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Problem 1

Find all continuous functions ) : [1, 8] 1, such that

_

2

1

)

2

(t

3

)dt + 2

_

2

1

)(t

3

)dt =

2

3

_

8

1

)(t)dt

_

2

1

(t

2

1)

2

dt.

Solution. Using the substitution t = n

3

we get

2

3

_

8

1

)(t)dt = 2

_

2

1

n

2

)(n

3

)dn = 2

_

2

1

t

2

)(t

3

)dn.

Hence, by the assumptions,

_

2

1

_

)

2

(t

3

) + (t

2

1)

2

+ 2)(t

3

) 2t

2

)(t

3

)

_

dt = 0.

Since )

2

(t

3

)+(t

2

1)

2

+2)(t

3

)2t

2

)(t

3

) = ()(t

3

))

2

+(1t

2

)

2

+2(1t

2

))(t

3

) =

_

)(t

3

) + 1 t

2

_

2

_

0, we get

_

2

1

_

)(t

3

) + 1 t

2

_

2

dt = 0.

The continuity of ) implies that )(t

3

) = t

2

1, 1 _ t _ 2, thus, )(r) = r

2=3

1, 1 _ r _ 8.

Remark. If the continuity assumption for ) is replaced by Riemann integrability then

innitely many )s would satisfy the given equality. For example if C is any closed nowhere

dense and of measure zero subset of [1, 8] (for example a nite set or an appropriate Cantor type

set) then any function ) such that )(r) = r

2=3

1 for every r [1, 8]C satises the conditions.

Problem 2

Let ', '

2

(C) be two nonzero matrices such that

'

2

=

2

= 0

2

and ' +' = 1

2

where 0

2

is the 2 2 zero matrix and 1

2

the 2 2 unit matrix. Prove that there is an invertible

matrix '

2

(C) such that

' =

_

0 1

0 0

_

1

and =

_

0 0

1 0

_

1

.

First solution. Consider ), q : C

2

C

2

given by )(r) = 'r and q(r) = r.

We have )

2

= q

2

= 0 and )q +q) = id

C

2; composing the last relation (to the left, for instance)

with )q we nd that ()q)

2

= )q, so )q is a projection of C

2

.

If )q were zero, then q) = id

C

2, so ) and q would be invertible, thus contradicting )

2

= 0.

Therefore, )q is nonzero. Let n Im()q) 0 and n C

2

such that n = )q(n). We obtain

)q(n) = ()q)

2

(n) = )q(n) = n. Let = q(n). The vector is nonzero, because otherwise we

obtain n = )() = 0.

Moreover, n and are not collinear since = `n with ` C implies n = )() = )(`n) =

`)(n) = `)

2

(q(n)) = 0, a contradiction.

Let us now consider the ordered basis E of C

2

consisting of n and .

We have )(n) = )

2

(q(n)) = 0, )() = )(q(n)) = n, q(n) = and q() = q

2

(n) = 0.

Therefore, the matrices of ) and q with respect to E are

_

0 1

0 0

_

and

_

0 0

1 0

_

, respectively.

We take to be the change of base matrix from the standard basis of C

2

to E and we are

done.

1

2

Second solution. Let us denote

_

0 1

0 0

_

by 1

12

and

_

0 0

1 0

_

by 1

21

. Since '

2

=

2

=

0

2

and ', ,= 0

2

, the minimal polynomials of both ' and are equal to r

2

. Therefore, there

are invertible matrices 1, C /

2

(C) such that ' = 11

12

1

1

and = C1

21

C

1

.

Note that 1 and C are not uniquely determined. If 1

1

1

12

1

1

1

= 1

2

1

12

1

1

2

, then (1

1

1

1

2

)1

12

=

1

12

(1

1

1

1

2

); putting 1

1

1

1

2

=

_

a /

c d

_

, the last relation is equivalent to

_

0 a

0 c

_

=

_

c d

0 0

_

. Consequently, 1

1

1

12

1

1

1

= 1

2

1

12

1

1

2

if and only if there exist a C 0 and

/ C such that

1

2

= 1

1

_

a /

0 a

_

. (+)

Similarly, C

1

1

21

C

1

1

= C

2

1

21

C

1

2

if and only if there exist c C 0 and , C such that

C

2

= C

1

_

c 0

, c

_

. (++)

Now, ' +' = 1

2

, ' = 11

12

1

1

and = C1

21

C

1

give

11

12

1

1

C1

21

C

1

+C1

21

C

1

11

12

1

1

= 1

2

,

or

1

12

1

1

C1

21

C

1

1 +1

1

C1

21

C

1

11

12

= 1

2

.

