We have: ⎞ ⎛ 1 v ⎟ A = r r = − g ⋅ (R r ) = − g ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ v ⎠ ⎝g +g OUT v m1 X o1 m1 o2 o1 IN m2 mb 2 • Ignoring the channel length modulation (ro1=ro2=∞).Diode Connected Load .

the change in the input and output levels does not affect the gain. So. 2. The amplifier gain is not a function of the input signal (amplifier becomes more linear). SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 28 . The amplifier gain is a weak function (square root) of the transistor sizes.Diode Connected Load . and the amplifier becomes more linear. 3.5 • For a diode connected load we observe that (to the first order approximation): 1. So. The amplifier gain is not a function of the bias current. we have to change the dimensions by a considerable amount so as to increase the gain.

The gain of the amplifier is reduced when body effect should be considered. M 1 : VOUT > VGS1 − VTH 1 = Veff 1 . and M2 to be on (M2 cannot be in triode (why?)): 6.Diode Connected Load . A high amplifier gain leads to a high overdrive voltage for the diode connected device which limits the voltage swing. We want M1 to be in saturation. M 2 : VOUT < VDD − VTH 2 7. 5. The voltage swing is constrained by both the required overdrive voltages and the threshold voltage of the diode connected device. SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 29 .6 4.

75I1.6 Example: • Find the gain of the following circuit if M1 is biased in saturation and Is=0. A = v v v OUT IN ⎛ 1 = − g ⋅ (R r r ) = − g ⋅ ⎜ ⎜g r ∞r ⎝ m1 X Is o1 m1 o2 m2 o1 ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ g r r = − ⋅ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜g ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ m1 o2 o1 m2 • Ignoring the channel length modulation (ro1=ro2=∞) we get: 2 ⋅ I D1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 g VGS1 − VTH 1 ⎟ = − m1 = − Av = − g m1 ⋅ ⎜ = − ∞ ∞ ⎟ ⎜g 2 ⋅ I D2 g m2 ⎠ ⎝ m2 ⎛W ⎞ 2 µ p ⋅ Cox ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ I D 2 VSG 2 − VTH 2 ⎝ L ⎠2 ⎞ ⎟ VSG 2 − VTH 2 ⎠1 = −4 ⋅ Av = −2 ⋅ VGS1 − VTH 1 ⎛W ⎞ µ p ⋅⎜ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠2 ⎛W 2 µ n ⋅ Cox ⋅ ⎜ ⎝ L ⎞ ⎟ ⋅ I D1 ⎠1 µn ⋅ ⎜ ⎛W ⎝ L SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 30 .Diode Connected Load .

7 Example (Continued): • We observe for this example that: 1. For fixed transistor sizes. using the current source allows us to make the overdrive voltage of the diode connected load 4 times smaller. using the current source increases the gain by a factor of 4. For a given gain. 4. SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 31 . This increases the headroom for voltage swing. For a given gain. For fixed overdrive voltages.Diode Connected Load . 2. using the current source allows us to make the diode connected load 4 times smaller. using the current source increases the gain by a factor of 2. 3.

We want M2 to be in saturation so VSD 2 = VDD − VOUT > VSG 2 − VTH = Veff 2 → VOUT < VDD − Veff 2 1 1 L2 ∝ = For large gain at given power. this approach increases the capacitance of the output node. we want large ro and ro = 1 W λ ⋅ ID W ⋅ L L v v OUT = − g ⋅ (R r ) = − g ⋅ (r r m1 X o1 m1 o2 o1 ) IN SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 32 . However. Recall that the output impedance of M2 seen from Vout: v R = =r i X X o2 X A = v • • Increase L and W keeping the aspect ratio constant (so ro increases and ID remains constant).1 • • • Note that current source M2 is the load.Current Source Load .

