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Critical Infrastructure Disasters 2013 April
News etc. digested by Alister William Macintyre This (CI Boom 2013 April) describes critical infrastructure disasters, formerly in larger research notes. I’m splitting time line into smaller, digestible documents, keeping my notes on what more could be done to mitigate such disasters in main analysis document.1 Last updated 2014 Feb 03
Version 1.43

Table of Contents, allow up to level 3 Notable CI disasters 2013 April.......................................................................................... 2 Summary ..................................................................................................................... 2 2013................................................................................................................................. 4 April 01 MA, PA, WI, Exxon Mobile ........................................................................ 4 April 05 Tx.................................................................................................................. 4 Apr 11 WI WV............................................................................................................ 5 Apr 12 LA ................................................................................................................... 5 Apr 14 CA KS............................................................................................................. 5 Apr 17 Texas Fertilizer Plant Explosion......................................................................... 5 Apr 17 news on Texas Fertilizer Explosion................................................................ 7 Apr 18 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion ..................................................... 9 Apr 19 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion ................................................... 10 Apr 18 news on Texas Fertilizer Explosion.............................................................. 11 Apr 18 Denton Tx ..................................................................................................... 11 April 19 Gas Pipeline plans .......................................................................................... 11 Apr 19 news media on Texas Fertilizer Explosion................................................... 12 Apr 20 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion ................................................... 12 Apr 20 news on Texas Fertilizer Explosion.............................................................. 13 Apr 20 Wy................................................................................................................. 14 Apr 21 Gas Land movie............................................................................................ 14 Apr 21 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion ................................................... 14 April 21 news on Texas Fertilizer Explosion ........................................................... 15 Apr 22 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion ................................................... 16 Apr 22 CA + Mi........................................................................................................ 16 Apr 23 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion ................................................... 17 Apr 24 Mobile AL .................................................................................................... 18 Apr 24 CA Arsenic shut down.................................................................................. 18 Apr 24 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion ................................................... 19 Apr 24 news on Texas Fertilizer Explosion.............................................................. 20 Apr 24 Bangladesh 8 story factory building falls down ............................................... 20 Apr 25 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion ................................................... 21 Apr 25 Britain and Ohio ........................................................................................... 22 Apr 26 Cranston RI................................................................................................... 23
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Apr 28 France ........................................................................................................... 23 Apr 29 In / Czech...................................................................................................... 23 Continued in more documents .......................................................................................... 23

Notable CI disasters 2013 April
Here is part of my incident time line for my notes on Critical Infrastructure (CI) disasters. I collect info about many disasters, see what they have in common, then consider what improvements could be made in efforts to mitigate risk of high damage in the next similar incident, or even reduce the frequency in which they occur. My overall analysis and mitigation evaluation is in a separate “parent” document, from these incident time-line chunks.2 Scribd loses statistics when we change document name, so I kept the original name “Indy Boom” b ecause I first started looking into this topic on the occasion of a gas explosion which demolished a housing sub-division of Indianapolis. That incident turned out to be deliberate sabotage for insurance fraud, which is not the typical cause of these industrial disasters. There seem to be many causes, such as unintentional criminal negligence, a lack of public education to get witnesses to promptly report leak odors and a lack of enforcement of national safety standards for companies mis-managing these dangerous chemicals.

Summary
The following is also the description I plan to post when I upload this to Scribd. 8 Tags Incompetence, crime, man made disasters, gas leak, explosions, fires, safety endangered. Solutions, The events, in this time line segment, occurred in: Bangladesh; Britain; Czech Republic, France: and USA. Incidents listed here include: • Building, constructed illegally, falls down. How can a nation have an illegally constructed building and the authorities not know about it? Easy, either no competent inspections, or bribed inspectors. • Communication and Training inept or non-existent. Facilities should know what dangerous chemicals they have, risks associated with them, safety procedures to minimize those risks. They should communicate that to the local government, including first responders. Evacuation should be on the radar screen before lots of damage sustained. • Construction work can damage pipelines unless the lines are carefully and accurately marked, construction crews trained in recognizing those markings, and in how to protect the fuel line from any damage, and there is proper inspection to identify any damage, or risk of damage, and get it resolved before that leads to a disaster.
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• •

Explosive and/or toxic chemicals at a facility, where local community not advised of the risks, until after disaster, so residential & middle school get built next door. Instead companies should disclose risk so zoning can prevent high population in close proximity, and first responders know type of hazmat protection needed. Where high population already exists, zoning should ban companies from bringing in such dangerous chemicals. Government inspections do not intercommunicate, where regulations and agencies are fragmented. I suggest they establish web sites with key words to facilitate RSS subscriptions. o We inspected this place on that date, in what city state location. Make a summary statement about nature of place, and what we saw regarding what chemicals, what volume those chemicals, link to the dangers of those chemicals, link to summary of what can be said to the public about our inspection report. Include map link, indicating nature of surrounding community … is it high density population, for example? o Other government agencies, with appropriate password security, can subscribe to any web site updates, containing keywords relevant to what chemicals, geography, etc. is under their jurisdiction. Laws violated. Mandatory reporting, to feds, ignored. Reports to state, contain untruths. Serious safety flaws found by inspections, but nothing done about them.

