Lurie
Modeling of Oil Product and
Gas Pipeline Transportation
Related Titles
Olah, G. A., Goeppert, A., Prakash, G. K. S.
Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy
2006
ISBN: 9783527312757
Olah, G. A., Prakash, G. K. S. (eds.)
Carbocation Chemistry
2004
ISBN: 9780471284901
Sheldrake, A. L.
Handbook of Electrical Engineering For Practitioners in the
Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industry
2003
EBook
ISBN: 9780470864784
Michael V. Lurie
Modeling of Oil Product and
Gas Pipeline Transportation
The Author
Prof. Dr. Michael V. Lurie
Russian State University
of Oil and Gas
Moscow, Russian Federation
Translation
Emmanuil G. Sinaiski
Leipzig, Germany
Cover Picture
TransAlaska Pipeline
All books published by WileyVCH are
carefully produced. Nevertheless, authors,
editors, and publisher do not warrant the
information contained in these books,
including this book, to be free of errors.
Readers are advised to keep in mind that
statements, data, illustrations, procedural
details or other items may inadvertently be
inaccurate.
Library of Congress Card No.: applied for
British Library CataloguinginPublication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available
from the British Library.
Bibliographic information published by
the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this
publication in the Deutsche National
bibliograe; detailed bibliographic data are
available in the Internet at
<http://dnb.dnb.de>.
2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co.
KGaA, Weinheim
All rights reserved (including those of
translation into other languages). No part of
this book may be reproduced in any form by
photoprinting, microlm, or any other
means nor transmitted or translated into a
machine language without written permission
from the publishers. Registered names,
trademarks, etc. used in this book, even when
not specically marked as such, are not to be
considered unprotected by law.
Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany
Printed on acidfree paper
Composition Laserwords, Chennai
Printing Strauss GmbH, M ovlenbach
Bookbinding Litges & Dopf GmbH,
Heppenheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
V
In memory of the Teacher academician Leonid I. Sedov
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
VII
Foreword
This book is dedicated rst and foremost to holders of a masters degree and
postgraduate students of oil and gas institutes who have decided to specialize
in the eld of theoretical problems in the transportation of oil, oil products and
gas. It contains methods of mathematical modeling of the processes taking
place in pipelines when transporting these media.
By the term mathematical model is understood a system of mathematical
equations in which framework a class of some processes could be studied. The
solution of these equations provides values of parameters without carrying out
model and, especially, full scale experiments.
Physical laws determining the dynamics of uids and gases in pipes are
presented. It is then shown how these laws are transformed into mathematical
equations that are at the heart of one or another mathematical model. In
the framework of each model, are formulated problems with the aim of
investigating concrete situations. In doing so there are given methods of its
solution.
The book is selfsufcient for studying the subject but the text is outlined in
such a way that it impels the reader to address oneself to closer acquaintance
of considered problem containing in special technical literature.
Professor Michael V. Lurie
Moscow
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
IX
Contents
Dedication Page V
Foreword VII
Preface XIII
List of Symbols XV
1 Fundamentals of Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional
Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines 1
1.1 Mathematical Models and Mathematical Modeling 1
1.1.1 Governing Factors 3
1.1.2 Schematization of OneDimensional Flows of Fluids and Gases
in Pipelines 4
1.2 Integral Characteristics of Fluid Volume 5
1.3 The Law of Conservation of Transported Medium Mass.
The Continuity Equation 7
1.4 The Law of Change in Momentum. The Equation of Fluid Motion 9
1.5 The Equation of Mechanical Energy Balance 11
1.5.1 Bernoulli Equation 15
1.5.2 Input of External Energy 16
1.6 Equation of Change in Internal Motion Kinetic Energy 17
1.6.1 Hydraulic Losses (of Mechanical Energy) 18
1.6.2 Formulas for Calculation of the Factor (Re, ) 20
1.7 Total Energy Balance Equation 22
1.8 Complete System of Equations for Mathematical Modeling
of OneDimensional Flows in Pipelines 29
2 Models of Transported Media 31
2.1 Model of a Fluid 31
2.2 Models of Ideal and Viscous Fluids 32
2.3 Model of an Incompressible Fluid 34
2.4 Model of Elastic (Slightly Compressible) Fluid 34
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
X Contents
2.5 Model of a Fluid with Heat Expansion 34
2.6 Models of NonNewtonian Fluids 36
2.7 Models of a Gaseous Continuum 38
2.7.1 Model of a Perfect Gas 39
2.7.2 Model of a Real Gas 39
2.8 Model of an Elastic Deformable Pipeline 42
3 Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe 45
3.1 Laminar Flow of a Viscous Fluid in a Circular Pipe 45
3.2 Laminar Flow of a NonNewtonian Power Fluid in a Circular Pipe 47
3.3 Laminar Flow of a ViscousPlastic Fluid in a Circular Pipe 49
3.4 Transition of Laminar Flow of a Viscous Fluid to Turbulent Flow 51
3.5 Turbulent Fluid Flow in a Circular Pipe 52
3.6 A Method to Control Hydraulic Resistance by Injection of
AntiTurbulent Additive into the Flow 62
3.7 Gravity Fluid Flow in a Pipe 65
4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil
and Gas Pipelines 73
4.1 A System of Basic Equations for Stationary Flow of an
Incompressible Fluid in a Pipeline 73
4.2 Boundary Conditions. Modeling of the Operation of Pumps and
OilPumping Stations 75
4.2.1 Pumps 75
4.2.2 OilPumping Station 78
4.3 Combined Operation of Linear Pipeline Section and Pumping
Station 81
4.4 Calculations on the Operation of a Pipeline with Intermediate
OilPumping Stations 84
4.5 Calculations on Pipeline Stationary Operating Regimes in
Fluid Pumping with Heating 87
4.6 Modeling of Stationary Operating Regimes of GasPipeline Sections 92
4.6.1 Distribution of Pressure in Stationary Gas Flow in a GasPipeline 94
4.6.2 Pressure Distribution in a GasPipeline with Great Difference
in Elevations 96
4.6.3 Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes
of a GasPipeline (General Case) 97
4.6.4 Investigation of Thermal Regimes of a GasPipeline Section 98
4.7 Modeling of Blower Operation 100
5 Closed Mathematical Models of OneDimensional NonStationary
Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline 109
5.1 A Model of NonStationary Isothermal Flow of a Slightly Compressible
Fluid in a Pipeline 109
5.2 A Model of NonStationary Gas Flow in a Pipeline 112
Contents XI
5.3 NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid
in a Pipeline 113
5.3.1 Wave Equation 113
5.3.2 Propagation of Waves in an Innite Pipeline 115
5.3.3 Propagation of Waves in a SemiInnite Pipeline 117
5.3.4 Propagation of Waves in a Bounded Pipeline Section 119
5.3.5 Method of Characteristics 121
5.3.6 Initial, Boundary and Conjugation Conditions 124
5.3.7 Hydraulic Shock in Pipes 127
5.3.8 Accounting for Virtual Mass 134
5.3.9 Hydraulic Shock in an Industrial Pipeline Caused by Instantaneous
Closing of the Gate Valve 135
5.4 NonIsothermal Gas Flow in GasPipelines 138
5.5 Gas Outow from a Pipeline in the Case of a Complete Break
of the Pipeline 146
5.6 Mathematical Model of NonStationary Gravity Fluid Flow 149
5.7 NonStationary Fluid Flow with Flow Discontinuities
in a Pipeline 152
6 Dimensional Theory 157
6.1 Dimensional and Dimensionless Quantities 157
6.2 Primary (Basic) and Secondary (Derived) Measurement Units 158
6.3 Dimensionality of Quantities. Dimensional Formula 159
6.4 Proof of Dimensional Formula 161
6.5 Central Theorem of Dimensional Theory 163
6.6 DimensionallyDependent and DimensionallyIndependent
Quantities 164
6.7 Buckingham Theorem 168
7 Physical Modeling of Phenomena 173
7.1 Similarity of Phenomena and the Principle of Modeling 173
7.2 Similarity Criteria 174
7.3 Modeling of Viscous Fluid Flow in a Pipe 175
7.4 Modeling Gravity Fluid Flow 176
7.5 Modeling the Fluid Outow from a Tank 178
7.6 Similarity Criteria for the Operation of Centrifugal Pumps 179
8 Dimensionality and Similarity in Mathematical Modeling
of Processes 183
8.1 Origination of Similarity Criteria in the Equations of a
Mathematical Model 183
8.2 OneDimensional NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible
Fluid in a Pipeline 184
8.3 Gravity Fluid Flow in a Pipeline 186
8.4 Pipeline Transportation of Oil Products. Batching 187
XII Contents
8.4.1 Principle of Oil Product Batching by Direct Contact 188
8.4.2 Modeling of Mixture Formation in Oil Product Batching 189
8.4.3 Equation of Longitudinal Mixing 192
8.4.4 SelfSimilar Solutions 194
References 199
Appendices 201
Author Index 205
Subject Index 207
XIII
Preface
This book presents the fundamentals of the mathematical simulation of
processes of pipeline transportation of oil, oil products and gas. It is shown
how the basic laws of mechanics and thermodynamics governing the ow of
uids and gases in pipelines are transformed into mathematical equations
which are the essence of a certain mathematical model and, in the framework
of a given physical problem, appropriate mathematical problems are formulated
to analyze concrete situations.
The book is suitable for graduate and postgraduate students of universities
having departments concerned with oil and gas and to engineers and research
workers specializing in pipeline transportation.
Beginners will nd in this book a consecutive description of the theory and
mathematical simulation methods of stationary and nonstationary processes
occurring in pipelines. Engineers engaged in the design of and calculations on
pipelines will nd a detailed theoretical and practical textbook on the subject
of their work. Graduate and postgraduate students and research workers will
become acquainted with situations in the theory and methods in order to
generalize and develop them in the future.
The author of the book, Professor Dr. M. Lurie, is a great authority in Russia
in the eld of the hydromechanics of oil and gas pipeline transportation.
Prof. Emmanuil Sinaiski
Leipzig
. . . No human investigation could be referred to as true when it is not supported
by mathematical proof
Leonardo da Vinci
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
XV
List of Symbols
Symbol Denition
a radius of the ow core
a dimensionless constant
a parameter of the (Q H) characteristic
A proportionality factor
A
+
value of parameter A to the left of the discontinuity front
A
JouleThompson factor
e
in
internal energy density; specic internal energy
e
kin
kinetic energy density; specic kinetic energy
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
XVI List of Symbols
E elastic modulus in extension and compression,
Youngs modulus
E
in
internal energy
E
kin
kinetic energy
Ei(z) Euler function
f
1
dimensionless factor
f
H
1
hydraulic head
He Hedstroem number
i hydraulic gradient
i
0
hydraulic gradient
I momentum
I Ilyushin number
I
1
, I
2
Riemann invariants
J gas enthalpy
k factor of string elasticity
k factor of power, Ostwald uid
k parameter of nonNewtonian uid
factor; heattransfer factor; empirical factor 1/K
Karman constant
k dimensionless constant
k kinematic consistency
K heat transfer factor
K elastic modulus of uid, Pa
K factor of longitudinal mixing of oil product
l
c
length of the mixture region
L length of a pipeline or a pipeline section
M mass ow rate
M
0
initial mass ow rate
OPS oilpumping station
List of Symbols XVII
n factor of power, Ostwald uid
n exponent in Ostwald rheological law
n exponent
n number of revolutions of centrifugal blower shaft
n unit normal vector
n
0
nominal number of revolutions of blower shaft
n
in
specic power of internal friction forces
N power consumption, kW
N
mech
power of external mechanical devices
N
us
useful power of mechanical force acting on gas
N/
e
specic power
p pressure
p difference between internal and external pressures, pressure
drop
p
0
nominal pressure, initial pressure, normal pressure, pressure
at the beginning of the pipeline section
p
en
pressure of gas at the entrance of compressor station
and blower
p
cr
critical pressure
p
ex
external pressure; pressure at initial crosssection
of the pipeline section
p
in
internal pressure
p
L
pressure at the end of the pipeline section
p
l
, p
e
, p
dynamic velocity
v velocity averaged over crosssection
v mean ow rate velocity
v
cr
critical velocity
V volume
[v] uid velocity jump
w acceleration
x coordinate along the pipeline axis
x
1
coordinate of gravity ow section beginning
x
2
coordinate of gravity ow section end
y coordinate transverse to the pipeline axis; directionof a normal
to the elementary surface d
z(x) elevation level of a pipeline crosssection x
(z
1
z
2
) geometrical height differences of sections 1 and 2
Z overcompressibility factor
List of Symbols XIX
Z
av
average overcompressibility factor
Z = Z
r
reduced gas overcompressibility
angle of inclination of the pipeline axis to the horizontal
factors
v
volume expansion factor
T
thermal expansion factor
compressibility factor
adiabatic index
ratio between the hydraulic gradient of pipeline section
completely lled with uid and the absolute value of the
gravity ow section with slope
p
to the horizontal
shear rate, s
1
pipeline wall thickness
absolute equivalent roughness; roughness of wall surface
relative roughness; compression ratio; thickness ratio
(t) local resistance factor
dimensionless radius
(%) efciency
function of temperature; concentration; parameter of over
compressibility factor; parameter of state equation of real gas;
concentration of antiturbulent additive
hydraulic resistance factor
eff
effective factor of hydraulic resistance
dynamic viscosity factor kg m
1
s
1
g
molar mass of gas; molecular weight
t
turbulent dynamic viscosity
apparent viscosity of power Ostwald uid
kinematic viscosity factor m
2
s
1
0
kinematic viscosity factor at temperature T
0
1
kinematic viscosity factor at temperature T
1
P
Poisson ratio
t
turbulent kinematic viscosity
factor of volumetric expansion, K
1
; selfsimilar coordinate;
dimensionless coordinate
dimensionless parameter; similarity criterion
(x) initial pressure distribution
density
, v
, p
, S
+
, v
+
, p
+
, S
+
values of parameters after hydraulic shock wave
0
nominal density; uid density at p
0
; density of uid under
normal conditions
st
gas density under standard conditions
area of suction branch pipe crosssection; hoop stress; degree
of pipe lling; circumferential stress
XX List of Symbols
d elementary surface area; surface element
tangential (shear) stress
tangential friction stress
0
critical (limit) shear stress
w
tangential (shear) stress at the pipeline internal surface
specic volume
cr
critical specic volume
angle of inclination of a straight line to the abscissa; central
angle
(x) initial uid velocity distribution
frequency of rotor rotation; angular velocity of impeller
rotation
1
1
Fundamentals of Mathematical Modeling of
OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
1.1
Mathematical Models and Mathematical Modeling
Examination of phenomena is carried out with the help of models. Each model
represents a denite schematization of the phenomenon taking into account
not all the characteristic factors but some of them governing the phenomena
and characterizing it from some area of interest to the researcher.
For example, to examine the motion of a body the material point model is
often used. In such a model the dimensions of the body are assumed to be
equal to zero and the whole mass to be concentrated at a point. In other words
we ignore a lot of factors associated with body size and shape, the material
from which the body is made and so on. The question is: to what extent would
such a schematization be efcient in examining the phenomenon? As we all
know such a body does not exist in nature. Nevertheless, when examining the
motion of planets around the sun or satellites around the earth, and in many
other cases, the material point model gives brilliant results in the calculation
of the trajectories of a body under consideration.
In the examination of oscillations of a small load on an elastic spring we
meet with greater schematization of the phenomenon. First the load is taken
as a point mass m, that is we use the material point model, ignoring body
size and shape and the physical and chemical properties of the body material.
Secondly, the elastic string is also schematized by replacing it by the socalled
restoring force F = k x, where x(t) is the deviation of the material point
modeling the load under consideration from the equilibrium position and k is
the factor characterizing the elasticity of the string. Here we do not take into
account the physicalchemical properties of the string, its construction and
material properties and so on. Further schematization could be done by taking
into account the drag arising from the air ow around the moving load and
the rubbing of the load during its motion along the guide.
The use of the differential equation
m
d
2
x
dt
2
= k x, (1.1)
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
2 1 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
expressing the second Newtonian law is also a schematization of the
phenomenon, since the motion is described in the framework of Euclidian
geometry which is the model of our space without taking into account the
relativistic effects of the relativity theory.
The fact that the load motion can begin from an arbitrary position with an
arbitrary initial velocity may be taken into account in the schematization by
specifying initial conditions at
t = 0 : x = x
0
; v =
_
dx
dt
_
0
= v
0
. (1.2)
Equation (1.1) represents the closed mathematical model of the considered
phenomenon and when the initial conditions are included (1.2) this is the
concrete mathematical model in the framework of this model. In the given case
we have the socalled initial value (Cauchy) problem allowing an exact solution.
This solution permits us to predict the load motion at instants of time t > 0
and by so doing to discover regularities of its motion that were not previously
evident. The latest circumstance contains the whole meaning and purpose of
mathematical models.
It is also possible of course to produce another more general schematization
of the same phenomenon which takes into account a great number of
characteristic factors inherent to this phenomenon, that is, it is possible, in
principle, to have another more general model of the considered phenomenon.
This raises the question, how can one tell about the correctness or
incorrectness of the phenomenon schematization when, from the logical
point of view, both schematizations (models) are consistent? The answer is:
only from results obtained in the framework of these models. For example,
the aboveoutlined model of load oscillation around an equilibrium position
allows one to calculate the motion of the load as
x(t) = x
0
cos
__
k
m
t
_
+
_
m
k
v
0
sin
__
k
m
t
_
having undamped periodic oscillations. How can one evaluate the obtained
result? On the one hand there exists a time interval in the course of which
the derived result accords well with the experimental data. Hence the model
is undoubtedly correct and efcient. On the other hand the same experiment
shows that oscillations of the load are gradually damping in time and come
to a stop. This means that the model (1.1) and the problem (1.2) do not take
into account some factors which could be of interest for us, and the accepted
schematization is inadequate.
Including in the number of forces acting on the load additional forces,
namely the forces of dry f
0
sign( x) and viscous f
1
x friction (where the
symbol sign( x) denotes the function x sign equal to 1, at x > 0; equal to 1,
at x < 0 and equal to 0, at x = 0), that is using the equation
m
d
2
x
dt
2
= k x f
0
sign( x) f
1
x (1.3)
1.1 Mathematical Models and Mathematical Modeling 3
instead of Eq. (1.1), one makes the schematization (model) more complete.
Therefore it adequately describes the phenomenon.
But even the new model describes only approximately the model under
consideration. In the case when the size and shape of the load strongly affect
its motion, the motion itself is not onedimensional, the forces acting on the
body have a more complex nature and so on. Thus it is necessary to use more
complex schematizations or in another words to exploit more complex models.
Correct schematization frequently represents a challenging task, requiring
from the researcher great experience, intuition and deep insight into the
phenomenon to be studied (Sedov, 1965).
Of special note is the continuum model, which occupies a highly important
place in the following chapters. It is known that all media, including
liquids and gases, comprise a great collection of different atoms and
molecules in permanent heat motion and with complex interactions.
By molecular interactions we mean such properties of real media as
compressibility, viscosity, heat conductivity, elasticity and others. The
complexity of these processes is very high and the governing forces
are not always known. Therefore such seemingly natural investigation
of medium motion through a study of discrete molecules is absolutely
unacceptable.
One of the general schematization methods for uid, gas and other
deformable media motion is based on the continuum model. Because each
macroscopic volume of the medium under consideration contains a great
number of molecules the medium could be approximately considered as if
it lls the space continuously. Oil, oil products, gas, water or metals may be
considered as a medium continuously lling one or another region of the
space. That is why a system of material points continuously lling a part of space
is called a continuum.
Replacement of a real medium consisting of separate molecules by a
continuum represents of course a schematization. But such a schemati
zation has proved to be very convenient in the use of the mathemat
ical apparatus of continuous functions and, as was shown in practice,
it is quite sufcient for studying the overwhelming majority of observed
phenomena.
1.1.1
Governing Factors
In the examination of different phenomena the researcher is always restricted
by a nite number of parameters called governing factors (parameters) within
the limits of which the investigation is being studied. This brings up the
question: How to reveal the system of governing parameters?
It could be done for example by formulating the problem mathematically
or, in other words, by building a mathematical model of the considered
4 1 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
phenomenon as was demonstrated in the abovementioned example. In this
problem the governing parameters are:
x, t, m, k, f
0
, f
1
, x
0
, v
0
.
But, in order to determine the system of governing parameters, there is no
need for mathematical schematizationof the process. It is enough to be guided,
as has already been noted, by experience, intuition and understanding of the
mechanism of the phenomenon.
Let us investigate the decrease in a parachutists speed v in the air when
his motion can be taken as steady. Being governed only by intuition it
is an easy matter to assume the speed to be dependent on the mass of
the parachutist m, acceleration due to g, the diameter of the parachute
canopy D, the length L of its shroud and the air density . The viscosity of
the air owing around the parachute during its descent can be taken into
account or ignored since the force of viscous friction is small compared to
parachute drag. Both cases represent only different schematizations of the
phenomenon.
So the function sought could be assumed to have the following general form
v = f (m, g, D, L, ). Then the governing parameters are:
m, g, D, L, .
The use of dimensional theory permits us to rewrite the formulateddependence
in invariant form, that is, independent of the system of measurement units
(see Chapters 6 and 7)
v
_
gD
=
f
_
m
D
3
,
L
D
_
, v =
_
gD
f
_
m
D
3
,
L
D
_
.
Thus, among ve governing parameters there are only two independent
dimensionless combinations, m/D
3
and L/D, dening the soughtfor
dependence.
1.1.2
Schematization of OneDimensional Flows of Fluids and Gases in Pipelines
In problems of oil and gas transportation most often schematization of the
ow process under the following conditions is used:
oil, oil product and gas are considered as a continuum continuously lling
the whole crosssection of the pipeline or its part;
the prole of the pipeline is given by the dependence of the height of the
pipeline axis above sea level on the linear coordinate z(x);
k
v
2
2
S(x, t) dx kinetic energy of the uid volume (J),
where
k
is the factor;
E
in
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
(x, t) e
in
(x, t) S(x, t) dx internal energy of the uid
volume, where e
in
is the density of the internal energy (J kg
1
), that is the
internal energy per unit mass.
These quantities model the mass, momentumand energy of a material point
system.
Since the main laws of physics are often formulated as connections between
physical quantities and the rate of their change in time, we ought to adduce
the rule of integral quantity differentiation with respect to time. The symbol
of differentiation d()/ dt denotes the total derivative with respect to time,
associated with individual particles of a continuum whereas the symbol ()/t
denotes the local derivative with respect to time, that is the derivative of a
ow parameter with respect to time at a given space point, e.g. x = const. The
local derivative with respect to time gives the rate of ow parameter change at
a given crosssection of the ow while, at two consecutive instances of time,
different particles of the continuum are located in this crosssection.
The total derivative with respect to time is equal to
d
dt
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
A(x, t) S(x, t) dx.
From mathematical analysis it is known how an integral containing a
parameter, in the considered case it is t, is differentiated with respect to
this parameter, when the integrand and limits of integration depend on this
parameter. We have
d
dt
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
A(x, t) S(x, t) dx =
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
t
[A(x, t) S(x, t)] dx
+A(x, t) S(x, t)
x
2
(t)
dx
2
dt
A(x, t) S(x, t)
x
1
(t)
dx
1
dt
.
1.3 The Law of Conservation of Transported Medium Mass. The Continuity Equation 7
First, at frozen upper and lower integration limits, the integrand is
differentiated (the derivative being local) and then the integrand calculated at
the upper and lower integration limits is multiplied by the rates of change of
these limits dx
2
/ dt and dx
1
/ dt, the rst term having been taken with a plus
sign and the second with a minus sign (see Appendix B).
For the case of the uid volume of the medium the quantities dx
2
/ dt and
dx
1
/ dt are the corresponding velocities v
2
(t) and v
1
(t) of the medium in the
left and right crosssections bounding the considered volume. Hence
d
dt
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
A(x, t) S(x, t) dx =
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
t
[A(x, t) S(x, t)] dx
+A(x, t) v(x, t) S(x, t)
x
2
(t)
A(x, t) v(x, t) S(x, t)
x
1
(t)
.
If, in addition, we take into account the wellknown NewtonLeibniz formula,
according to which
A(x, t) v(x, t) S(x, t)
x
2
(t)
A(x, t) v(x, t) S(x, t)
x
1
(t)
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
x
[A(x, t) v(x, t) S(x, t)] dx,
we obtain
d
dt
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
A(x, t) S(x, t) dx =
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
_
AS
t
+
ASv
x
_
dx. (1.4)
1.3
The Law of Conservation of Transported Medium Mass. The Continuity Equation
The density (x, t), the velocity of the transported medium v(x, t) and the
area of the pipeline crosssection S(x, t) cannot be chosen arbitrarily since
their values dene the enhancement or reduction of the medium mass in
one or another place of the pipeline. Therefore the rst equation would be
obtained when the transported medium is governed by the mass conservation
law
d
dt
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
(x, t) S(x, t) dx = 0, (1.5)
This equation should be obeyed for any uid particle of the transported
medium, that is for any values x
1
(t) and x
2
(t).
Applying to Eq. (1.4) the rule (1.5) of differentiation of integral quantity with
regard to uid volume, we obtain
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
_
S
t
+
vS
x
_
dx = 0.
8 1 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
Since the last relation holds for arbitrary integration limits we get the following
differential equation
S
t
+
vS
x
= 0, (1.6)
which is called continuity equation of the transported medium in the pipeline.
If the ow is stationary, that is the local derivative with respect to time is
zero (()/t = 0), the last equation is simplied to
dvS
dx
= 0
M = vS = const. (1.7)
This means that in stationary ow the mass ow rate
M is constant along the
pipeline.
If we ignore the pipeline deformation and take S(x)
= S
0
= const.,
from Eq. (1.7) it follows that v = const. From this follow two important
consequences:
1. In the case of a homogeneous incompressible uid (sometimes oil and
oil product can be considered as such uids)
=
0
= const. and the
ow velocity v(x) = const. Hence the ow velocity of a homogeneous
incompressible uid in a pipeline of constant crosssection does not change
along the length of the pipeline.
Example. The volume ow rate of the oil transported by a pipeline with
diameter D = 820 mm and wall thickness = 8 mm is 2500 m
3
h
1
. It is
required to nd the velocity v of the ow.
Solution. The internal diameter d of the oil pipeline is equal to
d = D 2 = 0.82 2 0.008 = 0.804 m;
v = 4Q/d
2
= const.
v = 4 2500/(3600 3.14 0.804
2
)
= 1.37 m s
1
.
2. In the case of a compressible medium, e.g. a gas, the density (x)
changes along the length of pipeline section under consideration. Since
the density is as a rule connected with pressure, this change represents
a monotonic function decreasing from the beginning of the section to
its end. Then from the condition v = const. it follows that the velocity
v(x) of the ow also increases monotonically from the beginning of the
section to its end. Hence the velocity of the gas ow in a pipeline with
constant diameter increases from the beginning of the section between
compressor stations to its end.
Example. The mass ow rate of gas transported along the pipeline
(D = 1020 mm, = 10 mm) is 180 kg s
1
. Find the velocity of the gas ow
1.4 The Law of Change in Momentum. The Equation of Fluid Motion 9
v
1
at the beginning and v
2
at the end of the gaspipeline section, if the
density of the gas at the beginning of the section is 45 kg m
3
and at the
end is 25 kg m
3
.
Solution. v
1
=
M/(
1
S) = 4 180/(45 3.14 1
2
)
= 5.1 m s
1
;
v
2
=
M/(
2
S) = 4 180/(25 3.14 1
2
)
= 9.2 m s
1
, that is the gas ow
velocity is enhanced by a factor 1.8 towards the end as compared with the
velocity at the beginning.
1.4
The Law of Change in Momentum. The Equation of Fluid Motion
The continuity equation (1.6) contains several unknown functions, hence the
use of only this equation is insufcient to nd each of them. To get additional
equations we can use, among others, the equation of the change in momentum
of the system of material points comprising the transported medium. This law
expresses properly the second Newton law applied to an arbitrary uid volume
of transported medium
dI
dt
=
d
dt
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
v Sdx = (p
1
S
1
p
2
S
2
) +
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
p
S
x
dx
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
d
w
dx
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
g sin(x) Sdx. (1.8)
On the left is the total derivative of the uid volume momentum of the
transported medium with respect to time and on the right the sum of all
external forces acting on the considered volume.
The rst term on the righthand side of the equation gives the difference
in pressure forces acting at the ends of the single continuum volume.
The second term represents the axial projection of the reaction force
from the lateral surface of the pipe (this force differs from zero when
S = const.). The third term denes the friction force at the lateral surface
of the pipe (
w
is the shear stress at the pipe walls, that is the friction
force per unit area of the pipeline internal surface, Pa). The fourth term
gives the sliding component of the gravity force ((x) is the slope of the
pipeline axis to the horizontal, > 0 for ascending sections of the pipeline;
< 0 for descending sections of the pipeline; g is the acceleration due to
gravity).
Representing the pressure difference in the form of an integral over the
length of the considered volume
p
1
S
1
p
2
S
2
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
pS
x
dx
10 1 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
and noting that
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
pS
x
dx +
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
p
S
x
dx =
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
S
p
x
dx,
we obtain the following equation
d
dt
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
vSdx =
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
_
S
p
x
S
4
d
w
Sg sin(x)
_
dx.
Now applying to the lefthand side of this equation the differentiation rule of
uid volume
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
_
vS
t
+
v
2
S
x
_
dx
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
_
S
p
x
S
4
d
w
Sg sin(x)
_
dx.
As far as the limits of integration in the last relation are arbitrary one can
discard the integral sign and get the differential equation
vS
t
+
v
2
S
x
= S
_
p
x
4
d
w
g sin(x)
_
. (1.9)
If we represent the lefthand side of this equation in the form
v
_
S
t
+
vS
x
_
+S
_
v
t
+v
v
x
_
and take into account that in accordance with the continuity equation (1.6) the
expression in the rst brackets is equal to zero, the resulting equation may be
written in a more simple form
_
v
t
+v
v
x
_
=
p
x
4
d
w
g sin(x). (1.10)
The expression in brackets on the lefthand side of Eq. (1.10) represents the
total derivative with respect to time, that is the particle acceleration
w =
dv
dt
=
v
t
+v
v
x
. (1.11)
Now the meaning of Eq. (1.10) becomes clearer: the product of unit volume
mass of transported medium and its acceleration is equal to the sum of all
forces acting on the medium, namely pressure, friction and gravity forces. So
Eq. (1.10) expresses the Newtons Second Law and can therefore also be called
the ow motion equation.
Remark. about the connection between total and partial derivatives with respect
to time. The acceleration w = dv/ dt is a total derivative with respect to time
(symbol d()/ dt), since we are dealing with the velocity differentiation of one
and the same xed particle of the transported medium moving from one
1.5 The Equation of Mechanical Energy Balance 11
crosssection of the pipeline to another one, whereas the partial derivative with
respect to time (symbol ()/t) has the meaning of velocity differentiation at
a given place in space, that is at a constant value of x. Thus such a derivative
gives the change in velocity of different particles of the transported medium
entering a given crosssection of the pipeline.
Let a particle of the medium at the instant of time t be in the crosssection
x of the pipeline and so have velocity v(x, t). In the next instant of time t +t
this particle will transfer to the crosssection x +x and will have velocity
v(x +x, t +t). The acceleration w of this particle is dened as the limit
w =
dv
dt
= lim
t0
v(x +x, t +t) v(x, t)
t
=
v
t
x
+
v
x
dx
dt
.
Since dx/ dt = v(x, t) is the velocity of the considered particle, from the last
equality it follows that
dv
dt
=
v
t
+v
v
x
. (1.12)
A similar relation between the total derivative ( d/ dt), or as it is also called
the individual or Lagrangian derivative, and the partial derivative (/t), or as
it is also called the local or Eulerian derivative, has the form (1.12) no matter
whether the case in point is velocity or any other parameter A(x, t)
dA(x, t)
dt
=
A(x, t)
t
+v
A(x, t)
x
.
1.5
The Equation of Mechanical Energy Balance
Consider now what leads to the use of the mechanical energy change law as
applied to the system of material points representing a uid particle of the
transported medium. This law is written as:
dE
kin
dt
=
dA
ex
dt
+
dA
in
dt
(1.13)
that is the change in kinetic energy of a system of material points dE
kin
is equal
to the sum of the work of the external dA
ex
and internal dA
in
forces acting on
the points of this system.
We can calculate separately the terms of this equation but rst we should
dene more exactly what meant by the kinetic energy E
kin
. If the transported
medium moves in the pipeline as a piston with equal velocity v(x, t) over the
crosssection then the kinetic energy would be expressed as the integral
E
kin
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
v
2
2
Sdx.
12 1 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
But, in practice, such a schematization is too rough because, as experiments
show, the velocity of the separate layers of the transported medium (uid or
gas) varies over the pipe crosssection. At the center of the pipe it reaches the
greatest value, whereas as the internal surface of the pipe is approached the
velocity decreases and at the wall itself it is equal to zero. Furthermore, if at
a small velocity of the uid the ow regime is laminar, with an increase in
velocity the laminar ow changes into a turbulent one (pulsating and mixing
ow) and the velocities of the separate particles differ signicantly from the
average velocity v of the ow. That is why models of the ow are, as a rule,
constructed with regard to the difference in ow velocity from the average
velocity over the crosssection.
The true velocity u of a particle of the transported mediumis givenas the sum
u = v +u of the average velocity over the crosssection v(x, t) and the additive
one (deviation) u representing the difference between the true velocity and
the average one. The average value of this additive u is equal to zero, but
the rootmeansquare (rms) value of the additive (u)
2
is nonvanishing.
The deviation characterizes the kinetic energy of the relative motion of the
continuumparticle in the pipeline crosssection. Then the kinetic energy of the
transported medium unit mass e
kin
may be presented as the sum of two terms
e
kin
=
v
2
2
+
(u)
2
2
namely the kinetic energy of the center of mass of the considered point system
and the kinetic energy of the motion of these points relative to the center of
mass. If the average velocity v = 0, then
v
2
2
+
(u)
2
2
=
v
2
2
_
1 +
(u)
2
v
2
_
=
k
v
2
2
where
k
= 1 +(u)
2
/v
2
> 1. For laminar ow
k
= 4/3, while for turbulent
ow the value of
k
lies in the range 1.021.05.
Remark. It should be noted that in onedimensional theory, as a rule, the cases
v = 0 and (u)
2
= 0 are not considered.
With regard to the introduced factor the kinetic energy of any movable
volume of transported medium may be represented as
E
kin
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
v
2
2
Sdx.
Let us turn now to the calculation of the terms in the mechanical energy
equation (1.13). Let us calculate rst the change in kinetic energy
dE
kin
dt
=
d
dt
__
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
v
2
2
Sdx
_
.
1.5 The Equation of Mechanical Energy Balance 13
Employing the rule of integral quantity integration with reference to the uid
volume, that is an integral with variable integration limits, we get
dE
kin
dt
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
_
t
_
v
2
2
S
_
+
x
_
v
2
2
S v
__
dx.
The work of the external forces (in this case they are the forces of pressure and
gravity), including also the work of external mechanical devices, e.g. pumps if
such are used, is equal to
dA
ex
dt
= (p
1
Sv
1
p
2
Sv
2
)
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
g sin v Sdx +N
mech
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
x
(pSv) dx
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
g sin v Sdx +N
mech
.
The rst term on the righthand side of the last expression gives the work
performed in unit time or, more precisely, the power of the pressure force
applied to the initial and end crosssections of the detached volume. The
second term gives the power of the gravity force and the third term N
mech
the
power of the external mechanical devices acting on the transported medium
volume under consideration.
The work of the internal forces (pressure and internal friction) executed in
unit time is given by
dA
in
dt
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
p
(Sv)
x
dx +
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
n
in
Sdx.
The rst term on the righthand side gives the work of the pressure force in
unit time, that is the power, for compression of the particles of the medium,
the factor (Sv)/x dx giving the rate of elementary volume change. The
second term represents the power of the internal friction forces, that is the
forces of mutual friction between the internal layers of the medium, n
in
denoting specic power, that is per unit mass of the transported medium.
In what follows it will be shown that this quantity characterizes the amount
of mechanical energy converting into heat per unit time caused by mutual
internal friction of the transported particles of the medium.
Gathering together all the terms of the mechanical energy equation we get
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
_
t
_
v
2
2
S
_
+
x
_
v
2
2
vS
__
dx
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
Sv
__
1
p
x
_
+g sin
_
dx +
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
n
in
Sdx +N
mech
.
If the transported medium is barotropic, that is the pressure in it depends only
on the density p = p(), one can introduce a function P() of the pressure
14 1 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
such that dP = dp/, P() =
_
dp/ and
1
p
x
=
P()
x
. If, moreover, we take
into account the equality sin(x) = z/x, where the function z(x) is referred
to as the pipeline prole, the last equation could be rewritten in the simple
form
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
_
S
t
_
k
v
2
2
_
+vS
x
_
k
v
2
2
+P() +gz
__
dx
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
n
in
Sdx +N
mech
. (1.14)
If we assume that in the region [x
1
(t), x
2
(t)] external sources of mechanical
energy are absent. Then N
mech
= 0 and we can go from the integral equality
(1.14) to a differential equation using, as before, the condition of arbitrariness
of integration limits x
1
(t) and x
2
(t) in Eq. (1.14). Then the sign of the integral
can be omitted and the corresponding differential equation is
S
t
_
k
v
2
2
_
+vS
x
_
k
v
2
2
+P() +gz
_
= S n
in
(1.15)
or
t
_
k
v
2
2
_
+v
x
_
k
v
2
2
+
_
dp
+gz
_
= n
in
. (1.16)
This is the sought differential equationexpressing the lawof mechanical energy
change. It should be emphasized that this equation is not a consequence of the
motion equation (1.10). It represents an independent equation for modeling
onedimensional ows of a transported medium in the pipeline.
If we divide both parts of Eq. (1.16) by g we get
t
_
k
v
2
2g
_
+v
x
_
k
v
2
2g
+
_
dp
g
+z
_
=
n
in
g
.
The expression
H =
k
v
2
2g
+
_
dp
g
+z (1.17)
in the derivative on the lefthand side of the last equation has the dimension of
length and is called the total head. The total head at the pipeline crosssection
x consists of the kinetic head (dynamic pressure)
k
v
2
/2g, the piezometric head
_
dp/g and the geometric head z. The concept of head is very important in the
calculation of processes occurring in pipelines.
1.5 The Equation of Mechanical Energy Balance 15
1.5.1
Bernoulli Equation
In the case of stationary ow of a barotropic uid or gas in the pipeline the
derivative ()/t = 0, hence the following ordinary differential equations apply
v
d
dx
_
k
v
2
2g
+
_
dp
g
+z
_
=
n
in
g
or
d
dx
_
k
v
2
2g
+
_
dp
g
+z
_
=
n
in
gv
= i, (1.18)
where i denotes the dimensional quantity n
in
/gv called the hydraulic gradient
i =
dH
dx
=
n
in
gv
.
Thus the hydraulic gradient, dened as the pressure loss per unit length of
the pipeline, is proportional to the dissipation of mechanical energy into heat
through internal friction between the transported medium layers (i < 0).
In integral form, that is as applied to transported medium located between
two xed crosssections x
1
and x
2
, Eq. (1.18) takes the following form
_
k
v
2
2g
+
_
dp
g
+z
_
1
k
v
2
2g
+
_
dp
g
+z
_
2
=
_
x
2
x
1
i dx. (1.19)
This equation is called the Bernoulli equation. It is one of the fundamental
equations used to describe the stationary ow of a barotropic medium in
a pipeline.
For an incompressible homogeneous uid, which under some conditions can
be water, oil and oil product, = const.,
_
dp/g = p/g +const. Therefore
the Bernoulli equation becomes
_
k
v
2
2g
+
p
g
+z
_
1
k
v
2
2g
+
p
g
+z
_
2
=
_
x
2
x
1
i dx.
If in addition we take i = i
0
= const. (i
0
> 0), then
_
v
2
2g
+
p
g
+z
_
1
v
2
2g
+
p
g
+z
_
2
= i
0
l
12
(1.20)
where l
12
is the length of the pipeline between crosssections 1 and 2.
This last equationhas a simple geometric interpretation(see Figure 1.2). This
gure illustrates a pipeline prole (heavy broken line); the line H(x) denoting
the dependence of the total head H on the coordinate x directed along the
axis of the pipeline (straight line) with constant slope to the horizontal
(i = dH/ dx = tg = const.) and three components of the total head at an
16 1 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
Figure 1.2 Geometric interpretation of the Bernoulli equation.
arbitrary crosssection of the pipeline: geometric head z(x), piezometric head
p(x)/g and kinetic head
k
v
2
(x)/2g.
The line H(x) representing the dependence of the total head H on the
coordinate x along the pipeline axis is called the line of hydraulic gradient.
It should be noted that if we neglect the dynamic pressure (in oil and
oil product pipelines the value of the dynamic pressure does not exceed the
pipeline diameter, e.g. at v 2 m s
1
,
k
1.05 then v
2
/2g
= 0.25 m), and
the length of the section between the pipeline prole and the line of hydraulic
gradient multiplied by g gives the value of the pressure in the pipeline cross
section x. For example, when the length of the section AA (see Figure 1.2) is
500 m and diesel fuel with density = 840 kg m
3
is transported along the
pipeline, then
p
840 9.81
= 500 p = 500 840 9.81 = 4 120 200 (Pa)
or 4.12 MPa (42 atm).
1.5.2
Input of External Energy
In uid ow in the pipeline the mechanical energy is dissipated into heat and
the pressure decreases gradually. Devices providing pressure restoration or
generation are called compressors.
Compressors installed separately or combined in a group form the pumping
plant destined to set the uid moving from the crosssection with lesser
pressure to the crosssection with greater pressure. To do this it is required to
expend, or deliver from outside to the uid, energy whose power is denoted by
N
mech
.
Let index 1 in the Bernoulli equation refer to parameters at the crosssection
x
1
of the pump entrance (suction line) and index 2 at the crosssection x
2
of the
1.6 Equation of Change in Internal Motion Kinetic Energy 17
pump exit (discharge line). Since vS = const., the Bernoulli equation (1.14)
may be written as:
_
x
2
x
1
d
dx
_
vS
_
k
v
2
2
+
p
+gz
__
dx =
_
x
2
x
1
n
in
Sdx +N
mech
.
Ignoring the difference between the kinetic and geometric heads we get
vS
p
2
p
1
_
x
2
x
1
n
in
Sdx = N
mech
.
Denoting by H = (p
2
p
1
)/g the differential head produced by the pump or
pumping plant and taking into account that vS = Q = const. and n
in
= gv i,
we obtain
N
mech
= gQ H
_
x
2
x
1
gQ i dx = gQ H
_
1
_
x
2
x
1
i
H
dx
_
.
The expression in parentheses characterizes the loss of mechanical energy
within the pump. Usually this factor is taken into account by insertion of the
pump efciency
=
_
1
_
x
2
x
1
i/H dx
_
1
< 1
so that
N
mech
=
gQ H
(Q)
. (1.21)
