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D. TURNER The University of Nebraska-Lincoln The Second Century Journal 7:4 (1991), 221-232 One of the novel developments in the transition from the rather static ontologies typical of Middleplatonism to the dynamic emanationism of Neoplatonism is the doctrine of the unfolding of the world of true being and intellect from its source in a transcendent, only negatively-conceivable ultimate unitary principle which is itself beyond being. This unfolding or emanation is characteristically presented as occurring in a three-stage process: First, an initial identity of the product with its source, a sort of potential existence; second, an indefinite procession or unfolding of the product from its source, and third, a contemplative visionary reversion of the product upon its source, in which the product becomes aware of its separate existence and thereby takes on its own distinctive form and definition. The later Neoplatonists such as Proclus, perhaps Porphyry, and the author of the anonymous Parmenides Commentary named these three stages Permanence, Procession and Reversion, and characterized the three successive modes of the product's existence during this process by the terms Existence, Life and Intellect. Previously, Plotinus had applied a similar terminology, namely Being, Life and Mind, to describe the three principal aspects of the second of his three hypostases, Intellect. Earlier still, according to Damascius (Dubitationes et Solutiones 61 & 221 = 1.131,17 & 2.101,25 Ruelle), the Chaldaean Oracles also applied the Existence, Life and Intelligence terminology to the principal transcendent entities of that system. Between the highest principle, the Paternal Monad (equated with Existence), and the divine Intellect, they interposed a median principle they called Hecate. This Hecate they equated with the processing power of the Paternal Monad, even though this resulted in a duplication of the figure of Hecate, whom at a still lower ontological level, they also identified with the World Soul. Now more recently, this Existence, Life and Intellect triad has turned up in a group (the Platonizing Sethian treatises) of the Sethian Gnostic treatises from Nag Hammadi, at least two of which, Allogenes and Zostrianos, were known to Plotinus and his disciple Porphyry (see Porphyry, Vita Plotini 16). These two treatises, in addition to a third member of this group, The Three Steles of Seth, equate a triad Existence, Vitality and Mentality with a figure called the Triple Powered One. This figure is the link between the supreme principle called the Unknowable God or the Invisible Spirit and his First Thought or Intellect, called Barbelo, who is a higher form of Sophia, the divine wisdom. Here, the Invisible Spirit through its Triple Powered One generates the Aeon of Barbelo by a static self-extension in which the Triple Powered One, initially unbounded, proceeds from its source and then turns back upon it in an act of objectivizing self-knowledge, becoming bounded and taking on form and definition as Barbelo, the divine Intellect. Intimately related to these three treatises and especially toZostrianos, whose author was probably the first to introduce the Existence, Vitality and Intellect triad to Sethian theology, is the Sethian Apocryphon of John, ostensibly our first witness to the complete Gnostic myth of Sophia, the fallen divine Wisdom as creator and redeemer of this world. Here one finds that the figure of Barbelo is likewise generated in an act of objectivizing self-knowledge on the part of the high deity; thereupon she immediately receives the triad of attributes Foreknowledge, Imperishibility and Eternal Life, a triad conceptually very close to the triad Existence, Vitality and Mentality of the Allogenes group and to the triad Existence, Life and Intellect of the Neoplatonists and the Chaldaean Oracles. The purpose of this article, then, is to explore the relationships of these triadic figures to one another, in particular the Sethian triadic figures of the Triple Powered One and Barbelo, and the triadic figure of Hecate in theChaldaean Oracles. Each of these figures is in varying degrees 1)