Dead Injured Damaged nasty statistics, in just this one month of 2013: • Apr-5 2 dead • Apr-11 2 dead & 1 duplex destroyed • Apr-12 1 dead • Apr-14 1 house destroyed • Apr-17 14 dead, 263+ injured of which 58 hospitalized, 142 structures destroyed, 51 seriously damaged, 157 slight damage • Apr-22 1 dead 1 injured • Apr-24 390 dead, 2,600+ injured, of which 22+ hospitalized, 1,000+ missing, 110,000 at risk of arsenic poisoning • Apr-26 1 house destroyed, other houses damaged • Apr-28 2 dead, 14 injured, 1 house serious damage • Apr-29 35 hospitalized, 2-3 missing, 2 buildings destroyed There’s also fines proposed April 01 for 238,000 liters of crude oil spilled into Montana’s Yellowstone river, July 2011.

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2013

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According to Bloomberg, within a sample of 76 American publicly traded companies that self-report these sorts of incidents, there were 3,885 total chemical spills in 2013 alone. Ten different companies self-reported over 100 spills each.3

April 01 MA, PA, WI, Exxon Mobile
A highway was shut down for 2 hours near Cambridge MA, after drums of lubricant fell off a truck.4 I can’t find a link to the incident, but apparently there was a gasoline pipeline which ruptured July 2012 inside the Jackson Marsh Wildlife Area of Washington County in Wisconsin. The pipeline company knows what to do to fix it, but environmental authorities are slow to approve the cleanup, so the company is doing the fixing without the official permits.5 Federal regulators proposed that Exxon Mobil pay $1.7 million in civil penalties for safety violations linked to a pipeline rupture that spilled an estimated 238,000 litres of crude oil into Montana's scenic Yellowstone River in July 2011. The spill fouled approximately 110 kilometres of the Yellowstone River's banks, killing fish and wildlife and prompting a massive, months-long cleanup.6 Leaky Gas Pipelines routinely lose approx 5% of product in transmission, and routinely make the customers pay for those losses. However, the Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission has placed a cap on what they can charge for this.7

April 05 Tx
April 5, 2013, two workers were killed when a natural gas well exploded near Barstow, Texas, according to recent media reports. Both workers were employed by Basic Energy Services Inc. The well is owned by Anadarko Petroleum Corp.8

3

http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-01-22/forget-west-virginia-dot-chemical-spills-are-anamerican-tradition This article is referring to the 2014 Jan 9 chemical spill which contaminated W Va water. 4 http://www.boston.com/metrodesk/2013/04/01/small-oil-spill-causes-delays-brien-highwaycambridge/SV4AJMBWf9PxIc4jwJqJ2L/story.html 5 http://www.jsonline.com/news/ozwash/pipeline-repairs-to-go-forward-without-permit-6e9ci6v200930361.html 6 http://www.vancouversun.com/business/energyresources/Exxon+Mobil+pipeline+rupture+spills+heavy/8175362/story.html 7 http://www.puc.state.pa.us/about_puc/press_releases.aspx?ShowPR=3142 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1869 8 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1878

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Apr 11 WI WV

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Two workers died as a result of their injuries in an explosion at a natural gas compressor station in Tyler County, West Virginia, owned and operated by Eureka Hunter Pipeline LLC.

The map shows Eureka Hunter natural gas gathering and processing operations in Ohio and West Virginia. There was also an explosion which destroyed a duplex in Fon du Lac, Wisconsin. There are unconfirmed reports that it was due to natural gas. 9

Apr 12 LA
The captain of a Louisiana tugboat died on Friday, April 12, according to recent media reports, succumbing to severe burns he had suffered on March 12, after his boat struck a natural gas pipeline and touched off an inferno that burned for days. 10

Apr 14 CA KS
A home in Athens, Kansas, owned by Atlanta Braves Baseball-Hall-of-Famer-to-be Chipper Jones exploded just hours after the now-retired superstar had visited the house, due to an apparent gas line explosion.11 3 years before the 2010 San Bruno California explosion and fire, Pacific Gas & Electric Co. engineers told management that the company budget cuts were endangering safety. This info came out as part of legal hearings into whether the company will be fined as much as $2.5 billion for state regulatory violations connected to the Sept. 9, 2010, explosion of a gas-transmission pipeline that killed eight people and destroyed 38 homes. The news media is now reporting on this revelation.12

Apr 17 Texas Fertilizer Plant Explosion
Ammonium nitrate was a major ingredient in several major explosions:
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http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1929 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1929 11 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1929 12 http://www.montereyherald.com/state/ci_23026143/engineers-warned-pg-e-pipeline-cuts
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There are two major classes of incidents resulting in explosions:13

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In the first case, the explosion happens by the mechanism of shock to detonation transition. The initiation happens by an explosive charge going off in the mass, by the detonation of a shell thrown into the mass, or by detonation of an explosive mixture in contact with the mass. Examples are Kriewald, Morgan, Oppau, Tessenderlo and Traskwood. In the second case, the explosion results from a fire that spreads into the ammonium nitrate (AN) itself (Texas City, Brest), or to a mixture of an ammonium nitrate with a combustible material during the fire. The fire must be confined at least to a degree for successful transition from a fire to an explosion (a phenomenon known as "deflagration to detonation transition", or DDT). Pure, compact AN is stable and very difficult to initiate. However, there are numerous cases when even impure AN did not explode in a fire.

