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Dange, Shripat Amrit Dange, Shripat Amrit (1899-1991), prominent Indian politician and trade unionist who, along

with Muza ar Ahmad, was the ounder o the !ommunist part" o India (!#I) and ser$ed as its chairman until 19%8& Dange was 'orn in (asi), in Maharashtra, o a Marathi *rahmin amil"& +e was a radical rom his "outh and, e,pelled rom college or organizing a mo$ement against the compulsor" teaching o the *i'le, he started wor) in *om'a", soon 'ecoming a prominent trade union leader& Initiall" inspired '" the nationalism o *al -angadhar .ila), and in$ol$ed in the non-cooperation mo$ement o Mohandas -andhi, he soon lost aith in this approach& /ollowing the 0ussian 0e$olution o 191%, he 'ecame interested in Mar,ism, although he remained sceptical o the coerci$e elements o the 0ussian s"stem and the idea o the dictatorship o the proletariat& In 1911, he pu'lished -andhi $s 2enin, a lawed 'ut 'old wor) which drew the attention o the Mar,ist M& (& 0o", whom he met in 1911, and the 'usinessman *ha$an 2ot$ala, who 'ecame a riend and supporter& Dange was critical o -andhi3s choice o the cottage industr" t"pi ied '" the spinning wheel rather than the de$elopment o a modern industrial econom" as the path or India& +e also disli)ed what he 'elie$ed to 'e an e,cessi$e emphasis on religious and moral considerations and reliance on the goodwill o indi$iduals to e ect change& +e came to 'elie$e that onl" a re$olution, in$ol$ing the solidarit" o the wor)ers, peasants, and arm", could 'ring down oreign rule and, with it, capitalism& 4ith 2ot$ala3s help, Dange 'ought the 5nglish wee)l", Socialist, the irst Indian communist 6ournal, in 1911& In 1917, he 'ecame one o the ounders o the !ommunist part" o India& Dange was arrested on se$eral occasions, including the 1919 Meerut !onspirac" case, and spent most o the period rom 1918 to 1981 in 6ail, attempting to continue his political acti$it" although the !ommunist part" was 'anned '" 1999& In 1989, he was elected #resident o the All India .rades :nion !ongress (AI.:!) in recognition o his wor)& Dange was elected to the *om'a" 2egislati$e Assem'l" as communist candidate in 198;, and 'ecame chairman o the !#I& +owe$er, disputes within the part" o$er the Sino-Indian 4ar o 19;1, when Dange supported the position held '" (ehru, and the scandal o the so-called <Dange letters=, suggesting that Dange 'etra"ed the part" in return or release rom prison, led to the 'rea)awa" o le tists to orm the !ommunist part" o India (Mar,ist) or !#I(M) under 5& M& S& (am'oodiripad& Dange resigned rom the chairmanship o the part" in 19%8& Dange is regarded as a pioneer o the trade union mo$ement in India, as well as 'eing one o the )e" igures in Indian !ommunism& +e was more o a practitioner than a Mar,ist intellectual 'ut pu'lished his ma6or wor), India rom #rimiti$e !ommunism to Sla$er", a Mar,ist anal"sis o Indian histor", in 1989& Roy, Manabendra Nath 0o", Mana'endra (ath (188%-1978), Indian humanist philosopher, political thin)er, and participant in re$olutionar" mo$ements in India, Me,ico, the So$iet :nion, and !hina& M& (& 0o" 'egan his political li e as a participant in the Indian (ationalist Mo$ement, was in the

$anguard o the attempt at a glo'al Mar,ist re$olution ollowing the 0ussian 0e$olutions o 191%, and ultimatel" 'ecame a humanist philosopher ad$ocating a decentralized democrac" and a social re$olution or <modern renaissance= 'ased on humanist, scienti ic, and rational principles& *orn in *engal, M& (& 0o", whose real name was (arendra (ath *hattachar"a, 'ecame in$ol$ed with Indian nationalist e orts to li'erate India rom *ritish rule& In 1917, he le t or >apan and !hina in search o arms& +is search too) him to the :nited States, where he 'ecame interested in the ideas o ?arl Mar,& Arrested at the 'ehest o the *ritish police, he or eited 'ail and led to Me,ico in 191% under the assumed name o M& (& 0o"& +e ounded the Me,ican !ommunist #art" in 1919, and, at the in$itation o @ladimir Ilich 2enin, participated in the 1nd !ongress o the !ommunist International in 191A& +ailed '" 2enin as the <s"m'ol o the re$olution in the 5ast= and elected to the #residium and the 5,ecuti$e !ommittee o the !omintern, 0o" went to !hina in 191% as its sole emissar" with a 'rie to trans orm the ?uomintang into a re$olutionar" orce& Bn his return rom !hina a "ear later, 0o" led to -erman" to escape the purges in the So$iet :nion, now under the iron rule o >oseph Stalin& *ac) in !hina in 199A, he pu'lished 0e$olution und ?onterre$olution, his monumental wor) on the !hinese situation& Bn his return to India, he was imprisoned or ; "ears '" the *ritish authorities, a period he used or deep re lection and writing& Bn his release rom prison in 199;, he announced his 'rea) with Mar,ism '" re6ecting historical determinism and class war, and declared that without a cultural and philosophical re$olution no social, political, and economic re$olution was possi'le& +e termed this desired cultural trans ormation a <1Ath-centur" renaissance=& In 198A, 0o" ounded the 0adical Democratic #art" to promote a humanist approach to politics, and support the *ritish war e ort against /ascism& Increasingl" con$inced that decentralization and de$olution o power were necessar" or reedomC< reedom is inconsistent with concentration o power=Che later re6ected political parties as legitimate instruments or the spread o democrac", and dis'anded the 0adical Democratic #art" in 1988& 0o"3s alternati$e proposal was a part"-less democrac" 'uilt on a networ) o people3s committees& .he 0adical +umanist Mo$ement he had started in India lin)ed with other groups in 5urope and America to orm the International +umanist and 5thical :nion (I+5:) in 1971, o which 0o" was elected a ounder @ice-#resident& 0o"3s philosoph" o radical humanism, ormulated in 11 theses, is a materialist philosoph" see)ing to restore to 19th-centur" radicalism its humanist essence and democratic spirit& /or 0o", <the Duest or reedom and the search or truth constitute the 'asic urge o human progress= and as he considered that <.ruth is the content o )nowledge=, he regarded the scienti ic approach as the wa" to truth& 0o" wrote in si, languages, o ten in proscri'ed pu'lications and under se$eral pseudon"ms, 'ut his writings include Materialism (198A), Science and #hilosoph" (198A), +umanism a Mani esto (198%), and 0eason, 0omanticism and 0e$olution (1971), as well as the posthumousl" pu'lished incomplete Memoirs& !ontri'uted *"E *a'u -ogineni Microso t F 5ncarta F 5nc"clopedia 1AA1& G 1999-1AA1 Microso t !orporation& All rights reser$ed&