The relation (1.21) is the main formula used to calculate the power of the
pump generating head H in uid pumping with ow rate Q.
1.6
Equation of Change in Internal Motion Kinetic Energy
At the beginning of the previous section it was noted that the total
kinetic energy of the transported medium consisted of two terms the
kinetic energy of the center of mass of the particle and the kinetic energy
of the internal motion of the center of mass, so that the total energy
of a particle is equal to
k
v
2
/2, where
k
> 1. Now we can derive an
equation for the second component of the kinetic energy, namely the kinetic
energy of the internal or relative motion in the ow of the transported
medium.
Multiplication of motion equation (1.10) by the product vS yields
S
d
dt
_
v
2
2
_
=
p
x
vS
4
d
w
vS gvS sin(x).
18 1 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
Subtracting this equation termbyterm from the Bernoulli equation (1.15),
one obtains
S
d
dt
_
(
k
1)
v
2
2
_
=
4
d
w
vS +S n
in
.
Introduction of n
in
= gv i
0
gives
S
d
dt
_
(
1)
v
2
2
_
=
_
4
d
w
v
_
S gvS i
0
. (1.22)
This is the sought equation of change in kinetic energy of internal motion of
onedimensional ow of the transported medium. Its sense is obvious: the
power of the external friction forces (4
w
vS/d) in onedimensional ow minus the
power gS(v i
0
) of internal friction forces between the particles causing transition
of mechanical energy into heat is equal to the rate of change of internal motion
kinetic energy in the ow of the transported medium.
For stationary ow ( d/ dt = 0 +v /x) of the transported medium
Eq. (1.22) gives
d
dx
_
(
k
1)
v
2
2
_
=
4
d
g i
0
. (1.23)
If v
w
=
gd
4
i
0
. (1.24)
It must be emphasized that in the general case, including nonstationary ow,
such a connection between
w
and i
0
is absent (see Section 4.1).
1.6.1
Hydraulic Losses (of Mechanical Energy)
The quantity n
in
entering into Eq. (1.16) denotes the specic power of the
internal friction force, that is per unit mass of transported medium. This
quantity is very important since it characterizes the loss of mechanical energy
converted into heat owing to internal friction between layers of the medium.
In order to derive this quantity theoretically one should know how the layers
of transported medium move at each crosssection of the pipeline but this is
not always possible. In the next chapter it will be shown that in several cases,
in particular for laminar, ow such motion can be calculated and the quantity
n
in
can be found. In other cases, such as for turbulent ows of the transported
1.6 Equation of Change in Internal Motion Kinetic Energy 19
medium, it is not possible to calculate the motion of the layers and other
methods of determining n
in
are needed.
The quantity of specic mechanical energy dissipation n
in
has the following
dimension (from now onwards dimension will be denoted by the symbol [ ])
[n
in
] =
W
kg
=
J
s kg
=
N m
s kg
=
kg m s
2
m
s kg
=
m
2
s
3
=
_
v
3
d
_
.
So the dimension of n
in
is the same as the dimension of the quantity v
3
/d,
hence, without disturbance of generality, one can seek n
in
in the form
n
in
=
2
v
3
d
(1.25)
where is a dimensional factor ( > 0), the minus sign shows that n
in
< 0,
that is the mechanical energy decreases thanks to the forces of internal friction.
The factor 1/2 is introduced for the sake of convenience.
The presented formula does not disturb the generality of the consideration
because the unknown dependence of n
in
on the governing parameters of the
ow is accounted for by the factor . This dependence is valid for any medium
be it uid, gas or other medium with complex specic properties, e.g. waxy
crude oil, suspension or even pulp, that is a mixture of water with large rigid
particles.
For stationary uid or gas ow one can suppose the factor to be dependent
on four main parameters: the ow velocity v (m s
1
), the kinematic viscosity
of the ow (m
2
s
1
), the internal diameter of the pipeline d (m) and the
mean height of the roughness of its internal surface (mm or m), so that
= f (v, , d, ). The density of the uid and the acceleration due to gravity
g are not included here because intuition suggests that the friction between
uid or gas layers will be dependent on neither their density nor the force of
gravity.
Note that the quantity is dimensionless, that is its numerical value
is independent of the system of measurement units, while the parameters
v, , d, are dimensional quantities and their numerical values depend on
such a choice. The apparent contradiction is resolved by the wellknown
Buckingham Itheorem, in accordance with which any dimensionless quantity
can depend only on dimensionless combinations of parameters governing this
quantity (Lurie, 2001). In our case there are two such parameters
v d
= Re and
d
= ,
the rst is called the Reynolds number and the second the relative roughness of
the pipeline internal surface. Thus
= (Re, ).
20 1 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
The formula (1.25) acquires the form
n
in
= (Re, )
1
d
v
3
2
. (1.26)
The factor in this formula is called the hydraulic resistance factor, one
of the most important parameters of hydraulics and pipeline transportation.
Characteristic values of lie in the range 0.010.03. More detailed information
about this factor and its dependence on the governing parameters will be
presented below.
Turning to the hydraulic gradient i
0
, one can write
i
0
=
n
in
gv
=
1
d
v
2
2g
. (1.27)
Characteristic values of the hydraulic slope are 0.000050.005.
If we substitute Eq. (1.27) into the Bernoulli equation (1.20), we obtain
_
k
v
2
2g
+
p
g
+z
_
1
k
v
2
2g
+
p
g
+z
_
2
= (Re, )
l
12
d
v
2
2g
. (1.28)
The expression h
= l
12
/d v
2
/2g on the righthand side of this equation
is called the loss of head in DarcyVeisbach form.
Using Eq. (1.27) in the case of stationary ow of the transported medium
permits us to get an expression for the tangential friction stress
w
at the
pipeline wall. Substitution of Eq. (1.27) into Eq. (1.24), yields
w
=
gd
4
i
0
=
gd
4
_
1
d
v
2
2g
_
=
4
v
2
2
= C
f
v
2
2
, (1.29)
C
f
(Re, ) =
(Re, )
4
where the dimensional factor C
f
is called the friction factor of the uid on the
internal surface of the pipeline or the Funning factor (Leibenson et al., 1934).
1.6.2
Formulas for Calculation of the Factor (Re, )
Details of methods to nd and calculate the factor of hydraulic resistance in
Eqs. (1.26)(1.29) and one of the primary factors in hydraulics and pipeline
transportation will be given in Chapter 3. Here are shown several formulas
exploiting the practice.
If the owof uid or gas in the pipeline is laminar, that is jetwise or layerwise
(the Reynolds number Re should be less than 2300), then to determine the
Stokes formula (see Section 3.1) is used
=
64
Re
. (1.30)
1.6 Equation of Change in Internal Motion Kinetic Energy 21
As the Reynolds number increases (Re > 2300) the ow in the pipeline
gradually loses hydrodynamic stability and becomes turbulent, that is vortex
ow with mixing layers. The best known formula to calculate the factor in
this case is the Altshuler formula:
= 0.11
_
+
68
Re
_
1/4
(1.31)
valid over a wide range of Reynolds number from 10
4
up to 10
6
and higher.
If 10
4
< Re < 27/
1.143
and Re < 10
5
, the Altshuler formula becomes the
Blasius formula:
=
0.3164
4
Re
(1.32)
having the same peculiarity as the Stokes formula for laminar ow, which
does not consider the relative roughness of the pipeline internal surface .
This means that for the considered range of Reynolds numbers the pipeline
behaves as a pipeline with a smooth surface. Therefore the uid ow in this
range is ow in a hydraulic smooth pipe. In this case the friction tension
w
at
the pipe wall is expressed by formula
w
=
4
v
2
2
=
0.0791
4
_
vd/
v
2
2
v
1.75
signifying that friction resistance is proportional to uid mean velocity to the
power of 1.75.
If Re > 500/, the second term in parentheses in the Altshuler formula can
be neglected compared to the rst one. Whence it follows that at great uid
velocities the uid friction is caused chiey by the smoothness of the pipeline
internal surface, that is by the parameter . In such a case one can use the
simpler Shiphrinson formula = 0.11
0.25
. Then
w
=
4
v
2
2
=
0.11
1/4
4
v
2
2
v
2
.
From this it transpires that the friction resistance is proportional to the square
of the uid mean velocity and hence this type of ow is called square ow.
Finally, in the region of ow transition from laminar to turbulent, that
is in the range of Reynolds number from 2320 up to 10
4
one can use the
approximation formula
=
64
Re
(1
) +
0.3164
4
Re
, (1.33)
where
= 1 e
0.002(Re2320)
is the intermittency factor (Ginsburg, 1957). It
is obvious that the form of the last formula assures continuous transfer from
the Stokes formula for laminar ow to the Blasius formula for turbulent ow
in the zone of hydraulic smooth pipes.
22 1 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
To calculate the hydraulic resistance factor of the gas ow in a gas main,
where the Reynolds number Re is very large and this factor depends only on
the condition of the pipeline internal surface, Eq. (1.34) is often used.
= 0.067
_
2
d
_
0.2
(1.34)
in which the absolute roughness is equal to 0.030.05 mm.
Exercise 1. The oil ( = 870 kg m
3
, = 15 s St) ows along the pipeline
(D = 156 mm; = 5 mm; = 0.1 mm) with mean velocity v = 0.2 m s
1
.
Determine through the Reynolds criterion the ow regime; calculate factors
and C
f
.
Answer. Laminar; 0.033; 0.0083.
Exercise 2. Benzene ( = 750 kg m
3
, = 0.7 s St) ows along the pipeline
(D = 377 mm; = 7 mm; = 0.15 mm) with mean velocity v = 1.4 m s
1
.
Determine through the Reynolds criterion the ow regime; calculate factors
and C
f
.
Answer. Turbulent; 0.017; 0.0041.
Exercise 3. Diesel fuel ( = 840 kg m
3
, = 6 s St) ows along the pipeline
(D = 530 mm; = 8 mm; = 0.25 mm) with mean velocity v = 0.8 m s
1
.
Determine the ow regime; calculate factors and C
f
.
Answer. Turbulent; 0.022; 0.0054.
1.7
Total Energy Balance Equation
Besides the law (1.13) of mechanical energy change of material points,
applied to an arbitrary continuum volume in the pipeline there is one more
fundamental physical law valid for any continuum the law of total energy
conservation or, as it is also called, the rst law of thermodynamics. This law
asserts that the energy does not appear from anywhere and does not disappear
to anywhere. It changes in total quantity from one form into another. As
applied to our case this law may be written as follows
d(E
kin
+E
in
)
dt
=
dQ
ex
dt
+
dA
ex
dt
(1.35)
that is the change in total energy (E
kin
+E
in
) of an arbitrary volume of the
transported medium happens only due to the exchange of energy with
surrounding bodies owing to external inow of heat dQ
ex
and the work
of external forces dA
ex
.
1.7 Total Energy Balance Equation 23
In Eq. (1.35) E
in
is the internal energy of the considered mass of transported
medium, unrelated to the kinetic energy, that is the energy of heat motion,
interaction between molecules and atoms and so on. In thermodynamics
reasons are given as to why the internal energy is a function of state, that
is at thermodynamic equilibrium of a body in some state the energy has a
welldened value regardless of the means (procedure) by which this state
was achieved. At the same time the quantities dQ
ex
/ dt and dA
ex
/ dt are
not generally derivatives with respect to a certain function of state but only
represent the ratio of elementary inows of heat energy (differential dQ
ex
) and
external mechanical energy (differential dA
ex
) to the time dt in which these
inows happened. It should be kept in mind that these quantities depend on
the process going on in the medium.
In addition to function E
in
one more function e
in
is often introduced,
representing the internal energy of a unit mass of the considered body
e
in
= E
in
/m, where m is the mass of the body.
We can write Eq. (1.35) for a movable volume of transported medium
enclosed between crosssections x
1
(t) and x
2
(t). The terms of this equation are
d(E
kin
+E
in
)
dt
=
d
dt
__
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
_
k
v
2
2
+e
in
_
Sdx
_
,
dQ
ex
dt
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
d q
n
dx,
dA
ex
dt
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
x
(pSv) dx
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
g sin v Sdx +N
mech
where q
n
is the heat ux going through the unit area of the pipeline surface
per unit time (W m
2
); d dx is an element of pipeline surface area and d is
the pipeline diameter.
Gathering all terms, we obtain
d
dt
__
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
_
v
2
2
+e
in
_
Sdx
_
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
d q
n
dx
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
x
(pSv) dx
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
g sin v Sdx +N
mech
.
Differentiation of the lefthand side of this equation gives
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
_
t
__
k
v
2
2
+e
in
_
S
_
+
x
__
k
v
2
2
+e
in
_
vS
__
dx
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
d q
n
dx
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
x
_
p
vS
_
dx
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
vSg
z
x
dx +N
mech
24 1 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
or
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
_
t
__
k
v
2
2
+e
in
_
S
_
+
x
__
k
v
2
2
+e
in
+
p
_
vS
__
dx
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
d q
n
dx
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
vSg
z
x
dx +N
mech
. (1.36)
If we assume that inside the region [x
1
(t), x
2
(t)] the external sources of me
chanical energy are absent, that is N
mech
= 0, then it is possible to pass from
integral equality (1.36) to the corresponding differential equation using, as
before, the condition that this equation should be true for any volume of the
transported medium, that is the limits of integration x
1
(t) and x
2
(t) in (1.36)
are to be arbitrarily chosen. Then the sign of the integral can be omitted and
the differential equation is
t
__
k
v
2
2
+e
in
_
S
_
+
x
__
k
v
2
2
+e
in
+
p
_
vS
_
= d q
n
vSg
z
x
. (1.37)
Excluding from Eq. (1.37) the change in kinetic energy with the help of the
Bernoulli equation with term by term subtraction of Eq. (1.16) from Eq. (1.37)
we get one more energy equation
S
t
_
k
v
2
2
_
+vS
x
_
k
v
2
2
+
_
dp
+gz
_
= vSg i
called the equation of heat inow.
This equation could be variously written. First, it may be written through
the internal energy e
in
:
t
(e
in
S) +
x
(e
in
vS) = d q
n
p
vS
x
vSg i
or
S
_
e
in
t
+v
e
in
x
_
= d q
n
p
vS
x
vSg i. (1.38)
This equation proved to be especially convenient for modeling ows of
incompressible or slightly compressible uids because the derivative (vS)/x
expressing the change in uid volume in the pipeline crosssectionis extremely
small as is the work p (vS)/x of the pressure forces. With this in mind
Eq. (1.38) may be written in a particularly simple form:
de
in
dt
=
4
d
q
n
vg i. (1.39)
1.7 Total Energy Balance Equation 25
This means that the rate of internal energy change of the transported medium
is determined by the inow of external heat through the pipeline surface and
heat extraction due to conversion of mechanical energy into heat produced by
friction between the continuum layers.
Second, the equation of heat inow can be written using the function
J = e
in
+p/ representing one of the basic thermodynamic functions, enthalpy
or heat content, of the transported medium
t
(e
in
S) +
x
__
e
in
+
p
_
vS
_
= d q
n
+vSg
_
1
g
p
x
i
_
or
t
(e
in
S) +
x
[J vS] = d q
n
+vSg
_
1
g
p
x
i
_
. (1.40)
If we take into account (as will be shown later) that the expression in
parentheses on the righthand side of this equation is close to zero, since for a
relatively light medium, e.g. gas, the hydraulic slope is expressed through the
pressure gradient by the formula i = 1/g p/x, the equation of heat inow
can be reduced to a simpler form
S e
in
t
+
vS J
x
= d q
n
(1.41)
in which the dissipation of mechanical energy appears to be absent.
Temperature Distribution in Stationary Flow
The equation of heat inow in the form (1.39) or (1.41) is convenient to
determine the temperature distribution along the pipeline length in stationary
ow of the transported medium.
1. For an incompressible or slightly compressible medium, e.g. dropping liquid:
water, oil and oil product, this equation has the form
v
de
in
dx
=
4
d
q
n
vg i. (1.42)
The internal energy e
in
depends primarily on the temperature of the uid
T, the derivative de
in
/ dT giving its specic heat C
v
(J kg
1
K
1
). If we take
C
v
= const. then e
in
= C
v
T +const.
To model the heat ux q
n
the Newton formula is usually used
q
n
= (T T
ex
), (1.43)
by which this ow is proportional to the difference between the temperatures
T and T
ex
in and outside the pipeline, with q
n
< 0 when T > T
ex
and q
n
> 0
when T < T
ex
. The factor (W m
2
K
1
) in this formula characterizes the
overall heat resistance of the materials through which the heat is transferred
26 1 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
from the pipe to the surrounding medium (anticorrosive and heat insulation,
ground, the boundary between ground and air and so on) or the reverse. This
factor is called the heattransfer factor.
The hydraulic gradient i can sometimes be considered constant i = i
0
const., if the dissipation of mechanical energy in the stationary uid ow in
the pipeline with constant diameter is identical at all crosssections of the
pipeline.
With due regard for all the aforesaid Eq. (1.42) is reduced to the following
ordinary differential equation
C
v
v
dT
dx
=
4
d
(T T
ex
) +vgi
0
(1.44)
for temperature T = T(x). From this equation in particular it follows that the
heat transfer through the pipeline wall (the rst term on the righthand side)
lowers the temperature of the transported medium when T(x) > T
ex
or raises
it when T(x) < T
ex
, whereas the dissipation of mechanical energy (the second
term on the righthand side) always implies an increase in the temperature of
the transported medium.
The solution of the differential equation (1.44) with initial condition
T(0) = T
0
yields
T(x) T
ex
T
T
0
T
ex
T
= exp
_
d
C
v
M
x
_
. (1.45)
Where T
= gi
0
M/d is a constant having the dimension of temperature;
), the medium gradually heats up. In all cases with increase in the
pipeline length the temperature T (T
ex
+T
).
In particular from Eq. (1.44) it follows that if the heat insulation of the
pipeline is chosen such that at the initial crosssection of the pipeline x = 0
Figure 1.3 Temperature
distribution along the pipeline length.
1.7 Total Energy Balance Equation 27
the condition of equality to zero of the righthand side is obeyed
4
d
(T
0
T
ex
) +vgi
0
= 0
that is the factor satises the condition
=
vdgi
0
4(T
0
T
ex
)
=
g
M i
0
d (T
0
T
ex
)
.
And the temperature of the transported medium would remain constant and
equal to its initial value over the whole pipeline section. In such a case the
heat outgoing from the pipeline would be compensated by the heat extracted
by internal friction between the layers. Such an effect is used, for example,
in oil transportation along the TransAlaska oil pipeline (USA, see the cover
picture). Through good insulation of the pipeline the oil is pumped over
without preheating despite the fact that in winter the temperature of the
environment is very low.
From Eq. (1.45) follows the connection between the initial T
0
and nal T
L
temperatures of the transported medium. If in this formula we set x = L,
where L is the length of the pipeline section, we obtain
T
L
T
ex
T
T
0
T
ex
T
= exp
_
dL
C
v
M
_
. (1.46)
Expressing nowfrom(1.46) the argument under the exponent and substituting
the result in Eq. (1.45), we get the expression for the temperature distribution
through the initial and nal values
T(x) T
ex
T
T
0
T
ex
T
=
_
T
L
T
ex
T
T
0
T
ex
T
_
x/L
. (1.47)
Exercise 1. The initial temperature of crude oil ( = 870 kg m
3
, C
v
=
2000 J kg
1
K
1
, Q = 2500 m
3
h
1
), pumping over a pipeline section (d =
800 mm, L = 120 km, i
0
= 0.002) is 55
:
T
=
gi
0
M
d
=
9.81 0.002 870 (2500/3600)
3.14 0.8 2
= 2.36 K.
Using Eq. (1.46) we obtain
T
L
8 2.36
55 8 2.36
= exp
_
C.
28 1 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
Exercise 2. By how much would the temperature of the oil (C
v
=
1950 J kg
1
K
1
) be raised due to the heat of internal friction when the
oil is transported by an oil pipeline (L = 150 km, d = 500 mm, i
0
= 0.004)
provided with ideal heat insulation ( = 0)?
Solution. In this case it is impossible to use at once Eq. (1.45) since = 0. To
use Eq. (1.47) one should go to the limit at 0, therefore it would be better
to use Eq. (1.44)
C
v
v
dT
dx
= vgi
0
or C
v
dT
dx
= gi
0
,
from which T = gi
0
L/C
v
= 9.81 0.004 150 10
3
/1950
= 3 K.
Exercise 3. It is required to obtain the temperature of oil pumping over the
pipeline section of length 150 km in crosssections x = 50, 100 and 125 km,
if the temperature at the beginning of the pipeline T
0
= 60
C, that at the
end T
L
= 30
= 47
C; T(100)
= 37.3
C; T(125)
= 33.4
C.
2. For stationary ow of a compressible medium, e.g. gas, the equation of heat
inow (1.41) takes the form
vS
dJ
dx
= d q
n
.
In the general case, the gas enthalpy J is a functionof pressure and temperature
J = J(p, T), but for a perfect gas, that is a gas obeying the Clapeyronlawp = RT,
where R is the gas constant, the enthalpy is a function only of temperature
J = C
p
T +const., where C
p
is the gas specic heat capacity at constant
pressure (C
p
> C
v
; C
p
C
v
= R). Regarding C
p
= const. and taking as before
q
n
= (T T
ex
), we transform the last equation to
C
p
M
dT
dx
= d (T T
ex
)
or
dT
dx
=
d
C
p
M
(T T
ex
).
1.8 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows in Pipelines 29
The solution of this differential equation with initial condition T(0) = T
0
gives
T(x) T
ex
T
0
T
ex
= exp
_
d
C
p
M
x
_
, (1.48)
which is similar to the solution (1.45) for temperature distribution in an
incompressible uid. The difference consists only in that instead of heat
capacity C
v
in the solution (1.47) we use heat capacity C
p
and the temperature
T
taking into account the heat of internal friction is absent (for methane
C
p
= 2230 J kg
1
K
1
; C
v
= 1700 J kg
1
K
1
).
The temperature T
L
of the gas at the end of the gas pipeline section is found
from
T
L
T
ex
T
0
T
ex
= exp
_
dL
C
p
M
_
(1.49)
with regard to which the distribution (1.47) takes the form
T(x) T
ex
T
0
T
ex
=
_
T
L
T
ex
T
0
T
_
x/L
(1.50)
allowing us to express the temperature through the initial and nal
temperatures.
Note that for a real gas the enthalpy J = J(p, T) of the medium depends not
only on temperature but also on pressure, so the equation of heat inow has a
more complex form. By the dependence J(p, T) is explained, in particular, the
JouleThomson effect.
1.8
Complete System of Equations for Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional
Flows in Pipelines
This system consists of the following equations.
1. Continuity equation (1.6)
S
t
+
vS
x
= 0;
2. Momentum (motion) equation (1.10)
_
v
t
+v
v
x
_
=
p
x
4
d
w
g sin(x);
3. Equation of mechanical energy balance (1.15)
t
_
k
v
2
2
_
+v
x
_
k
v
2
2
+P() +gz
_
= vg i;
30 1 Mathematical Modeling of OneDimensional Flows of Fluid and Gas in Pipelines
4. Equation of total energy balance (1.37)
t
__
k
v
2
2
+e
in
_
S
_
+
x
__
k
v
2
2
+J
_
vS
_
= d q
n
vgS
dz
dx
.
The number of unknownfunctions inthis equationis 10: , v, p, S, e
in
, T,
w
,
i, q
n
,
k
, while the number of equations is 4. Therefore there are needed
additional relations to close the system of equations. As closing relations the
following relations are commonly used:
calorimetric dependences e
in
= e(p, T) or J = J(p, T);
dependence q
n
= (T T
ex
) or more complex dependences
representing heat exchange between the transported medium and the
environment;
hydraulic dependence
w
=
w
(, v, v, d, , . . .);
dependences
k
= f (, v, , d, . . .), or i =
f (
w
),
characterizing internal structure of medium ow.
To obtain closing relations a more detailed analysis of ow processes is
needed. It is also necessary to consider mathematical relations describing
properties of the transported medium and the pipeline in which the medium
ows.
The division of mechanics in which properties of a transported medium
such as viscosity, elasticity, plasticity and other more complex properties are
studied is called rheology.
31
2
Models of Transported Media
Algebraic relations connecting parameters of the transported medium such as
density, pressure, temperature and so on are called equations of state. Each of
these relations represents of course a certain schematization of the properties
of the considered medium and is only a model of a given medium. Let us
consider some models.
2.1
Model of a Fluid
By uid is meant a continuuminwhichthe interactionof the contacting interior
parts at rest is reduced only to the pressing force of pressure. If uid particles
interact along the surface element d with the unit normal n (Figure 2.1), the
force dF
n
with which the uid particles on one side of the element act on the
uid particles on the other side of the element is proportional to the area d,
is directed along the normal n and has a pressing action on them. Then
dF
n
= pn d. (2.1)
The magnitude p of this force does not depend on the surface element
orientation and is called pressure.
Thus, p =  dF
n
/ d. The absence of tangential friction forces in the state of
rest models the fact that the uid takes the shape of the vessel it lls.
Further classication of uids is dependent on whether or not tangential
friction forces are taken into account on exposure to uid ow. In accordance
Figure 2.1 A scheme of force interactions in a uid.
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
32 2 Models of Transported Media
with this there are two models: the model of an ideal uid and the model of a
viscous uid.
2.2
Models of Ideal and Viscous Fluids
In the model of an ideal uid it is assumed that tangential friction forces
between uid particles separated by an elementary surface are absent, not only
in the state of rest but also in the state of ow. Such a schematization
(or model) of a uid appears to be very fruitful when the tangential
components of interaction forces, that is friction forces, are far smaller
than their normal components, that is pressure forces. In other cases when
the friction forces are comparable with or even exceed the pressure forces the
model of an ideal uid has proved to be inapplicable. Hence expression (2.1)
for an ideal uid is true in the state of rest as well as in the state of
ow.
In the model of a viscous uid tangential stresses resulting in uid ow are
takeninto account. Let for example the uidlayers move as showninFigure 2.2.
Here u(y) is the velocity distribution in the ow and y is the direction of a
normal to the elementary surface d.
In the model of a viscous uid it is accepted that the tangential stress
between the layers of the moving uid is proportional to the velocity difference
of these layers calculated per unit length of the distance between them, namely
to the velocity gradient du/ dy:
=
du
dy
. (2.2)
The tangential stress is dened as the friction force between the uid layers
divided by the area of the surface separating these layers. Then the dimension
of the stress is
[] =
force
area
=
ML/T
2
L
2
=
M
L T
2
.
In the SI system of units the stress is measured by Pa = kg m
1
s
2
.
Figure 2.2 Illustration of the denition of the viscous
friction law.
2.2 Models of Ideal and Viscous Fluids 33
The proportionality factor in the law of viscous friction (2.2) is called the
factor of dynamic viscosity or simply dynamic viscosity. Its dimension is
[] = [] T =
M
L T
In SI units is measured in kg m
1
s
1
and is expressed through poise P,
where 1 P = 0.1 kg m
1
s
1
. For example the dynamic viscosity of water is
equal to 0.01 P = 0.001 kg m
1
s
1
= 1 cP (centipoise).
The factor of kinematic viscosity or simply kinematic viscosity of a uid is
dened as the ratio /, therefore
[] =
=
M/(L T)
M/L
3
=
L
2
T
.
In SI units is measured in m
2
s
1
and expressed in stokes St, where
1 St = 10
4
m
2
s
1
. For example, the kinematic viscosity of water is equal to
0.01 St = 10
6
m
2
s
1
= 1 cSt (centistoke). The kinematic viscosity of benzene
is approximately equal to 0.6 cSt; that of diesel fuel is 49 cSt and that of
lowviscous oil 515 cSt.
The viscosity of oil and of almost all oil products depends on temperature.
As the temperature increases the viscosity decreases, whereas reduction in
temperature leads to viscosity enhancement. To calculate the dependence of
the kinematic viscosity on temperature T it different formulas can be used
including the ReynoldsFilonov formula
(T) =
0
e
(TT
0
)
(2.3)
in which
0
is the kinematic viscosity of a uid at temperature T
0
and (1/ K)
is an empirical factor. Equation (2.3) means that the uid viscosity varies
exponentially with temperature.
To use Eq. (2.3) it is necessary to know the factor or the viscosity
1
of
the same uid at another temperature T
1
. Then this factor is found from the
relation
=
ln(
0
/
1
)
(T
1
T
0
)
. (2.4)
Exercise. The kinematic viscosity of summer diesel fuel at temperature +20
C
is 5 cSt, whereas at a temperature of 0
C.
Solution. With Eq. (2.4) the factor = ln(5/8)/(0 20)
= 0.0235 is deter
mined. The viscosity is found fromEq. (2.3) = 5 exp[0.0235 (10 20)]
=
6.3 cSt.
34 2 Models of Transported Media
2.3
Model of an Incompressible Fluid
A uid is called incompressible if its density does not vary when moving, that
is d/ dt = 0. If initially all uid particles had equal densities, that is the uid
was homogeneous, it remains homogeneous as before, namely =
0
= const.
while moving.
Of course an incompressible uid is only a model of a real medium,
since as is known absolutely incompressible media do not exist, but when
the change in uid density in a certain process can be neglected the model
of an incompressible uid may be very useful. For example, under normal
conditions water density is 1000 kg m
3
, benzene 735750 kg m
3
, diesel
fuel 840 kg m
3
, oil 870900 kg m
3
etc.
If the uid density depends only on pressure, that is = (p), the condition
of incompressibility is d/ dt = 0 being tantamount to d/ dp = 0.
2.4
Model of Elastic (Slightly Compressible) Fluid
There are processes which require that account is taken of even a small
variation in uid density. In such a case the socalled elastic uid model is often
used. In this model the uid density depends on pressure as follows
(p) =
0
[1 +(p p
0
)] (2.5)
where (1/Pa) is the compressibility factor;
0
the uid density at normal
pressure p
0
. The compressibility factor is the inverse of the elastic modulus
K (Pa), that is K = 1/. Then Eq. (2.5) reduces to
(p) =
0
1 +
p p
0
K
. (2.6)
Mean values of the elastic modulus for oil and oil products vary in the range
14001500 MPa, so that K 1.4 1.5 10
9
Pa. It follows that the deviation of
density from the normal
0
: =
0
(p p
0
)/K is very small for oil and
oil products. For example for a uid with
0
= 850 kg m
3
at p p
0
= 5 MPa
( 50 atm) the deviation is 2.8 kg m
3
.
2.5
Model of a Fluid with Heat Expansion
The expansion of different media on heating and subsequent compression on
cooling is taken into account in the uid model with volume expansion. In the
2.5 Model of a Fluid with Heat Expansion 35
Table 2.1 Factor of volume expansion .
Density , kg m
3
Factor , K
1
720739 0.001183
740759 0.001118
760779 0.001054
780799 0.000995
800819 0.000937
820839 0.000882
840859 0.000831
860880 0.000782
model to be considered the density is a function of temperature T, so that
= (T)
(T) =
0
[1 +(T
0
T)] (2.7)
in which (1/K) is the factor of volume expansion,
0
and T
0
are the density and
temperature of the uid under normal conditions (often T
0
= 293 K (20
C);
0
= (p
0
, T
0
); p
0
= p
st
= 101325 Pa). The values of the factor for oil and oil
products are given in Table 2.1.
From Eq. (2.6) it follows that on heating, that is at T > T
0
, the uid expands,
that is <
0
whereas at T < T
0
, >
0
, that is the uid is compressed.
Exercise. The density
0
of benzene at 20
C is 745 kg m
3
. Determine the
density of the same benzene at 10
C.
Solution. Using Eq. (2.6) and Table 2.1 we have
(10
1 +(T T
0
) +
p p
0
K
. (2.8)
Here p
0
, T
0
are the nominal pressure and temperature satisfying the relation
0
= (p
0
, T
0
).
Exercise. The density of benzene
0
at 20
du
dy
n1
du
dy
(2.9)
in which the relation of the tangential friction stresses between uid layers has
a power nature. In other words the apparent viscosity of such a uid does
not remain constant as in the model of Newtonian uid, but depends on the
characteristics of the ow, namely
= k
du
dy
n1
. (2.10)
In this model k and n are factors. Fluids with n < 1 are called pseudoplastic
uids. These models are applied to describe the behavior of suspension ows,
Figure 2.3 A model of a Newtonian viscous uid.
2.6 Models of NonNewtonian Fluids 37
Figure 2.4 Models of nonNewtonian
uids: 1, pseudoplastic uids; 2, dilatant
uids.
that is viscous uids with suspended small particles. Flow curves of such uids
have the form of curve 1 in Figure 2.4 (Wilkenson, 1960).
Fluids with n > 1 are called dilatant uids. Starch glue is an example of uid
whose behavior is described by the dilatant model. Flow curves of these uids
have the form of curve 2 in Figure 2.4 (Wilkenson, 1960).
Model of viscousplastic medium with limit shear stress; model of Shve
dovBingham uid (Wilkenson, 1960). There are uids in which the stresses
between the uid layers are sufciently well described by the following
relations
=
0
+
du
dy
, at >
0
;
=
du
dy
= 0, at 
0
; (2.11)
=
0
+
du
dy
, at <
0
.
These expressions imply that the ow of such a uid does not begin as long as
the absolute value of the tangential friction stress does not exceed a limiting
value
0
, being the characteristic of the given mediumand called the limit shear
stress. In this case = 0. At 
0
and = 0 the medium ows as a viscous
uid.
Real media whose properties are satisfactory modeled by the viscousplastic
Bingham uid are, for example, highparafnaceous and solidifying oils, mud
solutions, lacquers, paints and other media.
Flow curves of viscousplastic media are shown in Figure 2.5.
Figure 2.5 Flow curves of a
viscousplastic uid.
38 2 Models of Transported Media
2.7
Models of a Gaseous Continuum
We proceed now to the description of the basic models used for gas ow.
First let us consider the properties common to all gases. One such property is
that for all gases in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium there is a relation
between pressure p, absolute temperature T and density (or specic volume
= 1/)
(p, , T) = 0 (2.12)
called the equation of state. The physical nature of this fact is discussed in
textbooks on statistical physics and thermodynamics. In most models it is
also assumed that when the motion starts the relation (2.12) remains. This
means that the establishment of thermodynamic equilibrium happens much
faster than the nonequilibrium caused by the resulting ow.
The specic form of the dependence (2.12) is set in the course of socalled
calorimetric measurements, but for the majority of gases this dependence
has one and the same distinctive features. Geometrical representation of
the dependence (2.12) has the form of a twodimensional surface in a three
dimensional space of variables (p, , T). Figure 2.6 shows isotherms of real
gases representing intersections of this surface with planes T = const.
For all gases there exists the socalled critical isotherm, depicted in Figure 2.6
by the heavy line, above and belowwhich the properties of the gas are different.
If T T
cr
, where T
cr
is the critical temperature for a given gas, the gas at any
elevation of pressure remains in the gaseous state. If T < T
cr
, then for each
temperature T there exists a value of pressure p at which the gas begins to
change into the liquid phase, its specic volume being increased from
to
or p = RT (2.13)
where R is the only constant in the equation and is called the gas constant
R = R
0
/
g
, where R
0
is the universal gas constant, equal to 8314 J mol
1
K
1
.
Thus all gas constants for a perfect gas depend only on the molecular weight.
They are: for methane (
g
= 16 kg kmol
1
) R = 8314/16
= 520 J kg
1
K
1
);
for oxygenO
2
(
g
= 32 kg kmol
1
) R = 8314/32
= 260 J kg
1
K
1
); for carbon
dioxide CO
2
(
g
= 44 kg kmol
1
) R = 8314/44
= 189 J kg
1
K
1
; for air
(
g
= 29 kg kmol
1
) R = 8314/29
= 287 J kg
1
K
1
.
Equation (2.12) connecting the density, pressure and temperature of a gas is
called the Clapeyron equation.
The model of a perfect gas operates sufciently well over a range of not too
high pressures and moderate temperatures.
2.7.2
Model of a Real Gas
Despite the fact that the name of this model contains the word real,
one is dealing only with the next, more general, schematization of a gas
model. From Figure 2.6 it follows that the hyperbolic dependence (2.13)
does not suit observations of gas behavior with increase of pressure and
decrease of temperature. Hence, in processes of gas pipeline transportation
40 2 Models of Transported Media
and underground gas storage, where the pressure may be 515 MPa the model
of a perfect gas would give improper results were it to be used in calculations.
There is a model of more general form than the model of a perfect gas. This
is the model of a real gas. One can nd the details of such a model for example
in Porshakov et al., 2001. Without dwelling on the details of its derivation we
note that the mathematical form of this equation is represented as follows
p =
Z(p
r
, T
r
) RT
or p = Z(p
r
, T
r
) RT (2.14)
differing from Eq. (2.13) by the insertion of the dimensionless factor Z(p
r
, T
r
)
called the overcompressibility factor, being a function of two parameters: the
reduced pressure p
r
and the reduced temperature T
r
, where
p
r
=
p
p
cr
, T
r
=
T
T
cr
.
Here p
cr
and T
cr
are the critical pressure and temperature.
Hence the model (2.14) takes into account not only the molecular weight
of a gas through the constant R but also its thermodynamic parameters such
as critical pressure and temperature. It is evident that for moderate values
of pressure and temperature Z 1 and the model (2.14) transforms into the
model of a perfect gas. For a real gas Z < 1.
Graphs of the function Z(p
r
, T
r
) are shown in Figure 2.7.
Exercise. It is required to determine the overcompressibility factor Z of a gas
with p
cr
= 4.6 MPa, T
cr
= 190 K at p = 7.5 MPa and T = 288 K.
Solution. Let us calculate rst the reduced parameters of state: p
cr
= 1.63;
T
cr
=1.52. From the plot in Figure 2.7 we determine Z
= 0.86.
There are a lot of approximating formulas to calculate the factor Z. In fact the
case is to approximate the equation of state (2.12). However, the properties of a
real gas are so complicated that we do not have universal formulas appropriate
for all gases over the whole range of governing parameters. Therefore in
different cases one should use different approximations. In particular, to
simulate processes in gaspipelines we can use
Z(p
r
, T
r
)
= 1 0.4273 p
r
T
3.668
r
(2.15)
or
Z(p
r
, T
r
)
= 1 0.0241
p
r
, (2.16)
where
= 1 1.68T
r
+0.78T
2
r
+0.0107T
3
r
.
It should be particularly emphasized that Eqs. (2.15) and (2.16) are no more
than approximations of the state equation of a real gas.
2.7 Models of a Gaseous Continuum 41
Figure 2.7 Graphs of Z(p
r
, T
r
) for natural gas.
Exercise. Determine the value of the overcompressibility factor of a gas with
p
cr
= 4.6 MPa, T
cr
= 190 K at p = 7.5 MPa and T = 288 K (see the previous
example).
Solution. The reduced parameters of state are:
p
r
=
7.5
4.6
= 1.63; T
r
=
288
190
= 1.52.
With formulas (2.15) we obtain
Z = 1 0.4273 1.63 1.52
3.668
= 0.850.
Similar calculation in accordance with Eq. (2.16) gives:
= 1 1.68 1.52 +0.78 1.52
2
+0.0107 1.52
3
= 0.2861,
Z = 1 0.0241
1.63
0.2861
= 0.863.
42 2 Models of Transported Media
It is seen that the error in calculation with Eq. (2.15) is 2.3%, whereas with
Eq. (2.16) it is less 0.8%. But this does not mean that the Eq. (2.16) is more
precise than Eq. (2.15) because both formulas are only approximations of the
state equation of a real gas.
2.8
Model of an Elastic Deformable Pipeline
In the schematization of uid and gas ow processes in pipelines models of a
pipeline are also used.
The simplest model of the pipeline is a model of nondeformable pipe, that is of
a cylinder with constant invariable internal diameter d
0
and wall thickness .
The external diameter D = d
0
+2 of the pipeline in this model remains also
constant. The model of a nondeformable pipeline appears to be very useful
when researching many technological processes of oil and gas transportation.
However, in some cases, for example in studying the phenomenon of
hydraulic hammer, the model of a nondeformable pipe proves to be inadequate
to perceive the point of the phenomenon and it is necessary to use the more
complicated model of an elastic deformable pipeline.
Experience shows that the volume of the internal space of the pipeline varies
insignicantly with changes in temperature and pressure of the transported
medium.
In order to account for the volume expansion of a pipeline when the
temperature T deviates from its nominal value T
0
one can use
V(T) = V
0
[1 +2
p
(T T
0
)], (2.17)
where
p
is the volume expansion factor of the metal from which the pipeline
is produced (for steel
p
3.3 10
5
K
1
).
Exercise. Howdoes the volume of the internal space of a steel pipeline section
with D = 530 mm, = 8 mm, L = 120 km change during even cooling by
5 K?
Solution. Using Eq. (2.17) we get:
V(T) V
0
=
3.14
0.514
2
4
2 (5) 3.3 10
5
120 000
= 8.22,
that is the volume decreases by more than by 8 m
3
.
The volume of the pipeline internal space is changed to a greater extent
with variation in the difference between the internal and external pressures.
The simplest formula to calculate changes originated by this phenomenon has
beensuggested by Joukowsky in his work On hydraulic hammer in watersupply
pipes (1899). Its derivation is illustrated in Figure 2.8.
2.8 Model of an Elastic Deformable Pipeline 43
Figure 2.8 Derivation of the formula
for the crosssection area change in an
elastic deformable pipeline.
The equation of equilibrium of the upper half of the pipe shell shown in
Figure 2.8 by a heavy line, under the action of a pressure difference (p p
0
)
and circumferential stresses resulting in the pipe metal has the following
form
(p p
0
) d = 2. (2.18)
Hookes law of elasticity as applied to the deformed middle lament shown in
Figure 2.8 by a dotted line gives the following relation
= E
(d d
0
)
d
0
(2.19)
where E is the Youngs modulus of the pipe material (for steel E 2 10
5
MPa).
Insertion of from Eq. (2.18) into Eq. (2.19) and further replacing factor
d by d
0
due to the smallness of the wall thickness as compared to the pipe
diameter gives the dependence of the pipe diameter increment d = d d
0
on the difference p = p p
0
of the internal and external pressures
d =
d
2
0
2E
p. (2.20)
Here d
0
may be taken as the internal diameter of the pipe.
Remark. When deriving Eq. (2.20) it was assumed that axial stresses in the
pipe are absent. Such a state of the pipe is called a planestressstate. But in many
cases this assumption is not valid, in particular in steel welded pipelines used
in the oil industry there is a planedeformable state in which radial expansion of
the pipe generates axial stresses. In such cases Eq. (2.20) should be replaced
by the more general formula
d =
d
2
0
(1
2
P
)
2E
p (2.21)
where
P
is the Poisson ratio. However, the correction is insignicant since
for steel pipelines
2
P
0.078.
44 2 Models of Transported Media
From Eq. (2.20) ensue two useful formulas: one for the increment S of
the area of the pipe crosssection and the other for the increment V of the
volume of a pipeline section with length L
S =
d
3
0
4E
p, V =
d
3
0
L
4E
p (2.22)
and associated formulas
S =
d
3
0
1
2
P
4E
p, V =
d
3
0
L
1
2
P
4E
p. (2.23)
Exercise. It is required to calculate the increase in the diameter and volume
of a section of a steel pipeline with D = 530 mm, = 8 mm, L = 120 km after
build up of pressure by 5.0 MPa.
Solution. Using Eq. (2.16) we get
d =
0.514
2
2 2 10
11
0.008
5 10
6
= 0.0004 m = 0.4 mm.
From Eq. (2.17) follows
V =
3.14 0.514
3
120000
4 2 10
11
0.008
5 10
6
= 40 m
3
.
For simultaneous deviation of pressure and temperature from their nominal
values p
0
and T
0
it is allowable to use the formula
V(T) = V
0
1 +2
p
(T T
0
) +
d
0
E
(p p
0
)
. (2.24)
There are also more complicated models of pipelines taking into account the
viscousplastic properties of the pipe material. Such models are applicable for
pipelines made from synthetic materials, e.g. from plastics.
45
3
Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe
In the rst chapter the ow of a medium transported in a pipeline was
considered in the framework of a onedimensional model, that is a model in
which the ow is described by characteristics of the uid velocity, density,
pressure, temperature and others averaged over the pipe crosssection. All
characteristics of the ow depended only on the longitudinal coordinate x
of the crosssection and time t. In such a description additional closure
relations reecting the relations between the average parameters of the ow
were needed. For example, relation (1.26) connects the mechanical energy
dissipation with the average velocity of the ow, relation (1.29) expresses the
tangential friction stress at the internal surface of a pipeline through average
parameters of the ow and so on.
It was noted above that to get a closure relation it is necessary to scrutinize
not only onedimensional but also spatial ows taking place in the ow of
transported medium inside the pipeline. Let us consider in greater detail
such ows with regard to the distribution of the parameters over the pipeline
crosssection.
3.1
Laminar Flow of a Viscous Fluid in a Circular Pipe
First let us consider the laminar ow of uid in a circular pipe with radius
r
0
(Figure 3.1). Such a ow has only one axial velocity component u(r),
dependent on the radial coordinate r equal to the distance from a point under
consideration to the pipe wall.
Next separate inside the ow region a cylinder of arbitrary radius r (r r
0
)
and write the balance equation of all the forces acting on the cylinder
(p
1
p
2
) r
2
= (r) 2rL
where (r) is the tangential friction stress at the lateral surface of the separated
cylinder. From here it follows that the absolute value of the tangential stress
between the uid layers is proportional to the cylinder radius r
(r) =
1
2
p
L
r. (3.1)
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
46 3 Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe
Figure 3.1 Calculation of laminar uid ow.
If we now replace by its expression through the velocity gradient du/ dr in
accordance with the law of viscous friction (2.2) and take into account that
(r) < 0, we get the differential equation
du
dr
=
1
2
p
L
r (3.2)
for the velocity u(r). This equation should be solved for the boundary condition
u = 0 at r = r
0
, which is the socalled sticking condition (the velocity at the
internal surface of the pipe vanishes). As a result we obtain
u(r) = u
max
_
1
r
2
r
2
0
_
; u
max
=
p r
2
0
4 L
. (3.3)
It is seen that the uid velocity distribution over the pipe crosssection has a
parabolic form with maximal value u
max
at the pipe axis, that is at r = 0.
The uid ow rate Q, that is the uid volume owing through a unit
crosssection of the pipe in unit time, is equal to
Q =
_
r
0
0
u(r)2r dr = 2u
max
_
r
0
0
r
_
1
r
2
r
2
0
_
dr =
1
2
u
max
r
2
0
or with regard to Eq. (3.3)
Q =
r
4
0
p
8 L
. (3.4)
The relation (3.4) is called the Poiseuille formula. It gives the connection
between the ow rate of laminar uid ow in a circular pipe and the pressure
drop causing the ow.
Let us introduce the mean owratevelocity v which when multiplied by the
pipe crosssection area gives the uid ow rate, that is v = Q/r
2
0
. Then one
obtains very useful formulas
v =
r
2
0
p
8 L
= 2 u
max
or v =
d
2
p
32 L
(3.5)
where d = 2r
0
is the internal diameter of the pipe.
3.2 Laminar Flow of a NonNewtonian Power Fluid in a Circular Pipe 47
With the help of these relations it is possible to calculate the tangential stress
w
at the internal surface of the pipeline. From Eq. (3.1) follows