The intrinsic gain of this amplifier is: A = − g ⋅ r In general. r ∝ → A ∝L W L But since current in this case is roughly constant: v m o 2 m o v • • • g = 2µ ⋅ C ⋅ m n ox W W ⋅I ∝ L L D .2 • We also want M1 to be in saturation: V • DS 1 =V OUT > V −V = V →V GS 1 TH eff 1 OUT >V eff 1 Thus. we want Veff1 and Veff2 to be small. we have: W L g ∝ .Current Source Load . we can increase W1 and W2 to reduce Veff1 and Veff2. so that there is more headroom for output voltage swing. For a constant ID. r = o 1 ∝L → λ⋅I D A ∝ LW v SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 33 .

M 2 : VOUT ≈ VDD Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 34 . In general.Triode Load • We recognize that this is a common source configuration with M2 being the load. RON2 depends on µp. i. Recall that if M2 is in deep triode. Cox. A = − g ⋅ (R v m1 ON 2 r o1 ) • • • • SM Vb should be low enough to make sure that M2 is in deep triode region and usually requires additional complexity to be precisely generated. and VTH which in turn depend on the technology being used. VSD<<2(VSG-|VTH|). If V << 2(V − V SD SG TH ): 1 SG TH R ON 2 = W µ ⋅ C ⋅ ⋅ (V − V L p ox ) = 1 W µ ⋅ C ⋅ ⋅ (V − V − V L p ox dd b TH ) . triode load consumes less headroom: M1 : VOUT > VGS1 − VTH = Veff 1 . it behaves like a resistor..e. this amplifier with triode load is difficult to design and use! However. compared to diode-connected load.

SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 35 . Small-signal Model 2. Using the following Lemma • • Lemma: In linear systems. the voltage gain is equal to –GmRout. We will use two methods to derive the gain of this circuit: 1.1 • The following circuit shows a common source configuration with a degeneration resistor in the source.Source Degeneration . We will show that this configuration makes the common source amplifier more linear.

Source Degeneration . vBS = −iOUT ⋅ RS = ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ vOUT ⎛ vOUT − vOUT ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ v R g R + ⋅ ⋅ = gm ⋅ ⎜ + ⋅ IN S⎟ mb ⎜ S ⎟+ ⎜ RD RD ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ RD ⎝ vOUT + ⎛ RD RS ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = − g m ⋅ vIN ⋅ RD + vOUT ⋅ ⎜1 + g m ⋅ RS + g mb ⋅ RS + rO rO ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ v − g m ⋅ rO ⋅ RD Av = OUT = vIN rO ⋅ (1 + (g m + g mb ) ⋅ RS ) + RD + RS SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 36 . iOUT = −vOUT RD vOUT ⋅ RS RD vOUT ⋅ RS RD rO .2 Gain – Method 1: Small Signal Model iOUT = g m ⋅ v1 + g mb ⋅ vBS + v1 = vIN − iOUT ⋅ RS = vIN + vOUT − iOUT ⋅ RS rO vOUT ⋅ RS RD .

Gm: Recall that the equivalent transconductance of the above Circuit is: 1. Gm = g m ⋅ rO g m ⋅ rO iOUT = = vIN rO + rO ⋅ (g m ⋅ RS + g mb ⋅ RS ) + RS rO [1 + (g m + g mb ) ⋅ RS ] + RS 37 SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers . the voltage gain is equal to –GmRout. So we need to find Gm and Rout.3 Gain – Method 2: Lemma • The Lemma states that in linear systems.Source Degeneration .

4 Gain – Method 2: Lemma (Continued) 1. ROUT: We use the following small signal model to derive the small signal output impedance of this amplifier: v1 = −i X ⋅ RS v X = i X ⋅ RS + (i X − g m ⋅ v1 − g mb ⋅ vBS ) ⋅ rO RX = .Source Degeneration . vBS = −i X ⋅ RS = i X ⋅ RS + (i X − g m ⋅ (− i X ⋅ RS ) − g mb ⋅ (− i X ⋅ RS )) ⋅ rO vX = RS + (1 + g m ⋅ RS + g mb ⋅ RS ) ⋅ rO = RS + (1 + ( g m + g mb ) ⋅ RS ) ⋅ rO iX ROUT = RX RD = (RS + (1 + ( g m + g mb ) ⋅ RS )⋅ rO ) ⋅ RD (RS + (1 + ( g m + g mb ) ⋅ RS ) ⋅ rO ) + RD • Since typically rO>>RS: RX = RS + (1 + ( g m + g mb ) ⋅ RS ) ⋅ rO = (1 + ( g m + g mb ) ⋅ RS ) ⋅ rO = (g m + g mb ) ⋅ RS ⋅ rO SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 38 .