Note similarities between: the 1947 April 16 Texas City Disaster; and the 2013 April 17 Texas Fertilizer Explosion. • Ignorance about risks from various chemicals; • Ignorance about safety procedures; • Evacuation not on radar screen, until after a lot of damage done; • Close proximity of dangerous materials and conventional soft targets; • Disconnect between knowing nature of what is burning, probable consequences of the fire continuing; • Lack of relevant training in how to deal with problems, should they occur, for relevant personnel who normally handle the material, and emergency responders. In 1947, war secrecy may have been responsible. In 2013 corporate corruption may be accountable. There is a lot of finger pointing going on regarding government regulations, and inspections not finding problems. It is clear to me that inspectors from agency-X should be expected to know the regulations of agency-X but not the regulations of the alphabet soup of dozens of other government agencies at the federal, state, and local level. It is also clear to me that when our legislators make updates to laws, there is no notification of people or organizations impacted by those laws. Instead, we wait Z-years for an inspection to show up & say “oh by the way, you are in violation of some of the regulations of OUR agency.” They can dispute fines claiming they were never told about those regulations. They can tell the agency they fixed the problems, irrespective of whether they did so. The reason for this state of affairs is we can afford to spend $billions after a disaster occurs, but we cannot afford to spend $peanuts to notify the places at risk of disaster, of new regulations. I suggest a compromise.

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ammonium_nitrate_disasters

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When agency-X does an inspection of some place, they have a web site, on which they place: On such & such a date, we inspected this place, in what city state location. Make a summary statement about the nature of the place, and what we saw regarding what chemicals, what volume those chemicals, link to the dangers of those chemicals, link to summary of what can be said the public about our inspection report. Various other agencies can subscribe to changes at the web site, note when combination of state and chemicals and nature of place impinges on their agency regulations, look up whether that place appears to be in compliance with their regulations, based on the info provided. We also need web site and linking standards, so people can subscribe to ONLY info about particular states, particular chemicals, particular types of places. That way the local zoning authority would have found out that this place has chemicals so dangerous that it is inappropriate to have a school across the street, or a housing development getting anywhere within 10 blocks of the place.

Apr 17 news on Texas Fertilizer Explosion
TV news say this happened in West Texas. West is the name of the town where it happened, which is NOT in the Western part of Texas. Here is a map of the community where it happened.14 Here is a law firm blog story, which has links to relevant info: Chemical Exposure Dangers

Ammonium Nitrate Explosions
• • Rail Car Source of West, Texas Explosion? What appears to be up for debate is where was the ammonium nitrate, that exploded, stored? Several news media accounts.

As usual there are conflicting stories in different news media. We do not yet know what started the fire. As fire fighters were responding, the place exploded, killing and injuring some of the fire fighters. • Fire fighters arrived on scene around 7.30 pm CDT. • The explosion occurred about 7:50 to 7.55 p.m. CDT. • Residents of nearby buildings were being evacuated, when the explosion occurred, including: West Rest Haven nursing home; an apartment building; As I watched TV news Apr 17 nite, hearing tales of what damage to homes and businesses, I wondered why the area did not have better zoning, to avoid risk of a dangerous facility being so close to residences, schools, and commercial business. We

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http://www.scribd.com/doc/136745813/Location-of-West-Texas-plant-explosion

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later found out lots of info about the plant failing in its fiduciary responsibilities. I expect in time there will be major fines, perhaps the place going out of business. There is a middle school directly across the street from the fertilizer plant. There’s also a housing development, nestled up as neighbors. As usual, with a disaster out of control, many fires all over the community, and very bad weather approaching the place, there is some critical info which does not come out until later. Wikipedia has an article on the event, worth occasionally revisiting to see if they have more info there.15 The Guardian in Britain has a collection of news stories on this event, worth revisiting occasionally,16 to see if there is relevant new info. See their time line.17 West Fertilizer Company has supplied chemicals to farmers since it was founded in 1962; as of 2013 it is owned by Adair Grain, Inc.18 • • OSHA investigated in 1965, found lots of problems, fined them $30. Due to complaints about smells from the place, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality inspected them in 2006, cited them for violating regulations, told them what to do to fix things, then after they did so, issued the permits they should have had all along. At the time of the explosion, they had a permit to store approx 1/10 as much as they allegedly did have on hand.

Some news media now have special pages with lots of links to stories about this disaster. • NBC News Dallas Fort Worth Area19 Some news media coverage is for the Apr 17 explosion and aftermath, but it is unclear when that news was published. According to NBC News:20 • There were no sprinklers. No firewalls. No water deluge systems. Safety inspections were rare at the fertilizer company in West, Texas, which exploded and killed at least 14 people this week. This is not unusual, because the regulatory framework is aimed at large installations. This one started small, then grew, without the regulatory framework noticing. • Different regulatory agencies are checking for different things, so if there is a horrible problem covered under one set of rules, inspectors under different rules may not even notice.

15 16

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Fertilizer_Company_explosion http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/texas-fertiliser-plant-explosion 17 http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/interactive/2013/apr/18/texas-explosion-fertiliser-plant-blast-interactive 18 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Fertilizer_Company_explosion 19 http://www.nbcdfw.com/news/local/West-Texas-Fertilizer-Plant-Explosion-203577511.html 20 http://www.nbcnews.com/id/51608414/ns/local_news-dallas_fort_worth_tx/t/safety-rules-limited-smallfertilizer-plants/#.UXRRJsq6m1s

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• • • •

US regulatory agencies find things through inspections, of facilities they know to be large, and through people complaining. The industry is also self-regulating in that government agencies generally take a company’s word for it that something was fixed, without any follow-up inspection. The company had a risk management plan, but it did not include what could happen with what it actually was storing. No federal agency determines how close a facility handling potentially dangerous substances can be to population centers, and in many states, including Texas, many of these decisions are left up to local zoning authorities. The plant originally opened outside the city, but development grew to its doorstep. Last summer, the U.S. Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration assessed a $10,000 fine against West Fertilizer for improperly labeling storage tanks and preparing to transfer chemicals without a security plan. The company paid $5,250 after reporting it had corrected the problems. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality also dealt with the company and issued a permit for handling anhydrous ammonia, which requires safety equipment the company had told the EPA it didn't have. But TCEQ acknowledged it may never have checked to confirm the equipment was there.