If 1

1

C =

_

r j

. t

_

, the previous relation means

_

. t

0 0

__

0 0

t j

_

+

_

j 0

t 0

__

0 t

0 .

_

= (rt j.)1

2

,= 0

2

.

After computations we nd this to be equivalent to rt j. = t

2

,= 0. Consequently, there are

j, . C and t C 0 such that

C = 1

_

t +

yz

t

j

. t

_

. (+ + +)

According to (+) and (++), our problem is equivalent to nding a, c C 0 and /, , C

such that C

_

c 0

, c

_

= 1

_

a /

0 a

_

. Taking relation (+ + +) into account, we need to nd

a, c C 0 and /, , C such that

1

_

t +

yz

t

j

. t

__

c 0

, c

_

= 1

_

a /

0 a

_

,

or, 1 being invertible,

_

t +

yz

t

j

. t

__

c 0

, c

_

=

_

a /

0 a

_

.

This means

_

_

ct +c

j.

t

+,j = a

cj = /

c. +,t = 0

ct = a

,

and these conditions are equivalent to

_

_

_

cj = /

c. = ,t

ct = a

.

It is now enough to choose c = 1, a = t, / = j and , =

.

t

.

3

Third Solution. Let ), q be as in the rst solution. Since )

2

= 0 there exists a nonzero

1

Ker) so )(

1

) = 0 and setting

2

= q(

1

) we get

)(

2

) = ()q +q))(

1

) =

1

,= 0

by the assumptions (and so

2

,= 0). Also

q(

2

) = q

2

(

1

) = 0

and so to complete the proof it suces to show that

1

and

2

are linearly independent, because

then the matrices of ), q with respect to the ordered basis (

1

,

2

) would be 1

12

and 1

21

respec-

tively, according to the above relations. But if

2

= `

1

then 0 = q(

2

) = `q(

1

) = `

2

so since

2

,= 0, ` must be 0 which gives

2

= 0

1

= 0 contradiction. This completes the proof.

Remark. A nonelementary solution of this problem can be given by observing that the

conditions on ', imply that the correspondence 1

2

1

2

, ' 1

12

and 1

21

extends

to an isomorphism between the subalgebras of /

2

(C) generated by 1

2

, ', and 1

2

, 1

12

, 1

21

respectively, and then one can apply Noether-Skolem Theorem to show that this isomorphism

is actually conjugation by an G|

2

(C) etc.

Problem 3

Find the maximum value of

_

1

0

[)

0

(r)[

2

[)(r)[

1

_

r

dr

over all continuously dierentiable functions ) : [0, 1] R with )(0) = 0 and

_

1

0

[)

0

(r)[

2

dr _ 1. (+)

Solution. For r [0, 1] let

q(r) =

_

x

0

[)

0

(t)[

2

dt.

Then for r [0, 1] the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality gives

[)(r)[ _

_

x

0

[)

0

(t)[ dt _

__

x

0

[)

0

(t)[

2

dt

_

1=2

_

r =

_

rq(r)

1=2

.

Thus

_

1

0

[)

0

(r)[

2

[)(r)[

1

_

r

dr _

_

1

0

q(r)

1=2

q

0

(r)dr =

2

3

[q(1)

3=2

q(0)

3=2

]

=

2

3

__

1

0

[)

0

(t)[

2

dt

_

3=2

_

2

3

.

by (+). The maximum is achieved by the function )(r) = r.

Remark. If the condition (+) is replaced by

_

1

0

[)

0

(r)[

p

dr _ 1 with 0 < j < 2 xed, then

the given expression would have supremum equal to +, as it can be seen by considering

continuously dierentiable functions that approximate the functions )

M

(r) = 'r for 0 _ r _

1

'

p

and

1

'

p1

for

1

'

p

< r _ 1, where ' can be an arbitrary large positive real number.

Problem 4

Let '

2

(Q) such that there is : , : ,= 0, with

n

= 1

2

. Prove that either

2

= 1

2

or

3

= 1

2

.

