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NOTE

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this manual is
accurate. Should an error be discovered please inform the company in writing, giving full
details. Any experimental results given are for guidance only and are not guaranteed as
exact answers that can be obtained for a given apparatus.
Sample calculations are just for the teacher guidance and are not suppose to be
necessarily remains the same.
If there is any slip up in readings, formulation and apparatus or you need any
modification in
Current apparatus EES is warmly welcome your opinions and implications
Table of Contents
able of Contents........................................................................................................................ !
".I#$%&'CI%#...................................................................................................................... (
!.&ESC$I)I%#......................................................................................................................... *
(.E+)E$I,E#A- CA)A.I-IIES............................................................................................./
*.0E%$1 .................................................................................................................................. 2
*.".".0eat Exchangers......................................................................................................... 2
*.".!.ypes of 0eat Exchanger............................................................................................2
*.".(.Co3current 4)arallel5 flow............................................................................................. 6
*.".*.Counter current flow..................................................................................................... 6
*."./.Crossed flow................................................................................................................ 6
*.".2.&esign and Construction.............................................................................................. 6
*.!.Shell and ube 0eat Exchanger7 ....................................................................................... 6
*.(.0eat .alance...................................................................................................................... 8
*.*.0eat ransfer..................................................................................................................... 9
*./.Shell3side 0eat3transfer Coefficient, hs and )ressure &rop, )s 4:ern;s ,ethod5.............""
/.)rocedure............................................................................................................................... "(
/.".<eneral %perating )rocedure ......................................................................................... "(
/.!.<eneral Shut3down )rocedure......................................................................................... "*
2.CA-C'-AI%# &AA............................................................................................................ "*
6.S)ECI,E# CA-C'-AI%#S7................................................................................................ !!
1. INTRODUCTION
A heat exchanger is a piece of e=uipment built for efficient heat transfer from one
medium to another. he media may be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or
they may be in direct contact. hey are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air3
conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum
refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment. he classic example of a heat
exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid >nown
as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and air flows past the coils, which cools
the coolant and heats the incoming air.
2. DESCRIPTION
3. EXPERIMENTAL CAPABILITIES
Energy balance determination
emperature profile in counter current flow
-og mean temperature difference
0eat transfer coefficient
?low rate effects on heat transfer rate
0eat loss estimation
Spe!f!at!ons
a5 Shell @ ube 0eat Exchanger7
ube %.&. 4do57 "A.A mm
ube I.&. 4di57 8.A mm
ube -ength 4-57 /AA.A mm
ube Count 4#t57 "( 4single pass5
ube )itch 4pt57 "8.! mm
ube arrangement7 non3cumulative triangular
Shell %.&.7 "!(.9 mm
Shell I.&. 4&s57 ""2.A2 mm
.affle Count7 8
.affle Cut 4.c57 *AB
.affle &istance 4l.57 /(.( mm
ube3to3.affle Clearance 4ct57 A in. 4A mm5
,aterial of Construction7 stainless steel
#umber of tube $ows (
a5 Instrumentations7
,easurements of inlet and outlet temperatures for hot water and cold water streams
,easurements of flow rates for the hot water and cold water circuits ,easurements of
pressure drops across the heat exchangers
b5 Control )anel7
o mount all the necessary digital indicators, temperature controller, selector switches,
onCoff switches, etc.
<eneral $e=uirements
Cooling water7 -aboratory tap water,
&rainage point
". T#EOR$
".1.1. #eat E%&an'e(s
0eat exchangers are devices designed to transfer heat from one fluid to another without