Apr 18 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion
FEMA comes out with a daily report each morning around 8.30 am. FEMA Daily Operations Briefing for Thursday, April 18, 2013, included info on this event.

201304018 FEMA Daily Ops Briefing_0830.pdf

See page 6 of the PDF for maps showing the approx location of the event, in Texas. Overview • At 8:50 pm EDT, a major explosion at a fertilizer plant in West (pop. 1,800), McLennan County, TX • Four miles north of Waco, Texas (pop. 126,697) • Unconfirmed reports 5-10 fatalities • 200+ injuries reported; some people still missing • 75-100 homes/businesses destroyed • Precautionary evacuation for entire town of West • Eight shelters open with unknown occupants • United Pacific Railroad halted freight train service to the area Local/State Response • US&R TX-TF1 & TX-TF2 deployed by TX as Type-1 Task Forces • Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) providing air monitoring and technical assistance • Multiple agencies responding • No requests for FEMA assistance 9 Critical Infrastructure disasters 2013 April

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Federal Response - FEMA: • FAA Temporary Flight Restriction of 3 NM radius & 3,000 feet • Region VI RRCC transitioned to Level III

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Apr 19 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion
FEMA informed us on April 20 that on April 19, President Obama had declared the area to be a disaster, which can apply for federal relief.21 April 19, 2013 President Declares Emergency for Texas April 19, 2013 Federal Aid Programs for Emergency Declaration for Texas

Related Links
Texas Division of Emergency Management Texas Office of the Governor Main Content State/Tribal Government: Texas FEMA comes out with a daily report each morning around 8.30 am. FEMA Daily Operations Briefing for Friday, April 19, 2013 201304019 FEMA Daily Ops Briefing_0830.pdf FEMA info updated or corrected vs. prior installments: • Public utilities impact.

Fertilizer Plant Explosion – West, TX
Background – April 17, 2013 • Major explosion at a fertilizer plant in West (pop. 1,800), McLennan County, TX ▲ Unconfirmed reports of fatalities; 200+ injured • Precautionary evacuations for the entire town of West, TX Current Situation ▲ Significant damage reported to structures within several blocks of the plant ▲ Between 75-100 homes/businesses, a middle school and a nursing home ▲ Main fire extinguished; hot spots remain & some structures continue to smolder ▲ Electrical/water services were impacted; approx. 11k residents without power Local/State Response ▲ The Governor of Texas declared a State of Disaster for McLennan County
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http://www.fema.gov/disaster/3363

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▲ State EOC is partially activated • US&R TX-TF1 & TX-TF2 deployed by State • Multiple Local, State and Federal agencies responding • No unmet needs identified/reported FEMA Response ▲ FEMA Region VI RRCC remains activated to Level III, day shift only ▲ Regional IMAT and IA PDA teams are on standby ▲ Regional Administrator remains in contact with State and EPA officials ▲ Ft Worth Distribution Center has commodities available, if needed

Apr 18 news on Texas Fertilizer Explosion
The Texas Fertilizer Plant explosion measured like a 2.1 earthquake. 22

Apr 18 Denton Tx
A hydraulic fracturing well in Denton, Texas, owned and operated by Eagleridge Operating, was spewing so much methane and fracking fluid, that flights were diverted around the affected area and local residents were evacuated, but Denton Assistant City Manager Lindsay Baker assured inquirers that, “there isn’t much danger.” 23 For related incidents with Eagleridge Operating, see: • • October 2011; April 18, 2013.

April 19 Gas Pipeline plans
Here are links to info about future gas pipeline projects.24

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http://rt.com/usa/texas-explosion-witness-video-048/ http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1958 24 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1948

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Apr 19 news media on Texas Fertilizer Explosion
Local sheriff has released tapes of 911 calls about the problems.25 The owner, of the plant, releases a statement.26 He is fully cooperating with investigators, very sad about the victims.

Apr 20 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion
FEMA Daily Operations Briefing for Saturday, April 20, 2013

201304020 FEMA Daily Ops Briefing_0830.pdf

FEMA info updated or corrected vs. prior installments: • • •
25 26

# dead, # injured, # hospitalized # buildings with what degree damage Public utilities impact

http://www.nbcdfw.com/news/local/West-Texas-Fertilizer-Plant-Explosion-203577511.html http://www.nbcdfw.com/news/local/West-Fertilizer-Owner-Issues-Statement-on-Explosion203831781.html

