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One Day Offshore Safety Training

Pillai Sreejith

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Introduction
Offshore Safety Case Training

pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

%hy this training(


Major accidents do happen around the orld! some of them recent! ha"e caused us to ask if they can happen to us # and they certainly can$ %e need to ensure they do not happen to us &y'
Re-emphasising our safety management system; Updating our existing Field safety Case; and Ensuring you all know about it!!
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

%hat

ill

e learn today(

The difference &et een occupational)personal and process safety* %hat is a major accident* %hat is and hat is in an offshore Safety +ase* %hat are the safety &arriers ) controls) systems) Safety +ritical Systems ,S+-. that pre"ent major accidents* The part e all must play in pre"enting major accidents* and Test our understanding of hat e ha"e learned through Piper /lpha accident.
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Major /ccidents in Oil > Aas Bndustries


Piper /lpha 0122 # Major fire and e3plosion 045 people died +aused &y PT% failure! P6P fla s and layout issues 7om&ay 8igh 9::; # MS< collision 00 People died +aused &y riser damage from MS< impact Te3as +ity =efinery 9::; # petroleum distillate o"erflo ed causing e3plosion > flash fire 0? People died +aused &y maintenance > process start@up fla s
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

ith platform and major fire

=ecent Major /ccidents in your offshore 6ield(


Please include details of major accidents ,and near@misses. that occurred in your installation)s to tell the participants the need for them to &e cautious. Bnclude photographs if you ha"e.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Major Modifications
Cist do n the major modifications ,process ) marine. that occurred in your offshore installation)s in the past 0 year to tell them that the risk profile has changed'
# -3amples'

Sreejith

6lare system modifications /ddition of a hydrocar&on process eDuipment +hange in mooring system /ddition of gas compression facilities
Offshore Training pack

%hat is a safety case(


Operators of offshore installations ant to &e sure that their operations are safe and do not e3pose their people or their &usiness to unaccepta&le le"els of risk* Plant modifications! "ariations on operating conditions and ne o nership mean that the risk picture is changing* and =egulators and other stakeholders ask you to justify the continuing operation of the installation through safety cases.
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Corporate HSE Management System Sho your 8S-MS through a flo chart or a diagram to e3plain ho periodic risk assessment)s are done to update safety case! as part of glo&al sustaina&ility reporting ) +S=.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Offshore Safety +ase Epdate project


Fey

steps in"ol"ed'

Offshore site "isit ,to assess the safety critical element ) &arrier performance.* =isk /ssessment ,using realistic field inputs such as &arrier performance to &e used in G=/ e"ent gates in freDuency analysis.* and Safety +ase update
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

0 day Training +ontents


Difference &et een Occupational )personal and Process > Marine Safety* %hat is a major accident(* Major Offshore accident case studies*
# Piper lpha # !umbai "igh Platform # #P $exas Refinery

Potential Major accidents for offshore comple3* Offshore Safety +ase* Safety 7arriers in the offshore comple3 ) installation* and Safety training assessment.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

7reaks for the day


0:.H: am' Tea ) +offee 7reak 09.H: to 0.H: pm' Cunch &reak H.H: pm' Tea ) +offee 7reak

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Key Message Once the safety systems )&arriers fail! there can &e major accidents$$$
%nly you &an operate and maintain safety systems without flaws'
pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Session 7reak

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Occupational /Personal, Marine and Process Hazards

pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Cearning o&jecti"es
To understand major accidents* To understand the difference &et een occupational)personal! marine and process haIards* To understand the JS iss +heeseK accident causation model and J7o TieK &arrier concept* To learn the importance of &arriers in controlling major accidents and To appreciate the need to maintain the safety systems in order to control ) mitigate major accidents.
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

/re these terms too o&"ious and more of a commonsense issue(


Bf so! hy are e discussing this(

Discussion trigger' 7P Te3as findings &y Mr. 7aker panel.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Major /ccident
(U) "*E *C Regulations+,--. / / JMajor /ccidentK defined &y EF 8S- is'
# / fire! e3plosion or the release of a dangerous su&stance in"ol"ing death or serious personal injury to persons on the installation or engaged in an acti"ity or in connection ith it* # /n e"ent in"ol"ing major damage to the structure of the installation or plant affi3ed thereto or any loss in the sta&ility of the installation* # The collision of a helicopter ith the installation* # The failure of life support systems for di"ing operations in connection ith the installation* and # /ny other e"ent arising from a ork acti"ity in"ol"ing death or serious personal injury to fi"e or more persons on the installation or engaged in an acti"ity in connection ith it.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Major /ccidents
Examples
Deadliest accident so far' 0122 Piper /lpha ,045 fatalities.* 9nd deadliest' 012: /le3ander C. Fielland /ccommodation rig capsiIed during a storm ,09H fatalities.* Hrd deadliest' 0121 Seacrest drillship capsiIed during a typhoon ,10 fatalities .* and 1th Deadliest' 9::; Mum&ai 8igh Platform fire ,99 fatalities..
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Potential Major /ccidents in your Offshore 6ield