. Numenius. owing to his increasing aversion to the multiplication of the transcendental hypostases beyond three. determined by it. (Ennead VI. but a trace of it.1). 2) tends to be regarded as having doubles or cognates elsewhere in the scale of being. Life and Intellect triad in the later Neoplatonists and especially in the anonymous Neoplatonic commentary on Plato's Parmenides. which Plotinus used to describe his hypostasis of Intellect. there is no being that exists between them as a mediator. although it exists. nor may one distinguish between an intellect at rest. The terminology and the function of this triad precisely parallel that of the Existence. Life and Mind. if not even more a smooth path for the descent of the divine itself into the world. and the One-who-is of the second hypothesis (142B-143C) was identified with the intellect. One may begin with Allogenes. Multiplicity because of Life. Barbelo). Intellect) that includes Multiplicity .. Since the Triple Powered One in Allogenes seems to mediate between the Unknowable deity and the next lower hypostasis.1-1108. Life looks toward the One and. most Neoplatonists after him (save possibly Iamblichus) did not.. nor may one distinguish between a higher intellect in repose and a lower one in motion. its doctrine of the Triple Powered One is the crucial feature by which the treatise can be placed at a definite point in the Platonic metaphysical tradition.9. the Aeon of Barbelo. Plotinus tended to conceive Being. Life and Mind as aspects of his second hypostasis. they preferred instead to emphasize the continuity rather than the discontinuity of the chain of being so as to allow for a more gradual ascent to the divine. Mind. frgg. as in this citation from the anonymous Parmenides commentary: . the disciple and biographer of Plotinus. attributes which the Unknowable deity... which is representative of the metaphysical doctrine of Zostrianos and The Three Steles of Seth. Life and Mind in the Intellect rather than conjoining it with the One as the link between these two. lives and thinks.. Yet at other times Allogenes employs the terms Being.. another in contemplation and yet another that reflects or plans (Ennead II.6) as did Numenius in his Peri t'Agathou (cf. Less inclined to the rigor of a self-actuated leap to mystical union. Indeed Plotinus seems to have derived his use of the triad at least in part from Plato's argument in the Sophist (248C-E) that true being must also have life and intelligence. Indeed. Life and Intellect. looking toward the One was boundless.e.. it must then have been determined (as the life of) a Unity (i. Proclus. 11-23 des Places). not the life of the One. refusing only to accord it separate hypostatic status. but once having looked was bounded (without bounding its source). we may surmise that he must have approved of the terminology and function of the triad. it seems to function either as a One in both potency and act or perhaps as a higher form of Intellect (i. so Intellect is bounded Life. and Unity because of limit. 263269) during which Porphyry attended his seminars. GenerallyAllogenes prefers the abstract nouns Vitality and Mentality to the more concrete substantives Life and Mind.e.equated with the triad Existence.17. In Parmenidem 1106. He regards the One as entirely transcendent to Intellect. and 3) performs an intermediary function in the process of the generation of the transcendent world depicted in these various systems. Although Plotinus strongly separated the One from the Intellect. does not itself possess. limit and form.9. This tendency is nicely demonstrated in the contemporary exegesis of Plato's Parmenides in which the One of the first hypothesis (137D-142A) was identified with the Plotinian One. so as to avoid the implication that any of the terms of the triad are to be taken as substantial hypostases (cf. it may have been this doctrine of Allogenes and not just that of Numenius that provoked Plotinus to place the triad Being. Since he produced it after his antignostic treatise in which he rejected mediatory principles between the One and the Intellect. In the Platonizing Sethian treatises.7.19 Cousin). which Pierre Hadot has persuasively attributed to Porphyry. takes on boundary. as the following passage describing the generation of Intellect from the One shows: Life. Life (Coptic pônh = Greek zôê) or Vitality (Coptic timntônh = Greek zôotês) and Mentality (Coptic timnteime or the Greek neologism noêtês). or a One in act and another One in potency (Ennead II. The abovequoted passage shows that Plotinus was certainly aware of the doctrine in his middle period (ca. the members of this triad are named Existence (hyparxis) or Being (Greek ousia or Coptic pet[sinvcircumflex]oop = Greek to on or ontotês).13-26) On the whole.