5 Gain – Method 2: Lemma (Continued) Gm = ROUT = g m ⋅ rO rO (1 + ⋅(g m + g mb ) ⋅ RS ) + RS (RS + (1 + ( g m + g mb ) ⋅ RS ) ⋅ rO ) ⋅ RD RS + (1 + ( g m + g mb ) ⋅ RS ) ⋅ rO + RD (r + (1 + g m ⋅ rO + g mb ⋅ rO ) ⋅ RS )⋅ RD g m ⋅ rO ⋅ O rO + rO ⋅ (g m ⋅ RS + g mb ⋅ RS ) + RS rO + (1 + g m ⋅ rO + g mb ⋅ rO ) ⋅ RS + RD Av = −Gm ⋅ ROUT = − = − g m ⋅ rO ⋅ RD rO + (1 + ( g m + g mb ) ⋅ RS ) ⋅ rO + RD SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 39 .Source Degeneration .

6 • If we ignore body effect and channel-length modulation: Method 1 – Small-signal Model: v OUT = −g ⋅ v ⋅ R m GS IN D . v = v − g ⋅v ⋅ R GS IN m GS S v =v ⋅ GS 1 1+ g ⋅ R m → A = v S v v OUT = IN − g ⋅R 1+ g ⋅ R m D m S Method 2 – Taking limits: g ⋅r g G = ro lim = →∞ ⋅ R ) + R 1 + (g + g g mb →0 r + r ⋅ ( g ⋅ R + g m O m m O O m S mb S S m mb )⋅ R = S g 1+ g ⋅ R m m S D S R OUT lim = ro →∞ g mb →0 (r + (1 + g r + (1 + g O O OUT m m ⋅ r + g ⋅ r ) ⋅ R ) ⋅ R (1 + ( g + g ) ⋅ R ) ⋅ R = =R ⋅ r + g ⋅ r )⋅ R + R 1 + (g + g ) ⋅ R O mb O S D m mb O mb O S D m mb S D D A = −G ⋅ R v m = − g ⋅R 1+ g ⋅ R m m S SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 40 .Source Degeneration .

v = v − g ⋅v ⋅ R GS IN m GS S v =v ⋅ GS IN 1 1+ g ⋅ R m → G = m S i g = v 1+ g ⋅ R D m IN m S 2.Source Degeneration . ROUT: v = −g ⋅ v ⋅ R GS m GS S → v =0 GS X i = X v v + g ⋅v = R R X m GS D D R OUT = v =R i X X m D A = −G ⋅ R v OUT = − g ⋅R 1+ g ⋅ R m D m S SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 41 .7 Obtaining Gm and Rout directly assuming λ=γ=0: 1. Gm: i = g ⋅v D m GS .

an increase in vIN tend to increase ID.8 • If we ignore body effect and channel-length modulation: g − g ⋅R G = . the amplifier becomes more linear when RS is large enough. Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 42 SM . the voltage drop across RS also increases. This makes the amplifier less sensitive to input changes. R =R → A = 1+ g ⋅ R 1+ g ⋅ R m m D m OUT D v m S m S • We Notice that as RS increases Gm becomes less dependent on gm: Rs →∞ • • lim Gm = gm 1 = Rs →∞ 1 + g m ⋅ RS RS lim That is for large RS: G = m i 1 ≈ v R OUT IN → v ≈ R ⋅i IN S OUT S • Therefore. Intuitively.Source Degeneration . and makes ID smoother! The linearization is achieved at the cost of losing gain and voltage headroom. however.