-3amples #please &ustomi0e
# # # # # # # # # # #
Sreejith

7lo outs =iser > Pipeline releases Process 8ydrocar&on =eleases # Fire 1 Explosion Ship +ollision Dropped O&jects Transportation /ccidents 8elicopter crash Projectile)Missile impact Structural damage Turret 6ailure +argo Tank e3plosion
Offshore Training pack

Occupational 8aIards
Personal or Occupational 8ealth and Safety 8aIards # +an gi"e rise to incidents or accidents that primarily affect one indi"idual orker for each occurrence

Personnel injury from'


# # # # # Slips! trips and falls* -lectrical shocks* /d"erse effects from high noise)heat)dust)fumes* Minor cuts ) &ruises* and Struck@&y o&jects.

Aenerally O8 are a"oided &y procedures


Sreejith

earing PP-s > follo ing

Offshore Training pack

Occupational /ccidents
Mainly those accidents that can &e controlled &y the use of PP-s

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Source courtesy' Bnternet

Process Safety > Marine 8aIards


Process and Marine Safety 8aIards # +an gi"e rise to major accidents that can ha"e catastrophic effects and can result in multiple injuries and fatalities! as ell as su&stantial economic! property and en"ironmental damage

-3amples of these are'


# # # # # # 6ires ) -3plosions 8elicopter crash Dropped o&jects damaging structure or 6PSO hull En@ignited gas releases Ship collisions =iser ) pipeline ruptures
Offshore Training pack

Sreejith

Safety Performance O8 > PS8


Performance for occupational safety is measured through ,eg.. lost time injuries ,CTB.* and Performance for process safety is measured process safety eDuipment performance! hydrocar&on releases! fires! etc.
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Process Safety /ccident

7P Te3as +ity =efinery 6ire and -3plosion ,0; killed! 02: injured.
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Marine /ccident

Ship collision in Lapanese aters causing major damage ,Luly 95! 9::5.
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Source courtesy' Bnternet

Loss Iceberg

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

7o @tie 7arrier +oncept


E ents and Circumstances (!##IE#S Harm to people and damage to assets or en ironment

H ! " ! # $

Ma)or accident

C O % S E & ' E % C E S

Sreejith

Construction /Engineering acti ities Maintenance acti ities Offshore Training Operations actipack ities

Source courtesy' Bnternet

7arriers for Potential Major /ccidents


THREATS CO NTRO L & PREVENTATIVE BARRIERS MITIG ATIVE BARRIERS CO NSEQ ENCE

M!E Major Potential /ccidents


Pre&entati&e

E$ ergen#y res%onse Sa,e %e,u"e 'M uster rea ) M itigation Firewater Pum $s "ete#tion ESD system Firewater %in" main M anual W ater Fire Fi"htin" E#ui$m ent Delu"e System W ellhead Isolation Blowdown Valves ESD M anual Pull Stations HV ! M anual Foam Fire Fi"htin" E#ui$m ent Blowdown Valves ESD M anual Pull Stations Firewalls

B!o'o(t )S(rfa#e *!o'o(ts Riser Pi%e!ine Re!eases

Bnstrumentation ! i.e. T/88 ) C/CC ) C/88 ) P/CC ) P/88 =elief System ,PS< .