the fluids coming into contact.
".1.2. T)pes of #eat E%&an'e(
Shell3and3tube heat exchanger7 he most common type of heat exchanger in industrial
applications.
hey contain a large number of tubes 4sometimes several hundred5 pac>ed in a shell
with their axes parallel to that of the shell. 0eat transfer ta>es place as one fluid flows
inside the tubes while the other fluid flows outside the tubes through the shell.
".1.3. Co*+((ent ,Pa(allel- flo.
As the name suggests, the flow of the hot and the cold fluid is ta>ing place in the same
direction in this case. As the graph shows, the temperature difference between the hot
and the cold fluid >eeps on decreasing from one end to the other.
".1.". Co+nte( +((ent flo.
In this setup, the hot fluid enters from one end of the exchanger and the cold from the
opposite end. his results in nearly constant temperature difference between the hot
and the cold fluid. his is a significant aspect and ma>es counter current exchangers
preferable over co3current exchangers. De will discuss this point later when we tal>
about -,&.
".1./. C(osse0 flo.
he cold and the hot fluid flow axis is at an angle to each other and hence, the fluids
cross each other in this arrangement. he most common type of crossed flow
exchanges has the angle between axes as 9A degrees.
".1.1. Des!'n an0 Const(+t!on
Shell and heat tube exchangers3It finds application in a variety of industries and is,
without doubt, one of the most widely used exchangers. It has a series of tubes which is
enclosed by a shell. %ne fluid flows inside the tubes while the other li=uid flows over the
outside walls of the tubes which, basically, is the shell. ItEs highly recommended for
places where thereEs a need for high heat transfer coefficient as the number of tubes
can be increased depending on the need. &ue to its uni=ue shape, it finds use in high
pressure applications.
)late and frame heat exchanger3his exchanger consists of a series of thin plates
normal to the direction of flow of the fluids. he plates provide a large surface area for
heat exchange and are, at some places, more convenient than the shell and heat tube
exchanger primarily because of its uni=ue shape.
".2. S&ell an0 T+be #eat E%&an'e(2
Const(+t!on
ubes3he tubes provide the heat transfer area in a shell and tube heat exchanger. he
tubes in a shell and tube heat exchanger are arranged in various arrangements. hey
are enclosed by a shell around them. hey are available in various siFes and shapes
according to ..D.< 4.irmingham wire gauge5 system. he selection of wall thic>ness of
tube depends on maximum operating pressure and corrosion characteristics.
ube )itch3Garious aspects have to be >ept in mind while designing a shell and heat
tube exchanger. he tubes cannot be made very close to each other as that would then
leave very less amount of metal between the drilled tubes holes in tube sheets attached
at the ends of the exchanger. And if the space between the tubes is very high, it would
result in less surface area which in turn, would affect the efficiency of the exchanger.
0ence, an optimum distance should be maintained. he shortest distance between
centers of two adjacent tubes is called the tube pitch, should not be less than ".!/ times
the tube diameter.
Shell3 As shown in the figure, the shell is the outer casing of the heat exchanger. %ne
fluid flows between the outer wall of the heat exchanger and inner wall of the shell while
the other flows inside the tube. Shell has a circular cross section and selection of
material of the shell depends upon the corrosiveness of the fluid and the wor>ing
temperature and pressure. Carbon steel is a common material for the shell under
moderate wor>ing conditions.
.affles3hese are panels responsible for obstructing and redirecting the flow of fluid in
the shell side of an exchanger. hey are situated normal to the walls of the shell and
force the li=uid to flow at right angles to the axis of the tubes. his increases turbulence
resulting in greater heat transfer. Also, the baffles help in >eeping the tubes from
sagging and increase the strength of the tubes by preventing their vibration.
".3. #eat Balane
?or a parallel3flow shell and tube heat exchanger with one tube pass and one shell pass
shown in ?igure !a, the heat balance is given as7
mt Cpt 4t! 3 t"5 H ms Cps4" 3 !5 H = 4E=."a5
Similarly, for the counter flow shell and tube heat exchanger with one tube pass and
one shell pass shown in ?igure !b, the heat balance is given as7
mt Cpt 4t! 3 t"5 H ms Cps4" 3 !5 H = 4E=."b5
Dhere,
mt H mass flow rate of cold fluid in the tube 4>g.s3"5
ms H mass flow rate of hot fluid in the shell 4>g.s3"5
Cpt H specific heat of cold fluid in the tube 4>I.>g3".JC3"5
Cps H specific heat of hot fluid in the shell 4>I.>g3".JC3"5
t", t! H temperature of cold fluid enteringCleaving the tube 4JC5
", ! H temperature of hot fluid enteringCleaving the shell 4JC5
= H heat exchange rate between fluid 4>D5
".". #eat T(ansfe(
he general e=uation for heat transfer across the tube surface in a shell and tube heat
exchanger is given by7
= H 'o Ao