with respect to existence (hyparxis). In his article of 1961 and book of 1968. the second One) possesses another being declined from it (the einai of the One). but now identical with Barbelo. By participating this being (the einai of the One).13 = NHC II. 51.g. XII. 10-26 [Hadot]) So also in Allogenes. and." That Allogenes calls the leading term in the emanative process both Existence (hyparxis) and Being (to on) seems to show that this treatise trades in the same terminology familiar to Plotinus on the one hand and the commentator on the other." i. Since the author of Allogenes is quite capable of accurate citation of his sources (e. the doubleness of being is meant to show how the supreme One can be both continuous and discontinuous with the Intellect below it. the rather unsystematic character of the presentation of the metaphysical scheme in Allogenes may owe not simply to garbled imitation or a desire to reconcile his metaphysics with the traditional Sethian mythologies. The One is not simply beyond being (to on). Taurensis puts it: With respect to [existence (hyparxis) alone] it (the potential Intellect still identical with the One) is one and simple .326. but may also quite likely owe to the author's originality. Hadot further shows that the commentator must have conceived the Intellect as existing in two phases: a first in which Intellect is still identical with its source the One.32-39: Now it (the Unknowable One) is something insofar as it exists in that it either exists and will become or <lives> or knows. which is to participate being (to on). In fact. With respect to existence. Allogenes and/or the Commentary may have been an important catalyst and conceptual source to Plotinus. thinking is life. 58. . (In Parm. And all are activities (energeiai) such that with respect to existence.9. Likewise.8-9. Therefore thinking is boundless with respect to life.3334) and now in conjunction with Barbelo (as in 64.The One beyond essence and being is neither being nor essence nor act. activity would be turning away from existence. no matter how unacceptable certain other of its features may have been to him. In this self-generation. by the use of the abstracts Existence. the Triple Powered One can be regarded as discontinuous with both.34. In the commentary.8. The additional fact that Plotinus reacted against the notion of an Intellect consisting of several distinct levels and surely would be ill-disposed to the location of a triad latent within the One or between the One and the Intellect suggests that the scheme of Allogenes. such that it is itself pure being einai) before being (to on). but sometimes names it now in conjunction with the Invisible Spirit (as in 47. Thus the ontological status of the Triple Powered One is very close to that of the Life modality of the potential intellect in its procession from the One as described in the Parmenides commentary.63. with respect to thinking. 23-33 [Hadot]) One may compare this with the statement concerning the supreme deity in Allogenes 61. XIV. a second phase in which it has become Intellect itself. "who is. and as Mentality it is discontinuous with the Invisible Spirit.36). The similarity between the schemes of Allogenesand of the Parmenides commentary may indicate that the commentator could have derived his scheme as much from Allogenes as from Plotinus or Numenius or especially the Chaldaean Oracles which are in fact cited in the commentary. That is. the unsystematic character of his metaphysics more likely owes to his originality than to confusion or misappropriation of the doctrine of Plotinus. But when intellect [abandons] thought for thinking so as to be elevated to the rank of an intelligible in order to see itself. but has a higher form of purely active being (einai rather than to on) in which the Intellect merely participates.1:3:18-25 = Allogenes 62. activity would be directed to itself.28. and with respect to life. thinking is also being thought. And the fact that Allogenes was read in Plotinus' circle tends to add weight to this likelihood. activity would be static. Vitality and Mentality... Thus being is double: the first preexists being (to on). 2:23. the second is derived from the transcendent One who is absolute being (einai) and as it were the idea of being (to on). which is why Allogenes tends to represent the Triple Powered One as an independent hypostasis. but rather acts and is itself pure act.e. life (zôê) and thought (noêsis) it is neither one nor simple. his citation from the negative theology of the Apocryphon of John: BG 8502. 66. (In Parm. Allogenes (66. Hadot argues for ascribing the anonymous Parmenides commentary to Porphyry. the Triple Powered One is identical with the Invisible Spirit as Existence. although it <acts> without Mind or Life or Existence (hyparxis) incomprehensibly.23).25. By contrast with these professional philosophers.32-36) explicitly identifies the Triple Powered One with "Eternal Life. after its generation from the One. was likely one of those so strongly criticized by Plotinus. the One (scil. As Anon. Allogenes also attributes a purely active being to the Unknowable One. But as Vitality. and not only that of Numenius and others. Existence (hyparxis) is the leading term in a three stage process.