Gm ≈1/ RS.Source Degeneration . When ID is large such that RS gm>>1. − g ⋅R −R A = = 1 1+ g ⋅ R +R g m D D v m S S m • The following are ID and gm of a transistor without RS. Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 43 . and the denominator is the resistance in the source path. Gm ≈ gm.9 • We can manipulate the gain equation so the numerator is the resistance seen at the drain node. • • • SM ID and gm of a transistor considering RS are: When ID is small such that RS gm<<1.

Alternative Method to Find the Output-Resistance of a Degenerated Common-Source Amplifier SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 44 .

SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 45 . it doesn’t load the previous stage.Why Buffers? • Common Source amplifiers needed a large load impedance to provide a large gain. If the load is small but we need a large gain (can you think of an example?) a buffer is used. RIN=∞: the input current is zero. Source-follower (common-drain) amplifiers can be used as buffers. 2. behaves like a voltage source. R =∞ . R IN OUT • • =0 . A =1 V Ideal Buffer: 1. ROUT=0: No voltage drop at the output.

Current Source Load – • Resistive Load: As shown below the output (source voltage) will follow the input (gate voltage).1 • We will examine the Source follower amplifier with two different loads: 1. We will analyze the following circuit using large-signal and small-signal analysis. Resistive Load 2. SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 46 .Resistive Load .

2 Large Signal Analysis: • The relationship between VIN and VOUT is: W 1 (V − V ) ⋅ (1 + λ ⋅ V ) ⋅ R V = R ⋅I = µ C 2 L 1 W (V − V − V ) ⋅ (1 + λ ⋅ V − λ ⋅ V V = µC 2 L 2 OUT S D n ox GS TH DS 2 OUT n ox IN OUT TH DD S OUT )⋅ R S • Differentiate with respect to VIN: W ∂V (V − V − V =µC L ∂V OUT n ox IN OUT IN TH ∂V )⋅ ⎜ 1 − ⎜ ⎝ S ⎛ OUT ∂V − IN ∂V ∂V TH IN ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⋅ (1 + λ ⋅ V ⎠ DS )⋅ R S 1 W (V − V + µC 2 L n ox GS TH ) 2 ⋅ R ⋅ (− λ ) ⋅ ∂V ∂V OUT IN • Need to find the derivative of VTH with respect to VIN: V =V TH TH TH 0 +γ ⋅ TH ( 2⋅Φ +V − F SB OUT 2⋅Φ F ) . V =V SB OUT OUT γ ∂V ∂V ∂V ∂V ∂V =η ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅ = ∂V ∂V ∂V ∂V ∂V 2 2⋅Φ +V IN OUT IN F SB IN OUT IN SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 47 .Resistive Load .

Resistive Load .3 Large Signal Analysis (Continued): • The small signal gain can be found: ∂V ⋅ (1 + g ⋅ R + g ⋅η ⋅ R + I ⋅ R ⋅ λ ) = g ⋅ R ∂V OUT m S m S D S m IN S A = V g ⋅R g ⋅R ∂V = = R ∂V ⎛ 1⎞ 1+ g ⋅ R + g ⋅ R + ⎟ g g + + 1+ ⎜ ⎟⋅R ⎜ r r ⎝ ⎠ OUT m S m S IN S m S mb S m mb o o S • If channel-length modulation is ignored (ro=∞) we get: A = V g ⋅R ∂V = ∂V 1 + (g + g ) ⋅ R OUT m S IN m mb S SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 48 .

v =v −v GS IN OUT OUT .4 Small Signal Analysis: • We get the following small signal model: v OUT = (g ⋅ v + g ⋅ v m GS mb BS )⋅ R mb S r O . v = −v BS OUT v OUT = ( g ⋅ (v − v m IN S O m OUT ) + g ⋅ (− v )) ⋅ S O mb S O R ⋅r R +r S O S m v OUT ⋅ (R + r + g ⋅ R ⋅ r + g ⋅ R ⋅ r ) = g ⋅ R ⋅ r ⋅ v S O O IN A = v v v OUT = IN g ⋅R ⋅r g ⋅R ⋅r = R + r + g ⋅ R ⋅ r + g ⋅ R ⋅ r R ⋅ (1 + g ⋅ r + g ⋅ r ) + r m S O m S O S O m S O mb S O S m O mb O O A = v g ⋅R m S m S ⎛1 R ⋅⎜ ⎜r + g + g ⎝ O mb ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ +1 ⎠ Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 49 SM .Resistive Load .

