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Measurement and Instrumentation Lab

Experiment # 1
Objective:
To study the characteristics of photovoltaic cell.

APPARATUS:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Photovoltaic cell Lamp filament Power amplifier Voltmeter Potentiometer

Theory:
Photovoltaic cell the photovoltaic (PV) effect is the basis of the conversion of light to electricity in photovoltaic, or solar, cells. Described simply, the PV effect is as follows: Light, which is pure energy, enters a PV cell and imparts enough energy to some electrons (negatively charged atomic particles) to free them. A built-in-potential barrier in the cell acts on these electrons to produce a voltage (the socalled photo voltage). Amplifier An amplifiers main purpose is to take a weak signal and make it strong enough to drive a load. Power amplifiers get the necessary energy for amplification of input signals from the AC wall outlet to which they are plugged into. Power amplifier: The purpose of a power amplifier is to take a signal from a source device and make it suitable for driving a load.

Is Power Amplifier a Misnomer?


Yes. Power is not really something that can be amplified. Voltage and current can be amplified. The term power amplifier although technically incorrect has become understood to mean an amplifier that is intended to drive a load
Potentiometer A potentiometer measuring instrument is essentially a voltage divider used for measuring electric potential (voltage). it acts as a variable resistor.

Audio control

Linear potentiometers ("faders")

Low-power potentiometers, both linear and rotary, are used to control audio equipment, changing loudness, frequency attenuation and other characteristics of audio signals

Television
Potentiometers were formerly used to control picture brightness, contrast, and color response.

Transducers
Potentiometers are also very widely used as a part of displacement transducers because of the simplicity of construction and because they can give a large output signal
Procedur : a) First of all set up the apparatus according to circuit diagram. b) Potentiometer is like a variable resistor, slider moves on the resistance and can vary the value according to our requirement. c) An artificial light source (bulb) is provided whose intensity can be vary by potentiometer. d) At zero voltage, intensity of light is zero But photovoltaic cell shows the value at voltmeter. e) As the intensity of light increases by changing the value of voltage at the potentiometer, it falls on the photovoltaic cell. It produces the electricity which can be observed on voltmeter. f) It works on reversed biased principle. g) The use of power amplifier is to amplify the low input voltage to high voltage according to the appliance used. h) Electricity produced is directly related to intensity of light.

Table :

Sr# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Voltage of filament lamp (V)


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Voltage of photovoltaic cell


1.4 1.4 1.42 1.52 1.58 1.72 1.92 2.13 2.27 2.41 2.49

Voltage of filament lamp (V) vs Voltage of photovoltaic cell


14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Comments: i. ii. iii. iv. v. When light source is at zero potential. Photovoltaic cell gave the value. i.e sunlight also effects on it. From graph, 0-1.4v, the value is shown when no light other than sunlight. As the intensity increase, electricity generation is increased as shown on graph. After 10V, although intensity of light but photovoltaic cell does not show any change. These voltage may be used by the internal resistance or may be the limited range of photovoltaic cell. Sunlight also effect on the output of photovoltaic cell.