50 des Places). and especially of the underworld. from which in turn was derived the world of Nature. But what now can be said of the sources of the metaphysical doctrine of Allogenes? Recalling the strikingly close doctrinal and terminological similarity between Allogenes and the Parmenides commentary. cf.8. Hecate is awarded three cosmic spheres of influence (earth. and she also exercises influence over the world of men in the Indo-European trifunctional spheres of sovereignty. one must also consider the metaphysical scheme presented in the early Sethian work The Apocryphon of John. cf. frgg. confining himself along with his intellect and his power. Bythos.known from antiquity. 1 & 18 des Places. one may logically consider the Oracles as a possible source upon which the authors of Zostrianos and Allogenes drew. 6 des Places). upon her back the emblem of the moon (the traditional symbol of Hecate) represents boundless Nature.50-55 des Places). And finally. As possible sources for the concept the Triple Powered One of Allogenes. V. In the Oracles. i. as mentioned above. Below him is the demiurgic Intellect proceeding from the Father who himself remains aloof. Furthermore. In the Hellenistic period. 18 des Places) and the Paternal Monad." a nonknowing. from the right side of Hecate flows the primordial soul. the author of Allogenes explicitly cited a passage from that work. his power and his intellect. power and intellect which . and can be apprehended only with the "flower of the mind." "Zostrianos" and "Zoroaster" (Porphyry. Damascius. The Oracles exhibit a hierarchical system with many Neopythagorean features. but apparently not confining his "fire" or proceeding intellect (frgg. 16) circulated in and were refuted in Plotinus' seminars. seems to suggest that the Neoplatonists are more likely dependent on the Sethian "Platonists" than the reverse.In sum. According to Hesiod (Theogony 412-428).5 and II.4 & 5 des Places).e. who is called a "membrane" which separates the first and second fires (frg. he is totally transcendent. Hecate may have been identified as well with the median term of the triad existence. If so.8. this Intellect. suggesting that. the fact that revelations under the name of "Allogenes. force and productivity. six arms) is well. et Sol. Hecate was understood by the Chaldaeans as being the transcendent World Soul who generates the immanent World Soul. much like the relationship between Barbelo and Sophia in Sethian theology. we will consider first the Oracles with their doctrine of Hecate. however.9 are so close to those of the Platonizing Sethian treatises. the same doctrine as is found in Allogenes). and the fact that the commentary cites the Chaldaean Oracles. and then the Apocryphon of John with its doctrine of Barbelo. the Father and the Intellect (frg. sea. The supreme god is called Father. 23-31 des Places). she may also be at times equated with the World Soul of which she is the source. The actual hypostatic Intellect of this system is a demiurgical Intellect and is called a Dyad. is also triadic insofar as it contains the "measured triad" flowing from both it and the triadic Father (frgg. since. earth. frg. The Chaldaean Oracles are roughly contemporary with Numenius. and her serpentine hair represents the Father's winding noetic fire (frgg. Harder). Vita Plot. being attributed to Julian the Theurgist who was credited with a miraculous deliverance of Marcus Aurelius' troops in 173 CE." "Messos.9 [chronologically 30-33] as identified by R. sky) first by the Titans in the old order and then by Zeus in the new. In addition to the Oracles. This supreme Father is presumably beyond being (as hapax epekeina). Furthermore. then.17 Ruelle. V. She is guardian of forks in the road and is identified with the three phases of the moon. contemplating the intelligible realm of the Father's intellect and bringing sense perception to the world (much like the second God of Numenius. said to be "dyadically transcendent" (dis epekeina). 3. Hecate's triform nature (three heads. treatises like Zostrianos and Allogenes would have been produced at a point prior to Plotinus' antignostic polemic of the years 263-269 (Enneads III.131. but also consists of a triad comprising himself or his existence (hyparxis. having nothing to do with creation. 61. But this "measured triad" also seems to be identified with Hecate. Dub. Hecate becomes goddess of heaven. 1 line 10 des Places). while her left side retains the source of virtue. (frg. mentally vacant mode of contemplation (frgg. Indeed. coupled with the fact that the doctrines refuted by Plotinus in Ennead II. p. 7 & 8 des Places).