3. the gain is less than one: g A ≈ <1 1 g +g + r Gain depends heavily on the DC level of the input (nonlinear amplifier). η decreases. SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 50 . m V m mb o 6. Gain is zero if VIN is less than VTH (because gm is 0). 2. Graph of the gain of a source-follower amplifier: M1 never enters the triode region as long as VIN<VDD. As VOUT increases. the maximum gain increases. Even if RS=∞. gm increases and the gain becomes: A ≈ v 1 g = g +g 1+η m m mb 4. 5. and therefore. As VIN increases.Resistive Load .5 • 1.

Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 51 SM . To avoid this problem. the drain current depends on the DC level of VIN. which makes the amplifier highly nonlinear. R =r I1 o2 → R OUT =R R =r M1 I1 o1 mb 1 1 1 r g g m1 mb 1 o2 • If channel length modulation is ignored (ro1=ro2=∞) : R OUT =∞ 1 1 1 1 1 ∞= = g g g g g +g m1 mb 1 m1 mb 1 m1 mb 1 • Note that the body effect reduces the output impedance of the source follower amplifiers.Current Source Load • In a source follower with a resistive load. The output resistance is: R =r M1 o1 • • 1 1 g g m1 . we can use a current source as the load.

we would not suppress vIN. we would like to find an equivalent circuit of M1. if we were to find the gain of the amplifier. i.Voltage Division in Source Followers .e. Consider the small-signal model of M1: SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 52 . RM1..1 • When Calculating output resistance seen at the source of M1. Here.. we force vIN to zero and find the output impedance: R =r M1 o1 1 1 g g m1 mb 1 • • • However. from which we can find the gain.

• Simplified circuit: SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 53 . so gmbvBS dependant current source can be replaced by a resistor (1/gmb) between source and drain.Voltage Division in Source Followers .2 • • For small-signal analysis vBS= vDS. Note that. we can replace the gmvGS dependant current source with a resistor (of value 1/gm) between source and gate. when looking at the circuit from the source terminal.

3 Example: • Find the gain of a source follower amplifier with a resistive load.Voltage Division in Source Followers . • We draw the small signal model of this amplifier as shown below to get: R r S O v OUT = R r S O 1 g mb 1 1 + g g mb ⋅v IN → v A = v v R r S O OUT = R r S O 1 g mb IN m 1 1 + g g mb m • We can show that this is equal to what we obtained before: 1 R ⋅r 1 1 + +g R ⋅r ⋅g R + r + R ⋅r ⋅g R r A = = = R ⋅r 1 1 1 R + r + R ⋅r ⋅g + R ⋅r ⋅g + + 1 1 R + r + R ⋅r ⋅ g g g + +g R r S O mb S O S O S S O mb S O m v O S O S O mb S O m S O S O mb m mb S O m SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 54 .

4 Example: • Find the gain of a source follower amplifier with a current source load. • Small-signal model of this amplifier is: r r O2 O1 v OUT = r r O2 O1 1 g mb 1 1 1 + g g mb 1 ⋅v IN → v A = v v r r O2 O1 OUT = r r O2 O1 1 g mb 1 IN m1 1 1 + g g mb 1 m1 • If we ignore channel length modulation: 1 g mb 1 v OUT = mb 1 1 1 + g g ⋅v IN → A = v v v OUT = 1 g mb 1 mb 1 IN m1 1 1 + g g m1 SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 55 .Voltage Division in Source Followers .

Voltage Division in Source Followers .5 Example: • Find the gain of a source follower amplifier with a resistive load and biased with a current source. • Small-signal model of this amplifier is: r R r O2 L O1 v OUT = r R r O2 L O1 1 g r R r ⋅v m1 IN mb 1 → 1 1 + g g mb 1 v A = v v O2 L O1 OUT = r R r O2 L O1 1 g mb 1 IN 1 1 + g g mb 1 m1 SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 56 .