Pro#ess Hy,ro#ar*on Re!eases Shi% Co!!ision "ro%%e, O*-e#ts He!i#o%ter Crash

Esca$e %outes

Emer"ency &i"htin" Emer"ency Power '(PS ) Internal !om munications & larms E*ternal !om munications Helidec+ !rash E#ui$m ent M iscellaneous Sa,ety E#ui$m ent -EM PS! & &i,e ra,ts Helico$ter Facilities Direct to Sea E#ui$m ent

Inspections
Ma"igational /ids PT%

Contro! ESD Valves F&G System F&G Detectors

Pedestal +ranes

+MMS

Pro-e#ti!e .$issi!e I$%a#ts


Bnert Aas System

Maintenance
)

Str(#t(ra! En&iron$enta! e&ents Trans%ortation A##i,ents

Miscellaneous Temporary -Duipment

!udits

Gaseous System s

T(rret fai!(re

Ignition control

Cargo tan/ e0%!osions

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Do you kno here these safety &arriers are in your installation)s(


6ire alls ,are they / or 8 or L type( %hat does these alpha&ets mean(* if there is / 4: fire all! is this accepta&le( %hy(. 7last alls ,are &last and fire alls same( 8o are their locations decided(. 6lame ) flash &ack arrestors -SD push &uttons
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Safety 7arriers
-3planation@Example 2
Bgnition +ontrol
# 8aIardous /rea +lassification # Ese of -3 type eDuipment ,do you kno ho they are designed( %hy canKt they &e designed as "apour ) gas tight(. # 6lash &ack arrestors! spark arrestors # Static charge discharge control ,&onding! hen do you install &onding( %hy is this done(. # Cightning control ,ho do you control these haIards(. # Bnert gas system for cargo tanks # Ese of inert gas system to dilute hydrocar&on "apours at "ents

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Safety 7arriers
-3planation@Example , %hat are the difference &et een Passi"e 6ire Protection ,P6P. > /cti"e 6ire Protection ,/6P.( -3amples of P6P(
# 6ire alls # Bn tumescent coatings ,-SD "al"es(. # 8eat shields on the escape routes(

-3amples of /6P(
# Deluge # 6M 9:: Aaseous 6ire 6ighting system # 6ire > Aas Detection system
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

6ire alls! 7last

alls! 8eat Shields


L ?;) 84:! :.H &ar 7last all

/ 4: 6ire all

7last all in place Sreejith

8eat Shield

Source courtesy' Bnternet sources Offshore Training pack

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Source courtesy' Bnternet

Hydro Carbon #eleases


Per/ormance Indicators 0Leading 1 lagging2
Maintenance Check !te t Ca"i#$ati%n L%%& Check Si'("ati%n A()it MOC!ECR

Sreejith
PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION

Pre ention barriers


HAC Static E"ect$ic A()it

IGNITION CONTROL
L%%& check *%$ BD A()it !In &ecti%n CFI %n Re"ie* Va"+e

BLOWDOWN & RELIEF SYSTEM


L%%& Check Detect%$ Ca"i#$ati%n A()it MOC!ECR

E*plosion / +ire S,iss C-eese Model

Offshore Training pack


FIRE & GAS DETECTION EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION

CFT %n ESDV L%%& Check A()it !In &ecti%n

CFT %n Fi$e P('& & Va"+e Te tin, %* *%a' c%ncent$ate MOC

Inte,$it- In &ecti%n %* PFP *i$e.a"" A()it MOC

Mitigation barriers

Fi$e D$i"" A()it

E.PLOSIO%

Discuss
6or major accident control! hich side of the &o tie should &e strong( Ceft ,pre"ention. or the right side ,mitigation. ( %hy(
Ma)or !ccident

Discussion trigger' +an a gas e3plosion &e effecti"ely mitigated pre"ented ith ater deluge(
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Cearning
Major accidents* Potential major accidents at your offshore installation* Difference &et een personal ) occupational! marine and process accidents* S iss +heese > 7o Tie safety concepts* and Bmportance of safety &arriers in controlling major accidents.

pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Session 7reak

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Ma)or !ccidents in your Offshore 6ield

pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Cearning O&jecti"es
To learn a&out the major accidents that occurred in your offshore comple3 to understand J%hat ent rong(N* and To think a&out the potential &arrier failures that might e3ist at offshore installations hich could lead to potential major accidents.
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Offshore +omple3
Sho the field diagram

Sho the platforms ) 6PSOs and the interconnecting pipelines Bnclude the major additions ) modifications to highlight to the participants that the installation has changed o"er the years
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Platform /ccident Details


Sho the accident > near@miss trends ,&ar chart. and discuss cause &reakdo n ,pie@chart. / graph that sho s no particular trend ,up ard or do n ard. could mean'
# The 8S- is not under control* # The 8S- performance ) accident data collection ) analysis is not proper* # Mo one kno s hat ill &e the future 8Sperformance is$
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Major /ccidents
Bdentify major accidents! hi@potential incidents! near@misses* Discuss each of the major cases from the detail reports to e3plain' Causes # Conse3uen&es # Risk redu&tion re&ommendations # 4mplementation status # ny similar a&&idents o&&urred5 #