Indeed. it is reasonable to conclude that there is some relationship between these two triads. Here Barbelo is the first emanation of the supreme deity. one encounters the triadic feminine intermediary goddess once again in the figure of Barbelo. So also Theon's contemporary. but rather potentially. only the Triple Powered One and Hecate actually mediate the original emanative process itself. in terms of a common triplicity. Strictly speaking. called a triangular number not in full actuality. and. Immediately the bisexual Barbelo requested and was granted a triad of attributes.15-18 Hiller). In the first and second centuries. after all. But the place of Barbelo in these considerations is important. Neopythagoreanizing Platonists like Moderatus developed speculative arithmologies which among other things attempted to derive the physical world of multiplicity from a single prior principle by supposing that a triad resided latently within the primal monad. Presumably all this speculation about the first three or four numbers goes back to the early Pythagoreans and the Old Academy under Plato and Speusippus. then first appearing and growing to fullness as a selfbegotten being. Life or Vitality and Mind or Mentality applied to the Triple Powered One in Allogenes. the first stage of the visionary ascent to the Unknowable deity is the ascent through the three levels . one should note that Allogenesdistinguishes three levels in the Aeon of Barbelo: Kalyptos (Hidden). since it is. a third triad of the dyadically oriented (above and below) demiurgic Intellect. who reflected upon himself as light and living water. As for his metaphysical portrayal of the emanative process by which Barbelo emerges from the Invisible Spirit via the Triple Powered One. Imperishability (aphtharsia) and Eternal Life (aiônia zôê).29) around 179 CE. Thus in effect..8 p. . the Oracles depict an ennead: a first triad of the Father together with his power and potential intellect. and applied it to his own interpretation of the figure of Barbelo in The Apocryphon of John. life and mind or thought already directly discussed in Plato's Sophist. probably datable to the first quarter of the second century and excerpted already by Irenaeus (Haer. the higher unfallen counterpart of Sophia. An educated guess would be that the author of Allogenes was familiar with contemporary Platonic speculation on the relationship between being. and since Allogenes indeed demonstrates dependence upon The Apocryphon of John. Progression (propodismos) and a Return (anapodismos) upon its source. whereupon his thought manifested itself as Barbelo. Protophanes (First-appearing) and Autogenes (Self-begotten). When one turns to the still earlier Sethian Apocryphon of John. In this connection. in the Sethian scheme. the seed of all things. the Invisible Spirit. According to Theon of Smyrna in the early second century: "First exists the Monad.characterized the supreme Father. and between these two a second "measured triad" identified with Hecate representing the multiplicity that proceeds from the Father. who applied the Pythagorean Tetraktys to their own cosmological theories. there is a certain parallel between the Sethian Triple Powered One and the Chaldaean Hecate. according to which a secondary One or unitary Logos functioning as the divine Intellect emanates from a first One beyond all being in three stages: Permanence (monê). in Allogenes. he may even have been familiar with the late first century system of Moderatus of Gades.9-10 Hoche). One may wonder whether these terms may in part have been inspired by the three forms of Hecate symbolizing the three phases of the moon. Foreknowledge (prognôsis). for she serves as the fundamental mediator in the Sethian soteriology. as it were. the fallen divine wisdom. only the product of this original emanation. it contains in itself also a triform potency" (Expositio 37. in terms both of emanative and intermediary functions. although in actuality the first (triangular number) is three" (Eisagogê II. Since these names are conceptually close to the terms Existence or Being.88. Nicomachus of Gerasa wrote: "Thus the Monad appears also potentially a triangular number. I. and in terms of a strong association of both with Vitality and the source of Life and multiplicity. of the triadic figures so far discussed. for.. at first hidden. He may even have been familiar with the metaphysical system of the Chaldaean Oracles and perhaps have recognized from theOracles or elsewhere a certain similarity between the triadic nature and function of Hecate and the triadic nature and function of Barbelo in The Apocryphon of John. Barbelo is.