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• Shelters

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Background – April 17, 2013 • Major explosion at a fertilizer plant in West (pop. 2,692), McLennan County, TX ▲ Remains of 12 individuals recovered; 228+ injured; 46 currently admitted • Precautionary evacuations for the entire town of West, TX Current Situation • Significant damage reported to structures within several blocks of the plant ▲ 50 structures and apartment complex (with 30-50 units) destroyed ▲ 50 structures with significant damage; 100 structures slight damage ▲ Public water is offline due to damaged lines; Boil Water Advisory is in effect ▲ AT&T assessing infrastructure; preparing to deploy mobile cellular units Local/State Response ▲ The President approved the Emergency Declaration for McLennan County, TX • State EOC is partially activate d to level II • US&R TX -TF1 & TX-TF2 deployed by State; K-9 unit has also been deployed • TX Disaster Medical Ops Center is activated • Multiple Local, State and Federal agencies responding ▲ 1 (+1) shelters open with unknown occupants FEMA Response ▲ FEMA Region VI RRCC returned to Watch/Steady State • Regional IMAT and IA PDA teams are on standby

Apr 20 news on Texas Fertilizer Explosion
Local officials say:27 • They have found no evidence of criminal wrong doing, as a cause of the explosion; • There are no more people unaccounted for; • They do not expect to find any more bodies; • Investigators still do not know where on the property the fire began. Some local residents, who tried to return to their homes, were turned back, because leaking tanks are still causing small fires.28 The fertilizer plant which exploded, killing at least 14 and partially razing a small Texas town, failed to alert the US Dept of Homeland Security (DHS) it was storing 1,350 times the amount of ammonium nitrate allowable without mandatory safety checks.29 According to the Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards Act (CFATS), fertilizer plants and depots must report to the DHS when they hold 400 pounds or more of
27

http://www.nbcdfw.com/news/local/No-More-Unaccounted-For-No-Criminal-Activity-in-West203948281.html 28 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Fertilizer_Company_explosion 29 http://rt.com/usa/texas-blast-dhs-disclosure-149/

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ammonium nitrate due to its widespread use in the manufacture of bombs. However, at the time of the blast, at least 540,000 pounds (270 tons) of ammonium nitrate was in a storage building, according to recent filings with both the Texas Department of State Health Services and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) which were not passed on to the DHS. The plant was also holding anhydrous ammonia and several other agriculture chemicals.30 Under the self-reporting scheme, fertilizer operations can be fined or shut down for failing to inform the DHS of significant volumes of hazardous chemicals. Although the DHS is empowered to carry out on the spot inspections at such facilities, budgetary constraints and a “small number” of field auditors have hindered the department’s monitoring regime. DHS did not even know the plant existed, until it blew up.31 Pentagon explosives experts say that a blast entailing 270 tons of ammonium nitrate would dwarf virtually any non-nuclear weapons in the US arsenal. It was also more than 100 times the weight of the ammonium nitrate and fuel-oil mix used in the deadly 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, which killed 168 and injured over 800. 32 The company had previously told Texas regulators that any accident at the facility would not be large enough to cause an explosion. A risk management plan filed by the company in 2011 had failed to mention the presence of ammonium nitrate at the site. 33

Apr 20 Wy
A natural gas storage facility in Uinta County, Wyoming, blew up. No one was injured in the blast, but the explosion touched off a blaze that burned for nearly 24 hours before fire fighters could get close enough to begin putting it out. Investigators said a faulty safety valve caused the explosion and fire.34 No word yet on who owned and operated the plant.

Apr 21 Gas Land movie
In 2010 the movie GASLAND came out, explaining and framing the debate around hydraulic fracturing — or “fracking.” GASLAND II world premier will be April 21 2013.35

Apr 21 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion
FEMA Daily Operations Briefing for Sunday, April 21, 2013

30 31

201304021 FEMA Daily Ops Briefing_0830.pdf

http://rt.com/usa/texas-blast-dhs-disclosure-149/ http://rt.com/usa/texas-blast-dhs-disclosure-149/ 32 http://rt.com/usa/texas-blast-dhs-disclosure-149/ 33 http://rt.com/usa/texas-blast-dhs-disclosure-149/ 34 http://www.therepublic.com/view/story/5a46404af3d4421790d3f0754caa1b9a/WY--Natural-Gas-Fire http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1958 35 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1788

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FEMA info updated or corrected vs. prior installments: • • • • • • # dead, # injured, # in hospital(s), # in shelter(s) Nursing home residents Roadways condition Evacuation return plan Public utilities repair progress Schools

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Current Situation • Major explosion April 17, at a fertilizer plant in West (pop. 2,692) , McLennan County ▲ Remains of 13 (+1) individuals recovered; 228+ injured; 31 (-15) currently admitted ▲ Precautionary evacuations for the entire town of West, TX; re-entry plan began Sat ▲ 128 Nursing home patients transferred to local & regional care facilities ▲ Restoration of the electrical transmission line is almost complete; no full restoration date ▲ Schools that are not damaged will reopen on Monday; mobile classes for Middle school ▲ Damage reported to structures for 5 square blocks of the plant • 50 structures &apartment complex (with 30-50 units) destroyed • 50 structures- significant damage; 100 structures - slight damage • Public water remains offline due to damaged lines; Boil Water Advisory is in effect ▲ Roadways in the blast area are passable Local/State Response • The President approved the Emergency Declaration for McLennan County, TX ▲ State EOC returned to normal operations; McLennan County EOC is activated • US&R TX -TF1 & TX-TF2 & K-9 units have been demobilized; moving to recovery ops ▲ 1 shelter is open with 2 occupants FEMA Response • FEMA Region VI RRCC remains at Watch/Steady State ▲ Regional IMAT will deploy an advance team today & full team on Monday ▲ 3 IA PDA teams deployed to McLennan County on Saturday

April 21 news on Texas Fertilizer Explosion
A tour was arranged for reporters. They saw:36 • Crater where the plant used to be; • Demolished buildings; • Damaged buildings;

36

http://www.nbcdfw.com/news/local/First-Look-Inside-Blast-Zone-In-West-204006051.html

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Apr 22 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion

2/4/2014 11:07:49 AM

FEMA Daily Operations Briefing for Monday, April 22, 2013 attached.

