International Monetary Fund

Submitted To Mam Amina Rizwan Submitted By Arslan Nawaz L1F11MCOM2165 Section E

International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that was initiated in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference and formally created in 1945 by 29 member countries. The IMF's stated goal was to assist in the reconstruction of the world’s international payment system post-World War II. Countries contribute money to a pool through a quota system from which countries with payment imbalances can borrow funds temporarily. Through this activity and others such as surveillance of its members' economies and the demand for self-correcting policies, the IMF works to improve the economies of its member countries. 188 countries are members of the International Monetary Fund. It has its headquarters in Washington, D.C., USA. Origin In the 1930s, many countries faced economic problems. Some of such problems were falling standard of living and unemployment by large number of people. Trading between different countries also came down. Some countries reduced the value of their currencies. All such factors combined and an economic depression resulted. By late 1939, the Second World War had started. After the Second World War was over, most countries found that the international values were not smooth and facing many restrictions. Leaders of many countries thought over these matters and discussed them in meetings. Thus, after the Second World War, many countries felt the need to have an organization to get help in monetary matters between countries. To begin with, 29 countries discussed the matter, and signed an agreement. The agreement was the Articles of Association of the International Monetary Fund. The International Monetary Fund came into being in 29th December 1945. Functions The IMF does a number of supervisory works relating to financial dealings between different countries. Some of the works done by IMF are:      Policy advice to governments and central banks based on analysis of economic trends and crosscountry experiences; Research, statistics, forecasts, and analysis based on tracking of global, regional, and individual economies and markets; Loans to help countries overcome economic difficulties; Concessional loans to help fight poverty in developing countries; and Technical assistance and training to help countries improve the management of their economies.
Submitted By Arslan Nawaz

International Monetary Fund

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Helping in international trade, that is business between countries Looking after exchange rates Looking after balance of payments Helping member countries in economic development It also provides machinery for international consultations.

Loans Conditionality of loans IMF conditionality is a set of policies or conditions that the IMF requires in exchange for financial resources. The IMF does not require collateral from countries for loans but rather requires the government seeking assistance to correct its macroeconomic imbalances in the form of policy reform. If the conditions are not met, the funds are withheld. Conditionality is perhaps the most controversial aspect of IMF policies. The concept of conditionality was introduced in an Executive Board decision in 1952 and later incorporated in the Articles of Agreement. Conditionality is associated with economic theory as well as an enforcement mechanism for repayment. Stemming primarily from the work of Jacques Polak in the Fund’s research department, the theoretical underpinning of conditionality was the “monetary approach to the balance of payments." Some of the conditions for structural adjustment can include:           Cutting expenditures, also known as austerity. Focusing economic output on direct export and resource extraction, Devaluation of currencies, Trade liberalization, or lifting import and export restrictions, Increasing the stability of investment (by supplementing foreign direct investment with the opening of domestic stock markets), Balancing budgets and not overspending, Removing price controls and state subsidies, Privatization, or divestiture of all or part of state-owned enterprises, Enhancing the rights of foreign investors by national laws, Improving governance and fighting corruption.

These conditions have also been sometimes labeled as the Washington Consensus.

Submitted By Arslan Nawaz

International Monetary Fund

Leadership I. Board of Governors

The Board of Governors consists of one governor and one alternate governor for each member country. Each member country appoints its two governors. The Board normally meets once a year and is responsible for electing or appointing executive directors to the Executive Board. While the Board of Governors is officially responsible for approving quota increases, special drawing right allocations, the admittance of new members, compulsory withdrawal of members, and amendments to the Articles of Agreement and By-Laws, in practice it has delegated most of its powers to the IMF's Executive Board. The Board of Governors is advised by the International Monetary and Financial Committee and the Development Committee. The International Monetary and Financial Committee has 24 members and monitors developments in global liquidity and the transfer of resources to developing countries. The Development Committee has 25 members and advises on critical development issues and on financial resources required to promote economic development in developing countries. They also advise on trade and global environmental issues. II. Executive Board

24 Executive Directors make up Executive Board. The Executive Directors represent all 188 membercountries. Countries with large economies have their own Executive Director, but most countries are grouped in constituencies representing four or more countries. Following the 2008 Amendment on Voice and Participation, eight countries each appoint an Executive Director: the United States, Japan, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, China, the Russian Federation, and Saudi Arabia. The remaining 16 Directors represent constituencies consisting of 4 to 22 countries. The Executive Director representing the largest constituency of 22 countries accounts for 1.55% of the vote. III. Managing Director The IMF is led by a Managing Director, who is head of the staff and serves as Chairman of the Executive Board. The Managing Director is assisted by a First Deputy Managing Director and three other Deputy Managing Directors. Historically the IMF’s managing director has been European and the president of the World Bank has been from the United States. However, this standard is increasingly being questioned and competition for these two posts may soon open up to include other qualified candidates from any part of the world. The current M.D is Christine Lagarde from France elected on July 5, 2011.

Submitted By Arslan Nawaz

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