and three sons descended from the supreme deity Man. Adam begot Seth. and the earthly Adam. be considered as the consort of the supreme deity Man.92. Mother. whom therefore the Sethians can call the Triple Male Child. The Father. although of neuter gender. which are named Autogenes. the androgynous Mother-father of the All. Mother. In turn. Subsequent to his enlightenment.of her Aeon. as son of the demiurge. at which point one gains the mentally vacant primary revelation of the Unknowable deity.13-16 Dodds). Son triad consisting of the Invisible Spirit. since the term Being. of Seth. and to know Barbelo is the prelude to the ascent through the Mentality. but she is disqualified because she conceived the world creator alone. Adam and Eve. Adam. Barbelo. 51 des Places). this scheme also requires three mothers. In this capacity. only Barbelo is represented as triadic. a distinction is made between 1) the earthly Adam. Adamas (or Geradamas). although initially unaware of it. Once Adam is enlightened concerning his true nature by Eve. Allogenes 49. and Eve. the self-begotten son of Barbelo. Son nomenclature of this triad and its transcendental status seem to derive from Plato's Timaeus 50D. Son triad. became the image according to which the demiurge fashioned the earthly Adam. A final point to consider is the role in all this of the prominent Sethian Father. That is. Finally. The median term of the Sethian Triple Powered One is explicitly named Life or Vitality. who will be the father of the "unshakable race" of the Sethian Gnostics. who must be likewise androgynous. Protophanes and Kalyptos. is in some sense logically prior to Life and Intelligence. are all seen as mutually interdependent (cf. and Seth. then. Barbelo. unfallen equivalent of Sophia as his consort. and Seth. Adamas. To know them is to know the Aeon of Barbelo. and 3) the supreme deity. Vitality and Existence levels of the Triple Powered One. thus transcending sexual differentiation. And in the case of Hecate. the three triadic beings whose prominent role in the emanative process we have here considered are each closely associated with the concept of Life and Vitality. to complete the system. but can be spiritually conceived as male and female. one might further speculate that the position of the Triple Powered One inAllogenes is in part a further attempt at transcendental duplication of the Sethian Father. Eve. Being. who in the Sethian system is Barbelo. The characterization of its members has been influenced by later Jewish and early Sethian speculation on the first five chapters of Genesis according to which the image in which the earthly Adam or man is made as male and female must itself be the archetypal Adam (Adamas) or Man. Of these. Adam. both Eve and Sophia are mother figures. the thought (ennoia) of the supreme deity. while Life. Elements of Theology103 p. the supreme deity is supplied with a higher. it is clear that in our present version of this treatise. is the Son of Man. of masculine gender. all counterparts of one another. 2) the image of God in which he was made. Mother. the divine wisdom could. In this sense. Therefore. Son triad. Based on this line of development. is not so separated. While this insight may have played a role in the development of the system of Allogenes. in addition to her male and female aspects. as mother. since. which can be taken to mean that he too is androgynous. the primordial couple conceive Seth. depends on Being and is requisite to the existence of the third term. their spiritual offspring.28-36 and Proclus. Correspondingly. the Invisible Spirit. without a consort. her son Autogenes is self-begotten from her and thus was potentially a part of her originally. God created man as male and female in his own image. of feminine gender. one ends up with a rather convoluted series of four fathers. Life and Intelligence. Thus in Sethianism. while the third of Barbelo's principal attributes is named Eternal Life. In the Sethian system. who is none other than God himself. we have noted that the Chaldaeans regarded her right side as the source of the primordial soul that animates the realms of light. both Hecate and . such that the Sethian system came to comprise a highest Father. Sophia. Intelligence. the three. yet the archetypal man. divine fire. his female counterpart. In this sense. Mother. the Son figure. The earthly man is later separated into distinct male and female beings. ether and the heavens (frg. Sophia. In one way or another. namely Adamas. the supreme deity is Man proper. and Sophia of the demiurge who creates the physical world. since Sophia is disqualified. and Adamas or Autogenes.