m H 'i Ai

m 4E=. !5
Dhere,
Ao H outside area of the tube 4m!5
Ai H inside area of the tube 4m!5
m H mean temperature difference 4JC5
'o H overall heat transfer coefficient based on the outside area of the tube 4>D.m3!.JC3
"5
'i H overall heat transfer coefficient based on the inside area of the tube 4>D.m3!.JC3"5
he coefficients 'o is given by7
ln( )
1 1 1
2
i
d w id i i
d
d
d d d
U h h K d d d h



+ + + +
Dhere,
ho H outside fluid film coefficient 4>D.m3!.JC3"5
hi H inside fluid film coefficient 4>D.m3!.JC3"5
hod H outside dirt coefficient 4fouling factor5 4>D.m3!.JC3"5
hid H inside dirt coefficient 4>D.m3!.JC3"5
:w H thermal conductivity of tube wall material 4>D.m3". JC3"5
do H tube outside diameter 4m5
di H tube inside diameter 4m5
he mean temperature difference for both parallel and counter flow shell and tube heat
exchanger with single shell pass and single tube pass is normally expressed in terms of
log3mean temperature difference,

,
_




) (
) (
ln
) ( ) (
) / ln(
4 2
3 1
4 2 3 1
2 1
2 1
T T
T T
T T T T
T T
T T
T
lm
?or a more complex heat exchanger, such as "7! heat exchangers an estimate of the
true temperature difference for E=. ! is given by

m H ?t

lm
Dhere ?t is the temperature correction factor as a function of two dimensionless
temperature ratios $ and S7
0aving calculated $ and S, then ?t is determined from the standard correction factor
figures.
ube3side 0eat3transfer Coefficient, hi and )ressure &rop,

)t
?or turbulent flow, Sieder3ate e=uation can be used7
14 . 0
33 . 0 8 . 0
Pr

,
_

w
e u
CR N

de
K
CR h
f
w
e i
1
1
]
1

,
_

14 . 0
33 . 0 8 . 0
Pr

$e H $eynolds #umber H
f
e t f
d u

#u H #usselt #umber H
f
e i
k
d h
)r H )randtl #umber H
f
f p
k
C
de H e=uivalent 4or hydraulic5 diameter 4m5
H * x 4cross3sectional area of flow5 C wetted perimeter
H di for tubes
<t H mass velocity, mass flow per unit area 4>gC s.m!5
Giscosity of fluidHKf
Lf H fluid density 4>g.m3(5
ut H fluid velocity in tube 4m.s3"5
Cp H fluid specific heat, heat capacity 4IC>g. JC5
C H A.A!( for non3viscous li=uids
H A.A!6 for viscous li=uids
?or laminar flow 4$e M !AAA5, the following correlation is used7

,
_

,
_

,
_

14 . 0
33 . 0
33 . 0
Pr) (Re* 86 . 1
w
L
de
Nu

Dhere,
- H the tube length 4m5
he tube3side pressure drop is given by7
2
5 . 2 8
2
t f
m
w i
f p t
u
d
L
J N P

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

)t H tube pressure drop 4#Cm!5


#p H number of tube3side passes
jf H tube dimensionless friction factor from ?igure
- H length of one tube, 4m5
ut H tube3side velocity 4mCs5
m H A.!/ for laminar, $e M !"AA
H A."* for turbulent, $e N !"AA
"./. S&ell*s!0e #eat*t(ansfe( Coeff!!ent3 &s an0 P(ess+(e D(op3

Ps
,4e(n5s Met&o0-
In order to determine the heat transfer coefficient for fluid film in shell, first calculate the
cross3sectional area of flow As for tube rows in the middle of the shell as follows7
( )
t
b s
t s
p
l D
d p A


Dhere, do H tube outside diameter 4m5
pt H tube pitch 4m5
&s H shell inside diameter 4m5
lb H distance between baffle 4m5
hen, the fluid velocity in shell is calculated from7
us H Gs CA s 4E=. ""5
Dhere Gs H fluid volumetric flow rate on the shell side, m(Cs.
he shell e=uivalent diameter, &e is given by7
( )
2 2
785 . 0
27 . 1

d p
d
De
t

4?or s=uare pitch arrangement5
( )
2 2
917 . 0
10 . 1

d p
d
De
t

4?or e=uivalent triangular arrangement5
hus $eynolds number in shell is given by7
$e H

e s
D u
.affle cut, .c, is used to specify the dimensions of a segmental baffle. It is the height of
the segment removed to form the baffle, expressed as a percentage of the baffle disc
diameter.
'sing this $eynolds number and given .c value, the heat transfer factor, jh value is
determined from ?igure .*. hen, the heat transfer coefficient for fluid film in shell is
calculated from7
0.14
0.33
Re Pr
s
h
f w
h De
Nu j
k