Bf there are any photos of these accidents! sho

them.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

+auses
Examples
BnadeDuate planning ) organiIation* 6la s in PT% procedures* %ritten jo& procedure did not anticipate contri&uting factors* 6ailure to follo kno n jo& procedure ,s.* BnadeDuate training* Super"isor failure to identify unsafe condition* and 6ailure to communicate.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Cearning
Bf no concrete action is taken to rectify the cause of
the incident permanently! it might lead to an accident ne3t time round # 8istory has pro"en this* /ccidents could happen e"en ith safety &arriers in place* Personnel play an e3tremely important role in promoting safety # competency! e3perience and kno ledge is important* and %e need to ensure that the safety &arriers are maintained so as to control ) mitigate accidents.
Sreejith Offshore Training pack pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com

Session 7reak

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Potential Ma)or !ccident E ents at 3our O//s-ore Comple*

In thi &$e entati%n3 the t-&ica" &%tentia" 'a0%$ acci)ent *%$ FPSO ! &"at*%$' a$e inc"()e)2 Thi .i"" $e4(i$e c( t%'i ati%n in "ine .ith the *ie") 5RA $e ("t 2

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack &i""ai/ $ee0ith1h%t'ai"2 c%'

Cearning O&jecti"es
To learn a&out the potential major accidents that can occur in offshore field and to understand the conseDuences* To &e a are of the major risk contri&utors at offshore installations* and To &e a are of the risk le"els for "arious personnel at your offshore field.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Potential Ma)or !ccidents 4


E0a$%!es
0. Surface 7lo out ?. Ship collisions

9. =iser ) Pipeline =eleases ;. Dropped O&jects

H. Process 8+ =eleases #6ires ) -3plosions 4. Transportation /ccidents


Sreejith Offshore Training pack S%($ce c%($te

-6 Inte$net

Potential Ma)or !ccidents 5 E0a$%!es


5. 8elicopter crash 0:. Turret 6ailure

2. Projectile ) Missile impact 00. +argo Tank -3plosion

1. Structural damage

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack S%($ce c%($te

-6 Inte$net

=isk Terminology
Bndi"idual =isk ,B=. Bndi"idual =isk Per /nnum is the freDuency ith hich an indi"idual may &e e3pected to sustain fatal harm due to e3posure to specific haIards in a year

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack S%($ce c%($te

-6 Inte$net

/C/=P Triangle

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack S%($ce c%($te

-6 Inte$net

%hat does risk mean(

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack S%($ce c%($te

-6 Inte$net

Manning distri&ution Transportation details 8eat > Material 7alance diagram P>BDs P6Ds Aeneral /rrangement ) Cayouts Design &asis and safety philosophies
Offshore Training pack

-ssential data used in Guantitati"e =isk /ssessment ,G=/.

Sreejith

Areas Sho the areas considered in the G=/ -3plain the manning distri&ution of "arious personnel categories in the areas Tell them the risks calculated is rather realistic since e ha"e considered more facts

Offshore Installation

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

6ires and -3plosions


Pool 6ire Let fire <apour +loud -3plosion 6lash 6ire
Sreejith Offshore Training pack E7&"ain the ca( e an) c%n e4(ence %* each t-&e %* *i$e inc"()in, thei$ i'&ai$'ent &%tentia"

Bmpairment
Discuss impingement and impairment from pool and jet fires Pool fire impingement on steel structures'
# 0: minutes

Let fire impingement on steel structures'


# ; minutes

Sreejith

C%($te -6 CMPT 5RA Offshore Training pack G(i)e"ine

=isk assessment 6lo


H!"I$' Bdentify potential haIards Sectionalisation' =e"ie P6Ds! E6Ds > P>BDs to separate the process and utility system to "arious isolata&le sections.

+hart

Causal !nalysis' Bdentify haIardous e"ents associated ith accidents

+re7uency !nalysis and E ent 8ree !nalysis9 6reDuency of each accidental e"ent ,top e"ent. and &ranch pro&a&ilities are assigned to e"ent tree and outcome e"ent freDuency are estimated.

Conse7uence Modelling9 Esing the soft are. The physical effects and damages for each outcome e"ent are estimated

Impact !ssessment' /nalyse the fire and e3plosion impact to structures and eDuipment.