 According to the theories of Georges Dumézil as applied by D.  Compare the remarks of J. . Clearly this complicated system built on a gnostic exegesis of the Genesis presentation of the procreation of the primal beings would. 1960). and depending on the terminology used. much of this may also be influenced by Plato's doctrine of the receptacle of becoming in Timaeus 48E-52D. Kroll. P.." Transactions of the American Philological Association 113 (1983). lend itself easily to arithmological and metaphysical speculation. according well with their role as the feminine mediators of theogonical generation.1977).  See P. it is interesting that these three triadic figures all have something to do with the concept of dynamic emanationism in one way or another. and heterodox Judaism could all mutually confirm one another in the Sethian mind. Of these two." Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 47 (1892). "La métaphysique de Porphyre. Vitality and Mentality terminology) of its three aspects bear names in the feminine gender.  See the references cited in note 1. but it is clear that they were both conceived in predominantly feminine terms. In this way the ancient traditions of Platonism. comprises three aspects. Certainly the theogony of the Platonizing Sethian treatises seems to suggest this. 1968). Vandoeuvres-Geneva: Fondation Hardt. "Être. Boedecker. 599-627. The Middle Platonists. while Barbelo is a direct result of it. Vie Pensée chez Plotin et avant Plotin.Barbelo are characterized as cosmic wombs. in a Platonizing environment." Revue des Études Grecques 74 (1961). Dillon. idem. The Triple Powered One. either one (in the case of the Being. "Fragments d'un commentaire de Porphyre sur le Parménide. Finally. No doubt. One may indeed wonder whether the concept of dynamic emanationism entered Platonism during the first and second centuries (and permanently so with Plotinus) directly as a result of the combination of gnostic theogonies with Neopythagorean arithmological speculation. 107-157.  Cf. Vandoeuvres-Geneva: Fondation Hardt. Paris: Études Augustiniennes. In all events.  In the works cited above in note 1. Dillon. whence she derived her power to make spells and other magical devices effective. "Hecate: A Transfunctional Goddess?. Life and Intellect terminology) or all three (in the case of the Existence. "Ein neuplatonischer Parmenides-kommentar in einem Turiner Palimpsest. from which time she was considered as a beneficial goddess of the moon and later on of the Underworld. since the figure of the three-formed Hecate is of great antiquity itself. Chaldaean and Neoplatonic theogonies that employ the concept of dynamic emanationism. 344-351. 7993.  See W. 392-396. Hadot. although its name is masculine. 410-438. only Barbelo is explicitly said to be androgynous. (Neo)Pythagoreanism. and idem. As for the position of Hecate in the Chaldaean system. The Middle Platonists: 80 BC to AD 220 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Hadot. 1960). similar considerations also apply.Porphyre et Victorinus (2 vols. the presentation of J. I hope to have pointed out some interesting relationships and lines of development among the Sethian." in Les sources de Plotin (Entretiens sur l'antiquité classique V. The Triple Powered One and Hecate are vehicles or mediators of the emanative process." Porphyre (Entretiens sur l'antiquité classique XII. But in all cases the median aspect of these three figures is feminine. 127-157.
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