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# JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 23, ISSUE 2, JANUARY 2014

6

**Dynamics of Gaussian Pulse inside Optical fiber with particular consideration of Pulse Broadening
**

Chandra Kamal Borgohain* ,Satyajit Bora* and Chakresh Kumar**

Abstract:The main aim of this paper is to implement the effect of pulse broadening of Gaussian pulse propagation inside optical fiber.

Analysisof Gaussianpulses; chirped Gaussian pulses and super Gaussian pulses are done by modifying the Nonlinear Schrodingerequation (NLSE).Further we have analyzed the pulse broadening at different propagation distances.The highest amplitude of the pulse observed at zero kilometer, and the amplitude decreases when the pulse travels for longer distances.And the boarding factor of chirped Gaussian and super Gaussian pulseswith the propagation distance is also observed.

**Keywords:Nonlinear Schrödingerequation (NLSE), Gaussian pulse,Pulse broadening,Dispersion,
**

Broadening factor

1. Introduction

With the advancement of fast data communication process and information technology, optical fibers are finding immense utilization in many different fields, which can fulfill the demand of high bit rate communication. The propagation of light inside optical fiber can be described by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation(NLSE). Pulses propagating in optical fiber tend to broaden as they travel. This is due to the nonzero line width of the source and dispersion of the fiber material. The other causes of pulse broadening are associated with the fact that time of flight of a pulse along a ray depends on the ray trajectory. Pulsestravel along optical rays usually goes faster than pulses travel along rays of large amplitude.As fiber dispersion and nonlinearity leads to pulse degradation it is necessary to analyze the behavior of various optical pulses which may lead to lesser

degradation.The polarization mode dispersion infibers is strong enough to cause the pulse broadening and distortion [3].Simulation results show that super Gaussian pulse is broader and deformedthan Gaussian pulse.Also pulse broadening strongly depends on frequency chirp. It is seen that there is a large pulse deformity for negative chirped pulse than for positive chirped pulse.

2. Propagation Regime

The Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE)governs the propagation of optical pulse inside single mode fiber [1]

i∂A/∂z=-iαA/2+(β2/2)(∂2A/∂T2)-γ|A|2A

(1)

————————————————

*Pursuing B.Tech Electronics and Communication Engineering at Tezpur

(central) University,India. *Pursuing M.Tech Electronics and Communication Engineering at Tezpur( cantral)University. **Assistant Professor, University School of Information & Communication Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, New Delhi-110078, India

Where Ais the amplitude of the pulse envelope that varies slowly.Tis measuredin a frame of reference moving with the pulse (at the group velocityvg). The effects of fiber losses, dispersion, and nonlinearity on pulses are governed by the three terms in the right hand side of the Equation (1) respectively.

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2.1 Gaussian pulses

For a Gaussian pulsethe incident field is considered as [1],

**2.2 Chirped Gaussian Pulses
**

In the case of linearly chirped Gaussian pulses, the incident field can be written as

U (0, T)=exp(-T2/2T02)

(2)

Here,T0 is the half-width. In practice, it is usual to use the full width at half maximum (FWHM) in place of T0. In case of a Gaussian pulse, the two are related as

U(0,T)=exp(-(1+ic)T2/2T02)

(9)

**TFWHM=2(ln2)1/2T0≈1.665T0(3)
**

The amplitude at any point zalong the fiber is given by

WhereCis the chirpparameter. It is common to refer to the chirp as positive or negative depending on whether C is positive or negative. The numerical value of C can be calculated from the spectral width of the Gaussian pulse.