201304022 FEMA Daily Ops Briefing_0830.pdf

FEMA info updated or corrected vs. prior installments: • Shelters

Current Situation • Major explosion April 17, at a fertilizer plant in West (pop. 2,692), McLennan County ▲ Remains of 13 (+1) individuals recovered; 228+ injured; 31 (-15) currently admitted • Precautionary evacuations for the entire town of West, TX; re -entry plan began Sat • 128 Nursing home patients transferred to local & regional care facilities • Restor ation of the electrical transmission line is almost complete; no full restoration date • Schools that are not damaged will reopen today; mobile classes for Middle school ▲ Damage reported to structures within 5 square blocks of the plant • 50 structures& apartment complex (with 30-50 units) destroyed • 50 structures- significant damage; 100 structures - slight damage • Public water remains offline due to damaged lines; Boil Water Advisory is in effect • Roadways in the blast area are passable Local/State Response ▲ State EOC returned to normal operations; McLennan County EOC is activated ▲ US&R TX-TF1 & TX-TF2 & K-9 units demobilized on Saturday ▲ All shelters are closed FEMA Response ▲ FEMA-3363-EM-TX was approved for McLennan County, TX ▲ FEMA Region VI RRCC remains at Watch/Steady State ▲ IMAT ADVON deployed Sat to establish an IOF in Austin, TX; main body deploys today ▲ Joint PDAs began Saturday

Apr 22 CA + Mi
A shallow natural gas pipeline in Bakersfield, California, exploded and caught fire, after a pavement grinder operated by a crew working to repave struck the line. 37 Recall that
37

http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1980 http://www.bakersfieldcalifornian.com/local/x411129850/PG-E-may-have-a-lot-of-explaining-to-do

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PG&E was in previous big trouble, stemming from the 2010 San Bruno incident, and subsequent investigations, finding all sorts of problems with their safety. Pavement Recycling Systems, the company that owns and was operating the $1 million road grinder destroyed in the natural gas explosion and fire in northeast Bakersfield, called the public utility in advance of any digging, and did receive tacit clearance from PG&E. A natural gas explosion in Dexter, near Ann Arbor Michigan, killed one man and critically injured another. The two men were repairing a holding tank at the Dexter Utilities wastewater treatment plant when the gas exploded, said investigators.38 The men were using a welder's torch, on a storage tank, when it came in contact with methane gas, causing the explosion, the fire chief said. The men were employees of a contractor hired to do remodeling work at the utility department

Apr 23 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion
FEMA Daily Operations Briefing for Tuesday, Apr 23, 2013 attached.

201304023 FEMA Daily Ops Briefing_0830.pdf

FEMA info updated or corrected vs. prior installments: • • • # dead, # injured, # in hospitals # buildings with what degree damage Public utilities repair progress

Significant Events: • West Fertilizer Plant Explosion– West, TX • Heavy rain/flooding– Midwest • Spring Flood Season 2013– Monitoring Significant Weather: • Showers & thunde rstorms – western Gulf Coast to Ohio Valley and eastern Great Lakes • Snow– Rockies to Central Plains; rain and snow – western High Plains & Northern Rockies • Light rain– East Coast to Northeast • Red Flag Warnings: CA, NV, AZ & OK • Critical Fire W eather Areas: AZ, NV & CA

• Major explosion April 17, at fertilizer plant in West (pop. 2,692), McLennan County Current Situation
38

http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1958 http://www.annarbor.com/news/dexter/explosion-in-dexter-injures-2-men-1-critically/

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▲Remains of 14(+1) individuals recovered; 263 (+35) injured; 58 (+27) in hospitals • Precautionary evacuations for entire town of West, TX; re -entry plan began 4/20 ▲Full restoration of electrical transmission line is complete ▲Some customers unable to receive power because structural damage making power restoration hazardous; Oncor working closely with local officials to restore power • Damage to structures within 5 square blocks of plant ▲142(+92) destroyed, 51(+1) significant damage, 157(+57) structures minor damage ▲No water in heavily impacted areas; low water pressure in other areas ▲Northern portions of city will remain without water for up to 3 weeks; Boil Water Advisory remains in place Local/State Response • State EOC at Level III (IncreasedReadiness); McLennan County EOC activated FEMA Response • FEMA -3363-EM-TX approved for McLennan County, TX Apr 24 Mobile AL
A string of explosions destroyed two barges and injured three people, in Mobile Alabama.39 The barges were carrying a substance called “natural gasoline.” Natural gasoline is not natural gas, i.e. methane in gaseous form; it is instead a natural gas liquid that is either produced at the wellhead via a condensate process, or in the natural gas fields using an extraction process, as opposed to the refining process that produces conventional gasoline. Either way it is an extremely volatile and unstable substance unless and until it is blended with something else, such as ethanol.40

Apr 24 CA Arsenic shut down
The California Department of Toxic Substances Control has forced a temporary shut down of a Vernon battery recycler, under fire for posing a danger to as many as 110,000 people because of arsenic emissions.41

39 40

http://www.waff.com/story/22071356/natural-gas-barge-explodes-in-alabama http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1958 http://www.therepublic.com/view/story/2503e7d75bfd4af69fd98e64c01e1eff/US-Fuel-Barge-Explosion 41 http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-battery-recycler-shut-down20130424,0,5270589.story?goback=.gde_3798271_member_235328827 http://articles.latimes.com/2013/mar/23/local/la-me-0324-exide-air-20130324

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Reports revealed Exide Technologies, one of the largest car battery recyclers in the world, has been continuously releasing hazardous waste into the soil beneath its plant because of a degraded pipeline. This operation continues.42

Apr 24 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion
FEMA Daily Operations Briefing for Wednesday, Apr 24, 2013 attached.