#is6 !ssessment 1ata!ity Esti$ation' Determine the risk to personnel from each outcome e"ent. Ris/ S($$ation an, Ris/ Ran/ing' Sum the risks to indi"idual from each outcome e"ents for hydrocar&on and non@hydrocar&on haIards and identify the dominant risk contri&utors. Ris/ Assess$ent' +ompare the risk le"els against Bndi"idual =isk /ccepta&ility +riteria to determine hether additional measures are necessary to reduce risks to /C/=P.

Sreejith

#is6 reducing measures' /pply enhanced or additional control measures and mitigation measures.

Offshore Training pack

Potential Major /ccidents


Offshore 6ield

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

M!E 4 Sur/ace (lo,out


+auses' 6ailure of choke "al"e 6ailure of OKMas tree ) D8S< ) S+SS< Presence of ignition sources

+onseDuences' Let 6ire Major asset damage Multiple fatalities ) injuries

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack S%($ce c%($te

-6 Inte$net

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

S%($ce c%($te -6 Inte$net

Subsea blow out


Sreejith Offshore Training pack S%($ce c%($te

-6 Inte$net

6ire +ontours
Sho the jet! pool fire contours superimposed on the offshore installation layout dra ing to sho them the potential effects.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

M!E : $ropped Ob)ects


+auses' 6ailure of lifting eDuipment ,o"erload ) damaged lifting eDuipment. 6ailure of crane eDuipment ,o"erload! etc.. Cifting ithout follo ing procedures ) controls +onseDuences' /sset damage ,hull! eDuipment! platform! etc.. Multiple fatalities ) injuries

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

S%($ce c%($te -6 Inte$net

Transportation /ccidents
"eli&opter+ boat+ personnel transfers

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Offshore Training pack

Risks from transportation

/MO/ 6B-CD

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

S%($ce c%($te -6 Inte$net

M!E ; 8ransportation !ccidents


+auses' Mechanical failure of &oats ) helicopter) flights -3traneous eather conditions Material defects of personal transfer &askets or associated lifting tackles

+onseDuences' /sset damage ,hull! eDuipment! platform! etc.. Multiple fatalities ) injuries

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

S%($ce c%($te -6 Inte$net

Personnel (as6et 8rans/ers

Protection from side > "ertical impacts( Personnel falling from height due to giddiness! loss of grip! high ind! loss of &alance! etc.
Sreejith

I the$e an %&ti%n8

Offshore Training pack

M!E < Helicopter Cras+auses' 6ailure of helicopter ,engine failure ) e3treme eather. 6ailure of communication eDuipment 6ire ) e3plosion in 6PSO ) Platform Pilot error +onseDuences' 6ire Major asset ) helicopter damage Multiple fatalities ) injuries

The$e a$e ha$)"- an- kn%.n %cc($$ence %* He"ic%&te$ c$a hin, int% FPSO %$ &"at*%$'
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

S%($ce c%($te -6 Inte$net

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

S%($ce c%($te -6 Inte$net

M!E = Pro)ectiles / Missiles


+auses' 6ailure of eDuipment due to o"erpressure BnadeDuate design Missiles ) projectiles from gas tur&ines and 6PSO steam tur&ines

+onseDuences' /sset damage ,hull! eDuipment! etc.. Multiple fatalities ) injuries

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

S%($ce c%($te -6 Inte$net

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

S%($ce c%($te -6 Inte$net

M!E > Structural E ents


+auses' Structural failures due to e3treme eather +orrosion BnadeDuate design +rane &oom collision

+onseDuences' /sset damage Multiple fatalities ) injuries

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

S%($ce c%($te -6 Inte$net

M!E > Structural E ents

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

S%($ce c%($te -6 Inte$net

M!E > Structural E ents

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

S%($ce c%($te -6 Inte$net

M!E 4? 8urret +ailure

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

S%($ce c%($te -6 Inte$net

M!E 44 Cargo 8an6 E*plosion

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack FPSO

-3plain the Bndi"idual =isk ,B=. for the "arious personnel categories*

O"erall =isk for Offshore +omple3


ithin the /C/=P tolera&le region*

-3plain the PCC ,Potential Coss Of Cife. "alues for the comple3 and "arious personnel categories* Discuss if the B= "alue is

-3plain the major risk contri&utors for the offshore comple3* -3plain hat is &ase case B=! and /C/=P B= cases ,sensiti"ity cases.* and is it used to determine =ealistic