**U(z,T)=(T0/(T02-iβ2z)1/2)exp(-T2/2(T02-iβ2z))(4)
**

A Gaussian pulse maintains its shape propagation. Its width T1 increases with z as on

**U(0, ɷ) = (2πT02/(1+ic))1/2 exp (-ɷ2T02/2(1+ic) )(10) The spectral half-width is given by
**

∆ɷ=(1+c ) /T0

2 1/2

(11)

T1(z)=T0[1+(z/LD)2]1/2

(5)

In the presence of linear chirp the spectral width is enhanced by a factor of (1+c2)1/2. Equation (11)can be used to estimate |c| from measurements of∆ɷand T0. To obtain the transmitted field,

Where LD is the dispersion length, which determines the extent of broadening. For a given fiber length, short pulses broaden more of a smaller dispersion length. At z = LD, a Gaussian pulse broadens by a factorof (2)1/2. The expression of U(z,T) can be written in the form

U(z,T)=|U(z,T)|exp*iΦ(z,T)+ Where

(6)

**U(z,T)=T0/[T02-iβ2z(1+ic)]1/2exp(-(1+ic)T2)/ 2[T02-iβ2z(1+ic)])(12)
**

Thereby, a chirped Gaussian pulse holds its Gaussian shape on propagation.The width T1(after propagating a distance z)is related to T0 (the initial width)by the relation,

**Φ(z,T)=(-sgn(β2) z/LD)T2)/(1+(z/LD)2T02) +(1/2)tan-1(z/LD) (7)
**

Φ(z,T) istime dependent which implies that the instantaneous frequency differs across the pulsefrom the central frequency ɷ0. Whereδɷ is the time derivative ∂Φ/∂T and can be written as

**(T1/T0)=*(1+cβ2z/T02)2+(β2z/T02)2]1/2 (13)
**

This above expression implies that broadening depends on the relative signs of the Group Velocity Dispersion parameter β2 and the chirp parameter C. whereas for β2C>0 a Gaussian pulse broadens monotonically with z, and for β2 C<0 it goes through an initial narrowing stage. In the case β2 C<0, the pulse width becomes minimum at a distance,

δɷ(T)= -∂Φ/∂T=(sgn(β2)(2z/LD)T)/ (1+(z/LD)2T02)

(8)

We have considered the dispersion length LD=T02/ abs(β2), normalized time T=(t- β2z)/T0.

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Zmin=|c|LD/(1+c2)(14)

The minimum value of the pulse width at z=zmin can be expressed as, Table 1:Different values of input parameters Operating wavelength Pulse width T0 β2 A super-Gaussian shape can be usedto model the effects steep leading and trailing edges on dispersioninduced pulse broadening. Fora super-Gaussian pulse, generalized equation is of the form Chirp factor c m Distances z Wheremcontrols the degree of edge sharpness. For m=1 the case of chirped Gaussian pulses can be recovered. γ Vg 1550 nm

T

1min

=T0/(1+c )

2 1/2

(15)

2.3 Super-Gaussian Pulses

1 20 -3,-1,0,1,3

Ps

ps2/km

U(0,T)=exp[(-(1+ic)/2)(T/T0)2m]

(16)

1,3,5,7 0,5,20,25,60,100, 250,450,550,750 2.4×10-3 2×108 km (Wm)-1 m/s

Ϭ=[<T2>-<T>2]1/2

(17)

The expression for broadening factor can be analytically evaluate to

**3. Simulation and Results
**

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

**Ϭ/Ϭ0=[1+(Ґ(1/2m)cβ2z)/(Ґ(3/2m)T0 ) +(m2(1+c2)Ґ(2-1/2m))/Ґ(3/2m))(β2z/T02)2]1/2 (18)
**

2

u(z,T)2

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

Here,Ϭ0 is the initial RMS width of the pulse at z=0 andҐis the gamma function.

**2.4 Higher-Order Dispersion
**

2.4.1 Third-Order Dispersion

The dispersion induced pulse broadening is due to the lowest order group velocity term proportional to β2.The dispersive effects can be considered by including both β2 and β3terms by neglecting the nonlinear effects.

u(z,T)2

0.1 0 -10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0 T1/T0

2

4

6

8

10

Figure1:z=0km

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3

**U(z,T) satisfy the equation,
**

i∂U/∂z =(β2/2)∂2U/∂T2 +(iβ3/6)(∂3U/∂T3) (19)