201304024 FEMA Daily Ops Briefing_0830.pdf

FEMA info updated or corrected vs. prior installments: • Nothing significant obvious. Significant Events: • West Fertilizer Plant Explosion– West, TX • Heavy rain/flooding– Midwest • Spring Flood Season 2013– Monitoring Significant Weather: • Rain & thunderstorms– western Gulf Coast to Mid-Atlantic and Northeast • Rain and snow– portions of Upper Midwest • Snow– Northern Plains Declaration Activity: Major Disaster Declaration approved for NY; Major Disaster Declaration Request for TX. • Major explosion April 17, at fertilizer plant in West (pop. 2,69 2), McLennan County Current Situation • Remains of 14 individuals recovered; 263 injured; 58 hospitalized • Precautionary evacuations for entire town of West, TX; re -entry plan began 4/20 • Full restoration of electrical transmission line is complete exc ept to those customers unable to receive power due to structural damage • Damage to structures within 5 square blocks of plant • 142 destroyed, 51 major damage, 27 minor damage; 130 affected • No water in heavily impacted areas; low water pressure in o ther areas • Heavily impacted northern areas may remain without water for up to 3 weeks; Boil Water Advisory remains in place Local/State Response • State EOC at Level III (Increased Readiness); McLennan County EOC activated ▲Governor’s request for Major Disaster Declaration received April 22 FEMA Response • FEMA -3363-EM-TX approved for McLennan County, TX
42

http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-battery-recycler-shut-down20130424,0,5270589.story?goback=.gde_3798271_member_235328827

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▲IMAT advance element deployed to establish IOF in Austin, TX

Apr 24 news on Texas Fertilizer Explosion
The Czech Republic plans to donate 4 million koruna (some $200,000) to help the Texas town of West recover from a devastating fertilizer plant explosion. This is partly because many people living there, have Czech ancestry.43

Apr 24 Bangladesh 8 story factory building falls down
See footnotes for info about the nation of Bangladesh.44 Most of its foreign trade income comes from the garment industry,45 which is what has experienced this disaster. This is not a gas explosion, but another kind of man made disaster. An illegally constructed eight story building collapsed.46 Different news media are reporting different #s on the casualties. • 390+ killed • 2,500+ injured • 1,000+ missing • These numbers are expected to grow. The building housed garment workers. There was a demonstration by people demanding death sentence for the building’s owner, which the police broke up. • 100+ injured • 22+ hospitalized It is not yet clear to me, how an eight story building can be constructed illegally, and the authorities not find out it was illegal, until it falls down. Could it be like Italy, which improved standards for earthquake proof buildings, but it was not until there was an earthquake in which the new and improved buildings fell down, and the old standard buildings survived, that the government was interested in taking responsibility for inspection which works, and keeping track of what institutions and their owners, profited from building sub-standard buildings.

43

http://www.therepublic.com/view/story/c458dc7023e144e3b6e8cc29f5cdb9b8/EU--Czech-US-PlantExplosion http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/01/us-bangladesh-building-eu-idUSBRE93T1A620130501 44 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107317.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladesh http://www.bangladesh.gov.bd/ http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/bangladesh 45 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladesh_textile_industry 46 http://www.therepublic.com/view/story/9d5ea8843aa24c3da311c4318da7e04d/AS--BangladeshBuilding-Collapse

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Prior to the fall down, the factory had been inspected by Wall Mart auditors, who found safety flaws.47 I have noted in other contexts, that if ANY inspections find something which is a serious threat to the safety of the people in harm’s way, that this information should not be limited to the inspection organization, and the place being inspected. Prior to the fall down, cracks appeared, workers were worried about safety, but they were persuaded to enter the factory building anyway. 48 Officials in Bangladesh have said the eight-story complex had been built on swampy ground without the correct permits. Eight people have been arrested - four factory bosses, two engineers, building owner Mohammed Sohel Rana and his father, Abdul Khalek 49. Police are looking for a fifth factory boss, Spanish citizen David Mayor, although it was unclear whether he was in Bangladesh at the time of the accident. A 2-judge panel from the high court has ordered the assets of the building owner, and factory owners, seized, to compensate the victims.50 The nation of Bangladesh has said no thank you to foreign nation offers of disaster aid. 51 It remains to be seen what will happen with the brand names of Britain and Canada, made there, which plan to compensate victim families. This event inspired the US government to write up a report on the incident for Congress. QUOTE:52 “The April 24, 2013, collapse of an eight-story garment factory, called Rana Plaza, in Dhaka, Bangladesh, resulted in the deaths of more than 1,100 workers. It is reportedly now considered the deadliest accident in the history of the apparel industry…. This report provides an overview of the recent tragedy in Bangladesh and the Bangladesh economic environment and culture. It also notes the responses to the tragedy, to date, from Congress, the Administration, the ILO [International Labor Organization], the Bangladesh government, and the private sector. Finally, it raises some possible issues for Congress .” UNQUOTE

Apr 25 FEMA info on Texas Fertilizer Explosion
FEMA Daily Operations Briefing for Thursday, Apr 25, 2013 attached.