-3plain hat is traffic light system and ho =isk le"els(

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&i""ai/ $ee0ith1h%t'ai"2c Offshore Training pack %'

%hat is Traffic Cight system(


Traffic Cight system is used as an assessment tool &y EF 8S-! MOPS/! etc.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Traffic lights system and performance of safety systems


Traffic light system as used to assess the performance of safety systems* The performance of safety systems ere determined &ased on'
# +ritical maintenance test results* # /ccidents ) incidents* # Maintenance &acklogs* and # Offshore audit findings.
Sreejith

H%. .i"" the TL S- te' ( e) t% ca"c("ate Offshore Training pack i'&ai$'ent ! e+ent *$e4(encie in 5RA8

8ra//ic Lig-t Interpretation


Tolera&le

Partially degraded

!cce ptab le

Sa/ety Systems Per/ormance


Sreejith Offshore Training pack

%ot accepta

ble

Earlier risk IR 1 Risk after Safety System performance Assessment IR 3 Base case risk IR 2

Potential resi ual risk after impro!ements IR "

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Cearning
Bndi"idual =isk for all offshore personnel are ithin the accepta&le limits* Enderstanding potential major accidents for offshore installations ,causes and conseDuences.* Enderstanding the major risk contri&utors at offshore field* and Enderstanding the personnel risk le"els for "arious categories.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Session 7reak

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

O//s-ore Sa/ety Cases

pilliai_sreejith@hotmail.com
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Cearning o&jecti"es
To understand the o&jecti"e of Safety +ases* To understand JThe EF 8S- Offshore Bnstallations ,Safety +ase. =egulations 9::;K* To understand the typical S+ update triggers* and To kno the Typical Safety +ase contents.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Safety +ase@Definition
P/ do&umented body of e6iden&e that pro6ides a &on6in&ing and 6alid argument that a system is ade3uately safe for a gi6en appli&ation in a gi6en en6ironmentN

Safety +ase e3ists for Muclear! Offshore! /"iation! and =ail industries

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Safety +ase Origin


(post 2788 Piper lpha explosion/

PEF Offshore Operators! says +ullen! must adopt this ne philosophy on safety! producing a JSafety +aseQ. This includes continuous haIard assessment o"er the plantQs lifetime! fault tree analysis! hich looks at all the ays an error could de"elop! and takes account of ays that Qhuman factorsQ contri&ute to disastersN
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Safety +ase -"olution Timeline

6orth ith' Bmmediate! at once Cord +ullen recommended that the ? ,6-/! -SS/! --=/!SBA/. &e carried out &y the offshore operators immediately &efore the 0119 safety case regulation as released. Sreejith Offshore Training pack

%hy Offshore Safety +ase(


Operators of offshore installations ant to &e sure that their operations are safe and do not e3pose their people or their &usiness to unaccepta&le le"els of risk* Plant modifications! "ariations on operating conditions and ne o nership mean that the risk picture is changing* and =egulators and other stakeholders ask you to justify the continuing operation of the installation through safety cases. =egulatory compliance is essential to your &usiness
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Safety +ase
6irst S+ =egulations came into force in 0119* +ullen 6orth ith studies'
# / 6ire =isk /nalysis* # /n assessment of the risk of ingress of smoke or gas into the accommodation* # / re"ie of the a&ility of emergency systems to ithstand se"ere accident conditions* and # /n e"acuation! escape and rescue analysis.
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

The EF 8S- Offshore Bnstallations ,Safety +ase. =egulations 9::;


Fey changes introduced &y the 9::; =egulations include' @The reDuirement for duty holders to send an early design notification! instead of a design safety case! to 8S- hen esta&lishing a ne production installation* @Duty holders are reDuired to carry out a thorough and fundamental re"ie of their safety cases at least e"ery fi"e years! or as directed &y 8S-* @The present reDuirement to re@su&mit safety cases e"ery three years has &een remo"ed ,inspectors ill &e checking to see that safety cases are &eing kept up to date through inspection.* @Me duties reDuire licensees to ensure anyone they appoint as an operator is capa&le of fulfilling their legal responsi&ilities for safety* @+om&ined operations safety cases ha"e &een replaced &y notifications! hich do not need 8S- acceptance* and @The Offshore Bnstallations ,Safety =epresentati"es and Safety +ommittees. =egulations ha"e &een amended to e3tend consultation ith safety representati"es to re"ie ing and re"ising a safety case! as ell as preparing one.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Typical +ontents of Safety +ase