• Small-signal model of this amplifier is: r r O2 O1 v OUT = 1 1 1 g g g mb 1 m2 mb 2 1 1 1 1 + r r g g g g O2 O1 mb 1 m2 mb 2 ⋅v IN → v A = v v r r O2 O1 OUT = r r O2 O1 1 1 1 g g g mb 1 m2 mb 2 IN m1 1 1 1 1 + g g g g mb 1 m2 mb 2 m1 SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 57 .Voltage Division in Source Followers .6 Example: • Find the gain of a source follower amplifier with a resistive load.

(In more advanced technologies.e. Source followers have large input impedance. PMOS devices have higher output impedance. Source followers are nonlinear.. This can be resolved for PMOS devices. SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 58 . because each PMOS transistor can have a separate n-well.. This nonlinearity is caused by: Variable bias current which can be resolved if we use a current source to bias the source follower. dependence of VTH on the source (output) voltage. 2.Advantages and Disadvantages . 3. However. Source followers have poor driving capabilities. NMOS in a separate p-well. 4. because of low mobility. Source followers have typically small output impedance. i. can be implemented that potentially has no body effect) Dependence of ro on VDS in submicron devices.1 1. Body effect.

adding the source follower will reduce the allowable voltage swing at node X. Therefore. 59 SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers .Advantages and Disadvantages . Consider this circuit (a common source followed by a source follower): • • • • If we only consider the common source stage. Source followers have voltage headroom limitations due to level shift. The DC value of VOUT is VGS2 lower than the DC value of VX.2 5. If we only consider the source follower stage. VX>VGS3-VTH3+ VGS2. VX>VGS1-VTH1.

Common-Gate Av = ( gm + gmb )RD = gm (1 + η) RD SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 60 .

Common-Gate ( gm + gmb )ro + 1 Av = RD ro + (gm + gmb )ro RS + RS + RD SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 61 .

Common-Gate ( gm + gmb )ro + 1 Av = RD ro + (gm + gmb )ro RS + RS + RD for RS = 0 : Av ≈ ( g m + g mb )(ro || RD ) SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 62 .

Common-Gate Input Impedance RD + ro ro RD Rin = = + 1 + ( g m + g mb )ro 1 + ( g m + g mb )ro 1 + ( g m + g mb )ro 1 1 RD || ) Rin = + (ro || 1 + ( g m + g mb )ro g m g mb SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 63 .

• SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 64 .Common-Gate Input Impedance • Input impedance of common-gate stage is relatively low only if RD is small Example: Find the input impedance of the following circuit.

Example • Calculate the voltage gain of the following circuit: Av = 1 + ( g m + g mb )ro SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 65 .

Common-Gate Output Impedance Rout = {[1 + ( g m + g mb ) RS ]ro + RS } || RD SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 66 .

Example • Compare the gain of the following two circuits (λ=γ=0 and 50Ω transmission lines!) SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 67 .

Rout = {[1 + ( g m 2 + g mb 2 )ro1 ]ro 2 + ro1} || RD ≈ [( g m 2 + g mb 2 )ro1ro 2 ] || RD AV ≈ gm1{[ro1 ro 2 (gm 2 + gmb 2 )] || RD ]} SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 68 .Cascode Stage • Cascade of a common-source stage and a common-gate stage is called a “cascode” stage.

Cascode Stage AV ≈ gm1 [(ro 1ro 2 gm2 ) || (ro 3ro 4 gm3 )] SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 69 .

Output Impedance Comparison SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 70 .

Shielding Property SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 71 .

Board Notes SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 72 .

Triple Cascode • What is the output resistance of this circuit? • SM Problem? Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 73 .

Folded Cascode SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 74 .

Output Impedance of a Folded Cascode Rout = [1 + ( g m 2 + g mb 2 )ro 2 ](ro1 || ro 3 ) + ro 2 SM Set 3: Single-Stage Amplifiers 75 .

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