w
 =
1
2
p
L
r
0
.
Substitution of p/L from Eq. (3.5) with regard to Eq. (1.29) yields

w
 =
r
0
2
32v
d
2
= C
f
v
2
2
=
4
v
2
2
Fromhere follows Stokes formula (1.30) for the factor of hydraulic resistance
in laminar ow of a viscous incompressible uid in a circular pipe
=
d
4
32 v
d
2
8
v
2
=
64
vd/(/)
=
64
Re
. (3.6)
Exercise. Calculate the hydraulic resistance factor of oil ( = 25 cST) in
laminar ow in a circular pipe with diameter 50 mm and ow rate 1 l s
1
.
Solution. First determine the mean velocity of the ow
v =
Q
d
2
/4
=
0.001
3.14 0.05
2
/4
= 0.51 m s
1
.
Then calculate the Reynolds number
Re =
vd
=
0.51 0.05
25 10
6
= 1020
Since 1020 < Re
cr
= 2300, the ow is laminar. In accordance with Eq. (3.6)
the hydraulic resistance factor is equal to
=
64
Re
=
64
1020
= 0.063.
3.2
Laminar Flow of a NonNewtonian Power Fluid in a Circular Pipe
Just as we considered the laminar ow of a Newtonian uid so we can consider
the laminar ow of a nonNewtonian Ostwald power uid in a circular pipe (see
Chapter 2). The tangential stress for this uid is related to the shear rate
= du/ dr by the dependence (2.9)
= k
du
dr
n1
du
dr
so that the equilibrium Eq. (3.2) takes the form
k
du
dr
n1
du
dr
=
1
2
p
L
r
48 3 Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe
Since du/dr < 0, the last relation transforms to
du
dr
=
_
p
2kL
_
1/n
r
1
n
.
Integration of this equation with the sticking boundary condition u(r
0
) = 0 at
the pipe wall gives the velocity distribution
u(r) =
n
n +1
_
p
2kL
_
1/n
_
r
n+1
n
r
n+1
n
0
_
. (3.7)
The maximal velocity of the ow u
max
is achieved at the pipe axis r = 0 as in
the case of a viscous uid and is equal to
u
max
=
n
n +1
_
p
2kL
_
1/n
r
n+1
n
0
. (3.8)
The ow rate of the uid Q is calculated by the formula
Q = 2
_
r
0
0
r u(r) dr
= 2
n
n +1
_
p
2kL
_
1/n
_
r
0
0
r
_
r
n+1
n
0
r
n+1
n
_
dr
Performing integration one gets after some algebra
Q =
r
0
3
n
3n +1
_
r
0
p/L
2k
_
1
n
. (3.9)
It is reasonable that at n = 1, k = Eq. (3.9) converts to Eq. (3.4) known as the
Poiseuille law (Wilkenson, 1960).
Introducing the mean owratevelocity v as in the previous section and the
generalized Reynolds number Re
=
v
2n
d
n
0
k/
where d
0
= 2r
0
, Eq. (3.9) could be written in the habitual form of the
DarcyWeisbach law
p
L
=
1
d
0
v
2
2
where the hydraulic resistance factor is
=
8
_
6n +2
n
_
n
Re
. (3.10)
3.3 Laminar Flow of a ViscousPlastic Fluid in a Circular Pipe 49
In the same way Eq. (3.10) at n = 1, k = transforms to the Stokes Eq. (1.30)
given earlier.
To determine the rheological properties of oil and oil products special devices
called viscometers are oftenused. The most widespread are capillary viscometers.
Operation of all capillary viscometers is based on the determination of the time
of the outowof a xed portion of the uid under test, fromthe device chamber
through a narrow cylindrical tube (capillary). This time is calculated with the
use of Eqs. (3.4) and (3.9) replacing in them the pressure gradient p/L by g,
where g is the acceleration due to gravity. The ow rate Q in the viscometer of
the Ostwald power uid under consideration takes the following form
Q =
r
0
3
n
3n +1
_
r
0
g
2k
_
1
n
=
r
0
3
n
3n +1
_
r
0
g
2 k/
_
1
n
. (3.11)
Exercise. In order to determine the properties of oil experiments are carried
out on a free outow of a portion (100 ml) of oil from the viscometer chamber.
In the rst experiment the outow ows through a cylindrical capillary with
internal radius 1 mm and in the second experiment through a similar capillary
with internal radius 1.5 mm. In the rst case the time of uid outowis 1000 s,
in the second 180 s. The ow of the oil is modeled by the law of a power uid.
It is required to determine the constants n and k/ of the power uid model.
Solution. From Eq. (3.11) it follows that the ratio of ow rates in both
cases is Q
1
/Q
2
= (r
1
/r
2
)
3+1/n
. Since the ratio is inversely proportional to the
times of the uid outows, we use the equation to determine n, namely
180/1000 = (2/3)
3+1/n
. The solution of this equation gives n
= 0.81.
Using further the results of the rst experiment we get
0.0001
1000
=
3.14 0.81 0.001
3
3 0.81 +1
_
9.81 0.002
4 k/
_
1/0.81
,
from which we get k/
= 0.92 10
6
m
2
s
1.19
.
3.3
Laminar Flow of a ViscousPlastic Fluid in a Circular Pipe
Consider the laminar ow of another nonNewtonian uid viscousplastic
Bingham uid (Wilkenson, 1960) (see Chapter 2 and Figure 3.2).
The tangential stress in this uid is related to the shear rate = du/dr by
the dependence
=
0
+
du
dr
, (du/dr > 0,
0
) (3.12)
where
0
is the limit shear stress. Due to the existence of such stress the ow
does not begin immediately after application of the pressure difference to the
50 3 Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe
Figure 3.2 A scheme of viscousplastic uid ow.
pipe ends but only when this difference exceeds the shear strength, namely
when it obeys the following inequality
p r
0
2
> 2r
0
L
0
or
r
0
p/L
2
0
> 1. (3.13)
If the condition (3.13) is fullled then, near the internal surface of the pipe
(a < r < r
0
), the ow of the uid starts. On approaching the pipe center where
the shear rate decreases the tangential stresses are also reduced and at some
distance a from the pipe axis, just where (a) =
0
, the uid begins to move
as a rigid core. Therefore the region (0 r a) of the ow is called the ow
core.
It is evident that the following relations are valid
(r) =
w
r
r
0
at a r r
0
,
(a) =
0
=
w
a
r
0
and
a
r
0
=
0
w
=
2
0
r
0
p/L
.
The velocity distribution in the annular region a r r
0
satises the equation
du
dr
= (r)
0
=
0
_
r
a
1
_
.
Integration of this equation over r from r = r
0
to an arbitrary r with regard to
boundary condition u(r
0
) = 0 yields
u(r) =
r
0
0
2
_
(r/r
0
)
2
1
a/r
0
2
r
r
0
+2
_
. (3.14)
In particular the core velocity u(a) is equal to
u(a) =
r
0
0
2
(1 a/r
0
)
2
a/r
0
. (3.15)
The ow rate Q of the uid can be obtained using Eqs. (3.14) and (3.15)
Q = 2
_
r
0
a
r u(r) dr +a
2
u(a).
3.4 Transition of Laminar Flow of a Viscous Fluid to Turbulent Flow 51
Simple rearrangements lead to the following expression
Q =
r
0
4
p/L
8
_
1
4
3
_
2
0
r
0
p/L
_
+
1
3
_
2
0
r
0
p/L
_
4
_
. (3.16)
As would be expected this relation at
0
= 0 becomes the known Poiseuille
formula (3.4) for the ow rate of uid in a circular pipe (Wilkenson, 1960).
If we introduce two dimensionless parameters Re =
v2r
0
, the Reynolds
number and I =
0
2r
0
v
, the Ilyushin number and take into account the relation
2
0
/(r
0
p/L) = 8I/Re, the equality (3.16) could be represented as
=
64
Re
1
1 4/3 (8I/Re) +1/3 (8I/Re)
4
. (3.17)
If
0
= 0, then I = 0 and consequently Re = 64, that is Eq. (3.17) converts to
the known Stokes formula (1.30) for laminar ow of a viscous uid. In the
general case the product Re depends on the Ilyushin number I. To determine
this product one should resolve Eq. (3.17) with respect to Re for each value of
the parameter I (Romanova, 1977).
3.4
Transition of Laminar Flow of a Viscous Fluid to Turbulent Flow
With increase in the velocity of viscous uid ow in a pipe the laminar ow
loses hydrodynamic stability and changes into turbulent ow. This ow is
characterized by uctuating motions of the uid, generation and development
of eddies and intensive mixing. A lot of theoretical investigations performed
by many outstanding mathematicians and physicists have been devoted to
the problem of stability of laminar uid ows and the determination of
the conditions and criteria of the transition from laminar to turbulent ow
regimes.
The criterion of transition of laminar ow into a turbulent one is the
Reynolds number Re, representing a dimensionless parameter formed by the
dimension parameters characterizing the ow and the pipeline: Re = vd/, so
that at Re < Re
cr
= 2300 the ow is laminar whereas at Re > Re
cr
= 2300 it is
turbulent.
The latter conclusion is true when the critical velocity v
cr
of the ow is
determined only by ow parameters such as d, and ( = /). In fact, the
conditions of transition from laminar to turbulent ow are in many respects
determined also by such parameters of the pipeline as the roughness of its
internal wall surface . If we accept that v
cr
= f (d, , , ) then, in accordance
with the Itheorem the condition of laminar ow transition to turbulent ow
takes the form
v
cr
d
/
=
f
_
d
_
or Re
cr
=
f ()
52 3 Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe
where is the relative roughness of the pipeline internal wall surface. Thus
at Re < Re
cr
() the uid ow is laminar, while at Re > Re
cr
() the ow is
turbulent. The presence of the additional parameter besides the Reynolds
number means that there is not a singlevalued determined boundary of the
transition from laminar to turbulent ow, since the critical Reynolds number
depends on the degree of preparation of the pipeline and the uid for the test
experiments. It is known, for example, that in this manner it was possible to
lengthen the transition of laminar ow to turbulent ow up to a value of the
critical Reynolds number equal to 600012 000.
The hydraulic resistance factor in the transition region does not have
stable values, it is only characterized by drastic lowering. Some formulas
for in this region will be considered further. The factor takes a stable
value in establishing the developed turbulent ow in the pipe, that is at
Re > 10 000.
3.5
Turbulent Fluid Flow in a Circular Pipe
Consider turbulent ow of a viscous uid developed in a circular pipe with
radius r
0
(Figure 3.3). To describe such a ow let us use the average velocity
u(r) representing the true timeaveraged velocity of uid particles passing
through a considered point. It is assumed that the resulting velocities are
parallel to the pipe axis and independent of the radial coordinate r, that is of
the distance between the considered point of the crosssection and the pipe
axis.
Similarly, average tangential stresses (r) between the uid layers moving
with average velocities u(r) are introduced (Figure 3.3). These stresses are also
called Reynolds stresses, named in honor of the famous English engineer O.
Reynolds who contributed greatly to the development of turbulence theory.
The average stress (r) represents the ratio of the friction force acting
between macrolayers of turbulent ow separated by a surface element to
the area of this element. As in laminar ow, turbulent tangential stresses
(r) are suggested to be proportional to the gradients du/ dr of average ow
velocities
(r) =
t
du
dr
. (3.18)
However, different from laminar ow, the factor
t
in this relation represents
not the intrinsic viscosity of the uid but the socalled turbulent dynamic
viscosity, dependent on the structure and mixing intensity of the uid layers
rather than on uid properties.
The turbulent dynamic viscosity
t
and the turbulent kinematic viscosity
t
=
t
/ of the turbulent ow is caused not by molecular friction of the separated
uid layers, as in laminar ow, but by largescale uctuations and momentum
3.5 Turbulent Fluid Flow in a Circular Pipe 53
Figure 3.3 The calculation of uid turbulent ow.
transport with eddies from one macrolayer to another. The transport of mo
mentum is perceived as a friction force acting between these layers. When the
layers are moving with equal velocities, that is du/ dr = 0, then the passing of
the momentumfromone layer to another is compensated by equal momentum
fromanother layer, therefore = 0. If one layer moves faster than another, that
is du/ dr > 0, thenthere appears betweenthe layers a frictionforce accelerating
the backward layer and retarding the leading one. This means that the leading
layer loses more momentum than it obtains from the backward layer. Thus the
intensity of momentum exchange between the layers depends on the regime
of turbulent ow rather than on the viscosity of the uid characterized by the
factors or . Hence it follows that the turbulent viscosity
t
or
t
is not uid
constant as its molecular analog but depends on parameters of turbulent ow.
Let the law of ow have the following form
1
=
t
du
dr
(3.19)
It makes sense to suggest that the turbulent viscosity
t
determined by the
structure of turbulent ow be dependent on the parameters of this ow. In
accordance with the brilliant idea of Karman it can be accepted that
t
= f
_
,
du
dr
d
2
u
dr
2
_
(3.20)
that is, the turbulent viscosity
t
of the ow depends on the molecular
viscosity of the uid itself and parameters absolute values of the rst u
and
second u
[] =
L
T
2
, [u
] =
1
L T
the dimension of the third argument u
] = []
1/3
[u
]
2/3
=
1
T
.
54 3 Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe
Then owing to the theorem the number of arguments of the function f can
be reduced to one and the dependence (3.20) takes the following dimensional
form
t
/ =
f
_
u

3
u

2
_
t
=
f
_
u
3
u

2
_
. (3.21)
The formula (3.21) shows that the turbulent viscosity
t
is equal to the
molecular viscosity of the uid multiplied by the dimensionless factor

3
/( u

2
).
Experiments testify, however, that in most of the pipe crosssection, that
is in the ow core, except for the narrow wall layer the turbulent viscosity is
practically independent of the molecular viscosity of the uid. This is because
the turbulent viscosity is determined by exchange of momentumbetween uid
layers due to largescale eddies rather than by molecular friction. Therefore
Eq. (3.21) should have such a structure that the molecular viscosity would
have no impact over almost all the crosssection of the ow. The last could be
achieved by assuming the function
f () = ,
where is a constant called the Karman constant. With regard to the accepted
assumption Eq. (3.21) for turbulent viscosity can be rewritten as
t
=
_
2
u

3
u

2
_
=
2
u

3
(u
)
2
.
The law of turbulent friction (3.19) is expressed by
1
=
2
u

3
(u
)
2
u
(3.22)
called the Karman formula (Loizyanskiy, 1987). The last equation represents
the basic equation of the phenomenological, that is resulting from abstract
reasoning though adequate for the phenomena under consideration, Karman
theory. The constant in Eq. (3.22) has been shown by a plethora of experi
ments to be approximately equal to 0.4 and is a universal constant of the model
in the sense that it is the same for all regimes of turbulent ow of uids in
pipes. The relation (3.22) differs signicantly from the analogous relation (2.2)
for laminar ows.
Let us determine now the distribution u(r) of average velocities of uid
turbulent ow in a circular pipe. First note that tangential stresses (r) as in
laminar ow are linearly distributed over the radius
(r) =
1
2
p
L
r
since the balance of forces acting on an arbitrarily separated uid cylinder (see
Figures 3.2 and 3.3) is independent of the ow regime (laminar or turbulent).
Introduce into the consideration the tangential stress
w
caused by the friction
3.5 Turbulent Fluid Flow in a Circular Pipe 55
at the pipe walls
w
= (r
0
) =
1
2
p
L
r
0
.
Then (r) could be expressed through
w
(r) =
w
r
r
0
. (3.23)
Substitution instead of (r) from Eq. (3.22) leads to the differential equation
2
u

3
u
u
2
=
1
r
r
0
(3.24)
for the velocity distribution u(r) over the radius.
The quantity (
w
/)
1/2
has the dimensions of velocity. It is commonly called
the dynamic velocity and specied by u
= 
w
. In addition the dynamic velocity is
related to the above introduced factor of hydraulic resistance
u
2
=

w

=
1
2
C
f
v
2
=
8
v
2
v
=
_
8
where v is the uid velocity averaged over the crosssection. Since the factor
is small ( 0.010.03), the dynamic velocity u
= 0.05 v, from which
follows that the dynamic velocity is 2025 times smaller than the average ow
velocity.
In terms of dynamic viscosity the basic equation (3.24) attains a more
compact form
2
u

3
u
u
2
= u
2
r
r
0
, (
w
< 0). (3.25)
Solve this equation for a ow in a circular pipe (Figure 3.3) u
< 0 and u
< 0,
thus
2
u
3
u
u
2
=
2
u
4
u
2
= u
2
r
r
0
.
From here it ensues that
u
2
=
u
2
_
r
0
r
or
d
dr
_
1
u
_
=
u
2
_
r
0
r
.
Repeated integration gives
u(r) =
u
__
r
r
0
+C
1
+C
2
ln
_
r
r
0
C
2
_
(3.26)
where C
1
and C
2
are constants of integration.
56 3 Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe
To determine C
1
and C
2
one needs two boundary conditions at the internal
pipe wall (Lurie and Podoba, 1984). The rst condition is evident. It is the
sticking condition in accordance with which the velocity u
w
of uid particles
should vanish at the pipe walls
u
w
= u(r
0
) = 0. (3.27)
Substituting r = r
0
in Eq. (3.26) and taking u = 0 we obtain
0 =
u
[1 +C
1
+C
2
ln1 C
2
].
Subtracting further the resulting equality termbyterm from Eq. (3.26) we get
u(r) =
u
__
r
r
0
1 +C
2
ln
r/r
0
C
2
1 C
2
_
. (3.28)
The second condition is more complicated and was not met in the model
of laminar ow. The problem is that the differential equation (3.25) for the
turbulent model has higher order thanthe analogous differential equation (3.2)
for turbulent ow. Therefore to solve it one needs an additional boundary
condition reecting the interaction of turbulent ow with the pipe walls. Since
this condition models the uid ow in a narrow wall layer it has to connect
parameters u
w
and u
w
of the turbulent ow at the pipe wall with the molecular
viscosity , whose inuence is strong in this layer, and the smoothness of the
internal surface of the pipe characterized by its absolute roughness . In other
words the missing boundary condition should be expressed by the relation
G(u
w
, u
w
, , ) = 0 (3.29)
in which the subscript w indicates that the corresponding derivatives are
calculated at points on the internal pipe surface. The dimension analysis as
applied to Eq. (3.29) allows us to rewrite it in dimensionless form
G
_
u
2
w
u
w

3
,
u
w

u
w

_
= 0.
Having resolved the last expression with respect to the rst argument, we get
u
2
w
u
w

3
= g
_
u
w

u
w

_
.
For small values of the roughness the righthand part of this equation could
be expanded into a Taylor series leaving in it only the rst two terms
u
2
w
u
w

3
= g
0
+g
1
u
w

u
w

(3.30)
3.5 Turbulent Fluid Flow in a Circular Pipe 57
where g
0
and g
1
are dimensionless constants. If we now take into account that
at r = r
0
in accordance with Eq. (3.25) the relation
4
w
u
2
w
= u
2
w
 = u
2
w
/u
, the condi
tion (3.30) simplies to
u
w

3
2
u
4
w
u
2
w
= g
0
+g
1
u
w

u
2
w
u
w
< 0):
u
w
=
k u
2
1 +a (u
/)
(3.31)
where k = g
1
/
2
and a = g
2
/ are dimensionless constants. These constants
are universal like the Karmanconstant , that is, they do not depend onconcrete
ow and are given once and for all. In other words they are phenomenological
constants of the model. A large body of calculation results for different types
of ows correlated to each other gives k = 28 and a = 0.31 (Lurie and Podoba,
1984). Hence, the theory of uid turbulent ow in a circular pipe is based on
three phenomenological constants
= 0.4; k
= 28 and a
= 0.31.
In the particular case of an ideal smooth internal surface of the pipe ( 0),
the boundary condition (3.31) reduces to
u
w
= k u
2
. (3.32)
Thus the boundary condition (3.31) permits us to obtain the second integration
constant C
2
in expression (3.28) for the velocity u(r). As a result we have
u
=
u
_
1
2
r r
0
+
C
2
r/r
0
C
2
1
2
r r
0
_
,
u
w
= u
(r
0
) =
u
2r
0
1
1 C
2
.
Insertion of the calculated derivative into condition (3.31) yields the equation
2r
0
1
1 C
2
=
k u
2
1 +a u
/
,
which gives
C
2
= 1 +
1 +a u
/
2k r
0
u
/
58 3 Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe
or, in dimensionless form
C
2
= 1 +
1 +a Re u
/v
k Re u
/v
(3.33)
where = /d is the relative roughness; Re = vd/ the Reynolds number; v
the mean ow velocity; d = 2r
0
the pipeline diameter. At the same time note
that for turbulent ows with Re > 10
4
, < 10
3
, u
/v 10
2
the constant C
2
is close to one,
C
2
1 +
1 +0.31 10
3
10
4
10
2
28 0.4 10
4
10
2
= 1.001. (3.34)
Hence, Eq. (3.28) with constant (3.33) gives the distribution of the average
velocity of turbulent ow in a circular pipe under the condition that the
dynamic velocity u
= v
/8.
Figure 3.4 shows dimensionless turbulent velocity proles u(r)/u
max
related
to the maximal value of the uid velocity at the pipe axis. The lower curve
corresponds to Re = 23 000, the top curve to Re = 3 200 000, the middle one to
intermediate values of the Reynolds number (Loitzyanskiy, 1987). The dotted
curve depicts the parabola (3.3) giving the velocity distribution in laminar
ow regime. The comparison of laminar and turbulent velocity distributions
shows that the turbulent velocity prole has more plane form and the greater the
Reynolds number the more the plane become curves. For the laminar ow
regime in accordance with Eq. (3.5) u
max
/v = 2. For the turbulent regime this
ratio is far less. In general it depends on the numbers Re, and the average
ratio is equal to u
max
/v = 1.15 1.25.
The integration constant C
2
in Eq. (3.33) can be represented as
C
2
= 1 +
1 +a Re
/8
k Re
/8
. (3.35)
Figure 3.4 Dimensionless average
velocity proles in turbulent
ows (Loitzyanskiy, 1987).
3.5 Turbulent Fluid Flow in a Circular Pipe 59
On the other hand the average velocity is by denition equal to
v =
Q
r
2
0
=
1
r
2
0
_
r
0
0
2r u(r) dr =
2
r
2
0
_
r
0
0
r u(r) dr.
Substituting here the distribution (3.28) and taking into account the
formula (3.35) for C
2
we get the dependence of the hydraulic resistance
factor on the Reynolds number, that is in fact on the average velocity v, and
on the relative roughness of the internal surface of the pipe
v =
2u
r
2
0
_
r
0
0
r
__
r
r
0
1 +C
2
ln
C
2
r/r
0
C
2
1
_
dr
=
2u
_
1
0
1 +C
2
ln
C
2
C
2
1
_
d (3.36)
where = r/r
0
. Calculating the integral (3.36) with regard to remark (3.34),
we obtain
_
8
=
1
_
ln
k Re
/8
1 +a Re
/8
137
60
_
. (3.37)
Inserting in Eq. (3.37) the numerical values of the constants k, and a we get
the equation for the dependence of on the numbers Re and
1
= 0.88 ln
Re
1 +0.11 Re
0.8 (3.38)
called the universal resistance law.
1. If we ignore the effect of roughness, that is we assume
0.11 Re
1, e.g. 0.11 Re
< 0.11 or Re
<
1
,
then the equation for becomes
1
= 0.88 ln(Re
) 0.8. (3.39)
Its approximate solution takes the form
=
0.3164
4
Re
(3.40)
mentioned above and called the Blasius formula. The estimation of
allowable Reynolds numbers can be conducted as follows
Re
= 0.56 Re
7/8
<
1
Re < 1.93
8/7
2
1.143
,
therefore Eq> (3.39) is true when Re < 2
1.143
.
2. At very large Reynolds numbers (Re > 10
5
) the equation for acquires
the form
1
= 0.88 ln
1
0.11
0.8
60 3 Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe
where is independent of Re. We have
1
=
_
0.88 ln
1
0.11
+0.88 ln
1
0.8
_
2
=
_
0.88 ln
1
+1.14
_
2
. (3.41)
Exercise 1. It is required to calculate the hydraulic resistance factor in the
owof diesel fuel with = 4 cSt ina pipeline withd = 500 mm, = 0.25 mm.
The ow rate of the uid is Q = 1000 m
3
h
1
.
Solution. Determine the average velocity v of the ow
v =
4Q
d
2
=
4 1000/3600
3.14 0.5
2
= 1.415 m s
1
the Reynolds number
Re =
vd
=
1.415 0.5
4 10
6
= 176 875
and the relative roughness
=
d
=
0.25
500
= 0.0005
As a result we get the transcendental equation for
1
= 0.88 ln
176 875
0.8
We look for the solution of this equation by the method of successive
approximations. Consider the function
() =
1
0.88 ln
176 878
1 +9.728
+0.8
representing the difference in both parts of the resulting equation. We have
= 0.02, (0.02) = 0.279;
= 0.019, (0.019) = 0.086;
= 0.018, (0.018) = 0.123;
= 0.0185, (0.0185) = 0.016;
= 0.0186, (0.0186) = 0.004.
It is seen that
= 0.0186.
Exercise 2. It is required to calculate the hydraulic resistance factor in the
ow of benzene with = 0.6 cSt in a pipeline with d = 361 mm, = 0.2 mm.
The ow rate of the uid is Q = 500 m
3
h
1
.
3.5 Turbulent Fluid Flow in a Circular Pipe 61
Solution. Determine the average velocity of the ow
v =
4Q
d
2
=
4 500/3600
3.14 0.361
2
= 1.358 m s
1
,
the Reynolds number
Re =
vd
=
1.358 0.361
0.6 10
6
= 817 063.
and the relative roughness
=
d
=
0.2
361
= 0.00055.
As a result we get the transcendental equation for
1
= 0.88 ln
817 063
1 +49.4
0.8.
We look for the solution of this equation by the method of successive
approximations. Consider the function
() =
1
0.88 ln
817 063
1 +49.4
+0.8,
representing the difference between both parts of the resulting equation. We
have
= 0.02, (0.02) = 1.36;
= 0.018, (0.018) = 0.17;
= 0.016, (0.016) = 0.29;
= 0.017, (0.017) = 0.049;
= 0.0172, (0.0172) = 0.003.
It is seen that
= 0.0172.
Turbulent Flows of NonNewtonian Fluids
For the turbulent owof a power uid(see Section 2.6) the following expression
for the universal resistance lawhas been obtained by Dodge and Metzner, 1959
1
=
0.88
n
3/4
ln
_
Re
_
4
_
1n/2
_
0.4
n
1.2
(3.42)
where n is the exponent in the Ostwald rheological law. This equation may
be obtained on the basis of the Karman model (3.25), if in the boundary
condition (3.32) we take the factor k to be dependent on the exponent n, that is
k = k(n). As is known k is equal to 28 for a Newtonian viscous uid.
62 3 Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe
Romanova (1989) gave the resistance law for a power uid in the form
1
=
0.88
n
ln
_
k(n)Re
_
8
_
1n/2
_
2.83,
where k(n) = 2
1n/2
exp
_
n (2.83 0.2/n
1.2
)/0.88
_
. In the same publication
the following formulas were suggested as approximate solutions of the above
equation
Re
1/3
= 0.698 n 1.94 10
2
at 0.2 n 0.5,
Re
1/4
= 0.353 n 3.80 10
2
at 0.5 < n 1.25,
Re
1/5
= 0.234 n 5.13 10
2
at 1.25 < n 2.0.
In all these formulas the generalized Reynolds number is dened as
Re = v
2n
d
n
/k, where k is the kinematic consistency.
The universal resistance law for a viscousplastic uid was suggested
by Potapov (1975)
1
=
_
1
8He
Re
2
_
_
0.88ln(Re
) 0.8
_
+2.76
8He
Re
2
(3.43)
where Re = vd/ is the Reynolds number and He =
0
d
2
/
2
is the Hedstroem
number.
3.6
A Method to Control Hydraulic Resistance by Injection of AntiTurbulent Additive
into the Flow
Friction losses are the key reason for electric energy expenditure on uid and
gas pumping along pipelines. They are caused by the forces of internal friction
between the layers of the moving uid. In laminar and turbulent ows there
occurs the socalled dissipation of mechanical energy of ordered motion and
its transition into the energy of chaotic motion of the uid particles, in other
words into heat. For turbulent ows this transition has a multistage character.
The mechanical energy of average motion is transformed rst into the energy
of largescale eddies of the turbulent medium, then into the energy of the
uctuation motion of smallscale eddies and nally, due to viscosity forces,
into the heat energy of the uid. Therefore engineers and scientists involved
in the problem of pipelines have for a long time been interested in methods
of governing the turbulent ow structure with the aim of reducing energy
losses.
One such method discovered by the English scientist Toms in the late 1940s
consists in injection into the turbulent ow of special highmolecular weight
additives to lower the hydraulic resistance. This effect is called by the name of
the discoverer, the Toms effect.
3.6 Controlling Hydraulic Resistance by Injection of AntiTurbulent Additive into the Flow 63
The mechanism of operation of all varieties of antiturbulent additives is
based on damping turbulent uctuations near the internal surface of the
pipeline by interaction of the longlength molecules of the additive with
turbulent eddies generated near the pipeline wall. As a rule this effect is
achieved with very small concentrations of additives, measured commonly
in ppm (parts per million of the uid volume to which the additive is
added).
Owing to the damping of the nearwall turbulence there is a reduction in
the ow hydraulic resistance caused by the pipeline wall. Hence, increased
pumping efciency is achieved with conservation of the pressure drop or
pressure lowering at pumping stations. The decrease in hydraulic resistance
reduces expenditure on electric power by 2060%.
The best known antiturbulent additives for oil products are CDR produced
by the American company DuponConoco and NECCAD547 produced by the
Finnish company Neste. These products are based on hydrocarbons. The rst
is equally suitable for benzene and diesel fuel pumping while the second is
recommended primarily for diesel fuels. Both antiturbulent additives were
put through production tests on pipelines in Russia.
The use of antiturbulent additives has some specic restriction: during
prolonged action of the additives in turbulent ow they become degraded;
their degradation is especially great when passing through pumps. Therefore,
when using additives it is necessary to inject a portion of fresh additives into
the owafter each pumping station. It is rational to use antiturbulent additives
to build up the carrying capacity of certain pipeline sections, rst the limiting
ones.
All antiturbulent additives reduce the hydraulic resistance factor . To
calculate this factor the universal resistance law (3.37) containing the constant
k related to the turbulent ow interaction with pipeline walls was used (see
boundary conditions (3.31) and (3.32)). It was found that k
= 28.
The effect of the antiturbulent additive is that it changes the intensity of the wall
turbulence, that is the additive acts on the magnitude of the constant k. Therefore it
is reasonable to accept as a model of turbulent owwith antiturbulent additive
a model with variable constant k (Ishmuchamedov et al., 1999) dependent on
the concentration of antiturbulent additive . Thus the universal quantity k
which was taken earlier as constant would be, in the presence of antiturbulent
additive, a function of , that is k = k(). In the absence of antiturbulent
additive ( = 0) then k(0) = 28.
The results of tests of antiturbulent additive CDRhave giventhe dependence
k() shown in Table 3.1.
Table 3.1 Dependence k() for CDR.
, ppm 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
k() 61.4 95.1 143 187 249 276 340 380
64 3 Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe
Table 3.2 Dependence k() for NECCAD547.
, ppm 40 60 100 180
k() 50 75 150 340
The dependence k() for antiturbulent additive NECCAD547 is shown in
Table 3.2.
Remark. The data cited in Tables 3.1 and 3.2 could be improved by changing
the antiturbulent additive composition.
Exercise 1. The pumping of diesel fuel with antiturbulent additive CDR with
= 40 ppmis conducted at Reynolds number 40 000. It is required to calculate
the hydraulic resistance factor .
Solution. The formula (3.39) at Re = 40 000 and k(40) = 143 taken from
Table 3.1 gives for the following transcendental equation
1
) 3.745.
Its solution, found by the method of successive approximations, yields
= 0.0153. This value is signicantly less than 0.0224 corresponding to
the value of in the case of antiturbulent additive absence in the ow of oil
product at the same Reynolds number. The effect is about 31.7%.
Exercise 2. The pumping of diesel fuel with antiturbulent additive NECCAD
547 with = 180 ppm is conducted at Reynolds number 40 000. It is required
to calculate the hydraulic resistance factor .
Solution. The formula (3.39) at Re = 40 000 and k(180) = 340 taken from
Table 3.2 gives for the following transcendental equation
1
) 3.745.
Its solution, found by method of successive approximations, yields = 0.0129.
This value is signicantly less than 0.0224 corresponding to the value of in
the case of antiturbulent additive absence in the ow of oil product at the
same Reynolds number. The effect is about 42.4%.
In order to select the necessary concentration of antiturbulent additive
one can proceed as follows (Ishmuchamedov et al., 1999). From Eq. (3.39) for
k() follows the relation
k() =
1
Re
e
1+3.745
0.88
(3.44)
which permits the determination of k() for given . Then with the help of
Tables 3.1 and 3.2 we obtain the concentration of the antiturbulent additive
3.7 Gravity Fluid Flow in a Pipe 65
in the oil product. Multiplying the latter by the total volume of the uid to be
pumped we get the required amount of the antiturbulent additive.
Exercise 3. It is required at a given pressure resource to increase by 30% the
carrying capacity of an oilpipeline with D = 377 mm, = 8 mm pumping
diesel fuel with
d
= 9 cSt and ow rate 450 m
3
h
1
. Determine the amount
of antiturbulent additive CDR needed to do this.
Solution. Let us calculate the initial values of the pumping rate v
0
, Reynolds
number Re and the factor of hydraulic resistance
0
:
v
0
= 4Q/S = 4 450/(3600 3.14 0.361
2
) = 1.221 m s
1
,
Re
0
= v
0
d/
d
= 1.221 0.361/(9 10
6
) = 48 976,
0
= 0.0213.
Since the carrying capacity must be increased by 30%, the new values of the
pumping rate v and the Reynolds number Re will be
v = 1.3 v
0
= 1.587 m s
1
, Re = 1.3 Re
0
= 63 669.
Due to the invariability of the pressure resource it should be
0
(Re
0
, 0) v
2
0
= (Re, ) v
2
.
This relation gives a new value of
=
0
(v
0
/U)
2
= 0.0213 (1/1.3)
2
= 0.0126.
The constant k() is determined by Eq. (3.44)
k() =
1
63 669
0.0126
e
1+3.745
0.0126
0.88
0.0126
246.
From Table 3.1 we nd that this value of k corresponds to = 60 ppm of the
antiturbulent additive.
Exercise 4. It is required to increase by 25% at a given pressure resource
the carrying capacity of an oilpipeline section with D = 530 mm, = 8 mm
pumping diesel fuel with
d
= 9 cSt and ow rate 950 m
3
h
1
. Determine the
amount of antiturbulent additive NECCAD547 needed to do this.
Answer. About 340 ppm.
3.7
Gravity Fluid Flow in a Pipe
The above considered ows of uid are pertinent to the class of the socalled
enforced (pumped) ows, since the motion of the ow was forced, that is to
66 3 Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe
overcome the friction force a pressure gradient was needed. However, there
are ows in which the primary driving force could be a component of the
gravity force. Such ows are called gravity ows. A variety of gravity ows
are gravity stratied (divided into layers) ows. In these ows the uid moves
without completely lling the crosssection, the uid ows over the lower part
of the pipe whereas the upper part of the pipe is lled with vapor and gases
evolved from this uid.
Considering the stratied gravity ow of a viscous incompressible uid
along a section of the pipeline with diameter d and roughness of the
internal wall surface inclined at an angle to the horizontal (Figure 3.5).
Our interest is the dependence of the ow rate Q = v S on the governing
parameters, that is the form of the function Q = f (S, , , g, sin, d, ).
We can write the sought dependence in dimensionless form guided by
dimensional theory. Among six arguments there are three dimensionally
independent ones, for example d, , . Hence the number of independent
arguments in dimensional V would be reduced from six to three (Lurie, 2001)
and the function Q = f (S, , , g, sin, d, ) takes the form
Q/S
_
g sin d
=
f
_
S
d
2
,
g sin
2
/d
3
,
_
(3.45)
where = / is the kinematic viscosity and = /d is the relative roughness
of the internal surface.
In the theory of gravity uid ows a parameter R
h
, called the hydraulic
radius (Leibensone et al., 1934), is often introduced. The hydraulic radius is
dened as the ratio between the area S of a part of pipe crosssection lled
with uid and the wetted perimeter P
s
(Figure 3.6).
Figure 3.5 A scheme of gravity uid ow in a pipe.
Figure 3.6 Denition of the hydraulic radius.
3.7 Gravity Fluid Flow in a Pipe 67
S =
1
2
r
0
2
1
2
r
0
2
sin =
1
2
r
0
2
( sin);
S
r
0
2
=
1
2
( sin).
Since
AB = r
0
and P
s
= r
0
then
R
h
=
S
P
S
=
1/2 r
0
2
( sin)
r
0
=
r
0
2
_
1
sin
_
(3.46)
where is the central angle where is seen the part of crosssection lled with
uid and r
0
= d/2 the pipe radius. If the pipe is completely lled with uid
( = 2), then R
h
= r
0
/2 = d/4.
Since S/d
2
and R
h
/d depend only on the degree of the section lling
with uid, that is on the angle , the dependence (3.45) without disturbing
generality could be written in equivalent form
Q/S
_
g sin R
h
=
f
1
_
S
d
2
,
g sin
2
/d
3
,
_
or
Q = S C
Sh
_
R
h
sin (3.47)
where C
Sh
=
f
1
(S/d
2
,
_
gd sin d/, ) is the socalled dimensionless
Chezy factor;
f
1
is a dimensionless factor dependent on the parameters of the
ow regime
_
gd sin d/, degree of uid lling S/d
2
and the smoothness
parameter of the internal surface of the pipe (Archangelskiy, 1947 and
Christianovitch, 1938).
The formula (3.47) could be represented in a form analogous to the
DarcyWeisbach relation for enforced ow
g sin =
2 (d/R
h
)
f
2
1
1
d
v
2
2
(3.48)
when in the last expression we replace the pressure gradient p/L
responsible for enforced ow with the rolling down component of the
gravity force g sin causing motion in the case of gravity ow. Comparison
of Eq. (3.48) with the DarcyWeisbach relation shows that the hydraulic
resistance factor in stratied gravity ow is related to the factor
f
1
by the
equality
=
2 (d/R
h
)
f
2
1
68 3 Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe
from which follows the expression for the Chezy factor
C
Sh
=
_
2g (d/R
h
)
. (3.49)
There are many empirical formulas for the Chezy factor for pipes with circular
as well as noncircular crosssections (Leibensonet al., 1934). Avoiding detailed
treatment of these formulas let us only say that in a rst approximation it
is possible to use Eq. (3.49) replacing d by 4R
h
, to give C
Sh
=
_
8g/, where
= (Re, ); Re = 4vR
h
/ and R
h
the hydraulic radius related to the degree of
lling of the pipe crosssection by formulas (3.46).
Pipeline Sections of Gravity Flow
When the pressure in the pipeline section is equal to the saturated vapor
tension of the transported uid, then inside the section continuously appear
cavities lled with uid vapor. In this case the ow could be stratied or could
have a more complicated structure in which portions of uid alternate with
vaporgas cavities (bubbles). The latter ow regime is called slug ow.
The owina section[x
1
, x
2
] of the pipeline inwhichit moves under the action
of the gravity force partially (incompletely) lling the pipeline crosssection
while the remainder is lled with vapor of this uid, is called gravity ow. The
pressure inside the vaporgas cavity remains practically invariable and equal
to the saturated vapor tension (pressure) p
v
. In spite of this the difference in
pressures between the sections x
1
(the beginning of the gravity ow section)
and x
2
(the end of the gravity owsection) nevertheless exists, it is merely equal
to the difference in geometrical heights (z
1
z
2
) of these sections (Figure 3.7).
Stationary gravity ow can exist only on descending sections of the pipeline.
The beginning of the gravity ow section x
1
is called the transfer section. The
transfer section always coincides with the region of the pipeline prole peak.
Figure 3.7 A scheme of pipeline gravity ow.
3.7 Gravity Fluid Flow in a Pipe 69
The line of hydraulic gradient of the gravity ow section passes parallel to
the pipeline prole at the distance p
v
/g over it. Consequently the hydraulic
gradient i of the gravity ow section is equal to the slope of the pipeline prole
to the horizontal i = tan
p
.
The uid ow rate in the gravity ow section in the stationary ow regime
is equal to the ow rate Q of uid in the lled sections of the pipeline
Q = v
0
S
0
= v S (3.50)
from which may be concluded that the velocity of uid ow v in the gravity
ow section exceeds the velocity v
0
of the uid in the pipeline sections lled by
the uid, since the area S of the crosssection part of each gravity ow section
lled with the uid is less than the area S
0
of the complete crosssection of the
pipeline, that is v = v
0
S
0
/S > v
0
.
If the ow of uid in the gravity ow section is stratied, the degree = S/S
0
of pipeline lling with the uid depends on the ratio = i
0
/ tan
p
 between
the hydraulic gradient i
0
=
0
1/d v
2
0
/g of the pipeline sections completely
lled with uid and the absolute value of the gravity ow section slope
p
to the horizontal. This dependence can be obtained from Eqs. (3.47) or
(3.48) solving them with respect to S. To calculate the degree of pipeline
section lling with uid it the following approximation formulas have been
suggested (Ishmuchamedov et al., 1999):
1. = 1 at = i
0
/ tan
p
 1. In this case the pipeline crosssection is
completely lled with uid;
2. = 1 2.98 10
2
_
2
0
(1
); at 32.32
0
< 1;
3. = 9.39 10
2
_
2
0
+0.113; at 4.87
0
< 32.32
0
; (3.51)
4. = 0.1825
_
2
0
_
0.356
; at < 4.87
0
.
Exercise. The oil ow rate ( = 8.6 cSt) in the gravity ow section of an oil
pipeline (D = 720 mm, = 10 mm, = 0.2 mm) is 900 m
3
h
1
. The prole
of the section is inclined to the horizontal at an angle
p
= 1
. It is required
to nd the degree of pipeline crosssection lling with oil in this section.
Solution. Calculate the pumping rate v
0
, the Reynolds number Re, the factor
of hydraulic resistance
0
and the hydraulic gradient i
0
inthe pumping sections
of the pipeline:
v
0
= 4 900/(3600 3.14 0.700
2
) = 0.650 m s
1
; tan1
= 0.0175;
Re = 0.65 0.7/(8.6 10
6
)
= 52907;
0
= 0.0219;
i
0
=
0
1/d v
2
0
/(2 g) = 0.0219 1/0.7 0.65
2
/(2 9.81)
= 0.0007.
Determine the parameter :
= i
0
/ tan
p
 = 0.0007/0.0175 = 0.04.
70 3 Structure of Laminar and Turbulent Flows in a Circular Pipe
Since = 0.04 < 4.87
0
= 0.1067, in formulas (3.51) using the fourth case:
= 0.1825 (2/
0
)
0.356
= 0.1825 (2 0.04/0.0219)
0.356
= 0.29,
that is, the considered section of the pipeline is approximately 29% lled.
How to determine whether or not there are gravity ow sections in pipeline
sections under consideration. To answer this question we need to build a
combined picture of the pipeline prole and the hydraulic gradient line. If the
line of the hydraulic gradient is everywhere over the pipeline prole and the
amount by which it exceeds it is the quantity p
v
/g, where p
v
is the saturated
vapor pressure of the uid, then gravity owsections in the pipeline are absent.
If the line of hydraulic gradient at any point approaches the pipeline prole
closer than p
v
/g or even intersects it, then there exists one or several gravity
ow sections in the pipeline (Ishmuchamedov et al., 1999).
Now let us consider Figure 3.8 where a section of pipeline OO
1
is depicted.
Let us begin to build the line BK
2
2
K
1
1
Aof the pipeline hydraulic gradient
from the end O
1
of the pipeline section under consideration. To do this it is
sufcient to know the pressure and the hydraulic gradient at the end of the
section. The line of the hydraulic gradient in the segment BK
2
lies signicantly
over the pipeline prole, therefore crosssections of the pipeline section are
completely lled. However, the line of the hydraulic gradient at the point
K
2
approaches the pipeline prole up to a distance p
v
/g, thus the point K
2
represents the end of the rst gravity ow section. Hence, one of the gravity
ow sections is found. The line of hydraulic gradient K
2
2
at this section is
parallel to the pipeline prole.
Continue to build the line of the hydraulic gradient. It leaves the point
2
at
an angle whose tangent is equal to the hydraulic gradient, that is in fact parallel
to the segment BK
2
. It turns out that this line at the point K
1
approaches
the pipeline prole at the distance p
v
/g for the second time. Consequently,
the pressure inside the pipeline again becomes equal to the pressure of the
saturated vapor and in the pipeline there should exist vaporgas cavities. The
point K
1
represents the end of the second gravity ow section. Its beginning
at the point
1
is a transfer section. It is called a transfer section because it is
Figure 3.8 A scheme to determine the location of a pipeline gravity ow section.
3.7 Gravity Fluid Flow in a Pipe 71
sufcient to deliver the transported uid to the point
1
so that it reaches then
the end O
1
of the section by itself with the help of the gravity ow. Hence,
the second gravity ow section K
1
1
is found. The line K
1
1
of the hydraulic
gradient at this section passes parallel to the pipeline prole at the distance
p
v
/g from it.
At the section
1
Athe line of the hydraulic gradient is parallel to its segments
BK
2
and
2
K
1
having been built for completely lled pipeline segments.
From Figure 3.8 it follows that the presence of gravity pipeline sections leads to
enhancement of the initial hydraulic head H
1
(and consequently the pressure p
1
)
at the station and therefore requires higher expenditures of energy for pumping
as compared with a pipeline in which such sections are absent. If the line of
hydraulic gradient beginning from the point K
2
were to be lengthened up to
the initial crosssection of the considered pipeline section, it would be possible
to determine the hydraulic head
H
1
needed to pump uid with the same ow
rate in a pipeline of the same length and with the same diameter but without
gravity ow sections. It is evident that H
1
H
1
.
Exercise. Oil ( = 870 kg m
3
, = 8.5 cSt, p
v
= 0.02 MPa) with ow rate
400 m
3
h
1
is pumped along an oilpipeline (L = 140 km; D = 530 mm,
= 8 mm, = 0.2 mm). The prole of the section has the form represented
in Table 3.3. The pressure at the end of the section is 0.2 MPa. It is required
to determine the pressure at the beginning of the section.
Solution. Calculate rst the hydraulic gradient.
v
0
= 4 400/(3600 3.14 0.514
2
)
= 0.536 m s
1
;
Re = 0.536 0.514/(8.5 10
6
) = 32 412;
0
= 0.11 (0.2/514 +68/32 412)
0.25
= 0.025;
i
0
= 0.025 1/0.514 0.536
2
/(2 9.81)
= 0.00071.
Then determine the head losses in the pipeline section between 120 and
140 km. They are h
120140
= i
0
20 000 = 14.2 m. Therefore the head at
the end of the slope, that is at the crosssection x = 120 km is equal to
0.2 10
6
/870 9.81 +14.2
= 14.43 m.
Since p
v
/ g = 20 000/(870 9.81)
M = vS = const.
If the uid is incompressible ( d/ dt = 0) and homogeneous ( = const.)
and the pipeline has invariable diameter (S = const.), the velocity of the
uid would be the same at each crosssection of the pipeline
v = const. (4.1)
2. The momentum equation (1.10) gives
v
dv
dx
=
dp
dx
4
d
w
g sin(x).
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
74 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
With regard to the condition v = const. the momentum equation is
simplied and yields
dp
dx
=
4
d
w
g sin(x).
If we take in the last equation
w
=
(Re, )
4
vv
2
and sin(x) =
dz
dx
,
the momentum equation is transformed into
d
dx
_
p
g
+z
_
= (Re, )
1
d
vv
2g
. (4.2)
Note that the Bernoulli equation (1.19) leads also to Eq. (4.2) if we replace
in it the hydraulic gradient i
0
by 4
w
/gd = (Re, ) v
2
/2gd in
accordance with Eq. (1.23).
3. The equation of total energy balance (1.36) for stationary ow has the
form
vS
d
dx
_
e
in
+
p
+gz
_
= d q
n
or
v
de
in
dx
=
4
d
q
n
v
d
dx
_
p
+gz
_
.
If in this equation we take e
in
= C
v
T +const.,
d
dx
_
p
+gz
_
= (Re, )
1
d
vv
2
and q
n
= K (T T
ex
)
the equation of total energy balance takes the form
vC
v
dT
dx
=
4K
d
(T T
ex
) +(Re, )
1
d
v
3
2
. (4.3)
The system of equations (4.1)(4.3) with the addition of relations for the
hydraulic resistance factor (Re, ) and heat transfer factor K serve as the
basis for calculation of the stationary operating regimes of pipelines tran
sporting incompressible uids, to which class belong oil and oil products.
4.2 Boundary Conditions. Modeling of the Operation of Pumps and OilPumping Stations 75
4.2
Boundary Conditions. Modeling of the Operation of Pumps and OilPumping
Stations
The Bernoulli equation in algebraic form results from the continuity
equation (4.1) and the differential momentum equation (4.2)
_
p
g
+z
_
x=0
_
p
g
+z
_
x=L
= (Re, )
L
d
v
2
2g
(4.4)
In this relation x = 0 and x = L denote, respectively, the initial and terminal
crosssections of the pipeline section with length L. Thus we have one
algebraic equation relating three parameters of the ow the pressure p
0
at the beginning of the pipeline section, the pressure p
L
at the end of the
pipeline section and the velocity v of the uid ow. To determine the velocity
v or, what is the same, the ow rate of pumping, additional information
on the pressures at both ends of the pipeline is needed. This information
reecting the interaction of the considered pipeline section with the rest of
the pipeline is introduced into the mathematical model through boundary
conditions.
In some cases the pressure p
L
at the end of the pipeline, that is at x = L
could be taken as given, determined e.g. by the conditions required for uid
pumped into reservoirs through a system of intrabase pipelines. Hence, one
of the boundary conditions can be a simple condition p(L) = p
L
.
Another boundary condition models the operation of the oil pumping
station (OPS) located at the beginning of the pipeline section, that is at
x = 0. In uid ow in the pipeline the pressure gradually decreases because
mechanical energy is spent overcoming the force of viscous friction between
the uid layers and is then turned into heat. That is why in a pipeline special
equipment producing pressure is needed. In general such equipment is called
a pump.
4.2.1
Pumps
Pumps represent equipment for compulsory uid movement from a cross
section with lesser head (line of suction) to a crosssection with greater head
(line of discharge). Since the elevations of the pump entrance and exit are, as
a rule, identical, one can say that these pumps are equipment for forced uid
movement from a crosssection with lesser head (line of suction) to a crosssection
with greater head (line of discharge).
The simplest mathematical model of a pump can be represented as an
algebraic equation of the form
H =
p
ex
p
in
g
= F(Q) (4.5)
76 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
characterizing the dependence of the differential head H produced by the
pump on the uid ow rate Q. For every actual pump the differential head
H appears to be dependent on the uid ow rate Q called in this case the
feed. The greater the head produced by a pump, the less, as a rule, is its feed.
The dependence H = F(Q) denes the socalled headdischarge (Q H)
characteristic of the pump.
In order to understand the physical basis of this model, let us closely
consider the operating principle of one of the commonly encountered pumps,
namely the centrifugal pump. In centrifugal pumps, used for pumping oil and
oil products, the uid moves from the crosssection with lesser pressure to
that with greater pressure under the action of the centrifugal force produced
by the rotation of an impeller with prole blades.
Figure 4.1 shows a scheme of a pump impeller with prole blades.
Considering the frame of reference related to the rotating impeller, the
impeller is believed to be immovable whereas the centrifugal force of inertia
2
r, where is the uid density, the angular velocity of the impeller
rotation and r the distance of the uid particle from the rotation axis, acts on
the uid lling the pump.
The centrifugal force causes the uid to move along the impeller blade from
its center to the periphery. This force is capable of overcoming the pressure
drop p = p
ex
p
in
, equal to the pressure difference between the pumping
pressure p
ex
at the impeller periphery and the suction pressure p
in
at the
center of the impeller, that is to force the uid to move from the region of low
pressure to the region of high pressure. It is selfevident that to produce such
forced motion one needs to spend energy for impeller rotation.
For simplicity let us consider an impeller with radially located blades. The
balance equation of forces acting on the uid moving along the impeller radius
from its center to the periphery can be written as:
2
r
dp
dr
= f
(Q)
where dp/ dr is the radial gradient of pressure opposing the motion and f
(Q)
the friction force depending on the discharge Q and increasing with Q.
Integration of the force balance equation over the radius from 0 to R
im
,
where R
im
is the radius of the impeller, gives
2
R
im
2
2
p = R
im
f
(Q) or p =
2
R
im
2
2
R
im
f
(Q).
Division of both sides of this equation by g yields
H =
2
R
im
2
2g
R
im
g
f
(Q). (4.6)
Thus the rotation of the impeller with angular velocity can force the uid
to move against the pressure drop p between the periphery and the central
4.2 Boundary Conditions. Modeling of the Operation of Pumps and OilPumping Stations 77
Figure 4.1 Operating principle of a
centrifugal pump.
part of the impeller. The maximal value of the pressure drop which the
centrifugal force is capable of overcoming is equal to
2
R
im
2
/2. This value of
p is achieved at Q = 0 in the absence of a friction force. At Q > 0 Eq. (4.6)
determining the (Q H) characteristic of the pump, where H = p/g,
is obeyed. The pump feed Q decreases with increase in p and, conversely,
the smaller the pressure drop which the blower has to overcome, the greater
the pump feed.
Exercise. It is required to determine the maximal differential head developed
by a centrifugal pump with radial located impeller blades having radius 0.25 m
and rotating at 3000 rpm.
Solution. 3000 rpm corresponds to the angular velocity = 2 3000/60 =
2 50 s
1
. Then, in accordance with Eq. (4.6) we get
(H)
max
=
2
R
b
2
2g
=
4
2
50
2
0.25
2
2 9.81
= 314.4 m.
The (Q H) characteristics of centrifugal pumps operating in stationary
regimes are often approximated by the twoterm dependence
H = a b Q
2
(4.7)
where the differential head H is measured in (m) and the ow rate Q in
(m
3
h
1
), therefore the dimension of the factor a is (m) and the factor b
is (m/(m
3
h
1
)
2
). For example, the main pump HM 1250260 produced in
Russia rated at a nominal feed of 1250 m
3
h
1
and nominal head 260 m,
has the (Q H) characteristic H = 331 0.451 10
4
Q
2
, main pump
HM 2500230 with impeller diameter D
im
= 430 mm rated at nominal feed
2500 m
3
h
1
and nominal head 230 m has the (Q H) characteristic
H = 280 0.792 10
5
Q
2
(H in m, Q in m
3
h
1
) and so on (Vasilev
et al., 2002).
Figure 4.2 shows the (Q H) characteristic of the centrifugal pump HM
2500230.
The two upper curves of this gure represent the (Q H) characteristics
of a pump with accessory impellers (385 and 430 mm, the middle curve
shows the dependence of the power consumption N (kW) on the ow rate
78 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
Figure 4.2 Characteristics of the centrifugal pump HM 2500230.
Q and the bottom curve illustrates the dependence of efciency (%) on
the ow rate of the transported uid. In the same gure is also marked the
operating range of the pump, that is the range of ow rates Q of the pump. In
this range (1800 < Q < 3000 m
3
h
1
) the efciency 85% and the power
N 1600 kW of the pump have maximal values.
4.2.2
OilPumping Station
Pumps connected in series or parallel provide the basis of oilpumping stations
intended to produce driving pressure.
The (Q H) characteristics of pumps connected in series (Fig. 4.3) are
summarized, the uid ow rates of the pumps are identical Q
1
= Q
2
= Q and
the differential heads are given by H = H
1
+H
2
.
If H
1
= a
1
b
1
Q
2
is the characteristic of the rst pump and H
2
=
a
2
b
2
Q
2
the characteristic of the second pump, the characteristic of a
system of two pumps connected in series is equal to
H = (a
1
+a
2
) (b
1
+b
2
) Q
2
. (4.8)
4.2 Boundary Conditions. Modeling of the Operation of Pumps and OilPumping Stations 79
Figure 4.3 Series connection
of pumps.
In parallel connection of pumps (Fig. 4.4) their (Q H) characteristics are
different. Fluid discharges in pumps are given by Q = Q
1
+Q
2
but the heads
produced by each pump are identical H = H
1
= H
2
.
If H = a
1
b
1
Q
2
is the characteristic of the rst centrifugal pump and
H = a
2
b
2
Q
2
that of the second one, the characteristic of the system of
two pumps connected in parallel is
_
(a
1
H)
b
1
+
_
(a
2
H)
b
2
= Q. (4.9)
Exercise 1. The (Q H) characteristic of a centrifugal pump with impeller
diameter 440 mmis H = 331 0.451 10
4
Q
2
. Another pump of the same
type but with impeller diameter 465 mm has the (Q H) characteristic
H = 374 0.451 10
4
Q
2
, (H in m, Q in m
3
h
1
). What characteristic
has a system of two pumps connected in series?
Solution. In accordance with Eq. (4.8) we obtain H = (331 +374) 2
0.451 10
4
Q
2
= 705 0.902 10
4
Q
2
.
Exercise 2. The (Q H) characteristic of a centrifugal pump with
impeller diameter 440 mm is H = 331 0.451 10
4
Q
2
. Another pump
of the same type but with impeller diameter 465 mm has the (Q H)
characteristic H = 374 0.451 10
4
Q
2
, (H in m, Q in m
3
h
1
). It is
required to nd the characteristic of a system of two pumps connected in
parallel?
Figure 4.4 Parallel connection of pumps.
80 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
Solution. In accordance with Eq. (4.9) we have
_
(331 H)
0.451 10
4
+
_
(374 H)
0.451 10
4
= Q
or
331 H +
374 H = 6.716 10
3
Q, where H < 331 m.
The (Q H) characteristic of a pumping station is the total (Q H)
characteristic of all pumps operating in the station (connected in series or
parallel) minus the (Q H) characteristics of the supply communications.
The latter is taken as an element connected in series with the pumps of the
station.
Exercise 3. At a pumping station two pumps operate in series with
characteristics H = F
1
(Q) = 331 0.451 10
4
Q
2
and H = F
2
(Q) =
374 0.385 10
4
Q
2
. It is also known that the head losses h
c
in the station
communications, that is the pipeline system of the station, are represented by
the dependence
h
c
= 25 0.036 10
4
Q
2
(H, h
c
in m, Q in m
3
h
1
). It is required to nd the characteristic of the
pumping station?
Solution. The characteristic of the pumping station H = F(Q) is repre
sented by the sum of the characteristics of the pump systemminus head losses
in the supply communication F
1
(Q) +F
2
(Q) h
c
(Q):
H = F(Q) = 680 0.800 10
4
Q
2
.
Hence, if (Q H) the characteristic of the pumping station H = F(Q) is
known, the boundary condition at the initial crosssection x = 0 of the pipeline
section can be the following condition given by this characteristic
p
ex
p
in
g
= F(Q) or
p
0
g
=
p
u
g
+
F(v) (4.10)
that is, a condition similar to condition (4.5), where p
0
= p
ex
is the pressure
at the initial crosssection of the pipeline section, p
u
= p
in
the pressure
before the oilpumping station, called the head before pumping station,
F(Q) F(vS)
F(v). When using the twoterm dependence of the station
differential head H on the ow rate Q the boundary condition (4.10) at the
beginning of the pipeline section takes the form
p
0
g
=
p
u
g
+a b S
2
(3600)
2
v
2
(4.11)
where the velocity v is measured in (m s
1
).
4.3 Combined Operation of Linear Pipeline Section and Pumping Station 81
4.3
Combined Operation of Linear Pipeline Section and Pumping Station
To calculate the combined operation of a linear pipeline section and the
pumping station located at the beginning of the pipeline section the Bernoulli
equation (4.4) is used, in which the pressure p
0
= p(0) at the initial cross
section of the pipeline section is excluded with the help of boundary
condition (4.11)
_
_
_
p
0
g
+z
0
_
_
p
L
g
+z
L
_
= (Re, )
L
d
v
2
2g
,
p
0
g
=
p
u
g
+(a 1.296 10
7
S
2
b v
2
)
where a and b are the approximation factors of the pumping station (Q H)
characteristic, the velocity v is measured in (m s
1
). After eliminating p
0
from
these equations we obtain
p
u
g
p
L
g
+(z
0
z
L
) +a 1.296 10
7
S
2
b v
2
= (Re, )
L
d
v
2
2g
.
(4.12)
This equation is called the head balance equation. At given values of the head
before the pumping station p
u
and pressure at the pipeline section end p
L
Eq. (4.12) serves to determine the unknown velocity v of the uid ow in the
pipeline.
To solve Eq. (4.12) it is convenient to rearrange all the terms containing
the unknown velocity v on the righthand side of the equation leaving on the
lefthand side only the given quantities
p
u
g
p
L
g
+(z
0
z
L
) +a =
_
L
d
1
2g
+1.296 10
7
S
2
b
_
v
2
.
This equation could be solved by the method of successive approximation
(iteration method). We can demonstrate it with exercises.
Exercise 1. Two identical pumps connected in series and having iden
tical (Q H) characteristics H = 331 0.451 10
4
Q
2
, (H in m,
Q in m
3
h
1
) are pumping diesel fuel ( = 840 kg m
3
, = 9 cSt)
along the pipeline section (D = 530 8 mm, L = 120 km, = 0.2 mm,
z
0
= 50 m, z
L
= 100 m). It is required to nd the ow rate and pres
sure at the beginning of the section when the pressure p
L
at the end
of the section is 0.3 MPa, the head before the pumping station h
u
is
30 m and it is known that sections of gravity ows are absent in the
pipeline.
82 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
Solution. Write Eq. (4.11) of the head balance
p
u
g
p
L
g
+(z
0
z
L
) +2a = (
L
d
1
2g
+1.296 10
7
S
2
2b)v
2
.
Insertion of the given data yields
30
0.3 10
6
840 9.81
+50 100 +2 331 =
_
120 000
0.530 2 0.008
1
2 9.81
+1.296 10
7
_
3.14 0.514
2
4
_
2
2 0.451 10
4
_
v
2
and
605.6 = v
2
(11 899.2 +50.3).
If as a rst approximation it is accepted that
(1)
= 0.02 then this equation
gives v = 1.449 m s
1
. We need to verify whether or not the factor is correctly
taken. To do this let us determine the rst Reynolds number
Re
(1)
=
1.449 0.514
_
9 10
6
_ = 82 754.
Then with formula (1.31) we get
= 0.11
_
0.2
514
+
68
82 754
_
0.25
= 0.0205 >
(1)
= 0.02.
It is seen that the obtained value of the hydraulic resistance factor should be
enhanced.
As a second approximation we take
(2)
= 0.0205. Then the given equation
yields v = 1.434 m s
1
, after which it is necessary to verify whether the factor
is correctly taken. We have
Re
(2)
=
1.434 0.514
(9 10
6
)
= 81 897;
= 0.11
_
0.2
514
+
68
81 897
_
0.25
= 0.0206
(2)
= 0.0205.
Thus there is good coincidence between the taken and received factor .
Hence, v
= 1.434 m s
1
and
Q =
3.14 0.514
2
4
1.434
= 0.2974 m
3
s
1
or
Q = 0.2974 3600
= 1071 m
3
h
1
.
The pressure p
0
at the beginning of the pipeline section is determined with
the formula p
0
= g [h
u
+F(Q)]. As a result we have
4.4 Calculations on the Operation of a Pipeline with Intermediate OilPumping Stations 83
p
0
= 840 9.81
_
30 +2
_
331 0.451 10
4
1071
2
__
= 4.85 10
6
Pa
or 4.85 MPa.
Answer. 1071 m
3
h
1
; 4.85 MPa.
Exercise 2. The pumping of crude oil ( = 870 kg m
3
, = 25 cSt) is be
ing conducted by two pumps: HM 2500230 with characteristic H =
251 0.812 10
5
Q
2
and HM 3600230 with H = 273 0.125 10
4
Q
2
connected in series and rated at feed 1800 m
3
h
1
. It is known that the
(Q H) characteristic of the supply communication of the oilpumping
station has the form H = 0.15 10
4
Q
2
(here and above H is in m
and Q in m
3
h
1
). It is required to determine the pumping ow rate under
the condition that the oilpipeline section (D = 820 10 mm, L = 150 km,
z
0
= 80 m, z
L
= 120 m, h
u
= 70 m, h
L
= 40 m) has an approximately at
character and that sections of gravity ow are absent. Besides it is known that
head losses due to local resistances comprise 2% of the head losses due to
friction.
Solution. The equation of the head balance is
_
80 +70 +
_
251 0.812 10
5
Q
2
_
+
_
273 0.125 10
4
Q
2
_
0.15 10
4
Q
2
_
[120 +40] = 1.02
150 000
0.800
v
2
2 9.81
.
After simplication this equation takes the form
514 = v
2
(9748 +116.6).
This equation is solved by the iteration method.
As a rst approximation we take
(1)
= 0.02. Then the equation gives
v = 1.284 m s
1
. Now verify whether has been chosen correctly.
Re =
1.284 0.8
(25 10
6
)
= 41 088,
=
0.3164
4
41 088
= 0.0222 >
(1)
= 0.02.
As the second approximation we take
(2)
= 0.0222. Then the equation yields
v = 1.242 m s
1
. Now verify whether has been chosen correctly
Re =
1.242 0.8
(25 10
6
)
= 39 744;
=
0.3164
4
39744
= 0.0224
(2)
= 0.0222.
Hence v = 1.242 m s
1
which is equivalent to Q
= 2246 m
3
h
1
.
Answer. 2246 m
3
h
1
.
84 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
4.4
Calculations on the Operation of a Pipeline with Intermediate OilPumping
Stations
Consider a pipeline consisting of n successive sections separated by oil
pumping stations (OPS). The transportation of uid is performed in the so
called pumptopump regime. When intermediate uid dumping and pumping
are absent we can write the Bernoulli equation for each section
_
_
[z
1
+h
n1
+F
1
(Q)] [z
2
+h
n2
] = h
12
(Q),
[z
2
+h
n2
+F
2
(Q)] [z
3
+h
n3
] = h
23
(Q),
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[z
n
+h
n,n
+F
n
(Q)] [z
L
+h
L
] = h
n(n1)
(Q),
(4.13)
where H = F
1
(Q), H = F
2
(Q), . . . , H = F
n
(Q) are the hydraulic (Q
H) characteristics of oilpumping stations; h
j(j1)
(Q) the head losses in the
sections betweenthe oilpumping stations dependent onthe pumping owrate
Q; z
1
, z
2
, . . . , z
n
the elevations of the oilpumping stations; h
u,1
, h
u,2
, . . . , h
u,n
the heads before the oilpumping stations equal to h
u,i
= p
u,i
/(g); z
L
, h
L
=
p
L
/(g) the elevation and piezometric head at the pipeline end (x = L),
respectively.
Equations (4.13) represent a system of n algebraic equations (according to
the number of sections) with n unknown quantities: ow rate Q and (n 1)
heads h
u,j
before the intermediate oilpumping stations.
First consequence (equation of head balance):
Termbyterm summation of the equations of the system (4.13) yields the
equation called the balance equation of the heads for the whole pipeline
(h
u,1
h
L
) +
j=n
j=1
F
j
(Q) = (z
L
z
1
) +
j=n
j=1
h
j(j1)
(Q) (4.14)
This equation serves to determine the owrate Q of the uid (carrying capacity
of the pipeline), with all unknown heads h
u,j
before the intermediate pumping
stations being excluded.
It should be taken into account that the ow rate Q found from Eq. (4.14)
can be realized in the considered pipeline only when the heads h
u,j
of all the
intermediate stations are greater than the minimum allowed value assuring
pump operation without cavitation and the pressure in all crosssections of the
pipeline is less than the permissible value dened by the pipeline strength.
Second consequence (equation for heads before the oilpumping stations):
Termbyterm summation of only the rst s (s < n) equations of the system
(4.13) yields the equation for the heads h
u,s
before the sth intermediate
pumping station
h
u,s
= h
u,1
+(z
1
z
L
) +
j=s
j=1
_
F
j
(Q) h
j(j1)
(Q)
_
. (4.15)
4.4 Calculations on the Operation of a Pipeline with Intermediate OilPumping Stations 85
The ow rate Q in this equation is assumed to be given, since it can be
obtained from Eq. (4.14).
In determining the head losses in the pipeline sections it is necessary to
account for the possibility of existing transfer points and segments of gravity
ow in these sections (see Section 3.7). Let us illustrate the aforesaid with an
exercise.
Exercise. An oilpipeline with length L = 450 km consists of three linear
sections the data for which are given in the table below. The head h
u.1
before
the leading oilpumping station is 50 m and the head h
L
at the end of the
pipeline is 30 m.
At the beginning of each section there is an oilpumping station with two
identical pumps connected in series the characteristics of which are given in
the following table
It is required to determine the carrying capacity of the oilpipeline when
pumping oil ( = 900 kg m
3
, = 30 cSt) through it and the heads of the
intermediate oil pumping stations.
Solution. The balance equations of the heads for the pipeline sections are
_
50 +50 +2 (251 0.812 10
5
Q
2
)
_
[60 +h
u,2
]
=
150 000
0.704
v
2
2 9.81
,
_
60 +h
u,2
+2 (285 0.640 10
5
Q
2
)
_
[70 +h
u,3
]
=
180 000
0.704
v
2
2 9.81
,
_
70 +h
u3
+2 (236 0.480 10
5
Q
2
)
_
[180 +30]
=
120 000
0.704
v
2
2 9.81
.
No. Length, km D, mm , mm z
0
, m z
L
, m
1. 150 720 8 50 60
2. 180 720 8 60 70
3. 120 720 8 70 180
No. Type of pump (QH) characteristic Positive suction head, m
1. II 2500230 H = 251 0.812 10
5
Q
2
40
2. II 3600230 H = 285 0.640 10
5
Q
2
40
3. II 5000210 H = 236 0.480 10
5
Q
2
40
86 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
Here we assume that, due to the invariability of the pipeline diameter, the
rate of pumping and the hydraulic resistance factors are identical when
passing from one section to another; h
u,2
, h
u,3
are the unknown heads of the
intermediate stations that are to be determined.
Termbyterm summation of the above cited equations gives
1434 3.864 10
5
Q
2
= 32 579 v
2
or
1434 = v
2
(32 579 +75.8).
This equation(balance of heads for the whole pipeline) is solved by the iteration
method. We take rst
(1)
= 0.02. Then from the above equation we obtain
v
(1)
= 1.404 m s
1
. Next we verify the correctness of the factor :
Re =
1.404 0.704
(30 10
6
)
= 32947,
=
0.3164
4
32947
= 30 694;
=
0.3164
4
30694
= 0.0239 0.0234.
Thus v = 1.308 m s
1
or Q
= 1832 m
3
h
1
.
From the rst balance equation of heads we determine h
u,2
[50 +50 +2 (251 0.812 10
5
1832
2
)] [60 +h
u,2
]
= 0.0234
150 000
0.704
1.308
2
2 9.81
and h
u,2
= 52.7 m.
The second balance equation gives h
u,3
[60 +52.7 +2 (285 0.640 10
5
1832
2
)] [70 +h
u,3
]
= 0.0234
180000
0.704
1.308
2
2 9.81
and h
u,3
= 48.0 m.
Both the values for the heads of the intermediate oilpumping stations comply
with the requirement of positive suction head and, therefore, the obtained
pumping regime is realizable.
4.5 Calculations on Pipeline Stationary Operating Regimes in Fluid Pumping with Heating 87
4.5
Calculations on Pipeline Stationary Operating Regimes in Fluid Pumping with
Heating
To calculate the stationary operating regime of pipelines performing uid
pumping with heating (hightemperature pumping) Eqs. (4.1)(4.3) are used.
_
_
d
dx
(vS) = 0
d
dx
_
p
g
+z
_
= (Re, )
1
d
vv
2g
vC
v
dT
dx
=
4K
d
(T T
H
) +(Re, )
1
d
v
3
2g
(4.16)
The rst equation gives vS = const., meaning that the mass ow rate is
constant in the stationary operating regime. If we take the pipeline diameter
to be invariable d = d
0
= const., that is we neglect heat expansion of the pipe,
and the uid density to be insignicantly variable ( const.), that is we also
ignore heat expansion of the uid, from the constancy of mass ow rate the
condition of pumping rate constancy v v
0
= const. follows.
The latter condition v v
0
= const. allows us to rewrite the system of
differential equations (4.16) as
_
_
d
dx
_
p
g
+z
_
= (Re, )
1
d
0
v
0
v
0