201304025 FEMA Daily Ops Briefing_0830.pdf

FEMA info updated or corrected vs. prior installments:
47

http://www.npr.org/2013/04/30/180123158/documents-wal-mart-auditors-inspect-bangladeshi-factoryfind-safety-flaws 48 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-22347672 49 http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/01/us-bangladesh-building-eu-idUSBRE93T1A620130501 50 http://www.aljazeera.com/news/asia/2013/04/201343012139427474.html 51 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-22347672 52 http://blogs.fas.org/secrecy/2013/06/legal-guantanamo/

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• • • Memorial service; Public utilities recovery expectations. FEMA completed for this incident.

2/4/2014 11:07:49 AM

Significant Events: • West Fertilizer Plant Explosion– West, TX - FINAL • Heavy rain/flooding– Midwest • Spring Flood Season 2013 Significant Weather: • Rain & thunderstorms– eastern Gulf Coast to Atlantic coastline • Light rain/snow– Northern Plains to New England; Central/Southern Rockies • Rain– Central Plains to Ohio & Tennessee valleys • Red Flag Warnings– NE, AZ & NM • Critical Fire Weather Areas: AZ & NM • Sp ace Weather: None past 24 hours; minor next 24 hours with G1 geomagnetic storms Declaration Activity: Request for Emergency Declaration – North Dakota

• Major explosion April 17, at fertilizer plant in West, McLennan County
Current Situation

▲POTUS will attend a Memorial Service at Baylor University
• Remains of 14individuals recovered; 263 injured; 58 hospitalized • Precautionary evacuations for entire town of West, TX; re -entry plan began 4/20 • Electrical transmission line restoration completeexcept for customers unable to receive power due to structural damage • Structures damaged within 5 square blocks of plant • 142 destroyed, 51 major damage, 27 minor damage; 130 affected • Boil Water Advisory remains in place; no water in heavily impa cted areas • Low water pressure in other areas • Heavily impacted northern areas may remain without water for up to 3 weeks; Local/State Response • State EOC at Level III (Increased Readiness); McLennan County EOC activated • Governor’s request for Maj or Disaster Declaration received April 22 FEMA Response • FEMA -3363-EM-TX approved for McLennan County, TX • IMAT advance element deployed to establish IOF in Austin, TX

Apr 25 Britain and Ohio
An explosion occurred in London England.53 The natural gas distribution system there is operated by National Grid, just like many of the distribution systems in the USA.

53

http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1958

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In Toledo, Ohio, investigating authorities are saying – and a Columbia Gas spokesperson has confirmed – that a natural gas leak caused an explosion, which destroyed one home and damaged several others.54

Apr 26 Cranston RI
An elderly man in Cranston, Rhode Island, suffered serious burns and other injuries when his house exploded.55 Investigator attributed the blast to build-up of natural gas in the home. Nearby houses were also damaged in the explosion, although no one else was injured.56

Apr 28 France
A five-story residential building in Reims, east of Paris France, had its side blown off by what is believed to have been a gas explosion, killing at least two people and injuring 14 others.57

Apr 29 In / Czech
An explosion leveled a small summer home in Buffalo Indiana, which is about 30 miles north of Lafayette. The home was unoccupied at the time, and no one was injured. Investigators have not yet figured out the cause of the blast.58 A blast, believed to be a gas explosion, destroyed an office building in the center of Prague in the Czech Republic. 35 people were hospitalized. 2-3 people are missing, but no bodies have been found yet.59

Continued in more documents
Time Line of these disasters to be continued in related documents to be named: • CI Boom 0 thru 199960 • CI Boom 2000 to 200661 • CI Boom 200762 • CI Boom 2008 to 2009 • CI Boom 2010 to 2011 • CI Boom 201263
54

http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1980 http://www.fox19.com/story/22078404/crews-responding-to-home-collapse-in-north-toledo 55 http://news.providencejournal.com/breaking-news/2013/04/man-hurt-in-cranston-home-explosionsaturday-morning.html 56 http://www.naturalgaswatch.org/?p=1958 57 http://www.therepublic.com/view/story/97f106a481cc4ef7a8540dacb74e0cba/EU-France-BuildingCollapse http://www.therepublic.com/view/story/6c9b6319176941878c53d2e5a6e8bae8/EU--Czech-Explosion 58 http://www.therepublic.com/view/story/34232787b705434d87070d7095c01a8d/IN--House-Explosion 59 http://www.therepublic.com/view/story/6c9b6319176941878c53d2e5a6e8bae8/EU--Czech-Explosion 60 http://www.scribd.com/doc/203317455/CI-Boom-0-thru-1999 61 http://www.scribd.com/doc/203688481/CI-Boom-2000-to-2006 62 http://www.scribd.com/doc/204262969/CI-Boom-2007 63 http://www.scribd.com/doc/204042682/CI-Boom-2012

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• • • • CI Boom 2013 Jan-Mar CI Boom 2013 Apr CI Boom 2013 May-Dec CI Boom 2014 Jan W Va Water64

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These other time line history segments shall be uploaded to the same SCRIBD Critical Infrastructure collection.65 Revision history will be maintained in the main parent document.

64 65

http://www.scribd.com/doc/203973261/CI-Boom-2014-Jan-9-W-Va-Water http://www.scribd.com/collections/4108500/Critical-Infrastructure

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