_


,
0.14
0.33
Re Pr
f
s h
w
k
h j
De

1
_
1

1
,
]
he shell3side pressure drop is given by7
0.14
2
8
2
f t
s
s f
b e w
u
D L
p J
l D

1 _ _ _

1
, , , ]
Dhere,

)s H shell pressure drop 4#Cm!5


jf H shell dimensionless friction factor from ?igure ./
l. H distance between baffle 4m5
us H shell3side velocity 4mCs5
/. P(oe0+(e
/.1. 6ene(al Ope(at!n' P(oe0+(e
". )erform a =uic> inspection to ma>e sure that the e=uipment is in a proper
wor>ing condition.
!. .e sure that all valves are initially closed.
(. Connect the cold water tan> or reservoir to fill up the hot water tan> and also this
water is used to passes through the shell side
*. Switch on main power. Switch on the heater in the hot water tan> and ma>e sure
that the set point on the temperature controller is set to 2A OC.
/. Solenoid valve controls the level of water in hot water tan>. If the water level is
below the selected level then it will allow the water to enter into the tan> and
>eep the level high.
2. urn on the hot water pump for circulation in tubes
6. %perate the system for "A mints to achieve the stable temperature readings.
8. Control the flow by flow meter both in hot and cold side
9. ?or Co3Current heat exchanger. %pen valves " and (
"A. ?or counter current heat exchanger, open valves ! and *
"". #ote down the cold and hot water temperature gauges
/.2. 6ene(al S&+t*0o.n P(oe0+(e
". Switch off the heater and allow the water to cool down.
!. Switch off both pumps and the stirrer.
(. Switch off main power.
*. &rain off all li=uids in the process lines. $etain the water inside the hot water tan>
and cold water tan> for next laboratory sessions.
/. Close all valves.
#ote7 If the e=uipment is not to be run for a long period, drain off all li=uids completely.

1. CALCULATION DATA
#ot 7l+!0 ,T+be-2 8ate( Col0 7l+!0 ,S&ell-2 8ate(
6!9en To 7!n0 6!9en To 7!n0
Gol. ?low rate
4-Cmin5
Cross
section
area
Gol. ?low rate
4-Cmin5
Cross flow
area, As
m
!
,ass flow
rate
4>gCs5
otal
cross
section
area
,ass flow
rate
4>gCs5
-inear
velocity, us
mCs
Inlet emp
4>5
-inear
velocity
Inlet emp
4>5
E=uivalent
diameter, de
4m5
%utlet emp
4>5
$eynolds
%utlet emp
4>5
$eynolds
#umber, $e
Internal &ia
)randtl
&ensity
4>gCm(5
)randtl
%uter &ia
ype of
flow
0eat
Capacity
4IC>g.:5
ype of flow
0eat ransfer
4ICs5
#usselt
hermal
Conductivity
4DCm.:5
.affle cut B
&ensity
4>gCm(5
ube
coeff, hi
Giscosity
4)a.s5
0eat transfer
factor, jh
0eat
Capacity
4IC>g.:5
?riction
?actor, jf
#usselt
#umber, #u
hermal
Conductivity
4DCm.:5
ube Side
)ressure
&rop
4Calculate
d5
Shell coeff,
hs
Giscosity
4)a.s5
?riction
?actor, jf
0eat ransfer
4ICs5
Shell Side
)ressure
&rop
4Calculated5
m0!A
:. SPECIMEN CALCULATIONS2
T+be S!0e Cal+lat!ons
inH!/."P!6(H !98.":
outH !*.(P!6( H !96.(:
%uter &ia H "Ax"A
3(
Internal &ia H 8 x"A
3(
&ensity of water at !Ac
AreaH A H piQr
!
H (."*Q4* x"A
3(
5
!
H /x"A
3*
m
!
Gol. ?low $ate H
.
V
H !-), H A.A((x"A
3(
m
(
Cs
,ass ?low $ateH
.
m
H A.* >gCs
Ut;
.
V
<A ; =.=33%1=
*3
</ ><s

i t
D u
Re

H 4996QA.A22QA.AA85C.698 x"A
3(
Re

; /::.21
As Re?21== so 7lo. !s T+(b+lent
f
t p
K
C
Pr
H*"82Q6.98
3*
CA.2
P( ;/./1