2g
v
0
C
v
dT
dx
=
4K
d
0
(T T
H
) +(Re, )
1
d
0
v
0

3
2g
(4.17)
As initial conditions, that is conditions at the initial crosssection x = 0 of the
pipeline, we can take
p(0) = p
0
; T(0) = T
0
(4.18)
signifying that the pressure and temperature at the beginning of the pipeline
are known. If it is needed to model the oilpumping station with given
(Q H) characteristic H = a b Q
2
located at the beginning of the
pipeline, the initial conditions at x = 0 should be taken as
p
0
g
=
p
u
g
+a b S
2
0
(3600)
2
v
0
2
; T(0) = T
0
. (4.19)
Here, in accordance with Eq. (4.11) a and b are approximated factors the of
(Q H) characteristics of OPS; p
u
the head before the station; S
0
= d
2
0
/4.
In the general case the system of equations (4.16) should be integrated
numerically or solved using one or other simplication suggestions. One
consists in ignoring the heat released in the uid due to the work of internal
88 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
friction forces as compared to external heat exchange
(Re, )
1
d
0
v
0

3
2g
4K
d
0
T T
ex
.
Then the second equation of system (4.16) can be easily integrated and the
solution of this equation yields (see Eq. (1.44))
T(x) = T
ex
+(T
0
T
ex
) exp
_
d
0
K
C
v
M
0
x
_
(4.20)
where
M
0
= v
0
S
0
is the mass ow rate; T
ex
the temperature of the external
medium, taken as constant. It should be noted that the uid velocity v
0
is
constant but unknown.
The rst equation of the system (4.16) can be represented as
_
p
0
g
+z
0
_
_
p
L
g
+z
L
_
=
_
L
0
(Re, ) dx
1
d
0
v
0
2
2g
This equation differs from the standard form of the Bernoulli equation in that
it takes into account variability of the factor with pipeline length. Really, if
T = T(x), thenT = const., the kinematic viscosity of the uid is not constant,
it depends on temperature, therefore the Reynolds number Re = v
0
d
0
/(T) =
Re(x) and the factor of hydraulic resistance are functions of x. This circum
stance is taken into account in the Bernoulli equation obtained by integration
of over the pipeline section length. With regard to Eq. (4.19) we have
p
u
g
p
L
g
+(z
0
z
L
) +a 1.296 10
7
S
0
2
b v
0
2
=
_
L
0
(Re, ) dx
1
d
0
v
0
2
2g
The system of equations
_
_
p
u
g
p
L
g
+(z
0
z
L
) +a 1.296 10
7
S
0
2
b v
0
2
=
_
L
0
(Re, ) dx
1
d
0
v
0
2
2g
,
T(x) = T
ex
+(T
0
T
ex
) exp
_
d
0
K
C
v
M
0
x
_
(4.21)
provides a basis to determine the unknown velocity v
0
and consequently the
ow rate of uid pumping with heating. The kinematic viscosity as a function
of temperature (T) is assumed to be given, see for example Eq. (2.3).
Analytical Solution
The system of equations (4.21) has an analytical solution when
(T) =
ex
e
(TT
ex
)
,
4.5 Calculations on Pipeline Stationary Operating Regimes in Fluid Pumping with Heating 89
where
ex
is the kinematic viscosity of the uid at the temperature T
ex
of the
external media; the dependence factor Eq. (2.3);
=
0.3164
4
Re
that is the ow regime of the uid corresponds to the ow region of the
socalled hydraulic smooth pipes (Blasius zone). In this case the integral on
the righthand side of the rst equation of the system could be calculated in
quadratures
_
L
0
dx =
0.3164
4
v
0
d
0
_
L
0
1/4
dx =
0.3164
4
v
0
d
0
_
L
0
1/4
ex
e
4
(TT
ex
)
dx
=
ex
_
L
0
e
4
(TT
ex
)
dx, where
ex
=
0.3164
4
_
v
0
d
0
/
ex
(4.22)
If we convert to the dimensionless coordinate = x/L. Then
_
L
0
dx = L
_
1
0
d = L
_
T
L
T
0
d
dT
dT.
If now in Eq. (1.44) we neglect the heat release, that is we take T
= 0, then
Eq. (1.44) gives
v
0
C
v
dT
d
=
4KL
d
0
(T T
ex
)
d
dT
=
v
0
C
v
d
0
4KL
1
T T
ex
.
Thus
_
L
0
dx = L
_
T
L
T
0
d
dT
dT =
v
0
C
v
d
0
4KL
L
_
T
L
T
0
T T
ex
dT.
With regard to Eq. (4.22) we have
_
L
0
dx =
C
v
v
0
d
0
4KL
L
ex
_
T
L
T
0
e
4
(TT
ex
)
T T
ex
dT.
The integral on the righthand side can be transformed to
_
T
L
T
0
e
4
(TT
ex
)
T T
ex
dT =
_
4
(T
L
T
ex
)
4
(T
0
T
ex
)
e
d.
Now gathering together all the results we obtain the following expression
for head losses in a nonisothermal uid ow
_
L
0
dx
1
d
v
0
2
2g
=
eff
L
d
v
0
2
2g
(4.23)
90 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
where
eff
is the effective factor of hydraulic resistance determined by
eff
=
ex
1
m
[Ei(k) Ei(ke
m
)];
ex
=
0.3164
4
_
v
0
d
0
/
ex
;
k =
4
(T
0
T
ex
); m =
4KL
C
v
v
0
d
0
=
Kd
0
L
C
v
M
0
. (4.24)
Here we take into account the equality T
L
T
ex
= (T
0
T
ex
) exp(m)
following from the basic formula (1.44) and as Ei(z) it is denoted the Euler
function
Ei(z) =
_
z
d, (4.25)
which is widely encountered in technical applications and for which there are
special tables. Some values of this function are listed in Table 4.1.
The basic equation (4.21) to determine the velocity v
0
of nonisothermal uid
ow with regard to Eqs. (4.22)(4.24) takes the form
p
u
g
p
L
g
+(z
0
z
L
) +a 1.296 10
7
S
0
2
b v
0
2
=
eff
L
d
0
v
0
2
2g
(4.24)
Exercise. Along a practically horizontal oilpipeline section (D = 720
10 mm, L = 120 km) is pumped oil ( = 870 kg m
3
, C
v
= 2000 J kg
1
K
1
),
1
= 5 cSt at T
1
= 50
Cand
2
= 40 cSt at T
2
= 20
C, the temperature T
ex
of the environment
is 10
= 0.0693 K
1
.
Table 4.1
z 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.05
Ei(z) 0.22 0.31 0.45 0.70 1.22 1.82 2.47
4.5 Calculations on Pipeline Stationary Operating Regimes in Fluid Pumping with Heating 91
Writing Eq. (4.24) for the balance of heads
2 [273 0.125 10
4
Q
2
] =
ef f
120 000
0.7
v
0
2
2 9.81
.
The effective factor
eff
of the hydraulic resistance taking into account its
variability with pipeline section length in accordance with Eq. (4.23) is
eff
=
0.3164
4
_
v
0
d
0
/
ex
1
m
_
Ei(k) Ei(ke
m
)
_
where
k =
4
(T
0
T
ex
), m =
Kd
0
L
C
v
M
0
=
4K L
C
v
v
0
d
0
.
Substituting in the balance equation of heads the expression for the ow rate
Q using the velocity v
0
of the uid ow
Q =
3.14 0.7
2
4
v
0
3600
and taking into account other conditions we get
546 = v
0
2
(8737.4
eff
+47.94) (4.26)
which can be solved by the iteration method.
First approximation. Let us take
eff
(1)
= 0.02. Then from Eq. (4.26) we nd
the velocity of uid ow v
0
(1)
= 1.566 m s
1
and verify the correctness of the
obtained value. We have
ex
= 5 exp[0.0693 (10 50)] = 79.95 cSt;
ex
=
0.3164
4
_
1.566 0.7/(79.95 10
6
)
= 0.029;
k = 1/4 0.0693 (50 10) = 0.693;
m =
4 3.5 120 000
1.566 0.7 870 2000
= 0.881;
k exp(m) = 0.693 exp(0.881)
= 0.287;
eff
= 0.029
1
0.881
[Ei(0.693) Ei(0.287)]
= 0.029
1
0.881
[0.379 (0.939)]
= 0.0186 <
eff
= 0.02.
Since there is a difference between the taken and calculated values of
eff
we
make a second approximation.
92 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
Second approximation. Let us take
eff
(2)
= 0.0186. From Eq. (4.25) we get
the new velocity of uid ow v
0
(2)
= 1.611 m s
1
and verify its correctness. We
have
= 0.0693 K
1
;
ex
= 79.95 cSt;
ex
=
0.3164
4
_
1.611 0.7/(79.95 10
6
)
= 0.029;
k = 1/4 0.0693 (50 10) = 0.693;
m =
4 3.5 120 000
1.611 0.7 870 2000
= 0.856;
k exp(m) = 0.693 exp(0.856)
= 0.294;
eff
= 0.029
1
0.856
[Ei(0.693) Ei(0.294)]
= 0.029
1
0.856
[0.379 (0.921)]
= 0.0184 0.0186
=
eff
(2)
.
Since the taken and calculated values of the factor
eff
show good coincidence
the process of successive approximations ends. Hence, v
0
= 1.611 m s
1
and
Q = 2231 m
3
h
1
. Hence, the temperature of the oil at the pipeline section end
in accordance with Eq. (4.21) is T
L
= 10 +(50 10) exp(0.856)
= 27
C.
Answer. 2231 m
3
h
1
, 27
C.
4.6
Modeling of Stationary Operating Regimes of GasPipeline Sections
For modeling the stationary ow of a compressible gas in a gaspipeline the
following equations are used:
w
g sin(x).
If the gas velocity v increases, the acceleration v dv/ dx of the gas is distinct
from zero. It is evident that the estimation
4.6 Modeling of Stationary Operating Regimes of GasPipeline Sections 93
v
dv
dx
=
d
dx
(v
2
)
d
dx
(p)
is valid when the gas velocity v is small compared to the velocity of sound
in a gas c, c =
_
RT
= 440 m s
1
, where = C
p
/C
v
is
the adiabatic index (for methane = 1.31). So, for example, when the
velocity of compressed gas with density 50 kg m
3
varies over v the
quantity v v is 50 10 v = 500 v at gas velocity 10 m s
1
, whereas
the pressure variation p calculated with the Joukowski formula p = cv
is 50 440 v = 22 000 v, that is about 45 times greater. Thus, the
acceleration of gas and often the gravity component g sin in the momentum
equation may, as a rule, be neglected. Then the momentumequation of the gas
expresses in essence the equality of the driving forces: pressure and friction
dp
dx
=
4
d
w
=
4
d
C
f
v
2
2
=
1
d
v
2
2
; (4.28)
dT
dx
+
_
J
p
_
T
dp
dx
_
=
4K
d
(T T
ex
).
Denoting (J/T)
p
= C
p
as the specic heat of a gas at constant pressure and
(J/p)
T
= D
C
p
, where D
dp
dx
=
4K
d
(T T
ex
). (4.29)
Using the expression for gas enthalpy J involving internal energy and other
parameters of state
J = e
in
+
p
= C
v
T +Z(p, T) RT = [C
v
+Z(p, T)R] T.
The factors C
p
and D
=
1
C
p
_
J
p
_
T
=
RT
C
p
_
Z
p
_
T
. (4.30)
94 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
From this it is seen that the JouleThompson effect (cooling of heatinsulated
gas in a gaspipeline through a pressure drop, (Z/p)
T
< 0, see Fig. 2.7)
manifests itself only for a real gas when Z = 1 (as a rule the factor
D
35 K MPa
1
).
If we neglect the JouleThompson effect, the energy balance equation is
simplied to
vC
p
dT
dx
=
4K
d
(T T
ex
) (4.31)
and its solution takes the form of Eq. (1.46):
T(x) T
ex
T
0
T
ex
= exp
_
d K
C
p
M
x
_
. (4.32)
If we dene the average temperature T
av
of the gas over pipeline section length
by the expression
T
av
=
1
L
_
L
0
T(x) dx
and substitute into it the distribution T(x) from Eq. (4.32), we get
T
av
= T
ex
+
T
0
T
L
ln
_
T
0
T
ex
T
L
T
ex
_ (4.33)
where the temperature T
L
at the end of pipeline section is represented by the
expression
T
L
T
ex
= (T
0
T
ex
) exp
_
d K L
C
p
M
_
following from Eq. (4.32).
4.6.1
Distribution of Pressure in Stationary Gas Flow in a GasPipeline
This distribution is obtained from Eqs. (4.27) and (4.28)
_
_
_
vS =
M = const.,
dp
dx
=
1
d
v
2
2
(4.34)
and the equation of the gas state p = ZRT. Transformation of the second
equation (4.32) yields
dp
dx
=
1
d
v
2
2
=
1
2
2
v
2
S
2
d S
2
=
1
2
M
2
(p/ZRT) (
2
d
5
/16)
.
4.6 Modeling of Stationary Operating Regimes of GasPipeline Sections 95
If we take
T T
av
= const.;
Z(p, T) Z
av
= const.
the resulting differential equation gives after integration the distribution of
p(x) along the pipeline section length
p
2
dp
dx
=
16
2
Z
cp
RT
cp
M
2
d
5
or
p
2
(x) = p
0
2
16 Z
av
RT
av
M
2
2
d
5
x. (4.35)
Here we used the initial condition p = p
0
at x = 0. Equation (4.33) means that
p
2
(x) decreases linearly with the pipeline section length
p
2
(x) = p
0
2
(p
0
2
p
L
2
)
x
L
(4.36)
where p
L
is the pressure at the section end.
If we dene the average pressure p
av
over the pipeline section length as
p
av
=
1
L
_
L
0
p(x) dx
and we insert it into the distribution of p(x) from Eq. (4.36), we get
p
av
=
2
3
_
p
0
+
p
L
2
p
0
+p
L
_
. (4.37)
From Eq. (4.36) one gets in particular
pressure p
L
(in Pa) at the end of the pipeline section with length L for given
mass ow rate
M
p
L
2
= p
0
2
16 Z
av
RT
av
L
2
d
5
M
2
(4.38)
or
p
L
=
_
p
0
2
16 Z
av
RT
av
L
2
d
5
M
2
; (4.39)
mass ow rate
M (in kg s
1
) for given pressures p
0
and p
L
at the beginning
and end of the pipeline section, respectively
M =
4
_
p
0
2
p
L
2
Z
av
RT
av
L
d
5
. (4.40)
96 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
If we take = 0.067(2/d)
0.2
in accordance with Eq. (1.34), the mass ow
rate is found to be proportional to d
2.6
M = A
_
p
0
2
p
L
2
L
d
2,6
where A is the proportionality factor.
The mass owrate
Mof gas (kg s
1
) canalso be measured by the volume ow
rate taken under standard conditions, i.e. at p
st
= 101 325 Pa; T
st
= 293.15 K.
To do this it is sufcient to divide
M by the density
st
of gas under standard
conditions
Q
k
=
st
=
st
vS =
st
Q
v
(4.41)
Here and Q
v
= vS are the density and volume ow rate of gas at the pipeline
crosssection, respectively. The quantity Q
k
(m
3
s
1
) is the socalled commercial
ow rate of gas. In fact the commercial ow rate of gas is the mass ow rate
expressed in volume units under standard conditions, in other words the mass
ow rate in volume calculus. From Eq. (4.41) in particular follows that the
commercial ow rate Q
k
of gas is /
st
times greater than the volume ow
rate Q
v
. The key advantage is that in contrast to the volume ow rate that
varies from one crosssection to another, the commercial ow rate remains
invariable with the length of the gaspipeline in stationary ows.
4.6.2
Pressure Distribution in a GasPipeline with Great Difference in Elevations
In this case one has to use the following equations instead of Eq. (4.34)
_
_
_
vS =
M = const.,
dp
dx
=
1
d
v
2
2
g sin, =
dz
dx
(4.42)
containing the pipeline prole z(x). If we take T T
av
= const. and
Z Z
av
= const., we get
dp(x)
2
dx
=
2g
Z
av
RT
av
dz
dx
p(x)
2
Z
av
RT
av
M
2
(d
2
/4)
2
d
(4.43)
to nd the function p(x).
The solution of this equation with initial condition p(0) = p
0
is
p(x)
2
=
Z
av
RT
av
M
2
(d
2
/4)
2
d
_
x
0
exp
_
2g
Z
av
RT
av
(z() z(x))
_
d
+p
0
2
exp
_
2g
Z
av
RT
av
(z
0
z(x))
_
. (4.44)
4.6 Modeling of Stationary Operating Regimes of GasPipeline Sections 97
Assuming p(L) = p
L
in Eq. (4.44), the formula for the mass ow rate of gas
takes a form similar to Eq. (4.40)
M =
4
_
p
0
2
p
L
2
Z
av
RT
av
L
d
5
(4.45)
in which the initial pressure and the length of the pipeline section are
changed to
_
_
p
0
= p
0
_
exp
_
2g
Z
av
RT
av
(z
0
z
L
)
_
,
L
= L
_
1
L
_
L
0
exp
_
2g
Z
av
RT
av
(z () z
L
)
_
d
_
(4.46)
It should be noted that the ratio 2g(z z
L
)/(Z
av
RT
av
) is usually small when the
difference in pipeline elevations is 1001000 m (Z
av
RT
av
150 000 m
2
s
1
).
Therefore Eq. (4.46) could be simplied by expansion of the exponential
function in the Taylor series. Accurate to the second term we obtain
_
_
p
0
= p
0
_
1 +
g
Z
av
RT
av
(z
0
z
L
)
_
,
L
= L
_
1 +
2g
Z
av
RT
av
(z
av
z
L
)
_ (4.47)
Here z
av
is the average elevation of the gaspipeline section
z
av
=
1
L
_
L
0
z() d.
Equations (4.47) shows that, even in the case when elevations of the beginning
and the end of the pipeline section coincide, that is at z
0
= z
L
, the length
of the section has to be changed. At z
av
> z
L
, it should be enhanced (gas
pipelines running through a mountain pass), whereas at z
av
< z
L
it should be
diminished (gaspipelines running along the sea bottom).
4.6.3
Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of a GasPipeline (General Case)
To calculate the stationary operating regimes of a gaspipeline the following
system of ordinary differential equations is used
_
_
dp
dx
=
1
d
v
2
2
g sin(x), sin =
dz
dx
, (v > 0),
vC
p
dT
dx
vC
p
D
dp
dx
=
4K
d
(T T
ex
)
98 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
When taking into account that g dz dp we have a system
_
_
dp
dx
=
1
d
v
2
2
,
vC
p
dT
dx
=
4K
d
(T T
ex
) vC
p
D
1
d
v
2
2
(4.48)
This system should be supplemented with the following equations
vS =
M, =
p
(ZRT)
, Z = Z(p, T);
D
=
RT(Z/p)
T
C
p
; = 0.067
_
2
d
_
0.2
as well as with initial or initial and boundary conditions.
The following problems can be solved:
the pressure p
0
and temperature T
0
at the initial crosssection of the
gaspipeline section as well as the mass ow rate
M of gas are known. It is
required to nd the pressure p
L
and temperature T
L
at the end of the
gaspipeline section;
the pressure p
0
and temperature T
0
at the initial crosssection of the
gaspipeline section as well as the pressure p
L
at the end of the gaspipeline
section are known. It is required to nd the mass ow rate
M and the
temperature T
L
at the end of the gaspipeline section;
the pressure p
0
and temperature T
0
at the initial crosssection of the
gaspipeline section and the pressure p
L
at the end of the gaspipeline
section as well as mass ow rate
M of gas are known. It is required to nd
the diameter d of the gaspipeline providing this ow rate;
(p, T) +
8
q
3
M
(T T
ex
)
C
p
(p, T)
(4.49)
4.6 Modeling of Stationary Operating Regimes of GasPipeline Sections 99
containing only one unknown function T(p). This equation should be solved
at the segment p
L
p p
0
under the condition T(p
0
) = T
0
, where p
0
and T
0
are the pressure and temperature, respectively, of the gas at the beginning of
the pipeline section; p
L
the pressure at the section end being unknown and to
be determined; q
M
= Q
M
S is the specic mass ow rate.
If we neglect the JouleThomson effect (D
(p, T) +
8
q
3
M
(T T
ex
)
C
p
(p, T)
= 0.
At points (p, T) of this curve dT/ dp = 0, therefore the temperature of the gas at
these points reaches an extremum, namely a maximum. The gas temperature
rst increases withdecreasing pressure, at the point of intersectionwithcurve 3
it reaches a maximum(T
max
< T
ex
) and thenbegins to diminishmonotonically,
remaining as before lower than the temperature of the environment.
The presence of maximum points on the curve T(p) giving temperature
distribution is related to processes having diverse actions: heating of the gas
due to its mass exchange with the surrounding medium and cooling owing to
the JouleThomson effect.
The phenomena under consideration may be used in exploitation of a
gas pipeline section located in permafrost earth. If we provide an initial
temperature of the gas T
0
such that the point (p
0
, T
0
) is located below the
separatrix 4 of the solutions of Eq. (4.49), the temperature of the gas will
remain below the temperature of the permafrost earth all the way along the
pipeline section. This excludes the possibility of warming of the surrounding
ground and imparts greater stability to the pipeline in the earth.
4.7
Modeling of Blower Operation
The motion of gas in a gaspipeline is determined by compressor stations
(GCS) located at the beginning of each pipeline section, or more precisely by
blowers accomplishing gas compression. The main purpose of the blowers
and of GCS as a whole is to force gas to move from a region of lower pressure
(suction region at the GCS entrance) into a region of greater pressure (region
of pumping at the GCS exit). The gas by itself cannot ow against pressure,
therefore it is necessary to spend energy for forced ow in this direction.
Such forced ow of gas against a pressure force is performed by gaspumping
aggregates (GPA) consisting of a drive (gasturbine, electric, gasmotor and so
on) producing rotation of an impeller shaft in centrifugal blowers (CFP) or
the reciprocating motion of a piston in piston engines (PP), and by the blower
itself. Displacement of gas from a region of lower pressure into a region of
higher pressure, in other words gas compression, is accomplished in the blower.
It is quite clear that gas in the gaspipeline moves from a crosssection with
4.7 Modeling of Blower Operation 101
greater pressure to a crosssection with lower pressure overcoming friction
forces.
As a rule the compression station consists of separate plants equipped
with several GPA with blowers connected in parallel in the case of single
step compression or in series in the case of multistep compression. On
main gaspipelines centrifugal blowers are predominantly used following the
same pattern as centrifugal blowers for uid, see Fig. 4.1. Gas is sucked into
the center of the impeller and thrown by centrifugal rotational force to the
periphery of the impeller in the discharge line. The rotational rate of the
impellers of a large CFP is 400015 000 rpm. The gas compression ratio
depends on the type of blower, the rotational speed of its impeller (modern
GPA have commonly controlled rotational speed), pressure and temperature
at the discharge line and above all on gas ow rate.
A mathematical model of the centrifugal blower operating in the stationary
regime involves algebraic dependences of the gas compression ratio and the
developed specic power N/
e
on the gas parameters at the blower suction
line indicated by the subscript e and the number of impeller revolutions n
_
=
p
0
p
B
= (
B
, p
B
, T
B
, Q
B
, n, . . .),
N = N(
B
, p
B
, T
B
, Q
B
, n, . . .)
(4.50)
where the dots denote parameters related to structural features of the blower.
From dimensional theory (see Chapter 6) it follows that these dependences
may be represented as
_
_
_
=
p
0
p
B
= f
_
p
B
/
B
n
2
D
2
im
,
Q
B
/
nD
im
, . . .
_
,
N
B
=
_
n
n
0
_
3
_
p
B
/
B
n
2
D
2
im
,
Q
B
/
nD
im
, . . .
_ (4.51)
where D
im
, , n
0
are the diameter of the impeller, the area of the suction
branch pipe crosssection, the nominal number of revolutions of the blower
shaft, respectively. If the structural parameters of the blower are taken as
invariable dependences, Eq. (4.50) takes the following form
_
_
_
=
p
0
p
B
= f
_
p
B
/
B
n
2
,
Q
B
n
, . . .
_
,
N
B
=
_
n
n
0
_
3
_
p
B
/
B
n
2
,
Q
B
n
, . . .
_ or
_
_
_
=
p
0
p
B
= f
_
Z
B
RT
B
n
2
,
Q
B
n
, . . .
_
,
N
B
=
_
n
n
0
_
3
_
Z
B
RT
B
n
2
,
Q
B
n
, . . .
_
To determine the universal characteristic of the centrifugal blower the socalled
reduced conditions, denoted by subscripts r, are used. The number of blower
102 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
shaft revolutions in such cases is taken equal to a nominal value n
0
, the
properties of the gas and the conditions at the blower entrance are xed:
R = R
r
; T = T
r
; Z = Z
r
. Tests of blowers conducted under these conditions
permit the determination of the functions
_
_
_
= f
_
Z
r
R
r
T
r
n
0
2
,
Q
B
n
0
, . . .
_
,
_
N
_
r
=
_
Z
r
R
r
T
r
n
0
2
,
Q
B
n
0
, . . .
_
(4.52)
It is evident that the operating characteristics of a blower observed under
arbitrary conditions but not under reduced conditions could be found from the
universal characteristics written as follows
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
= f
_
Z
B
R
B
T
B
n
2
,
Q
B
n
_
= f
_
Z
r
R
r
T
r
n
0
2
n
0
2
n
2
Z
B
R
B
T
B
Z
r
R
r
T
r
,
Q
B
n
0
/n
n
0
_
,
N
B
=
_
n
n
0
_
3
_
N
B
_
r
=
_
n
n
0
_
3
_
Z
r
R
r
T
r
n
0
2
n
0
2
n
2
Z
B
R
B
T
B
Z
r
R
r
T
r
,
Q
B
n
0
/n
n
0
_
It follows that the operation characteristics of each blower under arbitrary
conditions are obtained from some universal characteristics of the same
blower, called reduced, through divisionof the arguments of these characteristic
dependences governing the parameters by
_
n
n
0
_
2
Z
r
R
r
T
r
Z
B
RT
B
and
n
n
0
,
respectively. This conclusion has a simple geometrical interpretation. If in the
space to build the graphics of the dependences
=
f [(n/n
0
)
r
, (Q
B
)
r
] and (N/
B
)
r
=
[(n/n
0
)
r
, (Q
B
)
r
],
the characteristics of a centrifugal blower operating under arbitrary entrance
conditions and at a number of revolutions n distinct from the nominal value
n
0
are determined from these graphics by lengthening of the argument axes
by factors n/n
0
_
Z
r
R
r
T
r
/Z
B
RT
B
and n/n
0
, respectively. At this the graphic of
the second dependence is also stretched by the factor (n/n
0
)
3
in the direction
of the function axis.
If we introduce
_
n
n
0
_
r
=
n
n
0
_
Z
r
R
r
T
r
Z
B
RT
B
and (Q
B
)
r
= Q
B
n
0
n
. (4.53)
4.7 Modeling of Blower Operation 103
The characteristics of the centrifugal blower take the universal form
_
_
_
=
f
__
n
n
0
_
r
, (Q
e
)
r
_
,
_
N
B
_
r
=
__
n
n
0
_
r
, (Q
e
)
r
_
(4.54)
where
N
B
=
_
n
n
0
_
3
_
N
e
_
r
.
In Fig. 4.6 are depicted reduced (universal) characteristics of one of the
centrifugal blowers 370181 produced in Russia. The parameters of this
blower are: n
0
= 4800 rpm; T
r
= 288 K; Z
r
= 0.9; R
r
= 490 J kg
1
K
1
.
Figure 4.6 Reduced characteristics of the blower 370181: T
r
= 288 K;
Z
r
= 0.9; R
r
= 490 J kg
1
K
1
.
104 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
Exercise. It is required to determine the rotational speed (number of
revolutions per minute, rpm) of the centrifugal blower shaft 370181 needed
to provide transportation of natural gas ( = 17.95 kg kmol
1
, p
cr
= 4.7 MPa,
T
cr
= 194 K) with commercial ow rate 22 million m
3
day
1
and compression
ratio = 1, 25. It is known that the pressure and temperature of the gas at the
suction line of the blower are 3.8 MPa and +15
C, respectively.
Solution. Calculate rst the parameters of the transported gas
R =
8314
17.95
= 463.1 J kg
1
K
1
),
with Eq. (2.14) we obtain:
Z
B
= 1 0.4273
3.8
4.7
_
288
194
_
3.668
= 0.919
st
=
p
st
RT
st
=
101 300
463.1 293
= 0.746 kg m
3
B
=
p
B
Z
B
RT
B
=
3.8 10
6
0.919 463.1 288
= 31.002 kg m
3
Q
B
= Q
k
st
/
B
=
22 10
6
24 60
0.746
31.002
= 367.6 m
3
min
1
.
Then determine the reduced parameters of the operating regime of the
centrifugal blower
_
n
n
0
_
r
=
n
n
0
_
Z
r
R
r
T
r
Z
B
RT
B
=
n
n
0
_
0.90 490 288
0.919 463.1 288
= 1.018
n
n
0
;
(Q
B
)
r
= Q
B
n
0
n
= 367.6
n
0
n
m
3
min
1
.
Since the compression ratio is known and is equal to 1.25, it is necessary,
using the reduced characteristics of the blower 370181 (see Fig. 4.6), to select
a value of n/n
0
such that the point with coordinates Q
B
= 367.6/(n/n
0
) and
= 1.25 would lie on the characteristic (n/n
0
)
r
= 1.018 n/n
0
. The solution is
sought by the iteration method.
1. Let (n/n
0
)
r
= 0.9 n/n
0
= 0.916;
(Q
B
)
r
= 367.6/0.916
= 401 m
3
min
1
= 0.982;
(Q
B
)
r
= 367.6/0.982
= 374 m
3
min
1
= 4714 rpm.
Answer. 4714. rpm.
4.7 Modeling of Blower Operation 105
Useful Power of a Blower
Let us show now how we can estimate the useful power needed for gas
compression from pressure p
B
at the blower entrance to pressure p
0
at the
blower exit.
From the total energy balance equation (1.35) written for a mass of gas going
between the entrance crosssection x
1
and the exit crosssection x
2
of a blower
in the case of stationary ow it follows that
__
k
v
2
2
+e
in
+
p
_
vS
_
x
2
__
k
v
2
2
+e
in
+
p
_
vS
_
x
1
= q
ex
+N
us
where q
ex
is the external heat inow (q
ex
> 0) to the gas or heat outow from
the gas (q
ex
< 0); N
us
is the useful power of mechanical forces acting on the
gas, i.e. the useful power of the blower. Taking into account that the mass ow
rate of gas
M = vS through all gaspipeline crosssections in stationary ow
remains constant, we have
__
K
v
0
2
2
K
v
B
2
2
+(J
0
J
B
)
__
M = q
ex
+N
us
where J = e
in
+p/ is the gas enthalpy. Neglecting the difference (
K
v
0
2
K
v
B
2
)/2 in the kinetic energies of the gas before and after compression
and assuming the process of gas compression in the blower to be adiabatic
(q
ex
= 0), we get
N
us
=
M (J
0
J
B
) =
B
Q
B
(J
0
J
B
) (4.55)
where Q = vS is the volume ow rate of gas (
B
Q
B
=
0
Q
0
= const.).
For a perfect gas J = C
p
T +const. and the following relations are valid
N
us
=
B
Q
B
(J
0
J
B
) =
B
C
p
Q
B
(T
0
T
B
) =
C
p
R
p
B
Q
B
T
B
(T
0
T
B
)
or
N
us
=
C
p
C
p
C
v
p
B
Q
B
_
T
0
T
B
1
_
=
1
p
B
Q
B
_
T
0
T
B
1
_
where = C
p
/C
v
is the adiabatic index (for methane 1.31).
Taking into account that in an adiabatic process the temperature T varies in
accordance with the power law T/T
e
= (p/p
e
)
1
, we nally obtain
N
us
=
1
p
B
Q
B
_
1
_
. (4.56)
Here = p
0
/p
B
is the compression ratio.
106 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
A similar formula written as a function of the gas parameters at the exit of
the blower has the form
N
us
=
1
p
0
Q
0
_
1
1
_
. (4.57)
Here the subscript 0 denotes that the relevant quantity is taken at the exit of
the blower.
Exercise. The pressure p
B
before the blower is 3.5 MPa, the compression ratio
of a gas with = 1.31 is 1.4, the volume ow rate at the entrance Q
B
of the
blower is 500 m
3
min
1
. It is required to determine the useful power N
us
spent
by the blower for gas compression.
Solution. The useful power is obtained from Eq. (4.48)
N
us
=
1.31
1.31 1
3.5 10
6
500
60
_
1.4
1.311
1.31
1
_
= 10.2 10
6
W.
Hence the useful power is 10.2 MW.
Answer. 10.2 MW.
Finally in this chapter let us consider an exercise on the calculation of a
gaspipeline section in combination with a compressor station.
Exercise. Natural gas (R = 18.82 kg kmol
1
, p
cr
= 4.75 MPa, T
cr
= 195 K) is
being transported along a 105km gaspipeline section (D = 1220 12 mm,
= 0.03 mm) with the help of two identical GPA equipped with blowers
370181 connected in parallel. It is required to determine the compression
ratio of the gas and the number of revolutions n of the blower rotors needed
to ensure a commercial ow rate of 21 billion m
3
year
1
in the gaspipeline
(the number of working days in a year is taken to be 350). It is given that
the pressure at the end of the pipeline section is 3.8 MPa and at the blower
suction line is 4.7 MPa; the temperature of the gas at the suction line is 12
C;
the temperature of the gas after compression is expected to be 30
C; the
temperature of the surrounding ground is 8
C.
Solution. Taking in Eq. (4.33) x = L and Q
k
=
M/
st
, we have
p
0
2
= p
L
2
+
16 Z
av
RT
av
st
2
L
2
d
5
Q
k
2
.
Now calculate successively the quantities in this relation
Q
k
=
21 10
9
350 24 3600
= 694.4 m
3
s
1
;
R =
R
0
=
8314
18.82
= 441.7 J kg
1
K
1
;
4.7 Modeling of Blower Operation 107
st
=
p
st
RT
et
=
10 125
441.7 293
= 0.783 kg m
3
;
= 0.067
_
2
d
_
0.2
= 0.067
_
2 0.03
1196
_
0.2
= 0.0093.
Calculate the average gas temperature T
av
in the pipeline section
T
av
= T
ex
+
T
0
T
L
ln
_
T
0.
T
ex
T
L
T
ex
_ = 8 +
30 12
ln
_
30 8
12 8
_
= 18.6
C = 291.6 K.
The gas overcompressibility factor Z is calculated with Eq. (2.16) taking the
average pressure p
av
in a rst approximation to be equal to the pressure at
the end of the pipeline section and the temperature to be the temperature
averaged over the section
Z = 1 0.4273 (3.8/4.75) (291.6/195)
3.668
= 0.922.
After this we calculate the pressure p
0
at the beginning of the pipeline section.
We begin with the factor A
A =
16 Z
av
RT
av
st
2
L
2
d
5
Q
k
2
=
16 0.0093 0.922 441.7 291.6 0.783
2
105 000
3.14
2
1.196
5
694.4
2
= 22.73 10
12
and then calculate the pressure p
0
p
0
=
_
(3.8 10
6
)
2
+22.73 10
12
= 6.1 10
6
Pa or 6.1 MPa.
The obtained value shows that the average pressure p
av
inthe pipeline sectionis
equal to 2/3 (4.5 +6.1
2
/10.6)
= 21.94 10
12
Pa
2
;
p
0
=
_
(3.8 10
6
)
2
+21.94 10
12
= 6.0 10
6
Pa or 6.0 MPa.
We see that the obtained value of p
0
is practically unchanged. Thus the
compression ratio , which should be provided by the blowers 370181, is
6.0/4.7
= 1.28.
Once the required compressionratio has been obtained, it is time to calculate
the gas parameters at the suction line of each of the blowers connected
108 4 Modeling and Calculation of Stationary Operating Regimes of Oil and Gas Pipelines
inparallel. We have
Z
B
= 1 0.4273
4.7
4.75
_
285
195
_
3.668
= 0.895;
B
=
p
B
Z
B
RT
B
=
4.7 10
6
0.895 441.7 285
= 41.716 kg m
3
.
In a parallel connection of identical blowers the ow rate is distributed equally
between them, therefore it is
Q
B
= Q
k
st
/
B
=
[(21 000/2)/350] 10
6
24 60
0.783
41.716
= 391 m
3
min
1
.
Determine the reduced parameters of the operating regime of the centrifugal
blower:
_
n
n
0
_
r
=
n
n
0
_
Z
r
R
r
T
r
Z
B
RT
B
=
n
n
0
_
0.90 490 288
0.895 441.7 285
= 1.062
n
n
0
;
(Q
B
)
r
= Q
B
n
0
n
= 391
n
0
n
m
3
min
1
.
As the compression ratio has already been found to be equal to 1.28, it is
necessary, using the characteristics of the blower 370181 depicted in Fig. 4.6,
to select n/n
0
in such a way that a point with coordinates (Q
B
)
r
= 391/(n/n
0
)
and = 1.28 would lie on the characteristic (n/n
0
)
r
= 1.062 n/n
0
. The
selection is performed by the iteration method.
1. We take (n/n
0
)
r
= 1.0 n/n
0
= 1.0/1.062
= 0.942;
(Q
B
)
r
= 391/0.942
= 415 m
3
min
1
= 0.989;
(Q
B
)
r
= 391/0.989
= 395 m
3
min
1
= 4750 rpm.
109
5
Closed Mathematical Models of OneDimensional
NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
In this chapter are considered the most important models of onedimensional
nonstationary ows of uid and gas in pipelines. The equations obtained in
Chapter 1 are used as a starting point.
5.1
A Model of NonStationary Isothermal Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid
in a Pipeline
At the basis of this model lie the following assumptions:
the variation of uid density is much less than its nominal value
0
, that
is
0
, where =
0
(p p
0
)/K in accordance with Eq. (2.6). For
example, at
0
= 1000 kg m
3
, p p
0
= 1.0 MPa (10
6
Pa 10 atm),
K = 10
3
MPa (10
9
Pa), the variation of uid density is only 1 kg m
3
;
0
= 10
3
kg m
3
, p p
0
= 10
7
Pa (100 atm), E = 2 10
11
Pa (pipe steel),
the variation of the pipeline diameter d is 0.06 mm, the variation of the
pipeline crosssection area S is 0.5 cm
2
, whereas S
0
= 1960 cm
2
;
0
= 1000 kg m
3
, then 
w