6acility description 8S- Management system 6ormal Safety /ssessment ,6S/. Summary Safety +ritical elements and Performance Standards /C/=P Demonstration 6itness to Operate

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Offshore Training pack

Safety +ase Epdate Triggers


Examples

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Cearning
Origin and o&jecti"es of Safety +ase* Piper /lpha /ccident > Safety +ase* JThe EF 8S- Offshore Bnstallations ,Safety +ase. =egulations 9::;* Typical S+ contents* and Typical S+ update triggers.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Session 7reak

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Sa/ety (arriers and t-eir #ole in Controlling Ma)or accidents

pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Cearning o&jecti"es
To understand the critical role of safety &arriers ) safety systems in controlling major accidents using 7o @Tie diagram* To understand safety &arriers on offshore installations* To appreciate the need to maintain the &arriers through maintenance system! inspections! etc.* and To identify and monitor performance of safety &arriers through lead and lag indicators.
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

7o

Tie Diagram

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Offshore Training pack S%($ce c%($te

-6 Inte$net

7arriers for Potential Major /ccidents


THREATS CONTROL & PREVENTATIVE BARRIERS MITIGATIVE BARRIERS

M!E
Pre&entati&e

E$ergen#y re

B!o'o(t )S(rfa#e *!o'o(ts + Riser Pi%e!ine Re!eases


Mitigation

Sa,e %e, 'Muster

Bnstrumentation ! i.e. T/88 ) C/CC ) C/88 ) P/CC ) Inspections P/88 =elief System ,PS< .

Pro#ess Hy,ro#ar*on Re!eases Shi% Co!!ision "ro%%e, O*-e#ts He!i#o%ter Crash


ESD system Contro! ESD Valves "ete#tion

Esca$e %

Firewater Pum$s Firewater %in" main Manual Water Fire Fi"htin" E#ui$ment Delu"e System Wellhead Isolation Blowdown Valves ESD Manual Pull Stations HV ! Manual Foam Fire Fi"htin" E#ui$ment Blowdown Valves ESD Manual Pull Stations Firewalls Gaseous Systems

Emer"e &i"htin

Emer"e Power '(

Ma"igational /ids

PT%

F&G System F&G Detectors

Intern !ommunica & lar

E*tern !ommunica

Pedestal +ranes

!udits

+MMS
Tur ret failures Pro-e#ti!e .$issi!e I$%a#ts

Helidec+ ! E#ui$m

Bnert Aas System

Carg o t ank explos ions Str(#t(ra! En&iron$enta! e&ents

Miscellan Sa,et E#ui$m

Ignition control Miscellaneous )


Temporary -Duipment

Trans%ortation A##i,ents

-EMPS! ra,ts

Helico$ Faciliti

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Direct to E#ui$m

EF 8S- FP H Bnspection =esults

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack S%($ce c%($te

-6 Inte$net

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack S%($ce c%($te

-6 Inte$net

%hat is

rong at present in oil > gas industry(

Enaccepta&le le"el of process safety related dangerous occurrences especially in relation to loss of containment incidents* Major haIard industry measured safety performance using CTBs$$ +ritical systems deteriorate o"er time ithout arning until they fail catastrophically* and /udits tend to &e too infreDuent and orkplace inspections focus on personal safety.
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

Process Sa/ety Management System


/n effecti"e process safety management system measures performance
2ey %erfor$an#e in,i#ators $(st in#!(,e a%%ro%riate in,i#ators of %ro#ess safety %erfor$an#e
Sreejith Offshore Training pack S%($ce c%($te

-6 Inte$net

Key Per/ormance Indicators set to identi/y de/ects in sa/ety systems

!ccident 8ra)ectory
Lagging indicator

Lagging indicator

Leading indicator

Lagging indicator

Permit@to@,or6
Leading indicator

Inspection 1 Maintenance Lagging indicator


Leading indicator

Sta// Competence

System defects

Leading indicator Operational Procedures

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack S%($ce c%($te

-6 Inte$net

Hydro Carbon #eleases


Per/ormance Indicators 0Leading 1 lagging2
Maintenance Check !te t Ca"i#$ati%n L%%& Check Si'("ati%n A()it MOC!ECR

Sreejith
PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION
HAC Static E"ect$ic A()it