0.2 0.1 0 -10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0 T1/T0

2

4

6

8

10

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Figure2: z=5km

1 0.9 0.8 0.7

u(z,T)2

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -10

0.6

u(z,T)2

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0 T1/T0

2

4

6

8

10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0 T1/T0

2

4

6

8

10

Figure 6: z=100km

1 0.9 0.8 0.7

Figure3: z=20km

1 0.9 0.8

0.6

u(z,T)2

0.7 0.6

u(z,T)2

0.5 0.4

0.5

0.3

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.1

0.2 0.1 0 -10

0 -10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0 T1/T0

2

4

6

8

10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0 T1/T0

2

4

6

8

10

Figure7:z= 250km

Figure4:z=25km

1 0.9 0.8 0.7

u(z,T)2

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4

0.6

u(z,T)2

0.5 0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1 0 -10

0 -10

-8

-6

-4

-2

-8

-6

-4

-2

0 T1/T0

2

4

6

8

10

0 T1/T0

2

4

6

8

10

Figure8: z=450km

Figure 5:z=60km

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1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

**larger distances the pulse broadening become increases.
**

4 3.5

Broadening Factor (T1/T0)

u(z,T)2

3 2.5 2 1.5

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -10

c=3 c=1

c=0 1 0.5 0 c = -3 0 0.5 1 Distance (z/LD) 1.5 2 c = -1

-8

-6

-4

-2

0 T1/T0

2

4

6

8

10

Figure9: z= 550km

**Figure.11: Variation of Broadening factor with distance for a chirp Gaussian pulse.
**

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

u(z,T)2

It can be observed from the Figure11 that for chirp parameter c>0 thebroadening factor increases linearly from the leading to the trailing edge. While for c<0, the broadening factor first decreases and then increases.Increasing rate of broadening factor is high for higher values of |c|.

7

0.5 0.4

6

0.3

Broadening Factor

0.2 0.1 0 -10

5

m=7 m=5

4 m=3

-8

-6

-4

-2

0 T1/T0

2

4

6

8

10

3

Figure10:z=750km

2

For Gaussian pulse the effect of pulse broadening for different propagation distances are shown above. Figure.1 shows the pulse broadening at z=0km.It is seen that pulse broadening is very less as a result highest amplitude is observed. Pulse broadening for different propagation distances observed at 5km,20km,25km,60km,100km,250km,450km,550km ,750km.From the simulation it is analyzed that for

m=1 1 0 0.5 1 Distance (z/LD) 1.5 2

Figure.12:Variation of Broadening factor with distance for a super Gaussian pulse. .

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Figure.12 shows the broadening factor of super Gaussian pulse as a function of propagation distance for different values of m. Here, m=1 corresponds to Gaussian pulse. The pulse edges become increasingly steeper for larger values of m.The magnitude of the pulse broadening depends on the sign of the product β2c.In particular even super Gaussian pulses exhibit initial narrowing when β2c<0. The 3D representation of a Gaussian pulse is shown below,

References

[1+ G.P Agarwal, “Nonlinear fiberoptics, optics and photonics “Third edition Academic press, ISBN-10:81-312-0119-8, 2006.

[2+

Govind p. Agrawal, “Fiber optic communication systems”, Second edition., John Wiley & Sons, Inc,ISBN 0-471-21571-6, 2002. [3]S.Vinayagapriya,A.Sivasubramanian,”PMD induced broadening on propagation of chirped super Gaussian pulse in single mode optical fiber, International Conference on Signal processing,Image processing and pattern Recognition[ICSIPR],2013

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5

|U(z,T)|2

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -10 -5 0 5 10 T/T0 1 2 3 z/LD 4 5

6

Figure.13: 3D representation of third-order Gaussian pulse.

4. Conclusion

In this paper by using the appropriate parameter values, the effect of pulse broadening on Gaussian pulse propagation has been investigated. The Pulse broadening and pulse deformity have been observed during the propagation process. It is also observed that the pulse broadening becomes higher for longer distances are case of Gaussian pulse, i.e. the intensity of the pulse decreases. For chirped Gaussian pulses the analysis is performed for chirp parameter c=-3,-1,0,1,3.Among them the satisfactory results are obtained for positive chirp (c=0,c=1,c=3) and for negative chirp (c=-1,c=-

3).Again in case of super Gaussian pulses the pulse broadening is observed more for higher values of m.