= 5.6 Pa.
The rst equation of the model is continuity equation
S
t
+
vS
x
= 0.
With regard to the accepted assumptions this equation could be transformed
to the following form
S
t
=
S
t
+S
t
0
dS
dp
p
t
+S
0
d
dp
p
t
=
_
0
S
0
d
0
E
+
0
S
0
K
_
p
t
;
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
110 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
vS
x
0
S
0
v
x
.
As a result the following equation is obtained
_
0
K
+
0
d
0
E
_
p
t
+
0
v
x
= 0.
The factor in parentheses before the derivative of pressure with respect to time
has dimension inverse to the square of the velocity, therefore it can be denoted
as 1/c
2
, where the parameter c, given by
c =
1
_
0
K
+
0
d
0
E
(5.1)
is called the speed of wave propagation in the pipeline (c 1000 m s
1
). If
0
= 1000 kg m
3
, K = 10
9
Pa, d
0
= 500 mm, = 10 mm, E = 2 10
11
Pa,
then
c =
1
_
10
3
10
9
+
10
3
0.5
2 10
11
0.01
= 895 m s
1
.
With regard to the introduced designation the rst equation of the model takes
the form
p
t
+
0
c
2
v
x
= 0. (5.2)
The second equation of the model is the momentum equation (1.10)
_
v
t
+v
v
x
_
=
p
x
4
d
w
g sin(x)
Replacement of
w
with the expression containing the average velocity of the
ow v yields
_
v
t
+v
v
x
_
=
p
x
1
d
0
vv
2
g sin(x). (5.3)
For slightly compressible uids, among which are water, oil and oil products,
the following simplifying assumptions can be made
v
t
0
v
t
,
v
v
x
=
0
v
v
x
=
x
_
0
v
2
2
_
,
x
_
p +
0
v
2
2
_
p
x
.
5.1 A Model of NonStationary Isothermal Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 111
The last approximation is valid because it is easy to verify that (
0
v
2
/2)
p. Really, at
0
1000 kg m
3
and v 12 m s
1
, (
0
v
2
/2) 2000 Pa
(0.04 atm), whereas p is measured in atmospheres or even tens of
atmospheres. In the general case (
0
v
2
/2)
0
v v while p
0
c v,
hence (
0
v
2
/2)/p v/c. Since v c in pipelines, the ratio (
0
v
2
/2)/p
is negligibly small.
With regard to the given assumptions the momentum equation takes the
following form
0
v
t
+
p
x
= (Re, )
1
d
0
0
vv
2
0
g sin(x)
This equation is the second equation of the model.
Hence, the mathematical model of slightly compressible uids is represented
by a system of two differential equations
_
_
p
t
+
0
c
2
v
x
= 0,
0
v
t
+
p
x
= (Re, )
1
d
0
0
vv
2
0
g sin(x)
(5.4)
to determine the two unknown functions p(x, t) and v(x, t) dependent on the
coordinate x and time t.
The system of differential equations (5.4) requires for its solution initial and
boundary conditions, being also components of the model under consideration.
We will deal with these conditions below.
Virtual Mass
The hypothesis of quasistationarity in accordance with which the tangential
stress
w
at the internal surface of the pipe is represented by the equality
w
=
(Re, )
0
vv/8, asserts in particular that it depends on the instantaneous
value of the average ow velocity v(x, t) but not on derivatives of the velocities
with respect to time and coordinate. In fact the following equation holds
4
d
w
vS =
0
gvS i
0
+
0
S
d
dt
_
(
k
1)
v
2
2
_
(5.5)
(see Eq. (1.23)), reecting the transformation of the work of friction forces
(4
w
vS/d), and in onedimensional ow appearing as external forces, into
kinetic energy
0
S
d
dt
[(
k
1)
v
2
2
] of the intrinsic motion of the uid layers
relative to its center of mass and into heat
0
gS(v i
0
) due to the work of
internal friction forces. The values of the factor
k
in this equation vary from
4/3 for laminar ow up to 1.021.05 for turbulent ow. If we take for
k
the
mean value of this factor, from Eq. (5.5) we get
4
d
w
=
0
(
k
1)
dv
dt
+
0
g i
0
(5.6)
112 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
indicating that the tangential stress
w
contains the term
0
(
k
1) dv/dt
proportional to the uid particle acceleration. The physical nature of this term
is hidden in the origin of the additional resistance force
0
(
k
1) v caused
by realignment of the internal structure of the ow taking place even when
there is dissipation of mechanical energy into heat owing to the work of the
viscous friction force, that is the term
0
g i
0
, could be neglected. It is evident
that if v = const. the rst term vanishes.
Substitution of Eq. (5.6) into the momentum equation (5.2) yields
0
dv
dt
=
p
x
0
(
k
1)
dv
dt
0
gi
0
0
g sin(x)
or
0
dv
dt
=
p
x
(Re, )
1
d
0
0
vv
2
0
g sin(x) (5.7)
Equation (5.7) differs from Eq. (5.3) only in that in the lefthand side enters
not the true uid density
0
but a quantity
k
0
differing from
0
by the
factor
k
. The quantity
0
(
k
1) may be called the virtual (additional)
mass of the uid. Hence, the inertial properties of a uid in nonstationary
processes are characterized by changing density, to the latter is added a
certain quantity dependent on the ow regime. In developed turbulent
ows this change is slight (
k
1.03), but for laminar ow it is greater
(
k
4/3).
5.2
A Model of NonStationary Gas Flow in a Pipeline
At the basis of this model lie the following assumptions:
= S
0
= d
0
2
/4 = const.;
t
+
v
x
= 0,
v
t
+
x
(p +v
2
) =
4
w
d
0
g sin,
_
e
in
t
+v
e
in
x
_
=
4q
n
d
0
p
v
x
n
in
(5.8)
The rst equation of this system is the continuity equation reecting the law of
gas mass conservation in each pipeline crosssection.
5.3 NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 113
The second equation of the system is the momentum equation expressing
Newtons second law.
The third equation of the system is the equation of heat inow following
from the laws of total energy conservation of the ow and the variation of
mechanical energy of the transported media.
To the system of equations (5.8) should be added the socalled closing
relations, e.g.
w
=
(Re, )
8
v
2
, n
in
= (Re, )
1
d
0
v
3
2
,
=
p
Z(p, T) RT
, e
in
(T) = C
v
T +const., q
n
= (T T
ex
).
Hence, if (Re, ) and Z(p, T) are known as functions of their arguments, the
systemof equations (5.8) represents a closed systemof three partial differential
equations for three unknown functions p(x, t), v(x, t) and T(x, t) dependent
on the coordinate x and time t.
5.3
NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline
Consider the nonstationary ow of a slightly compressible uid in a pipeline.
The basic equations of such ow are represented by the system of
equations (5.4).
5.3.1
Wave Equation
Let us consider rst the nonstationary ow of a slightly compressible uid in
a horizontal pipeline ( = 0) neglecting for a while terms accounting for the
friction force. Such an assumption is quite allowable for short pipelines and
uids with not too high viscosity. In such a case the system of equations (5.4)
takes the form
_
_
p
t
+
0
c
2
v
x
= 0,
0
v
t
+
p
x
= 0
or
_
_
v
x
=
1
0
c
2
p
t
,
v
t
=
1
p
x
.
(5.9)
114 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
Differentiation of the rst equation with respect to t and the second with
respect to x subject to the condition v
x,t
= v
t,x
yields the equation for p(x, t)
2
p
t
2
= c
2
2
p
x
2
. (5.10)
This equation is called the wave equation since it describes the propagation of
waves and is encountered in different elds of physics.
A similar equation can be obtained for uid velocity v(x, t)
2
v
t
2
= c
2
2
v
x
2
. (5.11)
Equations (5.10) and (5.11) represent partial differential equations whose
general solution is expressed by two arbitrary functions
p(x, t) = f
1
(x ct) +f
2
(x +ct) (5.12)
the rst of these functions is dependent only on the argument = x ct and
the second on = x +ct.
Let us show that Eq. (5.12) gives a solution of Eq. (5.10). We have
p
t
= cf
1
+cf
2
,
2
p
t
2
= c
2
f
1
+c
2
f
2
= c
2
(f
1
+f
2
),
p
x
= f
1
+f
2
;
2
p
x
2
= f
1
+f
2
.
c
2
2
p
x
2
=
2
p
t
2
.
Hence, Eq. (5.12) is a solution of Eq. (5.10) for arbitrary functions f
1
and f
2
.
The function f
1
(x ct) represents a traveling wave in the positive direction
of the xaxis whereas the function f
2
(x +ct) represents a traveling wave in the
negative direction of this axis. The magnitude of the velocity propagation of
both waves, i.e. the propagation velocity of a certain value of function f
1
or f
2
is identical and equal to c.
The form of each of the functions f
1
and f
2
is determined by the initial
conditions for pressure and velocity distributions in the pipeline, that is by
p(x, 0) and v(x, 0), as well as by the boundary conditions at the pipeline ends.
The velocity of uid v(x, t) is determined by the formula
v(x, t) = g
1
(x ct) +g
2
(x +ct).
5.3 NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 115
Functions g
1
() and g
2
() are expressed through functions f
1
() and f
2
().
From Eq. (5.9) follows
_
_
g
1
+g
2
=
1
0
c
[f
1
f
2
],
c g
1
+c g
2
=
1
0
[f
1
+f
2
],
or
_
0
cg
1
= f
1
,
0
cg
2
= f
2
.
Integration of the rst equation with respect to and the second with respect
to , taking into account that g
1
and f
1
depend only on and g
2
and f
2
only on
, yields
_
0
cg
1
= f
1
+const.,
0
cg
2
= f
2
+const.
From here follows
0
c v(x, t) = f
1
(x ct) f
2
(x +ct) = const. (5.13)
With the help of Eqs. (5.12) and (5.13) one can nd solutions to different
problems. We will consider some of them.
5.3.2
Propagation of Waves in an Innite Pipeline
A pipeline is called innite when it runs in the direction of the xaxis from
to +. Of course it is only a model of a real pipeline, but it is very useful in
the case of a very long pipeline when boundary effects can be ignored, that is
when waves reected from the beginning and the end of a pipeline could be
neglected. Suppose also that friction forces are absent.
Addition and subtraction of Eqs. (5.12) and (5.13) yield
_
p +
0
c v = 2 f
1
(x ct) +const.,
p
0
c v = 2 f
2
(x +ct) +const.
From these expressions it is seen that at those points of the plane (x, t) where
(x ct) remains constant the expression I
1
= p +
0
c v is also constant and at
those points of the plane (x, t) where (x +ct) remains constant the expression
I
2
= p
0
c v is also constant (see Fig. 5.1).
The lines x ct = const. and x +ct = const. are called characteristics of
the wave equation and the quantities I
1
= p(x, t) +
0
c v(x, t) and I
2
=
p(x, t)
0
c v(x, t) are called the Riemann invariants.
Hence, at each characteristic x ct = const. with positive slope, dx/dt = +c,
the rst Riemann invariant I
1
is conserved whereas at each characteristic
116 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
Figure 5.1 Characteristics on
(x, t)plane.
x +ct = const. with negative slope, dx/dt = c, the second Riemanninvariant
I
2
is conserved:
at lines x = ct +const. : I
1
= p +
0
cv = const.;
at lines x = ct +const. : I
2
= p
0
cv = const.
Problem. Let at an initial instance of time t = 0 in an innite pipeline
(< x < +) there be distributions of pressure p(x, 0) = (x) and uid
velocity v(x, 0) = (x). It is required to determine, what motion appears
in the pipeline at t > 0, i.e. it is required to nd the functions p(x, t) and
v(x, t) satisfying Eqs. (5.10) and (5.11) and initial conditions p(x, 0) = (x),
v(x, 0) = (x).
Solution. Consider a plane (x, t) depicted inFig. 5.1. Let M(x, t) be anarbitrary
chosen point of this plane at t > 0. Draw from the point M(x, t) straight lines
(characteristics) MA: x ct = x
1
and MB: x +ct = x
2
.
Since at the characteristic x ct = x
1
the rst Riemann invariant I
1
is
constant, we can write
p
M
(x, t) +
0
c v
M
(x, t) = p
A
(x
1
, 0) +
0
c v
A
(x
1
, 0).
At the characteristic x +ct = x
2
the second Riemann invariant I
2
is constant
p
M
(x, t)
0
c v
M
(x, t) = p
A
(x
2
, 0)
0
c v
A
(x
2
, 0).
Resolving the system of obtained equations relative to p
M
(x, t) and v
M
(x, t),
we get
_
_
p
M
(x, t) =
p(x
1
, 0) +p(x
2
, 0)
2
+
0
c
v(x
1
, 0) v(x
2
, 0)
2
,
v
M
(x, t) =
p(x
1
, 0) p(x
2
, 0)
2
0
c
+
v(x
1
, 0) +v(x
2
, 0)
2
or
_
_
p
M
(x, t) =
(x
1
) +(x
2
)
2
+
0
c
(x
1
) (x
2
)
2
,
v
M
(x, t) =
(x
1
) (x
2
)
2
0
c
+
(x
1
) +(x
2
)
2
5.3 NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 117
Substituting in these relations instead of x
1
and x
2
their expression through x
and t, we receive the solution of the problem
_
_
p
M
(x, t) =
(x ct) +(x +ct)
2
+
0
c
(x ct) (x +ct)
2
,
v
M
(x, t) =
(x ct) (x +ct)
2
0
c
+
(x ct) +(x +ct)
2
(5.14)
Since functions (x) and (x) are known, the problem is completely solved.
Equalities (5.14) are called the dAlambert formulas.
5.3.3
Propagation of Waves in a SemiInnite Pipeline
A pipeline is called semiinnite when it has the initial crosssection (x = 0)
and runs from it in the positive direction of the xaxis (x > 0) to innity. It
is a model of a pipeline in which the conditions at one of the ends (left end)
are taken into account whereas the inuence of another end (right end) is
neglected.
Problem. Let, at the initial instant of time t = 0 the uid in a semiinnite
(0 < x < +) pipeline be quiescent v(x, 0) = 0 and the pressure constant
p(x, 0) = p
0
. The uid velocity in the initial crosssection x = 0 at t > 0
suddenly begins to change with a law v(0, t) = (t). It is required to determine
the pattern of uid ow in the pipeline at t > 0.
Solution. It is required to determine what kind of velocity and pressure waves
begin to propagate in a semiinnite pipeline caused by perturbations created
at the left end of the pipeline.
Consider a plane (x, t) at t > 0, x 0 as depicted in Fig. 5.2. Draw through
the origin of the coordinates in this plane the characteristic x = ct with positive
slope. At points N of this plane located below the straight line x = ct the
dAlambert formulas (5.14) give the following equations
_
_
p
N
(x, t) =
p
0
+p
0
2
+
0
c
0 0
2
= p
0
,
v
N
(x, t) =
p
0
p
0
2
0
c
+
0 +0
2
= 0
(5.15)
This result has a simple physical meaning. In the region x > ct of the pipeline,
to which the instant of time t has not yet come, a perturbation (signal) is
propagated with velocity c from the initial pipeline crosssection, the uid is at
rest as before, that is its velocity is 0 and the pressure is p
0
.
Consider now the region x < ct of the pipeline to which at time t have come
perturbations from the initial crosssection of the pipeline. Draw through a
118 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
Figure 5.2 Diagram illustrating
the problem on traveling waves.
point M(x, t) of this region two characteristics MC and MB and from the point
C, located at initial crosssection of the pipeline (time t
0
), the characteristic CA
(Fig. 5.2).
Withthe helpof the conditionat the characteristic CAconsisting inconstancy
of the second Riemann invariant, and relevant boundary condition we nd the
pressure in the initial pipeline crosssection at time t
0
p
C
(0, t
0
)
0
c v
C
(0, t
0
) = p
A
(x
1
, 0)
0
c v
C
(x
1
, 0) = p
0
0 = p
0
.
From this follows
p
C
(0, t
0
) = p
0
+
0
c v
C
(0, t
0
).
Hence the pressure p
C
at the initial pipeline crosssection, having been initially
equal to p
0
, has varied over
0
c v
C
(0, t
0
) as a result of the increase in velocity
v
C
(0, t
0
) in this crosssection.
Since the pressure and velocity of uid at points C and B are now known,
one can nd the pressure at the point M(x, t)
_
p
M
(x, t) +
0
c v
M
(x, t) = p
C
+
0
c v
C
= (p
0
+
0
c v
0
) +
0
c v
0
,
p
M
(x, t)
0
c v
M
(x, t) = p
B
0
c v
B
= p
0
0
c 0 = p
0
From this follows
_
p
M
(x, t) = p
0
+
0
c v
C
(0, t
0
),
v
M
(x, t) = v
C
(0, t
0
)
(5.16)
Note that t
0
is determined through the coordinates (x, t) of the point M by
the formula t
0
= t x/c (the characteristic equation for MC is x = c (t t
0
)).
Therefore relations (5.16) have the nal form
_
_
p
M
(x, t) = p
0
+
0
c v
C
_
0, t
x
c
_
= p
0
+
0
c
_
t
x
c
_
,
v
M
(x, t) =
_
t
x
c
_
,
(5.17)
where is a function determining the velocity change at the initial (x = 0)
pipeline crosssection not at the instant of time t but at a later time t x/c.
5.3 NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 119
It is clear that the quantity x/c is equal to the time in which the perturbation
(signal) reaches the considered crosssection x from the initial one.
Formulas (5.17) show that any velocity change at the initial pipeline cross
section propagates rightwards along the pipeline as a traveling wave giving
rise to a pressure traveling wave exceeding the initial value p
0
by
0
n v
C
.
Formulas (5.15) and (5.17) give the complete solution of the considered
problem.
Exercise. The pumping in quiescent diesel fuel (
0
= 840 kg m
3
, c =
1060 m s
1
) in a semiinnite pipeline has begun with constant ow rate
so that v
0
= 1.5 m s
1
. It is required to determine by how much the pressure
has increased at the pumping crosssection.
Solution. The rst formula (5.17) gives p(0, t) p
0
=
0
c v(0, t) =
0
cv
0
=
840 1060 1.5
= 1.34 10
6
MPa or approximately 13.6 atm.
Answer. 1.34 MPa.
5.3.4
Propagation of Waves in a Bounded Pipeline Section
Consider the problem on wave interaction in a limited pipeline section
(0 x L) between the initial crosssection x = 0 and the nal crosssection
x = L assuming the absence of friction. In such a problem we need, besides
the initial conditions p(x, 0) and v(x, 0), boundary conditions reecting the
interaction of the pipeline section under consideration with equipment located
at the pipeline ends, that is at x = 0, t > 0 and x = L, t > 0.
Now we should say something about the number of these conditions.
Through each point of the left pipeline section boundary x = 0, t > 0 passes
only one characteristic of the wave equation, namely the characteristic of
negative slope x = ct +const. Along it the condition p
0
c v = const.
should be obeyed. Thus at points on this boundary there is always one
algebraic relation between the quantities p and v. To determine a unique
solution for p and we need an additional relation, that is one more boundary
condition.
Analogously, through each point of the right boundary x = L, t > 0 of the
pipeline section goes only one characteristic with positive slope x = ct +const.
Along this characteristic the compatibility condition p +
0
c v = const. is
obeyed. Thus at these points there should be an additional boundary
condition.
The form of the boundary conditions could be of a great variety, dependent
on the type of equipment set at the end crosssections of the pipeline section
under consideration. For example, at the left end of the pipeline can be placed
a piston pump providing constant delivery of uid into the pipeline. Then
120 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
the boundary condition at x = 0 would be v(0, t) = v
0
= const. at all t > 0. If
the right end of the pipeline is open, the boundary condition at the right end
would be p(0, t) = p
0
= const. at t > 0. Of course there are also many other
possible boundary conditions.
Problem. Let a uid in the pipeline section 0 x L be initially (at t = 0)
quiescent (v(x, 0) = 0) and the pressure constant (p(x, 0) = p
0
). At t > 0
the uid starts to be delivered into the pipeline by the law v(0, t) = (t).
The end crosssection x = L of the pipeline is open to the atmosphere,
so that the pressure at the crosssection is held constant p(L, t) = p
0
. It
is required to determine the motion generated in the pipeline at t > 0
(Fig. 5.3).
Solution. Consider on the plane (x, t) a strip 0 x L, t > 0 corresponding
to the variability domain of the problem (Fig. 5.3).
1. The solution in the region 1 enclosed by the triangle OCL, i.e. the
region which the perturbation has not yet reached, is as follows:
p(x, t) = p
0
; v(x, t) = 0.
2. Find now the solution in the region 2 restricted by the triangle OCD
(2L/c is the time of the wave double path lengthwise in the pipeline
section).
Figure 5.3 Interaction of waves in the pipeline section.
5.3 NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 121
Determine rst the pressure p
S
at an arbitrary point S of the left
boundary
p
S
0
c v
S
= p
Q
0
c v
Q
= p
0
0,
p
S
(0, t) = p
0
+
0
c v
S
(t) = p
0
+
0
c (t).
Then obtain the pressure and velocity at an arbitrary point M(x, t) of the
region under consideration
_
p
M
+
0
c v
M
= p
S
+
0
c v
S
= p
0
+2
0
c (t
S
),
p
M
0
c v
M
= p
0
0
c 0 = p
0
from which follows
_
_
_
p
M
(x, t) = p
0
+
0
c
_
t
x
c
_
,
v
M
(x, t) =
_
t
x
c
_
3. Find the solution in the region 3 bounded by the triangle CDG (3L/c is
the time of the wave triple path lengthwise in the pipeline section).
Determine rst the uid velocity v
F
at an arbitrary point F of the right
boundary
p
F
+
0
c v
F
= p
S
+
0
c v
S
= [p
0
+
0
c (t
S
)] +
0
c (t
S
)
Since p
F
= p
0
and t
S
= t L/c, then v
F
(L, t) = 2 (t L/c).
After this we get the pressure and velocity at the arbitrary point N(x, t) of
the considered region
_
_
p
N
+
0
c v
N
= p
R
+
0
c v
R
= p
0
+2
0
c
_
t
x
c
_
,
p
N
0
c v
N
= p
F
0
c v
F
= p
0
2
0
c
_
t
x
c
_
Hence, p
N
= p
0
; v
N
= 2(t x/c).
In a similar manner by the method of characteristics the solution in
regions 4, 5 and other regions of the strip under consideration could be
found.
5.3.5
Method of Characteristics
Let us return to the system of equations (5.4) describing nonstationary ow
of a slightly compressible uid with regard to viscous friction forces
_
_
p
t
+
0
c
2
v
x
= 0,
0
v
t
+
p
x
= (Re, )
1
d
0
0
v
2
2
0
g sin (x).
122 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
Multiplication of the second equation by c and addition of the result to the rst
equation yields
_
p
t
+c
p
x
_
+
0
c
_
v
t
+c
v
x
_
=
0
cvv
2d
c
0
g sin.
In a similar manner after subtraction of the second equation multiplied by c
from the rst one we obtain
_
p
t
c
p
x
_
0
c
_
v
t
c
v
x
_
=
0
cvv
2d
+c
0
g sin.
If at the plane (x, t) we consider straight lines determined by the equations
1.
dx
dt
= c, x ct = = const.,
2.
dx
dt
= c, x +ct = = const.,
which for the wave equation are called characteristics, it is easy to reveal that
for any parameter A(x, t)
A
t
+c
A
x
=
_
dA
dt
_
=const.
is valid.
This means that the expression on the lefthand side is the derivative of the
function A(x, t) in the direction of the rst characteristic ( = const.). Similarly
it is true that
A
t
c
A
x
=
_
dA
dt
_
=const.
i.e. the expression on the lefthand side is the derivative of the function A(x, t)
in the direction of the second characteristic ( = const.).
Using now the notion of a directional derivative, one can write the above
obtained equations as follows
_
dp
dt
_
=const.
+
0
c
_
dv
dt
_
=const.
=
0
cvv
2d
0
cg sin ,
_
dp
dt
_
=const.
0
c
_
dv
dt
_
=const.
=
0
cvv
2d
+
0
cg sin ,
or
_
_
d
dt
(p +
0
c v)
=const.
=
0
cvv
2d
0
cg sin ,
d
dt
(p
0
c v)
=const.
=
0
cvv
2d
+
0
cg sin .
(5.18)
5.3 NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 123
At = 0 and = 0 the righthand sides of Eqs. (5.18) vanish. This means
that along the characteristics of positive slope is conserved the quantity
I
1
= p
0
+
0
c v, whereas the quantity I
2
= p
0
0
c v is conserved along the
characteristic of negative slope. This conclusion is consistent with the results
obtained above for the wave equation.
If = 0, the quantities I
1
and I
2
are not constants at relevant characteristics.
Nevertheless, Eqs. (5.18) may be used to calculate various nonstationary ows
in a pipeline, especially when numerical methods are used.
Let for example at the instant of time t
m1
(in particular at t = 0), the
distributions of pressure p = p(x, t
m1
) and velocity v = v(x, t
m1
) in the
pipeline be known. Show how the values of these parameters at the next
instant of time t
m
= t
m1
+t could be calculated.
Consider on the plane (x, t) a rectangular grid with coordinate step x
and time step t = x/c (Fig. 5.4). Through the nodes of the resulting grid
let us draw characteristics x = ct +const. and x = ct +const. of positive
and negative slope, respectively. Continuous distribution of the sought
functions p(x, t) and v(x, t) is replaced with discrete values p
k,m
= p(x
k
, t
m
)
and v
k,m
= v(x
k
, t
m
) of the grid functions at the grid nodes. Suppose that all
values p
k,m1
and v
k,m1
are known and it is required to nd the values p
k,m
and v
k,m
of grid functions at t = t
m
.
Let M(x
k
, t
m
) be anarbitrary point onthe plane (x, t). Replacing the directional
derivatives in Eqs. (5.18) with nite differences along the characteristics AM
and BM we obtain
_
_
(p +
0
c v)
t
=const.
= c
A
,
(p
0
c v)
t
=const.
= c
B
,
Figure 5.4 Design diagram of the characteristic method.
124 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
where =
0
vv
2d
+
0
g sin . In addition
(p +
0
c v)
=const.
= (p
M
+
0
c v
M
) (p
A
+
0
c v
A
)
(p
0
c v)
=const.
= (p
M
0
c v
M
) (p
B
0
c v
B
).
From this follows a system of equations to determine the pressure p
M
and
velocity v
M
of the uid at point M through known values of these parameters
at points A and B
_
p
M
+
0
c v
M
= p
A
+
0
c v
A
t c
A
p
M
0
c v
M
= p
B
0
c v
B
+t c
B
.
or
_
p
k,m
+
0
c v
k,m
= p
k1,m1
+
0
c v
k1,m1
x
k1,m1
p
k,m
0
c v
k,m
= p
k+1,m1
0
c v
k+1,m1
+x
k+1,m1
.
From this system of linear equations we get the pressure p
k,m
and the velocity
v
k,m
of the ow
_
_
p
k,m
=
p
k1,m1
+p
k+1,m1
2
+
0
c
v
k1,m1
v
k+1,m1
2
+
x
2
(
k+1,m1
k1,m1
)
v
k,m
=
p
k1,m1
p
k+1,m1
2
0
c
+
v
k1,m1
+v
k+1,m1
2
x
2
0
c
(
k1,m1
+
k+1,m1
)
(5.19)
Hence, the recurrent formulas (5.19) give the solution of the formulated
problem, because they allow one to calculate the pressure and velocity of the
ow at the following instant of time t
m
from known values of these parameters
at the preceding instant of time t
m1
. Since at the rst instant of time we can
take the initial values of the pressure and velocity of the ow at t = 0, then
calculating successively the pressure and velocity with formulas (5.19), we can
get ow parameters at an arbitrary instant of time t > 0.
5.3.6
Initial, Boundary and Conjugation Conditions
Let us investigate nonstationary uid ow at a pipeline section 0 x L
starting from a certain instant of time t = 0 taken as the initial time. In order
to know how the nonstationary process progresses it is necessary to have
information about the initial and boundary conditions, that is to know the state
of the ow before starting and what is happening at the edges of the pipeline
sections, e.g. at the crosssection x = 0 and x = L. The rst information is
called the initial conditions and the second the boundary conditions.
5.3 NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 125
Initial Conditions
The state of the pipeline section at the initial instant of time can be arbitrary,
but often as the initial state is taken the stationary uid ow existing in the
pipeline at the initial instant of time.
Let, for example, for stationary ow, the known uid ow rate be
Q = Q(x, 0) = Q
0
and the distribution of head be H(x, 0) = H
0
i
0
x,
where H
0
= H(0, 0) is the head at the beginning of the pipeline section;
i
0
= (H
0
H
k
)/L, where H
k
= H(L, 0) is the head at the end of the pipeline
section. Then as initial conditions (m = 1, t
m1
= t
0
= 0) may be accepted
v(x, 0) =
Q
0
S
0
= const.; p(x, 0) =
0
g [H
0
i
0
x z(x)]
or
v
k,1
=
Q
0
S
0
= const.; p
k,1
=
0
g(H
0
i
0
x
k
z
k
)
where k = 1, 2, . . . , N +1, x
k
= (k 1) x, x
1
= 0, x
N+1
= L, z
k
= z(x
k
),
x = L/N (N being the number of parts into which the pipeline section is
divided).
Boundary Conditions
The formulas (5.19) permit one to nd p and v at any point on the strip
0 < x < L, t > 0 determining the pipeline section except its edges beginning
(x = 0) and ending (x = L).
Only one characteristic of the negative slope dx/dt = c comes from the
integration domain to a point M(x = 0) of the left pipeline section boundary
(Fig. 5.5a). It gives one condition for two unknown quantities p
1,m
and v
1,m
p
1,m
0
c v
1,m
= p
2,m1
0
c v
2,m1
+x
2,m1
therefore an additional condition is needed. Such a condition can be an
algebraic equation F(p, v) = 0 expressing the relation between pressure
p
M
(0, t) and velocity v
M
(0, t) at the initial crosssection of the pipeline. As
a rule this condition models the operation of a pumping station and is
represented by its (Q H) characteristic. Thus, boundary conditions at
points on the left pipeline section boundary may be represented as a system of
equations
x = 0, t > 0 :
_
p
1,m
0
c v
1,m
= p
2,m1
0
c v
2,m1
+x
2,m1
F(p
1,m
, v
1,m
) = 0.
Similarly, only one characteristic of the positive slope dx/dt = +c comes
from the domain of integration to a point E(x = L) of the right pipeline
section boundary (Fig. 5.5b), Therefore the boundary condition at points on
126 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
Figure 5.5 Calculation of p and v at boundary crosssections.
the right pipeline section boundary may be represented as a system of two
equations:
x = L, t > 0 :
_
p
N+1,m
+
0
c v
N+1,m
= p
N,m1
+
0
c v
N,m1
x
N,m1
G(p
N+1,m
, v
N+1,m
) = 0.
The dependence G(p, v) = 0 expresses the relation between the pressure
p
N
(L, t) and velocity v
N
(L, t) at the end of the pipeline section. It should be noted
that there are also possibilities for more complicated boundary conditions.
Conjugation Conditions
If the equipment responsible for process nonstationarity is located inside
the pipeline section, e.g. at the crosssection x
, 0 < x
ejection or injection
of uid with ow rate q (q < 0 ejection; q > 0 injection). Then such a
crosssection is characterized by continuity of pressure and discontinuity
of ow rate or velocity. Let us denote the values of the parameters before
ejection or injection with superscript () and after ejection or injection with
superscript (+). Then at the crosssection x
, t) = p
(x
, t); v
+
(x
, t) v
(x
, t) =
q
S
.
Then to calculate the three unknown parameters p
k,m
, v
+
k,m
, v
k,m
of non
stationary ow at point x
= x
k
we use the following system of three linear
equations
_
_
p
k,m
+
0
c v
k,m
= p
k1,m1
+
0
c v
k1,m1
x
k1,m1
p
k,m
0
c v
+
k,m
= p
k+1,m1
0
c v
k+1,m1
+x
k+1,m1
v
+
k,m
v
k,m
=
q
S
0
with p
+
k,m
= p
k,m
= p
k,m
.
5.3 NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 127
In the case when a gate valve is located at the crosssection x
= x
k
, its
operation is modeled by conjugation conditions
_
_
v
+
(x
, t) = v
(x
, t)
p
(x
, t) p
+
(x
, t) = (t)
0
v
2
(x
, t)
2
where (t) is the local resistance factor that varies during valve closing or
opening. The rst condition means the continuity of the ow rate, whereas
the second condition signies pressure discontinuity at different sides of the
valve. Thus, the model of the valve is represented by the following system of
three equations
_
_
p
k,m
+
0
c v
k,m
= p
k1,m1
+
0
c v
k1,m1
x
k1,m1
p
+
k,m
0
c v
k,m
= p
k+1,m1
0
c v
k+1,m1
+x
k+1,m1
p
+
k,m
p
k,m
= (t
m
)
0
v
2
k,m
/2
for the three parameters p
+
k,m
, p
k,m
, v
k,m
with v
+
k,m
= v
k,m
= v
k,m
.
5.3.7
Hydraulic Shock in Pipes
In all the above stated it was assumed by default that the functions
(x, t), p(x, t) and v(x, t) in the differential equations are differentiable with
respect to time and coordinate and in any case are certainly continuous.
Nevertheless, in engineering there are processes in which these functions
vary very quickly with time and in space. An example of such a process
is hydraulic shock. The essence of hydraulic shock is that the stationary
ow of uid in a pipeline is disturbed by the abrupt closing or opening
of a gate valve, the switching on or switching off of a pump and so on,
resulting in hard braking or acceleration of the uid and shock compression of
the uid particles. The front at which the variation of the hydrodynamic
parameters of the uid takes place has a relatively small extent and
propagates in the form of a pressure wave downstream and upstream of
the uid.
Similar phenomena occur in the pipeline in other cases when the velocity
(ow rate) of the uid varies in a stepwise manner. The possibility of hydraulic
shock should be taken into account in the exploitation of pipelines, since shock
pressure can far exceed permissible standards, leading to pipe breakage and
an emergency situation.
The explanation of hydraulic shock was given by Joukovski in his
article On hydraulic shock in watersupply pipes (1899). He connected
the magnitude of the pressure jump [p] with the properties of uid
128 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
compressibility and the elasticity of the pipe and obtained the following
formula
[p] =
0
D [v] (5.20)
where D is the velocity of shock wave propagation in the pipeline (see Eq. (5.2))
and [v] the magnitude of the stepwise change in the uid.
It should be noted that the introduction of stepwise variations (jumps)
of hydrodynamic ow parameters is nothing more than a model of the
phenomenon under consideration. In fact each such discontinuity has a
transition region, though very narrow, from the value of parameter A
+
to the left of the discontinuity front up to the value A
of the same
parameter to the right of the front. The quantity [A] = A
+
A
is called
the jump of parameter A at the discontinuity front. To describe the
structure of this transition zone needs as a rule a more complicated
model than the given one. Nevertheless, introduction of the system of
equations (5.4) into consideration of discontinuity solutions has proved to
be very fruitful.
Conditions at Discontinuities (Jumps) of Hydrodynamic Parameters
Now let us obtain conditions which should satisfy the ow parameters at
the discontinuity front. Let the discontinuity front of the ow parameters
propagate with velocity D = dx
o
/dt in the positive direction of the xaxis
(Fig. 5.6).
The wave of the hydraulic shock is characterized by the parameters of ow
(and pipeline crosssection area) that are subjected to discontinuities, or jumps,
at their mobile front. However the limiting values of these parameters before
, v
, p
, S
and after
+
, v
+
, p
+
, S
+
the wave front cannot be prescribed
arbitrarily. They have to obey the conditions of uid mass and momentum
conservation.
In the time interval t all uid particles present at the beginning of this
interval at a distance (D v
(D v
) t.
In the same time interval a uid mass equal to
+
S
+
(D v
+
) t ows out
from the wave.
It is evident that the mass of uid owing into and out of the wave front
should be equal
Figure 5.6 Hydraulic shock in
a pipeline.
5.3 NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 129
(D v
) =
+
S
+
(D v
+
)
or
+
v
+
S
+
D
+
S
+
=
S.
If we denote a jump of any parameter by [ ] then the last relation maybe
rewritten as
[vS D S] = 0. (5.21)
Now we can use the theorem that the momentum variation of the uid mass
that has passed through the wave front is equal to the impulse of the pressure
force
+
S
+
(D v
+
)t
. ,, .
m
v
+
(D v
)t
. ,, .
m
v
= (p
p
+
)S
t.
In the righthand side of this equation the projection of the reaction force of
the pipeline lateral surface onto the xaxis is taken into account.
We can write the last equation in the following form
(
+
S
+
v
+2
+
S
+
v
+
D) (
v
2
D) = S
p
or
[v (vS D S)] = S
[p].
Then, in accordance with equality (5.21), [vS D S] = 0 the obtained
equation may be simplied to
(
) [v] = S
[p]
or
_
v
D
1
_
D [v] = [p].
With regard to
0
and the smallness of the ratio v
/D we get the
Joukovski formula
[p] =
0
D [v]. (5.22)
We can show that the velocity of the hydraulic shock wave D for a slightly
compressible uid coincides with the velocity of the perturbation propagation
in a pipeline with elastic walls. In order to do this we can simplify the
relation (5.21) as follows:
0
S
0
[v] DS
0
[] D
0
[S] = 0
130 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
where it is assumed that owing to the smallness of the variations in and S
variations the following approximations can be made
[vS]
0
S
0
[v]; [S]
0
[S] +S
0
[].
The use of Eqs. (5.22), (2.22) and (2.23)
[v] =
1
0
D
[p]; [] =
0
K
[p]; [S] =
d
0
3
4 E
[p],
yields
S
0
D
[p] DS
0
0
K
[p]
0
D
d
0
3
4 E
[p] = 0.
Since [p] = 0, we have
1 = D
2
0
K
+
0
d
0
E
_
.
From here it follows that the absolute value of the hydraulic shock wave
velocity D is equal to the velocity of the perturbation propagation in the
pipeline (Eq. (5.1))
D =
1
_
0
K
+
0
d
0
E
= c. (5.23)
Exercise 1. Oil (
0
= 870 kg m
3
, K = 1.5 10
9
Pa) ows with velocity
v = 1.0 m s
1
in a steel pipeline (d
0
= 0.8 m, = 10 mm, E = 2 10
11
Pa).
It is required to determine how much the pressure rises at the pipeline
crosssection before the gate valve suddenly closes.
Solution. Calculate rst the velocity D of the hydraulic shock wave
D = c =
1
_
870
1.5 10
9
+
870 0.8
0.01 2 10
11
= 1038 m s
1
.
Then determine with Eq. (5.22) the pressure jump [p] =
0
D [v] = 870 1038
1.0 = 903 060 Pa or approximately 9.21 atm.
Answer. 0.903 MPa.
Exercise 2. It is required to determine how much the pressure rises
at the initial crosssection of a steel pipeline (d
0
= 0.516 m, = 8 mm,
E = 2 10
11
Pa) on abrupt switching on of the pumps providing the benzene
feed (
0
= 750 kg m
3
, K = 1.3 10
9
Pa) with velocity v = 1.5 m s
1
.
5.3 NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 131
Solution. Calculate rst the velocity D of the hydraulic shock wave generated
by the benzene pumping into the pipeline
D = c =
1
_
750
1.3 10
9
+
750 0.516
0.008 2 10
11
= 1105 m s
1
.
Then determine the pressure jump with Eq. (5.22) [p] =
0
D [v] = 750 1105
1.5 = 1 243 125 Pa or approximately 12.7 atm.
Answer. 1.243 MPa.
Remark on carrying out calculations. Notice one interesting circumstance
following from Eqs. (5.22) and (5.23). Let, for example, D > 0, i.e. the wave
of discontinuity propagates in the positive direction of the xaxis. Then the
characteristic of negative slope x +ct = const. intersects the discontinuity at
point I (Fig. 5.7).
Ignoring friction, we have
1. p
0
c v
= p
B
0
c v
B
the condition at the linear segment
B of the characteristic BM;
2. p
+ p
=
0
c (v
+ v
0
c v
M
= p
+
0
c v
+
M of the characteristic BM.
Subtraction of the rst relation from the last one with regard to the second
relation yields
p
M
0
c v
M
= p
B
0
c v
B
.
Hence the Riemann invariants (in the considered case I
2
= p
0
c v) are
conserved at the relevant characteristics, even when these characteristics
intersect the shock front.
Problem 1. On the phases of direct hydraulic shock. It is required to study the
nonstationary owgenerated in a pipeline section 0 x L by abrupt closing
of the gate valve at the righthand end (x = L) of the pipeline (direct hydraulic
shock). It is assumed that the uid before closing the gate (t = 0) was owing
Figure 5.7 Interaction of a
discontinuity with a small perturbation.
132 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
with constant velocity v = v
0
and friction was absent so that the pressure at
all pipeline crosssections was constant p = p
0
. It is assumed also that at the
initial crosssection (x = 0) the pressure is constant and equal to p
0
.
Solution. The solution is shown in Fig. 5.8. By convention the solution may
be divided into four phases.
1. The phase of direct shock continues for a time t = L/c. When the uid
ow is stopped, the hydraulic shock wave appears and travels from the
end of the pipeline section to its beginning. The wave front brings the
uid to an abrupt stop and the pressure after the jump is raised by
0
c v
0
.
2. The phase of the reected wave runs from t
1
= L/c to t
2
= 2L/c equal to
double the time taken by the wave path along the pipeline section. In
this phase the shock wave reects at the initial crosssection and begins
to move in the opposite direction. The uid then ows out of the
pipeline (v = v
0
) and the pressure falls to its initial value p
0
.
3. In the third phase, lasting from the instant of time t
2
= 2L/c to
t
3
= 3L/c, the uid continues to ow out of the pipeline with velocity
v = v
0
whereas the pressure in the wave reected from the
crosssection x = L is lowered stepwise by
0
c v
0
becoming lower than
its original value. If the pressure is lowered to the saturated vapor
Figure 5.8 Phases of direct hydraulic shock.
5.3 NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 133
pressure of the uid, the latter would begin to boil, otherwise at
(p
0
0
c v
0
) > p
s
the uid does not vaporize and the pipeline section
remains completely lled with uid. The velocity behind the shock
front propagating in the negative direction vanishes.
4. In the fourth phase of the process at 3L/c < t < 4L/c the uid again
begins to ow into the pipeline (v = v
0
) and the pressure becomes equal
to p = p
0
. At the instant of time t
4
= 4L/c the situation returns to the
initial one, after which the process is periodically repeated.
Problem 2. On the damping of the pressure bow shock at the hydraulic shock wave
front (Charniy, 1975). In the presence of friction the hydraulic shock wave is
gradually damped in the pipeline, in particular the magnitude of the pressure
jump at the shock front decreases. It is required to determine the intensity of
such a fall.
Solution. Let the front of the hydraulic shock travel from the end of the
pipeline crosssection x = L to its beginning. Consider two negative slope
characteristics parallel to the discontinuity along its left and righthand sides.
Then in accordance with Eq. (5.18) we have
d
dt
(p
+
0
c v
+
)
x=c
=
+
1
d
0
0
c v
+
v
+