IGNITION CONTROL
L%%& check *%$ BD A()it !In &ecti%n CFI %n Re"ie* Va"+e

BLOWDOWN & RELIEF SYSTEM


L%%& Check Detect%$ Ca"i#$ati%n A()it MOC!ECR

P#OCESS H3$#OC!#(O% #ELE!SES/+I#ES/E.PLOSIO%S E*ample

Offshore Training pack


FIRE & GAS DETECTION EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION

CFT %n ESDV L%%& Check A()it !In &ecti%n

Fi$e D$i"" A()it

CFT %n Fi$e P('& & Va"+e Te tin, %* *%a' c%ncent$ate MOC

Inte,$it- In &ecti%n %* PFP *i$e.a"" A()it MOC

E.PLOSIO%

Dual Performance /ssurance


$ual !ssurance @ leading and lagging indicators measuring per/ormance o/ eac- critical element o/ a Process Sa/ety Management System

Reactive Monitoring Lagging Indicator: Outcome Indicator

Critical Process Safety Risk Control System

Active Monitoring Leading Indicators: Process or Input Indicators

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack S%($ce c%($te

-6 Inte$net

Ho, e//ecti e are 3O'# sa/ety systemsA Traffic light system as used to assess the performance of safety systems* -ach of the safety systems ere assessed &ased on'
# +ritical Maintenance Test ,+MT. results* # /ccidents ) incidents* # Maintenance &acklogs* and # /udit findings.
Sreejith Offshore Training pack

8ra//ic Lig-t Interpretation


Tolera&le

Partially degraded

!cce ptab le

Sa/ety Systems Per/ormance


Sreejith Offshore Training pack

%ot accepta

ble

Offshore /udit 6indings


Examples
8 4: fire alls penetrated to pass pipes and electrical conduits 6ire ater deluge not pro"ided for critical hydrocar&on systems ) "al"e clusters 6lame Detectors o&structed ith pipe ork 8aIardous area +lassification compromised -3 eDuipment maintenance fla s

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Safety 7arrier Performance


THREATS CONTROL & PREVENTATIVE BARRIERS MITIGATIVE BARRIERS

M!E
Pre&entati&e

E$ergen#y re

B!o'o(t )S(rfa#e *!o'o(ts + Riser Pi%e!ine Re!eases


Mitigation

Sa,e %e, 'Muster

Bnstrumentation ! i.e. T/88 ) C/CC ) C/88 ) P/CC ) Inspections P/88 =elief System ,PS< .

Pro#ess Hy,ro#ar*on Re!eases Shi% Co!!ision "ro%%e, O*-e#ts He!i#o%ter Crash


ESD system Contro! ESD Valves "ete#tion

Esca$e %

Firewater Pum$s Firewater %in" main Manual Water Fire Fi"htin" E#ui$ment Delu"e System Wellhead Isolation Blowdown Valves ESD Manual Pull Stations HV ! Manual Foam Fire Fi"htin" E#ui$ment Blowdown Valves ESD Manual Pull Stations Firewalls Gaseous Systems

Emer"e &i"htin

Emer"e Power '(

Ma"igational /ids

PT%

F&G System F&G Detectors

Intern !ommunica & lar

E*tern !ommunica

Pedestal +ranes

!udits

+MMS
Tur ret failures Pro-e#ti!e .$issi!e I$%a#ts

Helidec+ ! E#ui$m

Bnert Aas System

Carg o t ank explos ions Str(#t(ra! En&iron$enta! e&ents

Miscellan Sa,et E#ui$m

Ignition control Miscellaneous )


Temporary -Duipment

Trans%ortation A##i,ents

-EMPS! ra,ts

Helico$ Faciliti

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Direct to E#ui$m

Process Sa/ety Management Major 8aIard /nalysis)Maintenance Coop

Maintenance Management

!re 8-e (arriers (eing Properly MaintainedA

Ma)or Hazard !nalysis

I$E%8I+3 (arriersB 0SCEs2

Per/ormance Indicators !re 8-ey SuitableA

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack S%($ce c%($te

-6 Inte$net

Cearning
+oncept of Safety &arriers in major accident control* and =ole of offshore personnel in ensuring integrity of safety &arriers &y monitoring performance indicators* and Performance of safety systems to control major haIards cannot &e monitored using CTBs hich calls for a shift in focus.

Sreejith

Offshore Training pack

Key Message Once the safety systems fail! there can &e major accidents$$$
%nly you &an operate 1 maintain safety systems without flaws'

pillai_sreejith@hotmail.com
Sreejith Offshore Training pack