,
_

,
_

33 . 0
33 . 0
Pr) (Re* * 86 . 1
L
di
Nu


14 . 0

,
_

Is neglected
H ".82QR4/66.!"Q/./25
33 . 0
33 . 0
3
7
10 * 500
10 * 8

,
_

N+ ; 1.31
T+be Co*eff!!ent

,
_

f
e
K
hid
Nu
2.("H hiQ.AA8C.2
hi H/*A.8/
T+be S!0e P(ess+(e D(op
2
5 . 2 8
2
t f
m
w i
f p t
u
d
L
J N P

1
1
]
1

,
_

,
_

m
w

,
_

is neglected
#p H no of tube passes H"
If H tube dimensionless friction factor H"./Q"A
3!
If is calculated from chart. As we already calculated $eynolds no H /66.!" so corresponding
value of jf is calculated
2
) 066 (. 997
5 . 2
008 .
10 * 500
10 * 1.5 * 8 1
2 3
2 -
1
]
1

,
_

H !/.( )a
H.AA!/ m0!%
S&ell S!0e Cal+lat!ons2
In order to determine the heat transfer coefficient for fluid film in shell, first calculate the
cross3sectional area of flow As for tube rows in the middle of the shell as follows7

( )
t
b s
t s
p
l D
d p A


( )
2 3
10 * 75 . 2
0182 . 0
0533 . 0 * 116 . 0
0101 . 0 0182 . 0
m As
As


s
s
s
A
V
u
H A.A((x"A
3(
C!.6/x"A
3(

s
u
; =.=11 ><s
As t&e a((an'e>ent !s t(!an'+la( so +se t&e belo. fo(>+la to f!n0 e@+!9alent 0!a>ete( of
s&ell
( )
2 2
917 . 0
10 . 1

d p
d
De
t

( )
m De
De
0258 . 0
0101 . 0 * 917 . 0 0182 . 0
0101 . 0
10 . 1
2 2


24 . 283 Re
10 * 78 . 0
026 . 0 * 116 . 0 * 998
Re
3

As Re?21== so flo. !s t+(b+lent


?ind the value of Ih and If corresponding to the $eynolds no in the respective charts
Ih H !./x"A
3!
If H 6x"A
3!
No. 7!n0 t&e P(e0ntle No
14 . 0
33 . 0
* Pr Re* *

,
_

w
h
j Nu

#u H!./x"A
3!
Q!8(.!*Q42.995
A.((
4"5
A."*
#u H "(.*/
7!n0 t&e P(ess+(e 0(op fo( s&ell s!0e
14 . 0
2
2
8

,
_

1
]
1

,
_

,
_


w
t f
e
s
b
f s
u
D
D
l
L
J p

( )
14 . 0
2
2 -
1
2
021 . 0 * 998
053 . 0
5 . 0
0258 . 0
116 . 0
7x10 * 8

1
]
1

,
_

,
_


s
p
s
p
H ".*(>)a
s
p
H A.*/ m0!%
#eat T(ansfe(
T Cp m Q
absorb
* *
. .
H (.(x"A
3/
Q*"82Q/./
H6/6.*6 ICs
T Cp m Q
eole
* *
. .
HA.A(!9Q*"82Q"A.2
H"*/9.8! ICs
0eat -oss H
eole
Q
.
3
absorb
Q
.
H"*/9.8! 3 6/6.*6
H 6A!.(// ICs
B age H 6/6Q"AAC"*/9
H/".88B
Total E%&an'e a(ea
i i id w
i
d
h d
d
d d
d
K
d
d
d
h h U


+ + + +
2
) ln(
1 1 1
Ignoring
d
h

1
@
Total E%&an'e A(ea2
%uter area of tube H N L r * * * * 2

Dhere
otal # is no of tubes
H!Q(."*Q/x"A
3(
Q"(
H A.*A82
3
1
466 . 0
Pr * Re
683 . 0
de
Kf
h


! h 13 . 405
) 99 . 6 ( * ) 24 . 283 ( *
0258 . 0
58 . 0 * 683 . 0
3 / 1 466 . 0

U
1
H 4"C*A/."(5 P
85 . 540 * 007 . 0
01 . 0
16 * 2
)
008 . 0
01 . 0
ln( * 01 . 0
+
H*.8*Ax"A
3(

U H !A2.2""