2
+
0
cg sin,
d
dt
(p
0
c v
x=c
=
1
d
0
0
c v
v

2
+
0
cg sin,
p
+
p
=
0
c (v
+
v
).
Subtracting termbyterm from the second equation from the rst one and
taking into account the third equation, we get
d
dt
(p
+
p
x=c
=
1
2
1
d
0
0
c
2
_
v

+
v
+
v
+

_
Taking v
+
= v
0
; v
= v
+
(p
+
p
)/
0
c = v
0
[p]/
0
c; and [p] = p
+
p
,
one obtains the ordinary differential equation for the variation of the pressure
jump [p] at the wave front
d[p]
dt
x=c
=
0
c
4d
0
(
0
v
0
2
v
2
) (5.24)
This equation should be integrated under the initial condition [p] =
0
c v
0
at t = 0. If
(Re
, ) =
(v
x=c
=
a
0
c
2d
0
(v
0
v
) =
a
2d
0
[p] (5.25)
134 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
and
[p] =
0
cv
0
exp(a/2d
0
t), (5.26)
that is, the pressure jump at the hydraulic shock wave front decays
exponentially.
From the obtained formula follows, in particular, that in pipelines of large
diameter the value of the bow pressure jump at the hydraulic shock wave front
decays more slowly than in pipelines of smaller diameter.
Problem 3. At the junction of two pipes with different internal diameters
d
1
and d
2
comes, as viewed from the rst pipe, the pressure shock wave
(incident wave) with pressure amplitude of magnitude [p
inc
]. There are then
generated two pressure waves: one is the reected wave, which travels in the
opposite direction with amplitude [p
re
]; the other is the transmitted wave
with amplitude [p
trans
], which travels through the second pipe. It is required
to express the amplitudes of the reected and transmitted waves through the
amplitude of the incident wave, if the velocities of wave propagation in the rst
and second pipes are c
1
and c
2
respectively.
Answer. [p
re
] = [p
inc
]
c
1
d
2
2
c
2
d
2
1
c
1
d
2
2
+c
2
d
2
1
; [p
trans
] = [p
inc
]
2c
2
d
2
1
c
1
d
2
2
+c
2
d
2
1
.
Remark. From the solution of the problem it follows that at c
1
d
2
2
= c
2
d
2
1
or
d
2
= d
1
c
2
/c
1
, [p
ref
] = 0, that is, the reected wave is not generated at the
junction of the pipes.
Problem 4. It is required to prove that the amplitude of the hydraulic shock
wave falling at the closed pipeline end will be doubled when reecting from
the pipeline end.
Hint. Use the results of the previous problem.
5.3.8
Accounting for Virtual Mass
In Section 5.1 it was indicated that in nonstationary processes the inertial
properties of uid in a pipeline are characterized by variable density, hence an
additional quantity called virtual mass should be added. The main equations of
nonstationary ow of a slightly compressible uid in a pipeline with regard to
virtual mass take the form
_
_
p
t
+
0
c
2
v
x
= 0
0
dv
dt
=
p
x
(Re, )
1
d
0
vv
2
0
g sin(x)
(5.27)
5.3 NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 135
If we denote
=
k
0
and c
= c/
k
, the system of equations (5.27)
transforms into
_
_
p
t
+
v
x
= 0
dv
dt
=
p
x
(Re, )
1
d
0
vv
2
0
g sin(x)
(5.28)
equivalent to the system of equations (5.4). From this follows that the
Joukowski formula (5.20) for the amplitude [p] of the hydraulic shock varies; it
will be enhanced by the factor
[p] =
[v] =
k
k
[v] =
0
c
[v] (5.29)
The velocity D of hydraulic shock wave propagation will also vary, it will be
reduced by a factor
D =
1
_
K
+
d
0
E
= c
=
c
(5.30)
If we take into account that for turbulent ow
k
1.03, corrections to
Joukovski formula will be small (one of them (5.29) was rst obtained
by Leibenson et al., 1934). But for laminar ow
k
1.33 and these corrections
could be signicant.
5.3.9
Hydraulic Shock in an Industrial Pipeline Caused by Instantaneous Closing of the
Gate Valve
In Fig. 5.9 is shown the development of the hydraulic shock in a pipeline
section with diameter D = 1020 mm ( = 10 mm) and length L = 100 km
upon instantaneous closing of the gate valve at the righthand edge of
the pipeline section. The pipeline is transporting crude oil with density
0
= 880 kg m
3
and viscosity = 20 cSt. At the initial instant of time t = 0
the ow in the pipeline is stationary with velocity v(x, 0) = v
0
1.5 m s
1
;
the velocity of the hydraulic shock wave propagation c is equal to 870 m s
1
.
The abrupt closing of the gate valve at the righthand edge of the pipeline is
modeled by the condition v(L, t) = 0 at t > 0.
Figures 5.9a and 5.9b demonstrate the distributions of the head (z +p/g)
at 2 and 40 s, respectively, after closing the gate valve.
The initial value of the pressure jump p
f
at the wave front is related to the
initial velocity v
0
by
p
f
=
0
cv
0
= 880 870 1.5
0
g
H
f
+
[p]
0
g
,
where z
L
is the elevation of the section end and H
f
the head at the pipeline
5.3 NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 137
Figure 5.10 Pressure wave propagations: (a) 80 s and (b) 100 s after appearance of the
wave.
crosssection which the hydraulic wave shock has reached. From this it follows
that for an approximate estimation of the pressure at the pipeline section end
one can use the formula
p
L
(t)
0
g(H
f
z
L
) +[p]
or
p
L
(t)
0
gi
0
ct +[p], (5.31)
where i
0
is the hydraulic gradient of the ow in the undisturbed region and t
is the time elapsed after closure of the gate valve.
138 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
It should be noted that owing to viscous friction the uid behind the wave
front would not come to a halt immediately but gradually, therefore the
pressure shock amplitude [p] reduces monotonically (see formula (5.26)).
Protection of Pipelines from Hydraulic Shocks
The necessity to prevent the destructive force of hydraulic shock in pipelines
transporting heavy dropping liquids (oil, oil products, water and other) is
manifested by the fact that such pipelines, as distinct from gaspipelines, are
not equipped with cocks that close the pipeline crosssection too rapidly, but
are equipped with valves, gates and slowly closing cocks. All of these should
ensure safe uid braking in the pipeline.
Pumping stations are sometimes equipped with special devices intended
to protect pipelines from hydraulic shock waves. In the suction lines of
pumping stations are, for example, ow dampers of hydraulic shock special
safety valves or systems of pressure wave smoothing in case of a sudden pumping
station switchoff when the pressure before the station begins to build up.
These devices operate on the principle of emergency discharge of part of the
uid from the pipeline into a special reservoir to decrease the magnitude
of the pressure and its rate of increase. The safety valves open the uid
discharge when the pressure exceeds a certain value, the systems of pressure
wave smoothing are switched on when the rate of pressure buildup in
the suction line of the pumping station is greater than the permissible
magnitude.
5.4
NonIsothermal Gas Flow in GasPipelines
Consider now nonstationary and nonisothermal gas ow in gaspipelines.
The main distinction of such ows from the ows considered above is that the
gas represents a signicantly compressible medium with density dependent not
only on pressure but also on temperature. Thus, to describe these ows it is
necessary not only to use the laws of mass and momentum conservation
but also the law of energy transformation. In other words, as well as
continuity and momentum equations, the equation of heat inow should
be invoked.
Basic equations for the calculation of nonstationary nonisothermal ows in
a gaspipeline are represented by the system (5.8) giving
_
t
+
v
x
= 0
v
t
+
x
(p +v
2
) = (Re, )
1
d
0
v v
2
g sin
_
e
in
t
+v
e
in
x
_
=
4
d
0
(T T
ex
) p
v
x
+(Re, )
1
d
0
v
3
2
(5.32)
5.4 NonIsothermal Gas Flow in GasPipelines 139
in which = p/ZRT is the equation of the gas state and (Re, ) is the
hydraulic resistance factor.
The system of equations (5.32) represents partial differential equations for
three unknown functions p(x, t), v(x, t) and T(x, t) dependent on x and t.
These nonlinear equations have a complicated structure, therefore the
question arises: how to solve them? To answer this question it is necessary
to examine the structure of the system (5.32) treating it as well as was done
when investigating equations (5.4) in the model of nonstationary ow of a
slightly compressible uid. In the course of examining this model we have
seen that on the plane of variables (x, t) there are certain lines (characteristics)
along which the system of partial differential equations (5.4) transforms into
an ordinary differential equation providing a relation between unknown
functions. Through each point M(x, t) of the plane (x, t) go just two (by the
number of equations) such lines, or strictly speaking
d
dt
(p +
0
cv) = I
1
(p, v) along the line x = c (or x = ct +const.),
d
dt
(p
0
cv) = I
2
(p, v) along the line x = c (or x = ct +const.).
The presence of two characteristics is the distinctive property of the considered
system of equations and allows us to assign the system to a class of hyperbolic
differential equations and give a constructive method of its solution.
Let us show that the system of equations (5.32) is hyperbolic (the number of
its characteristics is equal to the number of equations, that is three). We look
for characteristics on the plane (x, t), i.e. lines x = x(t) such that along them
Eqs. (5.32) give certain differential relations between unknown functions.
Let x = x(t) be a line on the plane (x, t) on which the values of the functions
p(x, t), v(x, t), T(x, t) are known. Then it is possible to write three equations
relating the derivatives
p
t
,
p
x
,
v
t
,
v
x
and
T
t
,
T
x
of these functions along the
line x = x(t). To do this let us differentiate p, v, T along x = x(t)
dp
dt
x(t)
=
p
t
+
p
x
dx
dt
dv
dt
x(t)
=
v
t
+
v
x
dx
dt
(5.33)
dT
dt
x(t)
=
T
t
+
T
x
dx
dt
where dx/dt is the slope of this line (we shall call it a characteristic) to
the taxis. The slope can be taken as given since the function x = x(t) is
known.
Since the lefthand sides of Eqs. (5.33) are known as well as the slope dx/dt
of the line x(t), these equations could be considered as three linear equations to
determine six partial derivatives p, v, T with respect to time and coordinate. If
140 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
to these equations we add three equations of the system (5.32), which reduces
also to linear equations with respect to the same derivatives, we get six linear
equations for six partial derivatives
_
_
_
p
_
T
p
t
+v
_
p
_
T
p
x
+
v
x
+
_
T
_
p
T
t
+v
_
T
_
p
T
x
= 0
v
_
p
_
T
p
t
+
_
1 +v
2
_
p
_
T
_
p
x
+
v
t
+2v
v
x
+v
_
T
_
p
T
t
+v
2
_
T
_
p
T
x
= J
2
p
v
x
+C
v
T
t
+vC
v
T
x
= J
3
p
t
+
dx
dt
p
x
= J
4
v
t
+
dx
dt
v
x
= J
5
T
t
+
dx
dt
T
x
= J
6
where J
2
= v v/2d
0
g sin; J
3
= 4(T T
ex
)/d
0
+v
3
/2d
0
; J
4
=
(dp/dt)
x(t)
; J
5
= (dv/dt)
x(t)
; J
6
= (dT/dt)
x(t)
. The total derivatives of the
functions p, v and T are taken along the line x(t), on which their values
are known.
If the principal determinant of the system is nonvanishing, all six partial
derivatives as well as the functions p, v, T along the curve x(t) can be
determined uniquely and independently from each other. If this determinant
vanishes and the system of linear equations is compatible, the dependence
between the values of p, v, T on the curve x(t) exists.
Let us equate the principal determinant of the system of six linear equations
to zero
p
_
T
v
_
p
_
T
0
_
T
_
p
v
_
T
_
p
v
_
p
_
T
1 +v
2
_
p
_
T
2v v
_
T
_
p
v
2
_
T
_
p
0 0 0 p C
v
vC
v
1 dx/dt 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 dx/dt 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 dx/dt
= 0
and calculate it. To do this, let us multiply the rst, third and fth columns of
this determinant by dx/dt and then subtract the resulting products from the
5.4 NonIsothermal Gas Flow in GasPipelines 141
second, fourth and sixth columns of the same determinant
p
_
T
(v x)
_
p
_
T
0
_
T
_
p
_
T
_
p
(v x)
v
_
p
_
T
1 +v(v x)
_
p
_
T
(2v x) v
_
T
_
p
_
T
_
p
v(v x)
0 0 0 p C
v
C
v
(v x)
1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0
p
_
T
+
_
p
T
_
p
C
v
_
_
dx
dt
v
_
= 0 (5.34)
with respect to the difference (dx/dt v). Roots of this equation are evident
1.
dx
dt
v = 0
dx
dt
= v;
2.
dx
dt
v =
_
C
v
p/
2
(/T)
p
C
v
_
p
_
T
.
Since C
v
=
e
in
T
and
p
2
_
T
_
p
=
T
_
p
_
p
, then
C
v
2
_
T
_
p
=
T
_
e
in
+
p
_
p
=
_
J
T
_
p
= C
p
where J(p, T) is enthalpy. The expression under the square root is simplied to
dx
dt
v =
_
C
p
C
v
_
p
_
T
= c
where
c
2
=
C
p
C
v
_
p
_
T
=
_
p
_
T
and (p, T) = C
p
/C
v
is the adiabatic index.
The quantity c having the dimension of velocity is called the adiabatic velocity
of sound in gas. For a perfect gas (p/)
T
= RT, = const., c =
_
RT. For
example, at = 1.31; R = 450 J kg
1
K
1
; T = 273 K the velocity of sound is
equal to c =
= 400 m s
1
.
142 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
The equation (5.34) provides three families of characteristics, two of them
having velocities (slopes) (dx/dt)
1,2
= v c and the third dx/dt = v. Since
the gas velocity v in gaspipelines as a rule does not exceed 10 m s
1
and
c 400 m s
1
, then sometimes we could take dx/dt
= c. We shall see
below that the slope of characteristics to the taxis is simply the velocity
of propagation of small perturbations in gas (sound velocity). Therefore the
assumption dx/dt
p
_
T
v
_
p
_
T
0
_
T
_
p
0
v
_
p
_
T
1 +v
2
_
p
_
T
2v v
_
T
_
p
J
2
0 0 0 p C
v
J
3
1 x 0 0 0 J
4
0 0 1 x 0 J
5
0 0 0 0 1 J
6
p
_
T
_
J
3
C
v
J
6
_
_
dx
dt
v
_
p
2
_
p
_
T
(J
5
J
2
)
_
J
3
C
p
J
6
+
p
2
_
p
_
T
J
4
_
= 0. (5.35)
Substitution successively in Eq. (5.35) of the values of dx/dt for each of the
characteristic families yields conditions for the functions p, v, T to be obeyed
at these characteristics:
1.
dp
dt
+c
dv
dt
= +c J
2
+
( 1)
p/ (/p)
T
J
3
(5.36)
at dx/dt v = +c or dx/dt = v +c, where J
2
= v v/2d
0
g sin,
J
3
= 4(T T
)/d
0
+v
3
/2d
0
and derivatives with respect to time are
taken in the direction of the characteristic dx/dt = v +c.
5.4 NonIsothermal Gas Flow in GasPipelines 143
2.
dp
dt
c
dv
dt
= c J
2
+
( 1)
p/ (/p)
T
J
3
(5.37)
at dx/dt v = c or dx/dt = v c, where derivatives with respect to time
are taken in the direction of the characteristic dx/dt = v c.
3. C
p
dT
dt
p
2
_
p
_
T
dp
dt
=
J
3
(5.38)
at dx/dt v = 0 or dx/dt = v, where derivatives with respect to time are
taken in the direction of the characteristic dx/dt = v.
Method of Characteristics
Formulas (5.36)(5.38) give a constructive way to solve the system of
equations (5.41). The method by which this solution is obtained is called
the method of characteristics.
Basic equations for this method are Eqs. (5.36)(5.38). The idea of this
method is that at each point M(x
k
, t
m
) of the plane (x, t) relevant to the
time t
m
in the past, that is at t < t
m
, there are just three characteristics
dx/dt = v c and dx/dt = v, at which should be satised the compatibility
conditions (5.36)(5.38). Each of these compatibility conditions represents an
ordinary differential equation which could be integrated over the direction
of the respective characteristic. Thus, at the point M(x
k
, t
m
), being the
intersection point of these characteristics, appear three equations to determine
three unknown quantities p(x
k
, t
m
), v(x
k
, t
m
) and T(x
k
, t
m
). For numerical
realization of the method of characteristics various schemes may be used.
Consider one of them.
Let it be required to get the solution of the system of equations (5.33)
in the region 0 < x < L, t > 0 of the plane (x, t). Divide this region by
a rectangular mesh with straight lines x
e
= x (k 1), t
m
= t (m1),
where 1 N +1, N = [L/x]. The time step t is chosen so that
t = x/(v +c)
max
, where v
max
and c
max
are the maximum possible values
of the gas and sound velocities respectively (c
max
=
_
RT
max
; T
max
is the
maximum possible value of the gas temperature), m = 1, 2, 3, . . ..
Neglecting the work of the gravity force, the basic system of differential
equations (5.33) may be written in the socalled divergent form (see Eq. (1.36)
at
k
= 1)
_
t
+
v
x
= 0
v
t
+
x
(p +v
2
) = v v/2d
0
t
_
_
v
2
2
+e
in
__
+
x
_
v
_
v
2
2
+e
in
+
p
__
=
4
d
0
(T T
ex
)
(5.39)
The lefthand sides of Eqs. (5.39) are represented by differential operators of
the form
144 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
div{A, B} =
A
t
+
B
x
expressing the divergence of a vector with coordinates {A, B} in the space of
variables (x, t).
Let us rst integrate the system of equations (5.39) over the area of the mesh
cell ABCD (x
k
x x
k+1
; t
m1
t t
m
) with sides x and t (Fig. 5.11)
and transform the integrals over the mesh area into integrals over the mesh
contour using the formula
_ _
ABCD
_
A
t
+
B
x
_
dxdt =
_
ABCD
[Acos(nt) +Bcos(nx)]d
=
_
ABCD
(Adx +Bdt) = (A
k+1/2,m
A
k+1/2,m1
)x +(B
k+1
B
k
)t.
Here the quantities with fraction subscripts denote mean values of the
corresponding parameters at the horizontal sides (BC and AD) of the mesh
cell, whereas the quantities with integer subscripts denote mean values of
parameters at the vertical sides (AB and CD) of the same mesh cell.
Application of this transformation to each equation of the system (5.39)
yields the following system of nite difference equations
k+1/2,m
=
k+1/2,m1
[(v)
k+1
(v)
k
]
t
x
,
k+1/2,m
v
k+1/2,m
=
k+1/2,m1
v
k+1/2,m1
_
(p +v
2
)
k+1
(p +v
2
)
k
_
t
x
(v v/2d
0
)
k+1/2,m1
t,
k+1/2,m
_
v
2
2
+C
v
T
_
k+1/2,m
=
k+1/2,m
_
v
2
2
+C
v
T
_
k+1/2,m1
__
v
_
v
2
2
+C
v
T +
__
k+1
Figure 5.11 Mesh cell in the plane of
variables (x, t).
5.4 NonIsothermal Gas Flow in GasPipelines 145
_
v
_
v
2
2
+C
v
T +
__
k
_
t
x
4
d
0
(T T
ex
)
k+1/2,m1
t.
(5.40)
Here
k+1/2,m
; v
k+1/2,m
and T
k+1/2,m
are, respectively, the mean values of the
density, velocity and temperature of the gas in segment (x
k
, x
k+1
) of the
gaspipeline at the instant of time t = t
m
;
k+1/2,m1
, v
k+1/2,m1
and T
k+1/2,m1
are the mean values of the same functions at the previous moment of time
t
m1
= t
m
t.
The physical meaning of the obtained relations is clear: each of these
equations represents the integral balance of one or other parameter in
the mesh cell. For example, the rst relation (5.40) reects the fact that
the gas mass
k+1/2,m
x in the segment (x
k
, x
k+1
) of the pipeline at the
instant of time t
m
is equal to the gas mass
k+1/2,m1
x in the same
segment at the previous instant of time added to the mass difference of
the gas [(v)
k+1
(v)
k
] t owing in time t from the kth segment
into the (k +1)th segment and from the (k 1)th segment into the kth
one. The two other relations are interpreted in the same manner with
the only difference being that they deal with momentum and total energy,
respectively.
Nevertheless, Eqs. (5.40) are not closed since they include unknown
quantities denoted by integer subscripts and representing the transfer of
mass, momentum and energy from one mesh cell into another. The essence
of the method is that the values of these quantities are found from compatible
conditions (5.36)(5.38) at characteristics.
Let us represent the conditions (5.32)(5.37) in the form of nite difference
equations
p
k,m
p
k1/2,m1
t
+(c)
k1/2,m1
v
k,m
v
k1/2,m1
t
=
_
c J
2
+
( 1)
p/ (/p)
T
J
3
_
k1/2,m1
,
p
k,m
p
k+1/2,m1
t
(c)
k+1/2,m1
v
k,m
v
k+1/2,m1
t
(5.41)
=
_
c J
2
+
( 1)
p/ (/p)
T
J
3
_
k+1/2,m1
,
C
p
T
k,m
T
k1/2,m1
t
_
p
2
_
p
_
T
_
k1/2,m1
p
k,m
p
k1/2,m1
t
=
_
J
3
_
k1/2,m1
.
146 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
As a result we have three linear equations for three unknown quantities
p
k,m
, v
k,m
, T
k,m
. First we nd quantities p
k,m
and v
k,m
from the rst
two equations, then from the third equation we obtain T
k,m
and from
the relation
k,m
= p
k,m
/RT
k,m
we calculate the gas density. Substituting
k,m
, p
k,m
, v
k,m
, T
k,m
into Eq. (5.40), we get average values of the gasdynamic
parameters in the considered mesh cell at the instant of time t
m
.
To Eqs. (5.37) and (5.38) should be added initial and boundary conditions.
Boundary conditions vary depending on the concrete problem. As an example,
they could be taken in the form of two relations between the pressure, ow rate
and temperature of the gas at one edge (left) of the pipeline section, reecting
conditions of compressor station operation and one condition at the right edge
of the pipeline section, for example, with a given pressure.
5.5
Gas Outow from a Pipeline in the Case of a Complete Break of the Pipeline
Let us illustrate the use of the method of characteristics as applied to non
stationary processes in a gaspipeline with an example of the calculation of
gas outow from a pipeline in the case of its complete break. The dynamics
of gas outow happen as a rule in two regimes. At rst at the crosssection,
through which occurs gas outow, appears a critical regime with the velocity
of gas outow equal to the local velocity of sound (380400 m s
1
). After
the pressure in the gaspipeline is lowered by a certain value (for natural gas
by a factor of 1.81.9 greater than atmospheric pressure) the outow regime
becomes subsonic and the gas velocity gradually decreases fromsound velocity
to zero.
The process of gas outow is not isothermal. The gas temperature, owing
to adiabatic expansion and the JouleThomson effect falls signicantly at the
break in the crosssection as well as far from it. For example, with a complete
break of a gaspipeline the gas temperature can be reduced by 80100 K. Only
at the nal stage of the process is there a gradual restoration of temperature
due to external heat inow.
Numerical calculations are carried out on the basis of recurrent formu
las (5.38). The lefthand end of the pipeline (x = 0) is closed, whereas
the righthand end (x = L) is suddenly opened and remains open to the
atmosphere.
Hence, the boundary conditions are as follows.
1. Crosssection x = 0. The rst boundary condition is v
1,m
(0, t
m
) = 0, since
the lefthand end of the pipeline is taken to be closed. Hence it follows
that at v = 0 the left integration boundary coincides with one of the
characteristics of the differential equations (5.36), therefore the second
boundary condition at the crosssection x = 0 (k = 1) is formulated as a
condition at the characteristic dx/dt = v = 0
5.5 Gas Outow from a Pipeline in the Case of a Complete Break of the Pipeline 147
C
p
T
1,m
T
1,m1
t
_
p
2
_
p
_
T
_
1,m1
p
1,m
p
1,m1
t
=
_
J
3
_
1,m1
.
The compatibility condition at the characteristic dx/dt = v c coming
from the integration domain to the initial pipeline crosssection (in our
case at the characteristic dx/dt = 0 c = c), provides the third boundary
condition
p
1,m
p
3/2,m1
t
(c)
3/2,m1
v
1,m
v
3/2,m1
t
=
_
c J
2
+
( 1)
p/ (/p)
T
J
3
_
3/2,m1
.
2. Crosssection x = L. Two characteristics of the system (5.39) come to this
crosssection from the integration domain. These characteristics are
dx/dt = v +c and dx/dt = v with positive slope. Thus, the rst two
boundary conditions at x = L (k = N +1) are
p
N+1,m
p
N+1/2,m1
t
+(c)
N+1/2,m1
v
N+1,m
v
N+1/2,m1
t
=
_
c J
2
+
( 1)
p/ (/p)
T
J
3
_
N+1/2,m1
,
C
p
T
N+1,m
T
N+1/2,m1
t
_
p
2
_
p
_
T
_
N+1/2,m1
p
N+1,m
p
N+1/2,m1
t
=
_
J
3
_
N+1/2,m1
.
The third boundary condition at x = L has a different form depending on
whether the gas outow is subsonic v < c(p, T) or sonic v = c(p, T). If the
gas outow happens with local sound velocity, then dx/dt = v c = 0 and
the right boundary of the integration domain coincides with the characteri
stic of the system (5.39). Hence, the third boundary condition is nothing
but a condition at this characteristic
p
N+1,m
p
N+1,m1
t
(c)
N+1,m1
v
N+1,m
v
N+1,m1
t
=
_
c J
2
+
( 1)
p/ (/p)
T
J
3
_
N+1,m1
.
In subsonic ow v < c(p, T) only two characteristics of the system (5.39) come
from the integration domain to the boundary points x = L, therefore one more
condition should be given. Such a condition is p
N+1,m
= p
aTM
meaning that
the pressure at the opened pipeline end is equal to the external atmospheric
pressure.
Calculations show that the gas is signicantly cooled during outow.
Figure 5.12 shows graphs of the gas temperature distribution over a pipeline
148 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
L.km
Figure 5.12 Distribution of gas temperature over a pipeline section length: 1, t = 0; 2,
t = 5 s; 3, t = 60 s; 4, t = 120 s; 5, t = 200 s; 6, t = 420 s.
section length (D = 1220 mm, L = 5 km) at different instants of time. It is
seen that the initial temperature of the gas, equal to 0
C decreases by more
than 100 K. This is explained by gas expansion due to the high outow velocity
and the JouleThomson effect. Gas cooling in the pipeline happens because
the abovementioned effects are too fast to be compensated by heat inow
from the surrounding medium.
Computer modeling shows the effect of gas suction into the pipeline in the
nal stage of the outow process. Figure 5.13 represents the dependence of
the gas velocity on time at the crosssection where the pipeline undergoes a
break (D = 1220 mm, L = 1 km) with initial pressure p(x, 0) = 5.5 MPa. The
oscillation process is seen to appear in the nal stage of gas outow and lasts
for about 2 min.
The section AB of the graph characterizes sonic outow of gas lasting about
20 s. The velocity of the outow gradually decreases as a consequence of
reduction in the pressure and temperature of the gas at the crosssection of
the break. The section BF of the graph characterizes subsonic outow of gas.
About after a 30th of a second from the outow beginning in the pipeline an
oscillation process occurs in which the gas periodically changes its direction
of motion. Once the velocity of the gas becomes equal to zero it continues to
decrease and at the section CD of the graph remains negative, testifying that
atmospheric air is being sucking into the pipeline. The same behavior of gas is
observed in the following instants of time. Calculations show that the maximal
velocity of air suction in the oscillation process exceeds 50 m s
1
.
Since the mixture of natural gas and air could achieve an explosive
concentration, the discovered phenomena appears to be a serious hazard
to attendants. In particular, it is strongly recommended to take the utmost care
in repairreconditioning operations.
5.6 Mathematical Model of NonStationary Gravity Fluid Flow 149
n
L
, ms
1
t.s
Figure 5.13 Dependence of gas outow velocity on time.
5.6
Mathematical Model of NonStationary Gravity Fluid Flow
Such a ow has already been discussed in Section 3.7 but then a stationary
gravity ow was considered, that is a ow in which all the hydrodynamic
parameters remain constant at each crosssection of the pipeline. In other
words these parameters were independent of time. Consider now a one
dimensional mathematical model of nonstationary gravity uid ow. In this
model there are two parameters governing the ow: S(x, t) the area of the
pipeline crosssection and v(x, t) the ow velocity (Fig. 5.14).
The differential equations of the model under consideration are
_
_
S
t
+
vS
x
= 0
vS
t
+
v
2
S
x
= gScos
h
x
gSsin
gScos
C
Sh
2
R
h
vv.
Figure 5.14 Gravity uid ow.
150 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
There R
h
(S) is the hydraulic radius of the ow (see Section 3.7); h(S) is
the depth of the pipeline crosssection lling with uid; is the angle
of inclination of the pipeline axis to the horizontal; C
Sh
is the Chezy
factor.
The rst of these equations (continuity equation) expresses the law of
mass conservation in the uid ow in a pipeline with crosssection partially
lled by uid. The second equation (momentum equation) is the law of
momentum change, that is Newtons Second law: on the left is the derivative
of momentum with respect to time, the quantity v
2
S = vS v representing
the ux of momentum; the term gScos
h
x
on the right is the Boussinesq
force acting on the uid due to its free surface being nonparallel to the pipeline
axis, i.e. due to excess of the uid level at one crosssection of the pipeline as
compared to the uid level at another crosssection; the termgSsin is the
component of the gravity force and the term gScos vv/(C
Sh
2
R
h
) is the
force of the ow resistance due to uid friction against the pipeline walls.
The system of equations may be rewritten in an equivalent form if we take
into account that
g cos
_
S
0
Sdh = g cos
_
S
0
S
dh(S)
dS
dS
As a result we get
_
_
S
t
+
vS
x
= 0
vS
t
+
x
_
v
2
S +g cos
_
S
0
Sdh
_
= gSsin
gScos
C
Sh
2
R
h
vv
(5.42)
The system of equations (5.42) belongs to the class of quasilinear (that is linear
with respect to derivatives) differential equations of the hyperbolic type. Solution of
these equations can be obtained by specially elaborated methods, which are
beyond the scope of this book. We advise those who are interested in these
methods to consult the book by Rozhdestvenski and Yanenko (1977), which
among other things contains voluminous literature devoted to this problem.
For gravity stationary uid ow (/t = 0) from the rst equation of
the system (5.42) it follows that vS = const. If we take into account that
=
0
= const., then v S = const. If we assume in addition that S = const.,
which is true everywhere except in small regions close to the transfer sections
where gravity ows are formed, from Eq. (5.42) it follows that
0 = gS sin
gScos
C
Sh
2
R
h
vv v = C
Sh
_
R
h
tan (5.43)
5.6 Mathematical Model of NonStationary Gravity Fluid Flow 151
p
sat
Figure 5.15 Gravity section in pipeline.
which after some transformation allows one to get the degree of lling with
uid of the gravity ow section, , depending on the hydraulic gradient tan
(see Eq. (3.51)).
The point at which the rst gravity section in the pipeline begins is called
the transfer section. Since crosssections after the transfer section are only
partially lled by uid, the pressure in this section is constant and equal to the
saturated vapor pressure p
sat
of this uid. Figure 5.15 illustrates the behavior
of the hydraulic gradient in gravity ow. It is seen from this gure that in this
section the line of the hydraulic gradient goes parallel to the pipeline axis at a
distance p
sat
/g from it owing to the pressure constancy in the gas cavity over
the uidfree surface.
An ordinary differential equation serves to calculate the depth h(x) of uid
in the pipe.
dh
dx
=
tan +Q
2
/(C
Sh
2
R
h
S
2
)
1 (Q
2
dh/dS)/(g cos S
3
)
(5.44)
following from Eq. (5.42) for the case of stationary ow (/t = 0) with
h(x) = h[S(x)]; R
h
= R
h
(S); Q is the uid ow rate.
The depth h
n
of the uid in the pipe at which the numerator of the fraction
on the righthand side of Eq. (5.44) vanishes is called the normal depth of
gravity ow in the pipe. Fluid ow with a normal depth of ow happens under
the condition h
n
= const. In this case the relation (5.43) holds.
The depth h
cr
, at which the nominator of the fraction on the righthand side
of Eq. (5.44) vanishes is called the critical depth. In crosssections with such a
depth the derivative dh/dx tends to and the uid ow varies the level of
pipe lling abruptly. Depending on the relation between the depths h
n
and
h
cr
different ow regimes are possible. Investigations of these regimes are
described in special monographs (Archangelskiy, 1947; Leibenson et al., 1934;
Christianovitch, 1938).
152 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
5.7
NonStationary Fluid Flow with Flow Discontinuities in a Pipeline
The preceding classical models of nonstationary ows of a slightly
compressible uid (see Sections 5.15.3) contained an essential restriction
on the absence of phase transition in the uid. It was tacitly supposed that the
uid under no circumstances passes into the vaporgas phase, even when the
pressure drops to the value of the saturated vapor pressure. However, in
the propagation of a rarefaction wave in the pipeline this condition can be
violated at many pipeline crosssections and rst and foremost at the tops
of the pipeline prole. When the pressure in the rarefaction wave reduces to
the saturated vapor pressure the uid boils, the vapor column breaks and the
pipeline crosssection becomes partially lled with vapor. From this point on
all further results predicted by classical theory appear to be wrong.
For example, at the disconnection of a pumping station or an aggregate
of this station a rarefaction wave is propagated downstream in the pipeline.
The pressure in such a wave reduces leading to the formation of voids at the
tops of the pipeline prole. These voids are capable of growing and turning
into stationary gravity ow sections or, on the contrary, contracting and even
disappearing altogether. To perform calculation of such processes on the base
of classical theory is of course impossible.
We can give another example: closing the gate valve generates a compression
wave propagating upstream with a rise in the pressure in the wave. This wave
having beenreected fromthe opensurface of the reservoir or froma vaporgas
cavity inside the pipeline initiates a rarefaction wave traveling in the opposite
direction and reduces the pressure in the uid. This brings into existence
temporal transfer points at some tops of the pipe prole and cavities. This
leads sometimes to uid ows with a partially lled pipeline crosssection. If
the pressure supply in the pipeline is not high, the reduction in pressure leads
to ow discontinuity and the generation of vaporgas cavities. So, for example,
in laboratory installations it could be observed that the uid before the gate
valve literally boiled owing to the sharp reduction in pressure. Calculation in
these cases on the basis of classical theory is also impossible.
One more example can be given: Connection of a lateral tap from the
oilpipeline to an intermediate oil tank leads to the propagation of rarefaction
waves up and down stream from the place of tap cutting up and downstream.
These waves are able to break the uid column at many crosssections of the
pipeline prole and turn the enforced ow into a gravity one characterized by
the presence of vaporgas cavities and gravity ow sections. Such cases also
defy calculation in the framework of classical theory.
All the aforesaid is true also for pipelines transporting the socalled
unstable uids, among which are gascondensate and a wide fraction of
light hydrocarbons with saturated vapor pressure from 3 to 30 atm. Any
sharp pressure reduction gives rise to a plethora of vaporgas cavities the
disappearance of which in the pipe lead to powerful hydraulic shocks.
5.7 NonStationary Fluid Flow with Flow Discontinuities in a Pipeline 153
Prole Hydraulic Shock
It should be noted that the appearance or disappearance of voids in the
pipeline is unsafe and is rather dangerous for pipeline integrity. In particular,
in Lurie and Polyanskaya (2000), the discovery and investigation of the origin
of powerful hydraulic waves in the pipeline called prole hydraulic shock are
described. For example, each time the gate valve, located before a section
of pipeline with signicant slope, was closed the rarefaction resulting in the
region close to the valve led to a sequence of powerful hydraulic shocks. These
shocks were gradually damped with time and the ow in the pipeline was
stabilized. Similar phenomena were observed in the pipeline on disconnection
of some pumps or the pumping station as a whole.
The nature of the prole hydraulic shock is as follows. Whenthe gate valve (at
x = 0, Fig. 5.16) closes the pressure in the sloping section of pipeline falls and
the uid column, initially supported by this pressure, begins little by little to slip
down and acquire inverse ow (Figs. 5.175.19). The uid in this inverse ow
is accelerated and whenvaporgas voids, having originated before the gate valve,
are taken out, there is an abrupt stop of uid ow and, as a consequence, hy
draulic shock (Fig. 5.18). The power of the shock is then especially great, since
Figure 5.16 Initial stage of the process.
Figure 5.17 Formation of gravity ow in the upward sloping pipeline section.
154 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
Figure 5.18 Formation of reverse uid ow in the upward sloping pipeline section.
Figure 5.19 Prole hydraulic shock.
the inverse ow of the uid runs against the closed gate valve and, as follows
from the Joukovski formulas, the amplitude of the hydraulic shock redoubles.
The hydraulic shock wave reected from the gate valve and accompanied
by uid stop, propagates downstream. Reaching a temporary transfer section,
at which a vaporgas void has been formed, the wave is reected from this
void and now, in the form of a rarefaction wave, heads back to the gate valve,
the uid column in the ascending section of the pipeline again becomes
weightless and begins to slip down to the closed gate valve. Then a secondary
hydraulic shock occurs, after which the process is repeated again and again
with decreasing intensity.
Generalized theory, (Lurie and Polyanskaya, 2000). In accordance with the
classical theory of nonstationary processes the wave processes generating in a
completely lled pipeline at its startup or stopping, opening or closing of the
gate valve or lateral tap and so on, are described by differential equations (5.4)
for pressure p(x, t) and velocity v(x, t)
_
_
p
t
+
0
c
2
v
x
= 0
0
v
t
+
p
x
= (Re, )
1
d
0
0
vv
2
0
g sin(x)
5.7 NonStationary Fluid Flow with Flow Discontinuities in a Pipeline 155
These equations represent the laws of mass conservation and variation of
momentum of uid particles moving in a pipeline. In the generalized theory it
is assumed that in the pipeline there are completely lled enforced (pumped)
sections as well as only partially lled gravity sections in which the pressure
is equal to the saturated vapor pressure p
sat
. The uid ow in the sections
of enforced ow is described by the system of equations (5.4) whereas in the
sections of gravity ow it is described by Eqs. (5.42).
Method of calculation. For numerical calculation of oil product ow in com
pletely lled as well as in partially lled pipeline sections there is an elaborate
scheme of endtoend calculation based on the ideas of Godunov (Samarskiy,
1977). This scheme involves consideration of the socalled problems on the
disintegration of arbitrary discontinuity in the system of hyperbolic equations.
Results of calculation. Figures 5.165.23 demonstrate the results of calcula
tions on successive stages of unloading wave propagation in a 10km pipeline
with internal diameter d = 516 mm at an abrupt drop in the pumping delivery
of benzene ( = 750 kg m
3
, p
sat
= 0.7 atm) from 1500 to 200 m
3
h
1
. It is
seen that, as distinct from existing theory, the line of hydraulic gradient at
Figure 5.20 Decay of hydraulic shock wave.
Figure 5.21 Formation of the secondary reverse ow in the upward sloping pipeline
section.
156 5 Mathematical Models of 1D NonStationary Flows of Fluid and Gas in a Pipeline
Figure 5.22 The second top of the prole hydraulic shock.
Figure 5.23 Formation of new stationary ow.
no instant of time intersects the pipeline prole, that is, the pressure in the
pipeline would never be less than the uid saturated vapor pressure.
The gures also show how the wave of pressure decrease runs over the
pipeline prole top (lower polygonal line of Fig. 5.16), and how, at this top, a
temporary transfer point and further gravity ow section with inverse ow of
uid is being formed (Fig. 5.17 and Fig. 5.18).
Since the uid ows in the opposite direction (as if it would run on a closed
gate valve), in 24 s after the aggregate disconnection a powerful hydraulic
shock is formed in the pipe (Fig. 5.19), in which the pressure is nearly twice
the initial pressure at the station. The amplitude of the hydraulic shock wave
gradually decreases (Fig. 5.20) and in a further 10 s in the upward sloping
section of the pipeline slope the inverse ow appears again (Fig. 5.21). After
46 s the secondary hydraulic shock occurs (Fig. 5.22), but already with lesser
amplitude. In the given calculation there were six such hydraulic shocks. Only
4 min after the pumping regime change the stationary regime in the pipeline
is achieved (Fig. 5.23), where there exists a single gravity ow section of length
500 000 m in the pipeline downward sloping section.
157
6
Dimensional Theory
Dimensional theory contains fundamental propositions for representing
equations of mathematical regularities modeling different phenomena in
invariant form, that is, in a form independent of the choice of the units of the
measurements. Such representations permit one to compile classes of similar
phenomena and to model them on experimental installations.
When setting out the fundamentals of dimensional and similarity theory
and the modeling of phenomena we have followed the methodology of Sedov
(1965).
6.1
Dimensional and Dimensionless Quantities
A quantitative description of various physical phenomena, including the
transport of uids and gases in pipelines, is connected with measurements of
the characteristics of these phenomena, whose numerical values depend on the
choice of measurement units. For example, pipeline diameter can be expressed
through the numbers 1; 10; 100; 1000; 3.28; 39.4 and so on depending on that
what unit of measurement is taken: meter, decimeter, centimeter, millimeter,
foot or inch (1 foot
= 0.3048 m; 1 inch
= 4.448 N;
1 mass pound
= 453.6 g, 1 psi
= 0.006896 MPa
= 0.0703 atm).
It is important to note that the choice of measurement units depends on the
researcher and therefore is, to a great extent, arbitrary. Two different researchers
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
158 6 Dimensional Theory
describing one and the same phenomenon but at the same time using different
measurement units can obtain diverse numerical values of one and the same
parameter.
And yet there exist parameters whose numerical values do not depend on the
researcher, that is, do not depend on measurement units. These parameters
are said to be invariant relative to the choice of measurement units. For
example, the ratio of the pipeline length to the pipeline diameter L/d, the
ratio of the pressure at a pumping station discharge line to the pressure at a
pumping station suction line p
dl
/p
sl
or a more complex combination such as
the Reynolds number Re = vd/ (v is the average uid velocity in the pipeline,
d is the internal diameter of the pipeline, is the uid kinematic viscosity)
are independent of the choice of measurement units. This means that the
numerical values of L/d, p
dl
/p
sl
and v d/ would be unchanged for any choice
of length, pressure, velocity and viscosity units.
Hence, it is possible to give the following denition: quantities whose
numerical values depend on the choice of measurement units are called dimensional
quantities; quantities whose numerical values do not depend on the choice of
measurement units are called dimensionless quantities.
6.2
Primary (Basic) and Secondary (Derived) Measurement Units
Measurement units, having been introduced empirically by arbitrary condi
tions and propositions, are called primary or basic units. Among these are, in
particular, the units of length, time and mass. In the international SI system
they are dened as follows.
Meter is a unit of length measurement. In accordance with the denition
taken at the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures (1960),
1 meter is a length equal to 1650763.73 lengths of the wave emitted by the
krypton (Kr) atom in vacuum at its energylevel transition. The international
standard of the meter before 1960 was a bar of platinumiridium alloy marked
on one side of its planes. This bar is kept on deposit at the International
Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sevre near Paris. At rst the meter was
dened as 10
7
part of a quarter of the Earths meridian.
Second is the measurement unit of time. There are recognized the atomic
(standard) second reproduced by cesium standards of frequency and time and
the ephemeris second equal to 1/31556925.9747 part of the tropical year.
Kilogram is a unit of mass measurement. The standard kilogram is equal
to the mass of the international prototype kept at the International Bureau
of Weights and Measures. The prototype of the kilogram is made from
platinumiridium alloy in the form of a cylindrical weight. The relative error
of standard copies compared with the original does not exceed 2 10
9
.
There are also other basic units of measurement, such as coulomb (C) a
unit of electricity quantity (electrical charge), volt (V) a unit of electrical stress
6.3 Dimensionality of Quantities. Dimensional Formula 159
(voltage, potential); degrees (
C,
=4.448 kg m s
2
) and so on.
Density which is dened as the mass of the medium unit volume, therefore
its units can be kg m
3
, g cm
3
, t m
3
and so on.
Specic weight which is dened as the weight of the medium unit volume,
hence its measurement units can be N m
3
, dyn cm
3
and so on.
Pressure which is dened as the ratio of force to unit area, thus force units
can be: pascal (1 Pa = 1 N m
2
= 1 kg m
1
s
2
), pound inch
2
and so on.
Fluid ow rate (e.g. volumetric) which is dened as the uid volume crossing
the pipeline crosssection area in a unit time, therefore its units can be m
3
s
1
,
m
3
h
1
, m
3
min
1
, l s
1
and so on.
Current intensity which is dened as a charge transmitted in a unit time,
hence the unit of measurement can be the ampere (1 A = 1 C s
1
).
All these and analogous measurement units are derived fromthe basic units.
6.3
Dimensionality of Quantities. Dimensional Formula
Let there be a physical parameter A. Expression of its measurement unit
through basic units is called the dimension of a given parameter and is denoted
by the symbol [A]. This expression written as a formula is called the dimensional
formula.
Denote through L the measurement unit of length, through T the
measurement unit of time and through M the measurement unit of mass.
Then the expression of the measurement units of many other quantities can
be written as the following formulas:
(A = v) velocity: [v] =
L
T
= L T
1
= M
0
L T
1
;
(A = a) acceleration: [a] =
L
T
2
= L T
2
= M
0
L T
2
;
(A = F) force: [F] = M [a] = M L T
2
;
(A = ) density: [] =
M
L
3
= M L
3
T
0
;
160 6 Dimensional Theory
(A = ) specic weight [] =
M L T
2
L
3
= M L
2
T
2
;
(A = p) pressure: [p] = [F]/L
2
=
M L T
2
L
2
= M L
1
T
2
;
(A = Q) volumetric ow rate: [Q] =
L
3
T
= M
0
L
3
T
1
;
(A = G) mass ow rate: [G] =
M
T
= M
1
L
0
T
1
;
(A = B) dimensionless parameter [B] = M
0
L
0
T
0
.
Thus, particular examples show that in all cases the dimensional formula of
parameter A has form of a power monomial
[A] = M
m
1
L
m
2
T
m
3
(6.1)
where m
1
, m
2
, m
3
are certain real positive or negative numbers.
What does the dimensional formula mean? It allows one to determine very
simply by how manyfold the numerical value of parameter A would be changed, on
going from one system of basic measurement units to another one differing from the
rst system only by the scales of the basic units. For example, if the transition from
the new system of basic measurement units to the old one is accomplished by
variation of the mass unit k
1
fold, of the length unit k
2
fold, of the time unit
k
3
fold, the numerical value of the parameter A would vary k
m
1
1
k
m
2
2
k
m
3
3
fold,
that is the new value
`
A
= k
m
1
1
k
m
2
2
k
m
3
3
`
A. (6.2)
Let us explain the afore said by examples.
Example 1. The velocity v in the SI system of basic measurement units (m, s,
kg) is 1 m s
1
. For a new system of basic measurement units (cm, s, kg) the
transition from this system to the SI system is performed by increasing one of
the basic units (length) by a factor of 100, the value of the velocity will also be
enhanced 100 times
v
= 1
0
100
1
1
1
= 100 v = 100 cm s
1
.
Example 2. The pressure p in the SI system of basic units (m, s, kg)
is 6 MPa, that is 6 000 000 kg m
1
s
2
. For a new system of units (inch,
s, pound) the transition from this system to the SI system is carried
out by changing the length scales 100/2.54 = 39.37 times and the mass
by 1/0.4536 = 2.205 times, hence the value of the pressure will vary
by a factor 2.205
1
39.37
1
1
2
= 0.056 and will be 0.056 6 000 000 =
336 043 (psi).
In Eq. (6.1), obtained empirically, there are only three basic units of
measurement because we have considered examples solely from mechanics.
However, it is easy to verify that even if the number of physical parameters
6.4 Proof of Dimensional Formula 161
is increased by other parameters from electrical, heat, chemical and
other phenomena and the number of basic units grows and exceeds
three, the dimensional formula would not be radically changed. Only the
number of factors will increase. Hence, it could be assumed, that the
dimensional formula in the general case would have the form of a power
monomial
[A] = [a
1
]
m
1
.
[a
2
]
m
2
.
[a
3
]
m
3
.
. . . .
.
[a
n
]
m
n
(6.3)
where A is a physical parameter, whose dimension is derived from the
dimensions of basic quantities denoted by a
1
, a
2
, . . . ., a
n
.
6.4
Proof of Dimensional Formula
Let us prove the validity of the dimensional formula (6.3) in the general case.
This formula means that if we change the scale of a basic measurement unit
a
1
by k
1
times, of a
2
by k
2
times, . . . ., of a
n
by k
n
times, the numerical value
of the parameter A would be changed by k
m
1
1
k
m
2
2
. . . k
m
n
n
times, that is the
new value of this parameter A
would be equal to
A
= k
m
1
1
k
m
2
2
. . . k
m
n
n
A.
Let us use this circumstance.
Let there be three researchers B, C and D measuring one and the same
physical parameter A but using different systems of basic measurement
units, namely
B: {a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
};
C:
_
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
_
, so that its basic units are related to the basic units of
researcher B by the formulas
a
1
=
1
a
1
a
2
=
2
a
2
. . . . . . . . . . . .
a
n
=
n
a
n
where k
1
=
1
, k
2
=
2
, . . . , k
n
=
n
;
D:
_
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
_
, so that its basic units are related to the basic units of
researcher C by the formulas
a
1
=
1
a
1
a
2
=
2
a
2
. . . . . . . . . . . .
a
n
=
n
a
n
162 6 Dimensional Theory
where k
1
=
1
, k
2
=
2
, . . . , k
n
=
n
, and to the basic units of researcher B by
the formulas
a
1
=
1
1
a
1
a
2
=
2
2
a
2
. . . . . . . . . . . .
a
n
=
n
n
a
n
where k
1
=
1
1
, k
2
=
2
2
, . . . , k
n
=
n
n
.
It is reasonable to suppose that the values of the parameter A measured by
the three researchers would be different: A measured by B,
`
A
measured by C
and
`
A
measured by D.
Let a function F(k
1
, k
2
, . . . , k
n
) show how manyfold the numerical value
of parameter A in one of the system of basic units would be changed when
passing to another system differing by k
1
, k
2
, . . . , k
n
times from the rst one
in the scales of the basic units, respectively. Then if we go from the units of
researcher B to the units of researcher C, we obtain
A
= F(
1
,
2
, . . . ,
n
) A.
If we then go from the units of researcher C to the units of researcher D,
we get
`
A
= F(
1
,
2
, . . . ,
n
) A
or
`
A
= F(
1
,
2
, . . . ,
n
) F(
1
,
2
, . . . ,
n
) A. (6.4)
On the other hand, if we go at once from the units of researcher B to the units
of the researcher D, bypassing researcher C, we get
`
A
= F(
1
1
,
2
2
, . . . ,
n
n
) A (6.5)
The result should of course be independent of the transition route from
one researcher to another one, thus it must identically satisfy the following
functional equation
F(
1
1
,
2
2
, . . . ,
n
n
) = F(
1
,
2
, . . . ,
n
) F(
1
,
2
, . . . ,
n
) (6.6)
which ought to be valid for any values of the factors
1
,
2
, . . . ,
n
and
1
,
2
, . . . ,
n
.
Find the solution of this equation.
Differentiation of both parts of the identity (6.6) with respect to
i
, where i
may be equal to 1, 2, 3, . . . , n, yields
i
F
i
=
F
i
F(
1
,
2
, . . . ,
n
), where
i
=
i
i
.
6.5 Central Theorem of Dimensional Theory 163
Since this equality also represents an identity, then
1
= 1,
2
= 1, . . . ,
n
= 1.
As a result the following differential equation is obtained
F(
1
,
2
, . . . ,
n
)
i
= m
i
F(
1
,
2
, . . . ,
n
) (6.7)
in which m
i
= F/
i
at
1
= 1,
2
= 1, . . . ,
n
= 1.
The solution of differential equation (6.7) gives the dependence of the sought
function F on parameter
i
. Really, the separation of variables provides
i
(lnF) =
m
i
i
lnF = m
i
ln
i
+c F = K
m
1
i
where the integration constant K (K = e
C
) is a function of the remaining
parameters
j
. Since
i
was any one of the arguments of the function F, the
latter should have the following form
F = K
0
m
1
1
m
2
2
. . .
m
n
n
where K
0
= const. If F(1, 1, . . . , 1) = 1, because the value of the parameter A
is not changed by variation of the basic measurement unit scales, K
0
= 1 and
the function will be
F =
m
1
1
m
2
2
. . .
m
n
n
or redesignating the variables as k
1
, k
2
, . . . , k
n
, one gets
F = k
m
1
1
k
m
2
2
. . . , k
m
n
n
. (6.8)
Hence, when changing the basic unity a
1
by k
1
times, the numerical value of
the parameter A would vary by k
1
m
1
times, when changing the basic unity a
2
by k
2
times the numerical value of the parameter A would vary by k
2
m
2
and so
on. Thus, the parameter A has the dimension
[A] = [a
1
]
m
1
.
[a
2
]
m
2
.
[a
3
]
m
3
.
. . . .
.
[a
n
]
m
n
which proves the dimensional formula (6.3).
6.5
Central Theorem of Dimensional Theory
It is appropriate now to interrupt the description of the theory and to formulate
a question concerning an apparent contradiction due to the use of dimensional
quantities.
Let the mathematical formof a certainphysical phenomenonbe expressed by
the dependence of a parameter A on other parameters a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
governing
this phenomenon as follows
A = f (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
). (6.9)
164 6 Dimensional Theory
For example, the enhancement of pipeline crosssection area S when
producing a positive pressure P depends on the magnitude of this pressure as