4

First Solution. Let )

A

(r) = dct( r1

2

) = r

2

:r + j Q[r] be the characteristic

polynomial of and let `

1

, `

2

be its roots, also known as the eigenvalues of matrix . We have

that `

1

+ `

2

= : Q and `

1

`

2

= j Q. We know, based on Cayley-Hamilton theorem, that

the matrix satises the relation

2

: + j1

2

= 0

2

. For any eigenvalue ` C there is an

eigenvector A ,= 0, such that A = `A. By induction we have that

n

A = `

n

A and it follows

that `

n

= 1. Thus, the eigenvalues of satisfy the equalities

`

n

1

= `

n

2

= 1 (+).

Is `

1

R then we also have that `

2

R and from (+) we get that `

1

= `

2

= 1 (and note

that : must be odd) so satises the equation ( + 1

2

)

2

=

2

+ 2 + 1

2

= 0

2

and it follows

that 1

2

=

n

= (+1

2

1

2

)

n

= :(+1

2

) 1

2

which gives = 1

2

and hence

3

= 1

2

.

If `

1

C R then `

2

= `

1

C R and since `

n

1

= 1 we get that [`

1;2

[ = 1 and this implies

that `

1;2

= cos t i sint. Now we have the equalities `

1

+ `

2

= 2 cos t = : Q and `

n

1

= 1

implies that cos :t + i sin:t = 1 which in turn implies that cos :t = 1. Using the equality

cos(: + 1)t + cos(: 1)t = 2 cos t cos :t we get that there is a polynomial 1

n

= r

n

+ of

degree : with integer coecients such that 2 cos :t = 1

n

(2 cos t). Set r = 2 cos t and observe

that we have 1

n

(r) = 2 so r = 2 cos t is a rational root of an equation of the form r

n

+ = 0.

However, the rational roots of this equation are integers, so r Z and since [r[ _ 2 we get that

2 cos t = 2, 1, 0, 1, 2.

When 2 cos t = 2 then `

1;2

are real numbers (note that in this case `

1

= `

2

= 1 or

`

1

= `

2

= 1) and this case was discussed above.

When 2 cos t = 0 we get that

2

+1

2

= 0

2

so

2

= 1

2

.

When 2 cos t = 1 we get that

2

+1

2

= 0

2

which implies that (+1

2

)(

2

+1

2

) = 0

2

so

3

= 1

2

.

When 2 cos t = 1 we get that

2

++1

2

= 0

2

and this implies that (1

2

)(

2

++1

2

) = 0

2

so

3

= 1

2

. It follows that

n

_

1

2

, ,

2

_

. However,

n

= 1

2

and this implies that either

= 1

2

or

2

= 1

2

both of which contradict the equality

3

= 1

2

. This completes the

proof.

Remark. The polynomials 1

n

used in the above proof are related to the Chebyshev poly-

nomials, T

n

(r) = cos(:arccosr). One could also get the conclusion that 2 cos t is an integer by

considering the sequence r

m

= 2 cos(2

m

t) and noticing that since r

m+1

= r

2

m

2, if r

0

were a

noninteger rational

a

/

(/ 1) in lowest terms then the denominator of r

m

in lowest terms would

be /

2

m

and this contradicts the fact that r

m

must be periodic since t is a rational multiple of .

Second Solution. Let :

A

(r) be the minimal polynomial of . Since

2n

1

2

= (

n

+

1

2

)(

n

1

2

) = 0

2

, :

A

(r) must be a divisor of r

2n

1 which has no multiple roots. It is well

known that the monic irreducible over Q factors of r

2n

1 are exactly the cyclotomic polynomials

d

(r) where d divides 2:. Hence the irreducible over Q factors of :

A

(r) must be cyclotomic

polynomials and since the degree of :

A

(r) is at most 2 we conclude that :

A

(r) itself must be a

cyclotomic polynomial, say

d

(r) for some positive integer d with c(d) = 1 or 2 (where c is the

Euler totient function), c(d) being the degree of

d

(r). But this implies that d 1, 2, 3, 4, 6

and since ,

3

cannot be equal to 1

2

we get that :

A

(r) r + 1, r

2

+ 1, r

2

r + 1 and this

implies that either

2

= 1

2

or

3

= 1

2

.

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