well as on the pipeline diameter D, the wall thickness and the elastic modulus
(Youngs modulus) E of the steel from which the pipeline is made. Hence we
have A = S, a
1
= P, a
2
= D, a
3
= , a
4
= E, so that S = f (P, D, , E).
It is evident that the dependence under consideration exists objectively and
should not depend either on the researcher performing the investigation or
on the choice of measurement units being used to calculate the values of the
function, i.e. parameter A, and its arguments (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
).
On the other hand all quantities entering into the dependence (6.9) are
dimensional quantities whose numerical values depend on the choice of
measurement units and consequently on the researcher.
The question arises as to at which point the dependence (6.9) reects the
objectively existing physical regularity when numerical values of the function and its
arguments depend on the researcher.
The answer to this question gives the central theorem of dimensional theory
called the Buckingham theorem. This theorem states: Each dependence
between dimensional quantities reecting an objectively existing physical regularity
could be rewritten in invariant form independent of the choice of measurement units,
namely in the form of a dependence between dimensional complexes composed from
governing parameters.
Now we will prove this theorem, removing the contradiction between the
objective character of any physical regularity and the subjective character
of the choice of measurement units. However, before we do this, we
need rst to dene dimensionallydependent and dimensionallyindependent
quantities.
6.6
DimensionallyDependent and DimensionallyIndependent Quantities
It is said that a quantity a is dimensionallydependent on the quantities
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
when its dimension [a] is expressed through the dimensions
[a
1
], [a
2
], . . . , [a
n
] by the formula
[a] = [a
1
]
m
1
[a
2
]
m
2
. . . [a
n
]
m
n
(6.10)
namely there exist such numbers m
1
, m
2
, . . . , m
n
that the equality (6.10)
is obeyed. If such numbers do not exist, it is said that the quantity a is
dimensionallydependent on the quantities a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
.
It is evident that parameters with dimensions of time t, length l and mass
m are dimensionallyindependent of each other. Parameters with dimensions
of velocity v and density are dimensionallyindependent. On the other hand,
a parameter with the dimension of pressure p is dimensionallydependent on
parameters with dimensions of density and velocity v. It is easy to verify that
6.6 DimensionallyDependent and DimensionallyIndependent Quantities 165
[p] = [][v]
2
[p] = M
1
L
1
T
2
; [] = M
1
L
3
T
0
; [v
2
] = M
0
L
2
T
2
M
1
L
1
T
2
= (M
1
L
3
T
0
)(M
0
L
2
T
2
).
Hence, the ratio p/(v
2
) is dimensionless since the dimensions of the
numerator and denominator coincide.
There is a general algorithm capable of determining whether one or another
parameter is dimensionallydependent or dimensionallyindependent of other
given parameters. For example, let us consider mechanics, in which there
are three basic measurement units: mass (M), length (L), time (T) and it is
required to clarify whether the parameter P with the dimension of pressure
is dimensionallydependent on parameters with the dimension of dynamic
viscosity, g with the dimension of acceleration and D with the dimension of
length. Let us show how to do it.
Write the dimensions of all the parameters under consideration
[p] = M
1
L
1
T
2
,
[] = ML
1
T
1
,
[g] = LT
2
,
[D] = L.
Now let us look for the numbers m
1
, m
2
and m
3
that would obey the equality
[p] = []
m
1
[g]
m
2
[D]
m
3
.
Insertion of the considered dimensions in this equality yields
M
1
L
1
T
2
= (ML
1
T
1
)
m
1
(LT
2
)
m
2
(L)
m
3
.
Equating the exponents of identical basic measurement units in the left and
righthand sides of the last relation, we get a system of three linear equations
1 = m
1
,
1 = m
1
+m
2
+m
3
,
2 = m
1
2m
2
to determine the three unknown quantities m
1
, m
2
, m
3
. This system has a
single solution
m
1
= 1, m
2
=
1
2
, m
3
=
1
2
.
Thus, we obtain
[p] = [][g]
1/2
[D]
1/2
(6.11)
which proves that pressure is a dimensionallydependent parameter in the
system of three parameters viscosity, acceleration, length. From Eq. (6.11)
166 6 Dimensional Theory
it follows that the ratio p/(g
1/2
D
1/2
) is a dimensionless quantity since the
dimensions of the numerator and denominator coincide.
Ina similar manner many examples of the same type could be considered. Let
us focus our attention on the question of the maximal number of dimensionally
dependent quantities for a given set of dimensional parameters {a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
}.
If this set contains n elements, it is always possible to separate from it a
subset containing the maximum possible number k n of dimensionally
independent parameters.
This assertion follows from the known theorem of algebra that states that
from any system of linear equations can be separated the maximum possible
number of linearly independent equations, this number being called the rank
of the system of equations. If we write dimensional formulas for all the
parameters a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
,
[a
1
] = [O
1
]
x
1
[O
2
]
x
2
. . . .[O
k
]
x
k
,
[a
2
] = [O
1
]
y
1
[O
2
]
y
2
. . . .[O
k
]
y
k
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..,
[a
n
] = [O
1
]
z
1
[O
2
]
z
2
. . . .[O
k
]
z
k
where O
1
, O
2
, . . . , O
k
are symbols of basic measurement units in the given
system of units and x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
k
; y
1
, y
2
, . . . , y
k
; z
1
, z
2
, . . . , z
k
are exponents of
this formula, the question of the dimensional dependence (or independence)
of each of themon the other as well as the question of the maximumnumber of
dimensionallyindependent quantities is reduced to solutions of the system of
linear equations
m
1
x
1
+m
2
y
1
+. . . +m
n
z
1
= 0,
m
1
x
2
+m
2
y
2
+. . . +m
n
z
2
= 0,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
m
1
x
k
+m
2
y
k
+. . . +m
n
z
k
= 0
(k equations with n unknowns) with respect to the unknowns m
1
, m
2
, . . . , m
n
and to determine the rank of the system matrix.
In order to separate a subset containing the maximum number of
dimensionallyindependent quantities of the set {a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
} we proceed
as follows. Let us take a quantity a
1
. If it is a dimensional quantity, the next
quantity a
2
is added to it. If a
2
has dimension different from the dimension of
a
1
, the system{a
1
, a
2
} would consist of dimensionallyindependent quantities.
Next a
3
is added to the system of quantities {a
1
, a
2
} a
3
. If the dimension
of a
3
is expressed through {a
1
, a
2
} by the formula (6.10), this quantity is
rejected and instead we take a
4
, which in its turn is tested for independence
from the quantities {a
1
, a
2
}. If the dimension of a
3
is not expressed through
the dimensions of {a
1
, a
2
}, the system {a
1
, a
2
, a
3
} represents a system of
dimensionallyindependent quantities. In such a way all quantities in the set
6.6 DimensionallyDependent and DimensionallyIndependent Quantities 167
{a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
} are considered and gradually the subset containing the number
of dimensionallyindependent quantities is separated.
Note that for one and the same set several different subsets containing
the maximum number of dimensionallyindependent quantities could be
separated. Such subsets by themselves can be different but the number of
elements in them would be equal.
In particular, when the dimensions of all quantities in the set {a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
}
are expressed through the dimensions M, L, T, this set can have no more than
three dimensionallyindependent parameters.
Exercise. It is required to separate the maximum number of dimensionally
independent quantities among a set of the following parameters: p pressure;
density; v velocity; Q volumetric ow rate; kinematic viscosity;
D diameter; g acceleration due to gravity.
Solution. Write the dimensional formulas for all given parameters using the
SI system of basic measurement units
[p] =
kg
ms
2
; [] =
kg
m
3
; [v] =
m
s
; [Q] =
m
3
s
;
[] =
m
2
s
; [g] =
m
s
2
; [D] = m.
Since all the parameters are expressed through mass, length and time, the max
imumnumber of dimensionallyindependent quantities is less than or equal to
three. As the rst quantity, we take D. As the second quantity we take g, because
its dimension contains time and consequently it cannot be expressed through
the dimensions of D. Finally, as the third dimensionallyindependent quantity
we take . It is evident that the dimension of cannot be expressed through
the dimensions of D and g, since it contains mass. Hence, the set {D, g, }
consisting of three parameters represents a basis of the maximum number of
dimensionallyindependent quantities in the given set of parameters.
There are of course other possible subsets of the given set consisting also
of a maximum number of dimensionallyindependent quantities. It is easy
to verify that, for example, the subsets {p, v, D}, {, Q, D} and so on consist
of dimensionallyindependent quantities and the number of dimensionally
independent quantities in each of these subsets is a maximum and equal to
three.
Exercises.
1. It is required to separate a basis consisting of the maximum number of
dimensionallyindependent quantities among a set of the following
parameters: density; frequency of revolutions; D wheel
diameter; Q volumetric ow rate; g acceleration due to gravity.
Answer. For example {, , D}.
168 6 Dimensional Theory
2. It is required to separate a basis consisting of a maximum number of
dimensionallyindependent quantities among a set of the following
parameters: v velocity; S area of the crosssection occupied by uid;
g acceleration due to gravity; D diameter of the pipeline; angle of
inclination of the pipeline axis to the horizontal (dimensional quantity);
kinematic viscosity, m
2
s
1
.
Answer. For example {D, v}.
3. It is required to separate a basis consisting of a maximum number of
dimensionallyindependent quantities among a set of the following
parameters: p pressure; v velocity; temperature; density;
thermal diffusivity factor, W m
1
K
1
; c heat capacity, J kg
1
K
1
).
Answer. For example {, v, c, }.
6.7
Buckingham Theorem
Now we go to the proof of the central theorem of dimensional theory, the
Buckingham theorem, which was partially formulated in Section 6.5.
Let a physical regularity be represented by a function
A = f (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
k
, a
k+1
, . . . , a
n
) (6.12)
of arguments a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
among which can be dimensional as well as
dimensionless parameters.
Let the maximum number of dimensionallyindependent arguments in the
set a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
be k and without disturbing the generality it can be taken that
the rst k arguments are a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
k
. Then the remaining (n k) arguments
of this function a
k+1
, a
k+2
, . . . , a
n
would be dimensionallydependent on the
rst k arguments, that is
[a
k+1
] = [a
1
]
m
1
[a
2
]
m
2
. . . [a
k
]
m
k
,
[a
k+2
] = [a
1
]
n
1
[a
2
]
n
2
. . . [a
k
]
n
k
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[a
n
] = [a
1
]
p
1
[a
2
]
p
2
. . . [a
k
]
p
k
where m
i
, n
i
, . . . , p
i
are real numbers. Thus, the relations
1
=
a
k+1
a
m
1
1
a
m
2
2
a
m
k
k
,
2
=
a
k+2
a
n
1
1
a
n
2
2
a
n
k
k
, (6.13)
nk
=
a
n
a
p
1
1
a
p
2
2
a
p
k
k
6.7 Buckingham Theorem 169
are dimensionless parameters since the dimensions of the quantities in the
numerators and denominators of these fractions are identical.
The dimension of the quantity A should also be expressed through the
dimensions of the arguments a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
k
. If it is not expressed through
these dimensions, it would also not be expressed through the dimensions of
all the quantities a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
. Hence, there should exist a relation
[A] = [a
1
]
q
1
[a
2
]
q
2
. . . [a
k
]
q
k
meaning that the ratio
=
A
a
q
1
1
a
q
2
2
a
q
k
k
(6.14)
has to be dimensionless.
Let us revert to the dependence (6.12). This dependence may be rewritten as
A
a
q
1
1
a
q
2
2
a
q
k
k
=
f
_
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
k
,
a
k+1
a
m
1
1
a
m
2
2
a
m
k
k
, . . . ,
a
n
a
p
i
1
a
p
2
2
a
p
k
k
_
where
f represents a function resulting from f after redenition of its
arguments. This dependence with (6.13) and (6.14) can be represented as
follows
=
f (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
k
,
1
,
2
, . . . ,
nk
). (6.15)
If we now arbitrarily and independently from each other vary the numerical
values of the arguments a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
k
by going from one system of basic
measurement units to another one, the numerical values of the parameters
and
1
,
2
, . . . ,
nk
would not be changed because they are dimensionless
quantities. From here it follows that the function cannot depend on its
rst k arguments a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
k
, since the dependence (6.15) would have the
following simple form
=
f (
1
,
2
, . . . ,
nk
). (6.16)
Thus, we have shown that any physical dependence between dimensional
quantities of the type (6.12) will be invariant, that is, independent of the
choice of measurement units, of the form (6.16) between dimensionless
complexes made up from arguments of the dependence under consideration.
The number of these complexes would be less than the number of arguments
of the initial dependence by a number equal to the maximum number of
dimensionallyindependent quantities among these arguments.
Exercise 1. The augmentation of the crosssection area S of a steel pipeline
when setting up in it excess pressure P depends on the value of this pressure,
the diameter D of the pipeline, the thickness of the pipeline wall and the
elastic modulus (Youngs modulus) E of the steel fromwhich the pipe is made.
170 6 Dimensional Theory
Using the theorem, it is required to write this dependence in dimensionless
form and to clarify how many dimensionless parameters determine it.
Solution. The dependence to be sought can be written in a general form
as S = f (P, D, , E). The dimensions of the arguments of this dependence
in the SI system are: [P] = kg m
1
s
2
; [D] = m; [] = m; [E] = kg m
1
s
2
.
Among these there are only two dimensionallyindependent quantities, for
example D and E. Consequently, the number of arguments in the dependence
under consideration may be reduced to two. Thus we have:
= S/D
2
;
1
= P/E;
2
= /D;
=
f (
1
,
2
) or S = D
2
f (P/E, /D).
Hence, the dimensional analysis has shown that in the considered dependence
there are only two dimensionless complexes P/E and /D instead of four
dimensional arguments.
Moreover, if additionally we invoke the reasoning that the variation of
pipeline crosssection area S should be proportional to P/E (the function,
f ,
could be expanded in a Taylor series in the vicinity of the point
1
= 0 leaving
in the expansion only the rst term, because S = f (0,
2
) = 0 at P = 0 and
the ratio P/E is very small: P 27 10
6
a; E
= 2 10
11
a, and inversely
proportional to /D( 510 mm; D 300100 mm), the dependence under
study could be written as
S = D
2
P
E
1
/D
f
0
=
f
0
D
3
P
E
where
f
0
is a certain constant. Hence, in the dependence under study there is
only one constant left to be obtained. Theoretical investigation shows that the
constant
f
0
is equal to /4
= 0.785.
Exercise 2. It is known that the laminar ow of a viscous incompressible
uid in a circular pipe loses stability and becomes turbulent. It is required
to investigate the dependence of the critical ow velocity v
cr
at which this
transitionhappens, taking the critical velocity as a functionof three parameters:
pipeline diameter d, dynamic viscosity and density of the uid. In other
words it is required to investigate the dependence v
cr
= f (d, , ).
Solution. In the given case A = v
cr
, a
1
= d; a
2
= ; a
3
= ; n = 3. The di
mensions of the parameters in the SI system are: [v
cr
] = m s
1
; [d] = m;
[] = kg m
1
s
1
; [] = kg m
3
. From this it follows that all three arguments
of the function are dimensionallyindependent, i.e. k = n = 3, and the number
of arguments in the dimensionless writing of the function under study may
be reduced by three, i.e. to 0.
6.7 Buckingham Theorem 171
The single dimensionless complex can be written as = v
cr
d/(/).
The sought dependence then takes the especially simple form
cr
=
v
cr
d
(/)
= const. (6.17)
The ratio / is called the kinematic viscosity of the uid and is denoted
by ([] = L
2
/T). In the SI system the unit of kinematic viscosity is
stokes (St); 1 St = 10
4
m
2
s
1
; the viscosity of water is 0.01 St = 1 cSt
(centistokes) = 10
6
m
2
s
1
.
The dimensionless parameter
cr
determining the transition of laminar
ow to turbulent ow is called the critical Reynolds number and is denoted by
Re
cr
. The theory and experiments have shown that Re
cr
= 2300. At Re < Re
cr
the ow is laminar whereas at Re > Re
cr
it is turbulent.
Exercise 3. A ball of mass m and diameter D is dropped in a viscous uid with
density and viscosity under the action of gravity (gravity acceleration g)
with constant velocity v. The dependence of this velocity on the governing
parameters: v = f (m, D, , , g) is to be investigated. Using the theorem it
is required to write the sought dependence in dimensional form.
Solution. Dimensions of the parameters (n = 5), in this problem(A = v, a
1
=
m, a
2
= D, a
3
= , a
4
= , a
5
= g), in the SI system are [v] = m s
1
; [m] = kg;
[D] = m; [] = kg m
3
; [] = m
2
s
1
; [g] = m s
2
. The maximum number of
dimensionallyindependent parameters among the arguments is equal to
three (as such parameters can be taken for example , D and g), the number
of arguments in the sought dimensionless writing may be reduced to two
(5 3 = 2).
Setting up dimensionless complexes ,
1
and
2
=
v
g
1/2
D
1/2
,
1
=
m
D
3
,
2
=
g
1/2
D
3/2
,
the sought dependence can be represented as follows
= f (
1
,
2
)
or
v =
_
gD f
_
m/D
3
, /
_
gD
3
_
.
It is seen that the dependence contains in fact not ve dimensional arguments,
but only two dimensionless complexes.
Exercises.
1. Using the theorem, it is required to write in dimensional form the
dependence of the resistance force F experienced by a submarine
172 6 Dimensional Theory
moving in water (density , kinematic viscosity ) with velocity v, if we
accept that this force depends also on the diameter of the submarine
crosssection D and the submarine length L, that is F = f (v, , , D, L).
Answer. F/(v
2
D
2
) =
f (vD/, D/L).
2. Using the theorem, it is required to write in dimensional form the
dependence of the oscillation period T of a mathematical pendulum
(massive point on nonstretchable line), if the mass of the latter is m,
the length of the line is L and the acceleration due to gravity is g, that is
T = f (m, L, g).
Answer. T/
_
L/g = const.
3. Using the theorem, it is required to write in dimensional form the
dependence of the time T of complete outow of uid (density and
viscosity ) from a tank car with diameter D and length L. The outow
happens under gravity (acceleration due to gravity g) through the drain
system with ow area s located at the tank bottom. The sought function
is T = f (, , g, D, L, s).
Answer. T/
_
D/g =
f (
gD
3/2
/, L/D, s/D
2
).
4. Using the theorem, it is required to write in dimensional form the
same dependence as in the previous exercise with the single distinction
that the outow happens not only under the action of gravity but also
under the action of positive pressure p created inside the tank. The
sought function is T = f (p, , , g, D, L, s).
Answer. T/
_
D/g =
f (
gD
3/2
/, p/(gD), L/D, s/D
2
).
5. Using the theorem, it is required to write in dimensional form the
dependence of the volumetric ow rate Q of a uid with density and
viscosity in an inclined pipeline (inclination angle ) having
crosssection area S
0
, if this ow represents voluntary (gravity) ow.
The ow happens under the action of the gravity force projection
g sin, the area of the pipeline crosssection lled with uid is S < S
0
.
The sought function is Q = f (g sin, S, S
0
, , ).
Answer. Q/[S
5/4
0
(g sin)
1/2
] =
f (S/S
0
, (g sin)
1/2
S
3/4
0
/).
173
7
Physical Modeling of Phenomena
The main advantage of the dimensional theory is that it opens up possibilities
to use the similarity laws of physical phenomena and allows modeling of these
phenomena through replacing them in nature by similar phenomena on a
reduced or enlarged scale under experimental conditions.
7.1
Similarity of Phenomena and the Principle of Modeling
In order to elucidate the essence of modeling, let us consider several examples.
Assume that it is required to calculate the radius of a circle inscribed in a
triangle whose sides are very large, for example 1, 2 and 3 km. This problem
may be easily solved by simple algebraic calculation. However, if it was
necessary to perform this measurement experimentally, one could proceed
as follows: on a sheet of paper draw a triangle on a reduced scale similar to
the given triangle, for example a triangle with sides 10, 20 and 30 cm. The
similarity factor of this triangle to the fullscale one would be equal to 10 000.
Inscribing a circle in the depicted triangle, it is easy to measure its radius. Then
the obtained number multiplied by the similarity factor, i.e. 10 000, yields the
sought radius of the circle inscribed in the fullscale triangle. Of course in the
case under consideration we are dealing with a simple geometric similarity and
geometric modeling but it claries the essence of modeling in the general case.
Let it be required to determine experimentally the dump time of a tank of
complex geometrical form and very large size. In order to solve this problem it
is decided to make a copy of the tank on a reduced scale, ll it with some model
liquid and then measure the dump time. The question arises as to whether
it is enough to provide merely geometric similarity of fullscale and model
tanks and to use in experiments the same liquid or is it necessary to replace
the liquid with another one with specially selected properties. Moreover, is it
necessary to determine the ratio between the measured dump time and that
actually taking place in the fullscale object. The answers to these questions
should give the theory of simulation (modeling).
Finally, one more example from engineering practice. It is required to clarify
whether the river dam will withstand the dynamic head of ooding water.
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
174 7 Physical Modeling of Phenomena
For this purpose a reduced size copy of the dam is made, mounted in an
experimental channel in a hydrological laboratory. It is evident that if the dam
were made from the same material as in the natural conditions, i.e. from
ferroconcrete, the dam would withstand any water head. It is necessary to
determine the velocity of water in the experimental channel in order to model
the river head. When reducing the linear sizes of the considered phenomenon,
it is insufcient to provide geometric similarity. It is necessary especially to
change the scales of many other parameters of the phenomenon.
Similar problems take place in different elds of engineering: hydraulic
engineering, aviation, transport, the storage of oil and gas and so on.
Denition. Two phenomena are called similar when, from the given parame
ters of one phenomenon, analogous parameters of another phenomenon are
determined by simple recalculation of the same kind as for transition fromone
system of measurement units to another. Each of such phenomena is called a
model of another phenomenon from this set of phenomena.
7.2
Similarity Criteria
Let us determine the necessary and sufcient conditions of two phenomena
to be similar. Such conditions are called similarity criteria.
Let a phenomenon be such that a certain physical quantity A is determined
by a set of physical parameters a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
, so that
A = f (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
). (7.1)
The model under consideration consists of the dependence of an analogous
physical quantity A
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
differ from those determining the quantity A. Thus, we
have
A
= f
_
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
_
. (7.2)
In accordance with the Itheorem both dependences (7.1) and (7.2) may be
rewritten in dimensionless form as follows
= f
_
1
,
2
, . . . ,
nk
_
,
(7.3)
= f
_
1
,
2
, . . . ,
nk
_
,
where k is the number of dimensionallyindependent parameters among the
quantities a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
.
Relations (7.3) show that if the parameters a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
are chosen such
that the following conditions are obeyed
1
=
1
,
2
=
2
, . . . ,
n
=
n
. (7.4)
7.3 Modeling of Viscous Fluid Flow in a Pipe 175
Then the following condition would also be satised
= . (7.5)
The value of the parameter A could be found by simple recalculation of the
parameter A
through
A = A
a
m
1
1
a
m
2
2
a
m
k
k
a
m
1
1
a
m
2
2
a
m
k
k
(7.6)
and the considered phenomena would, by denition, be similar.
Thus, necessary and sufcient conditions of two phenomena to be
similar are equalities of the dimensionless complexes determining these
phenomena, namely conditions (7.4). Hence, the dimensionless parameters
1
,
2
, . . . ,
nk
are the sought similarity criteria.
7.3
Modeling of Viscous Fluid Flow in a Pipe
As an example of two similar phenomena, consider the modeling of the
stationary ow of a viscous incompressible uid in a model pipe with reduced
size as compared to the fullscale one.
In accordance with the results given in Section 1.6 this dependence is
p
L
d
v
2
2
= (Re, ).
Denote through
, v
, d
, L
, p
v
2
2
= (Re
).
The parameters of the model pipe and the ow regime in it are chosen to obey
the relations
Re = Re
, =
(7.7)
or
vd
=
v
d
=
.
In so doing we ensure the equality
p
v
2
2
=
p
L
d
v
2
2
176 7 Physical Modeling of Phenomena
or
p = p
L
L
_
2
. (7.8)
If we now take the ratio d
= v
d
d
=
d
d
. (7.9)
Formulas (7.9) state that the similarity in the case under consideration is
afforded by fullling two conditions: equality of the Reynolds numbers and
equality of the wall relative roughness. Consequently, the Reynolds number
and relative roughness serve as similarity criteria for the problem on the ow
of a viscous uid in a pipe.
7.4
Modeling Gravity Fluid Flow
This type of owhas already beenconsidered inSection 3.7. We nowset a ques
tiononthe physical modeling of this process. Let the owrate Q of the uid ina
pipe inclined to the horizontal at anangle be given. It is required to determine
the depth h of the uid lling the pipe crosssection, that is, the function
h = f (Q, d, g sin, , ).
Rewrite the dependence to be sought in dimensionless form using the 
theorem. Among ve arguments of this function there are two dimensionally
independent, for example , d, therefore in dimensionless form the number
of independent arguments will be reduced from ve to three.
h
d
=
f
_
(Q/d
2
) d
,
_
gd sin d
d
_
.
It is more convenient in this dependence to use the ratio of the rst argument
to the second one instead of the second argument. As a result we have
h
d
=
f
1
_
(Q/d
2
) d
,
(Q/d
2
)
_
gd sin
,
d
_
.
In the rst argument it is easy to recognize the Reynolds number Re of the ow
calculated from the velocity v = Q/d
2
and the kinematic viscosity = /,
so that the rst similarity criteria would be
1
= Re. The second argument
7.4 Modeling Gravity Fluid Flow 177
is called the Froude number, Fr. The Froude number is, in general, equal to
v
2
/gd, thus in our case we are dealing with a Froude number calculated from
the velocity Q/d
2
and the component of the acceleration due togravity g sin.
Nevertheless, the second similarity criterion can be taken as
2
= Fr. Finally,
the third argument of this dependence
3
= is the relative roughness of the
pipes internal wall surface. Hence, the dependence under study is
h
d
=
f (Re, Fr, ). (7.10)
To model this phenomenon it is necessary to provide the following similarity
conditions
Re
= Re
Q
=
Q
d
Q
= Q
_
_
d
d
_
,
Fr
= Fr
Q
2
g sin
d
5
=
Q
2
g sin d
5
,
Q
= Q
_
sin
sin
_
d
d
_
5/2
, (7.11)
=
d
=
d
d
.
If these conditions are obeyed, the depth h to which the pipe is lled can be
calculated using the formula
h
=
h
d
h = h
d
d
. (7.12)
In order for the rst two conditions to be consistent, the following equalities
should be true
_
_
d
d
_
=
_
sin
sin
_
d
d
_
5/2
or
sin
= sin
_
_
2
_
d
d
_
3
. (7.13)
If in the model the same liquid as in the fullscale pipe is used, then a different
slope of the pipe should be used in the model, it must be chosen in accordance
with relation (7.13). If
= (d
/d)
3/2
.
For example, let the linear size of the experimental pipe be 1/5th that
of the fullscale pipe, that is, d
of the model
liquid be ve times less than the viscosity of the natural liquid. Then
the conditions for the experiment should be: Q
= 1/25 5
3
sin = 5 sin;
, that is,
h = 5 h
.
In experiments it is not always possible to obey all the required similarity
conditions, therefore only the main conditions are satised. If, for example, in
a given case a ow of diesel fuel with viscosity 3 cSt is to be investigated, then
benzene with viscosity
=0.6 cSt could be taken for the model. Reduction of
the ow rate and enhancement of the pipe slope (at small values of ) present
no special problems. It is far more complicated to fulll the last similarity
condition and so sometimes it is neglected.
7.5
Modeling the Fluid Outow from a Tank
Let there be a railway tank with a boiler diameter D and length L or, in general,
a tank of arbitrary geometric form intended to transport oil with density and
kinematic viscosity . The tank is provided with bottom drain equipment with
the area of the owing crosssection S. It is required to design an experimental
installation to model the process and to investigate the dependence of the time
T of the oil outow on the parameters of the liquid and tank.
The dependence under study T = f (D, L, , , g, S) in dimensionless form
is written as
T
_
D/g
=
f
_
L
D
,
S
D
2
,
_
gD D
_
.
Therefore the similarity criteria are:
1
=
L
D
,
2
=
S
D
2
the criteria of geometric similarity;
3
=
g
1/2
D
3/2
=
g
1/2
D
3/2
,
where the superscripts prime refer to the model parameters. The last relation
shows that the sufcient condition for the dynamic similarity of the model
7.6 Similarity Criteria for the Operation of Centrifugal Pumps 179
tank to the fullscale one is the condition
=
_
D
D
_
3/2
.
If this condition is fullled, then T
/
_
D
/g = T/
_
D/g or
T = T
_
D
D
. (7.14)
From this follows, in particular, that for modeling of oil outow on the
installation with sizes distinct from the fullscale tank, it is necessary to
use a liquid with velocity also differing from the oil under study. Let the
experimental tank be a cylindrical tank 10 times smaller than the fullscale
one, that is D/D
= 10. Then
= 0.0316 , i.e. the kinematic viscosity of the
liquid used in the experiments, should be 32 times lower than the viscosity
of the oil being modeled. If this oil has sufciently high viscosity then it is
easy to select such a liquid, otherwise the problem is complicated. The time
T of oil outow is determined by the time T
.
7.6
Similarity Criteria for the Operation of Centrifugal Pumps
As already described in Section 4.2.1 pumps are equipment to make liquids
ow against a pressure force, that is, in the direction from lesser pressure p
suc
at the suction line to the greater pressure p
d
at the line of discharge under
pressure. Of course, it is possible only by the work of external energy sources
(mechanical, thermal, electrical and so on).
Centrifugal pumps represent a variety of pump in which the centrifugal
force, acting on uid particles rotating in the impeller, makes the liquid ow
against the pressure. The propulsive device of the impeller or, as it is called,
the pump drive, can be an internal combustion engine, vaporgas turbine or
any other source of rotational moment (see Fig. 4.1).
The volumetric uid ow rate Q (or, as it is called, the feed) depends on
the pressure drop p = p
d
p
suc
which the liquid should overcome at its ow
from the impeller center to the periphery. The greater the pressure drop the
lesser is the ow rate of the liquid.
If the area of the outlet branch pipe at the discharge line is given by the
pump design, the uid velocity Q/ is a function of the impeller diameter
D
im
(centrifugal pumps may have accessory impellers), the angular velocity
of the impeller rotation (centrifugal pumps may be supplied with equipment
to change ), the density and viscosity of the uid to be pumped, so
that
Q
= f (p, D
im
, , , ). (7.15)
180 7 Physical Modeling of Phenomena
The dependence (7.15) is called the (Q p) characteristic of the cen
trifugal pump and is to a large extent determined by its constructive
peculiarities.
Among the arguments of the function (7.15) there are three dimensionally
independent parameters, for example D
im
, , , therefore its dimensionless
form could be reduced to
Q/
D
im
=
f
_
p
2
D
im
2
,
D
im
D
im
_
.
The last argument represents none other than a quantity inversely proportional
to the Reynolds number Re. This parameter reects the effect of viscosity on
the characteristic of the pump operation.
If we introduce into consideration the quantity H = p/g (the differential
head of the pump) and solve Eq. (7.15) with respect to this head, we get the
socalled (Q H) characteristic of the pump
H =
2
D
im
2
F
_
Q
D
im
,
D
im
2
_
. (7.16)
Here the constants and g are taken into account by the formof the function F.
It is interesting to note that the density of the liquid to be pumped does
not enter into the dependence (7.16), i.e. the form of the latter is true for the
pump operated by liquid of any density. As for the inuence of the viscosity
on the form of (Q H) characteristic of centrifugal pumps, it is small.
Reynolds numbers D
im
2
/ have rather large values (10
6
) due to the high
rotationvelocity of the pumpimpeller ( 300 s
1
, = 2 n; n 3000 rpm;
D
im
0.20.7 m; v 110 10
6
m
2
s
1
), therefore in practice their variation
only slightly affects the (Q H) characteristic of the centrifugal pump and
thus the inuence of the pumping uid viscosity is also small. The latter
conclusion is of course true only up to certain limits.
If we ignore the inuence of pumping uid viscosity on the (Q H)
characteristic of the centrifugal pump, then it can be represented in the simple
form
H =
2
D
im
2
F
_
Q
D
_
. (7.17)
From the derived formulas some practically important conclusions follow:
0
_
2
F
Q
_
; (7.18)
_
D
im0
D
im
Q
_
; (7.19)
0
D
im0
_
2
F
0
D
im0
D
im
Q
_
. (7.20)
Rules (7.18)(7.20) allow us to change the (Q H) characteristic of
centrifugal pumps by changing the rotation speed or/and the impeller
diameter.
In many cases, as has been said, the (Q H) characteristics of centrifugal
pumps are represented in the form of a parabola
H = F
(Q) = a b Q
2
(7.21)
where a and b are approximation factors. If we now change the impeller
diameter from D
im0
to D
im
and the rotation frequency from
0
to , the
(Q H) characteristic of the same pump takes the form
H = a
2
D
im
2
2
0
D
2
im0
b Q
2
, (7.22)
that is the parabola graphic in the plane (Q, H) undergoes a displacement
along the Haxis by
a
_
1
2
D
im
2
2
0
D
im0
2
_
.
Exercise. The diameter of a centrifugal pump impeller is 490 mm and the
impeller velocity is 3200 rpm. The pump has the following characteristic
H = 331 0.451 10
4
Q
2
(H in m, Q in m
3
h
1
). It is required to determine the characteristic of the
same pump if we reduce the impeller diameter to 480 mm and the number of
revolutions per minute to 3000.
Solution. In accordance with Eq. (7.22) the sought characteristic has the
following form
H = 331
_
3000 480
3200 490
_
2
0.451 10
4
Q
2
= 279 0.451 10
4
Q
2
.
182 7 Physical Modeling of Phenomena
Exercises.
1. How does the (Q H) characteristic of a centrifugal pump vary if the
frequency speed of the impeller is increased from 3000 to 3200 rpm?
The given characteristic of the pump is: H = 360 0.42 10
4
Q
2
,
where H is measured in m, Q in m
3
h
1
.
Answer. H = 410 0.42 10
4
Q
2
.
2. How does the (Q H) characteristic of a centrifugal pump vary if the
frequency speed of the impeller is increased from 3000 to 3200 rpm?
The given characteristic of the pump is: H = 360 0.42 10
4
Q
1.75
,
where H is measured in m, Q in m
3
h
1
.
Answer. H = 410 0.375 10
4
Q
1.75
.
3. How does the (Q H) characteristic of a centrifugal pump vary if the
impeller diameter is reduced from 480 to 470 mm. The given
characteristic of the pump is: H = 360 0.42 10
4
Q
1.75
, where
H is measured in m, Q in m
3
h
1
.
Answer. H = 345 0.436 10
4
Q
1.75
.
183
8
Dimensionality and Similarity in Mathematical Modeling
of Processes
In the previous chapter we have seen that dimensionless similarity criteria
1
,
2
, . . . ,
nk
appear in the considered problems after xation of a
set of governing parameters a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
by way of heuristic reasoning.
Hence, it is by no means necessary to know which equations satisfy these
parameters and with which physical laws they are connected. It is enough
to know only the dimensions of these parameters in order to set up
dimensionless similarity criteria by which the class of considered phenomena
is characterized.
8.1
Origination of Similarity Criteria in the Equations of a Mathematical Model
A somewhat different approach takes place in the mathematical modeling of
phenomena in construction systems of algebraic or differential equations with
initial and boundary conditions in which we would like to see an adequate
model of the considered phenomena or process. Dimensionless similarity
parameters originate in these models in a strictly specied way of bringing
model equations to a dimensionless form.
Let us illustrate the afore said by a simple example. It is known that
onedimensional oscillations of a pont weight with mass m on an elastic
spring around an equilibrium position (x = 0) are described by an ordinary
differential equation
m
d
2
x
dt
2
= k x (8.1)
where x(t) is the linear dependence of the weight coordinate on time and k is
the restoring force factor. The initial, at t = 0, position and velocity x(0) = v
0
of the weight are also given, that is the mathematical model of the process.
Let us bring the model equation to dimensionless form. First we introduce
dimensionless variables
x =
x
L
and
x =
x
v
0
, (L = 0, v
0
= 0).
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
184 8 Dimensionality and Similarity in Mathematical Modeling of Processes
Then the dimensionless time
t = t/(L/v
0
) is determined. In new variables the
differential equation transforms to
m
L d
2
x
(L/v
0
)
2
d
t
2
= k (L x)
or
d
2
x
d
t
2
=
kL
2
mv
2
0
x. (8.2)
The initial conditions take the form x(0) = 1;
x = 1.
Hence, the oscillation of different weights with different mass on springs
with different elasticity caused by different initial conditions is in fact
described by a mathematical model containing only one dimensionless parameter
= kL
2
/mv
2
0
. If in two situations this parameter appears to be identical, the
solutions of Eq. (8.2) are indistinguishable and consequently we have to deal
with similar situations.
It is easy to verify that the solution of the Eq. (8.2) is
x(
t) = cos
_
t
_
+
1
sin
_
t
_
.
Returning to dimensional quantities, we obtain
x(t) = L cos
__
k
m
t
_
+
_
m
k
v
0
cos
__
k
m
t
_
.
As is known
_
k/m = is the frequency of harmonic oscillations of the weight
and the amplitude h is the square root of the sum of the squared factors of the
sine and cosine
h =
_
L
2
+
mv
2
0
k
= L
_
1 +
1
.
8.2
OneDimensional NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid
in a Pipeline
The theory of onedimensional nonstationary ows of a slightly compressible
uid in a pipeline was considered in detail in Sections 5.15.3. The main
equations modeling such ows are
_
_
p
t
+c
2
(v)
x
= 0
_
v
t
+v
v
x
_
=
p
x
(Re, )
d
v
2
2
(8.3)
8.2 OneDimensional NonStationary Flow of a Slightly Compressible Fluid in a Pipeline 185
in which the quantity
c =
1
_
0
K
+
0
d
E
(8.4)
is called the velocity of the pressure wave propagations in pipeline.
Consider a certain problem on the calculation of nonstationary ow of a
slightly compressible uid in pipeline taking Eqs. (8.3) as the mathematical
model of this ow.
Problem. Let there be at the pipeline section 0 x L stationary uid
ow with velocity v
0
. However, starting from some time a valve located
at the end crosssection of the pipeline x = L begins to vary its opening
level with frequency . It is required to reveal the similarity criteria of this
phenomenon.
Solution. Introduce the following dimensionless variables marked by the
horizontal bar at the top
t =
1
t, x = L x, v = v
0
v, =
0
, p = p
0
p.
Equations (8.3) in the new variables take the form
_
_
p
0
1/
t
+c
2
0
v
0
L
(v)
x
= 0
0
_
v
0
1/
t
+
v
2
0
L
v
v
x
_
=
p
0
L
p
x
(Re, )
d
0
v
2
0
v
2
2
If now we take p
0
=
0
v
0
c, the system of equations simplies to
_
_
L
c
p
t
+
(v)
x
= 0
L
c
v
t
+
v
0
c
v
v
x
=
p
x
(Re, ) L
d
v
0
c
v
2
2
(8.5)
From Eqs. (8.5) it is seen that there are three dimensionless criteria governing
the class of problems under consideration and differing from each other only
by the numerical values of the parameters entering in these equations
1
=
v
0
c
;
2
=
L
c
;
3
=
L
d
.
The rst of these criteria is called the Mach number. The ratio of the rst
criterion to the second one
1
/
2
= v
0
/(L) is called the Strouchal number
St = v
0
/(L).
The Mach number of the uid or gas ow in a main pipeline is, as a rule,
very small (for example, for uid ow M 0.001; for gas ow M 0.03),
186 8 Dimensionality and Similarity in Mathematical Modeling of Processes
therefore it often turns out that the second term in the lefthand side of
the last equation (8.5) can be neglected in comparison with the rst one.
If the ow velocity v
0
is comparable to the sound velocity c, as it may be,
for example, at the gas outow from a pipeline through a short nozzle,
the second term would become almost the primary term and could not be
ignored.
The Strouchal number characterizes the degree of process nonstationarity.
If this number is great (St = v
0
/L 1, that is, the characteristic time of
the process 1/ is large compared to L/v
0
the time of uid particle passage
through the pipeline), the nonstationarity degree is small and the process is
close to stationary. If the Strouchal number is small (that is the frequency
of the process is large compared to v
0
/L) then the nonstationarity of the
process cannot be neglected.
The third criterion L/d does not have a special name. It characterizes the
magnitude of the resistance to the uid friction in the pipeline.
8.3
Gravity Fluid Flow in a Pipeline
Consider nowproblems connected with thegravity owof incompressible uid
in a pipeline (see Sections 3.7 and 7.3). Earlier we were dealing with stationary
gravity uid ow, that is with ow in which all the hydrodynamic parameters
at each pipeline crosssection remained constant, now we will consider the
general case of nonstationary gravity ow in a descending pipeline section
characterized by the slope angle to the horizontal ( < 0). The differential
equations describing such ow are
_
_
S
t
+
vS
x
= 0
vS
t
+
x
_
v
2
S +g cos
_
S
0
Sdh
_
= gSsin
gScos
C
Sh
2
R
h
vv
Here S(x, t) is the area of the pipeline crosssection lled by uid; R
h
(S) the
hydraulic radius of the ow; h(S) the depthof uid inthe pipeline crosssection;
C
Sh
the Chezy factor (see Section 3.7).
Let v
0
be the uid velocity at the inlet to the descending section of the
pipeline and
=
0
= const. Let us introduce the following dimensionless
parameters
x =
x
d
;
t = t
v
0
d
; v =
v
v
0
;
S =
S
S
0
=
S
(d
2
/4)
;
R
h
=
R
h
d
= 0.25 (1 sin/) (see Eq. (3.46));
C
Sh
=
C
Sh
g
.
8.4 Pipeline Transportation of Oil Products. Batching 187
With new variables the system of equations describing gravity uid ow
transforms to
_
0
S
0
v
0
d
_
t
+
v
S
x
_
= 0
0
v
0
2
S
0
d
_
v
t
+
x
_
v
2
S +
gd cos
v
0
2
_
S
0
Sd
h
__
=
0
gS
0
Ssin
0
g cos S
0
v
0
2
gd
S v v
R
h
C
Sh
or, after simplication
_
t
+
v
S
x
= 0
v
t
+
x
_
v
2
S +
gd cos
v
0
2
_
S
0
Sd
h
_
=
gd sin
v
0
2
S
v v
Scos
R
h
C
Sh
.
(8.6)
It is seen that, in the system of equations (8.6), besides the dimensionless
angle (
1
= ) there is one more dimensionless complex
2
= gd/v
0
2
or
v
0
/
_
gd. We already met the latter one in Section 7.4; it is the socalled Froude
number
Fr =
v
0
_
gd
. (8.7)
Thus, the Froude similarity criterion (Froude number) is obtained in the
mathematical problem on gravity uid ow in a pipeline, which was
earlier derived on the basis of general reasoning on the similarity of such
ows.
8.4
Pipeline Transportation of Oil Products. Batching
At the present time light oil products (benzenes, kerosenes, diesel fuels and
others) are pumped by the batching method (Ishmuchamedov et al., 1999).
In oil treatment the factory plants simultaneously produce a plethora of oil
products, mostly the socalled light oil products and, above all, motor oils.
As a result of further compounding (mixing of two or several oil products to
prepare fuels with given properties) there are obtained different sorts of oil
products ready for use. It is evident that the building of a separate pipeline
for each of produced oil products would be unprotable, therefore most of the
oil products are transported by one and the same pipeline, pumping them in
series one after another (batching).
188 8 Dimensionality and Similarity in Mathematical Modeling of Processes
8.4.1
Principle of Oil Product Batching by Direct Contact
The essence of batching by direct contact consists in the different oil products
being combined in separate batches, each of several thousand or even ten
thousand tons, which are pumped into the pipeline in series, one after
another, and transported to the user. In this way each batch displaces the
previous one and is, in turn, displaced by the following batch. It is as if the
oilpipeline along its full length were lled by different oil products arranged
in a chain and contacting with each other at the places where one batch comes
to an end and another begins. Thus, the key advantage in the batching of oil
products is that different sorts of oil products are pumped not along different
pipes but along one and the same pipe.
However, despite all the advantages of batching it has one signicant
disadvantage consisting in the formation of a mixture of different oil products
by their mutual displacement in the pipeline. Although the mixing of similar
oil products, for example benzenes of different sorts or diesel fuels of different
sorts, threatens little the quality of the resulting oil product, because oil
products relating to one group of fuels are more compatible than oil products
relating to different groups, the mixing of dissimilar oil products, for example
benzenes, kerosenes and diesel fuels threatens signicantly the quality of the
oil products. Nevertheless, batching with direct contact of the oil products
has received wide recognition because the quantity of mixture forming in the
contact zones of batches moving in series is relativey small compared to the
large volume of transported fuels and the whole mixture can be decomposed
into the initial oil products, preserving the quality of the latter.
The mixture formed in the contact zone of oil products is caused by physical
processes inherent to uid ow in the pipeline and to displacment of one oil
product by another. If contacting oil products displaced each other as rigid
bars with plane interface boundaries, mixing in the contacting zone would
of course be absent. However, uid oil products are not rigid bodies and
mutual displacement happens nonuniformly over the pipeline crosssection.
The velocities of uid particles at different points of the pipeline crosssection
are distinct. At the pipeline wall they vanish whereas at the pipeline axis they
achieve a maximumvalue. Thus the displacement of one oil product by another
occurs more at the pipeline center than at the pipeline wall. At each instance
of time the wedge behind the moving oil product becomes as if penetrated
into the leading uid, the penetration happening more when the prole of the
average velocity is more stretched along the pipeline axis. There takes place
socalled convection (or convective diffusion) of the impurity of one oil product
into another one owing to, and together with, uid layers transferring relative
to each other.
Nonuniformity of the uid average velocity distribution at the pipeline cross
section is not the only reason for mixture formation of oil products in the
zone of their contact. Light oil products are, as a rule, pumped in a turbulent
8.4 Pipeline Transportation of Oil Products. Batching 189
ow regime in which the uid particles do not move parallel the pipeline walls
but execute chaotic turbulent motion, as can be seen in smoke jets gushing
from heat plants. In turbulent ows there exists intensive mixing of different
particles over the pipeline crosssection caused by velocity uctuations and the
chaotic motion of particles. This process is called turbulent diffusion. It mixes
over the pipeline crosssection the edge of the displacing uid as well as the
rest of the uid to be displaced, causing their more or less uniformdistribution
in each pipeline crosssection.
Hence, the mixing process of oil products displacing and to be displaced
happens in accordance with the following scheme: the edge of the oil product
moving behind penetrates the oil product moving in front while processes of
turbulent diffusionmix the penetrated impurity over the pipeline crosssection.
Since the concentration of the displacing oil product at the pipeline axis is
greater than at the wall, transport of the displacing oil product into the region
occupied by oil product to be displaced occurs. Conversely, back transport of
the oil product to be displaced into the region of the displacing oil product
also occurs. These processes are inseparable. They operate permanently and
simultaneously over the course of the displacement time, determining thus
the intensity of the longitudinal mixing, the volume and length of the resulting
mixture.
8.4.2
Modeling of Mixture Formation in Oil Product Batching
Light oil products possess the following property: if a volume V
1
of the rst oil
product is mixed with a volume V
2
of the second oil product, the volume V
c
of
the resulting mixture is, to a high degree of accuracy, equal to the sum of the
volumes of the components V
c
= V
1
+V
2
. Therefore, the additivity property
of uid volume on mixing of its components is taken as a main assumption in
the construction of the model of mixture formation in a pipeline.
If we denote through
1
and
2
the densities of the contacting oil products,
the volume concentrations
1
and
2
of the oil products may be expressed
through these quantities and the density
c
of the mixture. In accordance with
the mass conservation law we have
1
V
1
+
2
V
2
=
c
V
c
.
From this it follows that
1
V
1
V
c
+
2
V
2
V
c
=
c
1
1
+
2
2
=
c
.
Taking further that
2
= 1
1
or
1
= 1
2
we obtainthe following formulas
1
=
c
2
,
2
=
c
1
. (8.8)
190 8 Dimensionality and Similarity in Mathematical Modeling of Processes
We now develop the model of mixture formation in the uid ow in pipeline.
The mixture of oil products in the contact zone can be characterized by the
concentration (x, t) of one of the oil products, for example the displacing one,
in onedimensional uid ow in a pipeline. The cases = 1 or = 0 have a
direct relationship to the mixture. In the mixture region 0 < < 1. The case
= 1 corresponds to the region of displacing oil product, whereas the case
= 0 corresponds to the oil product ahead that is to be displaced.
In order to derive a mathematical model of mixture formation it is necessary
to reveal the mass exchange regularities of oil products in the mixture region,
that is to specify the relation between the volumetric ow rate q(x, t) of
the displacing oil product (the volumetric ow rate of the oil product to be
displaced would clearly be equal to v
0
S q(x, t)) and the parameters of the
concentration distribution (x, t) in the ow.
Figure 8.1 represents a scheme of mass exchange inanarbitrary crosssection
of the mixture region. The total uid ow rate through the crosssection x
in the moving frame of reference is equal to zero, but the transfers of uid
(mixture of oil products) from left to right and from right to left are nonzero;
they are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. The ow of the mixture
through the crosssection x from left to right with ow rate w
1
happens mainly
in the central part of the pipeline, while the ow of the mixture in the reverse
direction from right to left with ow rate w
2
= w
1
occurs chiey close to the
internal surface of the pipeline.
The ow rate w = w
1
= w
2
is determined by the prole of the velocity u(r)
averaged over the interval 0 r r
w = 2
_
r
0
r [ u(r) v
0
] dr. (8.9)
If we take the velocity prole u(r) equal to the logarithmic prole in turbulent
ow (Loitzyanskiy, 1987)
u(r) u
max
u
=
1
ln
_
1
r
r
0
_
(8.10)
from Eqs. (8.9) and (8.10) ensue the following relations
v
0
= u
max
4.08 u
, r
= 0.805 r
0
, w = 1.26 u
S. (8.11)
Here
, u
=
_

w

.
8.4 Pipeline Transportation of Oil Products. Batching 191
Figure 8.1 Scheme of mass exchange in the mixture region.
Since 
w
 = /8 v
0
2
, where is the hydraulic resistance factor, the dynamic
velocity is related to this factor by
u
=
_
8
v
0
.
Insertion of the expression for u
8
v
0
S = 0.446
Q. (8.12)
From this formula it follows that the quantity exchange ow rates are relatively
not large. So, for example, at = 0.022 the quantity w = 0.066 v
0
S, which is
only 6.6% of the pumping ow rate.
Counter ows of uid transfer both the rst and second oil product
through the crosssection x of the moving frame of reference, but the average
concentrations
and
= w (
).
In the rst ux (from left to right) the concentration
is equal to the
concentration of the displacing oil product averaged over the crosssection at
some distance l
1
behind the crosssection x. In the second ux (from right
to left) the concentration
= (x l
1
, t)
= (x, t) l
1
x
+. . . ,
= (x +l
2
, t)
= (x, t) +l
2
x
+. . .
(8.13)
192 8 Dimensionality and Similarity in Mathematical Modeling of Processes
and
q(x, t) = w
= w (
) = w (l
1
+l
2
)
x
.
Substitution of w from (8.12) in the latter relation yields
q(x, t) = 0.446
(l
1
+l
2
)
x
v
0
S
or
q(x, t) = K
x
S (8.14)
where
K = 0.446
(l
1
+l
2
) v
0
. (8.15)
The relation (8.14) expressing the proportionality of the volumetric ow rate
q(x, t) of the displacing oil product gradient /x to its concentration is
called the law of longitudinal mixing and the factor K (m
2
s
1
) the effective factor
of the longitudinal mixing. The minus sign in Eq. (8.14) shows that the ux
of each oil product is directed from the higher concentration to the lower
one, that is opposite to the concentration gradient of the oil product under
consideration.
There are many theoretical and experimental formulas for the factor K of
longitudinal mixing (Ishmuchamedov et al., 1999). We consider one of them,
namely the formula derived by Taylor when investigating the dispersion of an
impurity in turbulent uid ow in a pipe
K = 1.785
v
0
d. (8.16)
Comparing this formula with Eq. (8.15), we nd for the sum of the mixing
lengths (l
1
+l
2
) the value 4d. This result appears to be true for Reynolds
numbers higher than 3 10
4
.
8.4.3
Equation of Longitudinal Mixing
To derive a mathematical model describing the process of mixture formation
in a pipeline for displacement of one uid by another one we use the
volume balance equation for each component. Since the sum of the volume
concentrations
1
and
2
of oil products is equal to 1, it is enough to write only
one balance equation for one of the components, for example the displacing
component, taking
1
= (x, t),
2
= 1 (x, t).
8.4 Pipeline Transportation of Oil Products. Batching 193
Figure 8.2 Derivation of the volume
balance equation.
Consider a uid volume (see Section 1.2) enclosed between crosssections
x
1
(t) and x
2
(t), Fig. 8.2.
The rst (displacing) oil product occupies only a part of this volume V
1
which can be written as
V
1
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
(x, t) Sdx.
If the exchange of oil products through the crosssections x
1
(t) and x
2
(t)
were absent, the quantity V
1
would be constant, but in reality it is not. The
quantity V
1
varies owing to mutual penetration of the oil products into each
other and this variation is determined by the difference in transfer ow rates
q(x
1
, t) q(x
2
, t). Thus
dV
1
dt
=
d
dt
__
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
(x, t) Sdx
_
= q(x
1
, t) q(x
2
, t). (8.17)
If we take into account the following identities:
d
dt
__
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
(x, t) Sdx
_
=
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
_
S
t
+
v
0
S
x
_
dx, see Eq. (1.4),
q(x
1
, t) q(x
2
, t) =
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
q
x
dx,
the relation (8.17) may be written as
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
_
S
t
+
v
0
S
x
_
dx =
_
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
q
x
dx.
If, in addition, we recall that the uid volume under consideration is arbitrarily
chosen, that is the integration limits x
1
(t) and x
2
(t) are arbitrarily chosen, then
from the latter integral equation follows the differential equation
S
t
+
v
0
S
x
=
q
x
expressing the volume balance of the rst oil product in the mixture.
Insertion instead of q, using its expression through the concentration
gradient q(x, t) = K S /x (see Eq. (8.14)) with regard to the conditions
S = const. and v
0
= const. yields the differential equation for the concentration
194 8 Dimensionality and Similarity in Mathematical Modeling of Processes
(x, t) of the displacing oil product in the mixture
t
+v
0
x
= K
2
x
2
(8.18)
Equation (8.18) represents the differential equation of longitudinal mixing
referring to the class of heat conduction equations (Ishmuchamedov et al., 1999).
If we introduce the dimensionless variables x = x/L and
t = t/(L/v
0
),
Eq. (8.18) can be rewritten in dimensionless form
1
(L/v
0
)
t
+
v
0
L
x
=
K
L
2
2
x
2
or
t
+
x
= Pe
1
x
2
(8.19)
where the dimensionless parameter Pe = v
0
L/K called the Peclet number is the
main characteristic of quantity of mixture forming in the course of oil product
pumping and the similarity criterion in problems on longitudinal mixing of
uids by their displacement in the pipe.
8.4.4
SelfSimilar Solutions
The reasoning of dimensional theory can sometimes bring very important
results, being capable of nding solutions of differential equations reecting
the most important peculiarities of processes and being in some sense limiting
for solutions, taking into account the minor peculiarities and details of
processes. To such solutions belong the socalled selfsimilar solutions. Let us
demonstrate these with the example of Eq. (8.18).
In problems on the displacement of one oil product by another we can
consider the dimensional parameters x, t, K, v
0
, L. However, the number of
these parameters could be reduced without serious consequences for the
physics of the processes. If for example we change to a frame of reference
x
= x v
0
t moving with average velocity v
0
of the pumping uid, then
Eq. (8.18) would be simplied to
t
= K
2
2
(8.20)
If the boundary conditions at the pipeline section edges have become, after
frame of reference transformation, movable x
= v
0
t and x
= L v
0
t, but
far from the region occupied by the mixture they can be replaced by conditions
at innitiy (), that is 0 when x +and 1 when x
8.4 Pipeline Transportation of Oil Products. Batching 195
and the initial conditions at t = 0 we can take as instantaneous changing of oil
products, namely (x
, 0) = 1 at x
< 0 and (x
, 0) = 0 at x
> 0 or
(x
, 0) =
_
1, x
< 0,
0, x
> 0.
(8.21)
Then, in the problem under consideration, there remain only three
dimensional quantities x, t, K. Since the solution of the problem is the
dimensional function , depending on three dimensionallyindependent
parameters from which may be built only one dimensionless combination then
=
x
Kt
(8.22)
in accordance with the theorem the solution should depend on one variable.
Thus, the solution of the problem (8.20) and (8.21) has to be sought in the
form (x
, t) = ().
Such a solution is called selfsimilar because it is as if it transforms itself
in space in a similar way, namely the solution of the problem at an arbitrary
instant of time t may be obtained from the solution of the problem at any
previous instant of time t
1
by stretching the distribution (x
, t
1
) along the
x
K t/t
1
, because it is well known that the multiplication of
the function argument by a certain number brings extension or compression
of the function graph along the abscissa axis.
Substitution of (x
, t) = (x
2
d
d
=
d
2
d
2
from which follows
() = A
_
0
e
2/4
d +B
where A and B are constants of integration.
Using the boundary conditions 0 at + and 1 at
gives A = 1/(2
2
d =
2
.
The solution of the problem is
() =
1
2
_
1
2
_
/2
0
e
2
d
_
196 8 Dimensionality and Similarity in Mathematical Modeling of Processes
or in dimensional variables
(x
, t) =
1
2
_
1
2
_
x
4Kt
0
e
2
d
_
. (8.23)
Graphs of the concentration distribution (x
K t. (8.24)
A remark on the quantity of mixture volume. Taylor obtained Eq. (8.16) for the
factor K of longitudinal mixing under the assumption that the densities
and viscosities of contacting uids are close to each other. Therefore,
strictly speaking, this equation is not suitable for the case when the
densities and viscosities of contacting uids differ signicantly from each
other. Such situations occur in the pumping of oil products, for example
Figure 8.3 Selfsimilar distribution of concentration.
8.4 Pipeline Transportation of Oil Products. Batching 197
when pumping benzenes ( 730750 kg m
3
, 0.6 cSt) with diesel fuels
( 830850 kg m
3
, 49 cSt). It is evident that for these uids the
factors of hydraulic resistance are also different.
The formula for the mixture volume V
c
as applied to the case under
consideration can be improved if we calculate the mixture volume as the
arithmetical mean of two volumes: the rst calculated by Eq. (8.24) with
the factor K
1
= 1.785
1
v
0
d and the second by Eq. (8.24) with the factor
K
2
= 1.785
2
v
0
d. It is equivalent to formula (8.24) if we take
K = 0.446
_
4
_
1
+
4
_
2
_
2
v
0
d. (8.25)
Exercise. It is required to calculate the length and the volume of the
mixture region in a symmetric concentration range 0.01 < < 0.99 when
batching benzene (
B
= 0.6 cSt) and diesel fuel (
D
= 6 cSt) in an oilpipeline
(D = 530 8 mm, = 0.15 mm, L = 700 km) when the transportation of oil
products occurs with ow rate Q = 1000 m
3
h
1
.
Solution. Determine the average transportation velocity v
0
of the oil products
v
0
=
4Q
d
2
=
4 1000/3600
3.14 (0.530 2 0.008)
2
= 1.34 m s
1
.
Calculate the Reynolds numbers
Re
B
=
v
0
d
B
=
1.34 0.514
0.6 10
6
= 1 147 933,
Re
D
=
v
0
d
D
=
1.34 0.514
6 10
6
= 114 793.
Calculate the hydraulic resistance factors
B
and
D
B
= 0.11
_
0.15
514
+
68
1 147 933
_
0.25
= 0.015,
D
= 0.11
_
0.15
514
+
68
114 793
_
0.25
= 0.019.
Calculate with Eq. (8.25) the factor K of longitudinal mixing
K = 0.446
_
4
0.015 +
4
0.019
_
2
1.34 0.514
= 0.222 m
2
s
1
.
With Eq. (8.24) calculate the mixture volume V
c
V
c
= 6.58
d
2
4
K t = 6.58
d
2
4
_
K
L
v
0
= 6.58
3.14 0.514
2
4
_
0.222
700 000
1.34
= 465 m
3
.
198 8 Dimensionality and Similarity in Mathematical Modeling of Processes
The length of the mixture region l
c
is
l
c
=
V
c
d
2
/4
=
465
3.14 0.514
2
/4
x
x
where x is the increment of the argument. Let us explain this formula.
Figure A.1 shows a graph of a differentiable and, consequently, contin
uous function y = f (x). The difference f (x +x) f (x) of the values of
this function at two points x and (x +x) is called the increment of the
function f .
If at the point M on the abscissa x we draw a tangent to the plot of the
function, the increment of the function can be interpreted as the sum of the
two segments AB and BC, Fig. A2.
Since
df
dx
= lim
x0
f (x +x) f (x)
x
this means that
df
dx
f (x +x) f (x)
x
= 0 at x 0
that is, is an innitesimal quantity. From this it follows that the increment
f = (x +x) f (x) of a differentiable function f (x) can be represented as
f (x +x) f (x) =
df
dx
x
x
AB
+ x
BC
.
Since the value of the derivative at the point x is equal to the slope of the
function plot at this point to the horizontal, it is evident that the rst term on
the righthand side of the last formula is nothing but the length of the segment
AB. If df / dx = 0, it appears to be a quantity of the same order as x.
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
202 Appendices
Figure A.1 Increment f and differential
df of a function.
The second term ( x) is depicted in Fig. A.1 by segment BC. This term is
a smaller quantity than the rst term, because 0 at x 0. This means
that the smaller x then the greater the accuracy when neglecting the second
term. Thus, there is an approximation formula
f (x +x) f (x)
df
dx
x
x.
It is commonly said that this formula is true up to an innitesimal quantity of
higher order.
The principal linear (in x dx) part
df
dx
x
x of the function increment
f is called the function differential df
df =
df
dx
x
dx; f = df + dx.
The differential of function df is plotted by segment AA, Fig. A.1.
Appendix B. Proof of the Formula
d
dt
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
A(x, t) S(x, t) dx =
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
t
[A(x, t) S(x, t)] dx
+A(x, t) S(x, t)
x
2
(t)
dx
2
dt
A(x, t) S(x, t)
x
1
(t)
dx
1
dt
to calculate the total derivative with respect to time of an integral with integration
limits determining the motion of a uid (individual) volume of a continuum in the
pipeline.
Proof. Consider two successive locations at the time instances t and t +t
of one and the same uid volume in a pipeline, Fig. B.1.
In accordance with general denition of a derivative as a limit of the ratio of
a function increment to an argument increment when the latter tends to zero
Appendix B. Proof of the Formula 203
Figure B.1 Derivation of the formula of time differentiation of an integral with time
dependent limits.
we have
d
dt
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
A(x, t) S(x, t) dx
= lim
t0
1
t
x
2
(t+t)
x
1
(t+t)
A(x, t +t) S(x, t +t) dx
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
A(x, t) S(x, t) dx
.
The integrals in square brackets can be represented as follows (see Fig. B.1)
x
2
(t+t)
x
1
(t+t)
A(x, t +t) S(x, t +t) dx
=
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t+t)
A(x, t +t) S(x, t +t) dx
+
x
2
(t+t)
x
2
(t)
A(x, t +t) S(x, t +t) dx
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
A(x, t) S(x, t) dx
=
x
1
(t+t)
x
1
(t)
A(x, t) S(x, t) dx +
x
2
(t+t)
x
1
(t+t)
A(x, t) S(x, t) dx.
Consequently
x
2
(t+t)
x
1
(t+t)
A(x, t +t) S(x, t +t) dx
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
A(x, t) S(x, t) dx
=
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t+t)
[A(x, t +t) S(x, t +t) A(x, t) S(x, t)] dx
+
x
2
(t+t)
x
2
(t)
A(x, t +t) S(x, t +t) dx
x
1
(t+t)
x
1
(t)
A(x, t) S(x, t) dx.
204 Appendices
Up to innitesimal quantities of higher order this can be written as
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t+t)
[A(x, t +t) S(x, t +t) A(x, t) S(x, t)] dx
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t+t)
(A S)
t
t dx
x
2
(t+t)
x
2
(t)
A(x, t +t) S(x, t +t) dx
= A(x
2
, t) S(x
2
, t)
dx
2
dt
t,
x
1
(t+t)
x
1
(t)
A(x, t) S(x, t) dx
= A(x
1
, t) S(x
1
, t)
dx
1
dt
t.
Dividing the sum of the latter three expressions by t and passing to the limit
at t 0 we get the formula
d
dt
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
A(x, t) S(x, t) dx =
x
2
(t)
x
1
(t)
t
[A(x, t) S(x, t)] dx
+A(x, t) S(x, t)
x
2
(t)
dx
2
dt
A(x, t) S(x, t)
x
1
(t)
dx
1
dt
.
When going to the limit we took into account the continuity prop
erty of functions x
1
(t) and x
2
(t), namely lim
t0
x
1
(t +t) = x
1
(t) and
lim
t0
x
2
(t +t) = x
2
(t).
205
Author Index
a
Archangelskiy V.A. 67, 151
c
Charniy I.A. 133
Christianowitch S.A. 67, 151
d
Dodge D.W. 62
g
Ginsburg I.P. 21
i
Ishmuchamedov I.T. 63, 65, 187,
192, 194
j
Joukowski N.E. 42, 93
l
Leibenson L.S. 20, 66, 135, 151
Loitzianskiy L.G. 58, 59, 190
Lurie M.V. 19, 54, 56, 57, 66, 153,
154,
m
Metzner A.B. 61
p
Podoba N.A. 53, 56, 57
Polyanskaya L.V. 153, 154
Porshakov B.P. 40
Potapov A.G. 62
r
Romanova N.A. 51, 62
Rozhdestvenskiy B.L. 150
s
Samarskiy A.A. 114, 155
Sedov L.I. 3, 157, 198
t
Tichonov A.N. 114
v
Vasilev G.G. 77
w
Wilkinson U.L. 36, 48, 49, 51
y
Yanenko N.N. 150
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
207
Subject Index
a
absolute roughness 19
acceleration 4
adiabatic
expansion of gas 146
index 93
velocity of sound in gas 141
air density 4
Altshuler formula 21
analytical solution 88
angular velocity of impeller rotation
77
antiturbulent additive 62
apparent viscosity 36
area of pipeline crosssection 7
average
physical parameter 4
tangential stress 52
velocity 52
b
balance equation of forces 76
barotropic
gas 15
uid 15
medium 13
basic measurement units, see
primary measurement units
batching 187
Bernoulli equation 15
Blasius formula 21
boundary condition 46
Boussinesq force 150
bringing of model equations to
dimensionless form 183
Buckingham theorem 164
c
calorimetric dependences 30
capillary viscometers 49
Cauchy problem, see initial value problem
central theorem of dimensional theory
163
centrifugal
blower 98
force 76
pump 76
change of total energy 22
characteristic equation 118
characteristics of wave equation 119
Chezy factor 67
circular pipe 45
Clapeyron law 28
Clapeyron equation 39
closed mathematical model 2
closed mathematical model of
onedimensional
nonstationary ows of uid and
gas in pipelines 109
closing relations 30
combined operation of linear pipeline
section and
pumping station 81
commercial ow rate of gas 96
compatibility condition 119
at characteristics 142
compressibility 3
factor 34
compressible medium 28
compression wave 152
concentration of antiturbulent additive
63
compressor 16
Modeling of Oil Product and Gas Pipeline Transportation. Michael V. Lurie
Copyright 2008 WILEYVCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
ISBN: 9783527408337
208 Subject Index
concrete mathematical model 2
conditions at discontinuities (jumps) of
hydrodynamic
parameters 128
conditions of transition from laminar to
turbulent ow 51
conjugation conditions 124
conservation law of transported medium
mass 7
continuity equation 7
continuum 3
convective diffusion 188
Coriolis factor 6
correctness of the model 2
criteria of
dynamic similarity 178
geometric similarity 178
transition from laminar to turbulent
ow 51
critical
depth 151
isotherm 38
point of gas 38
pressure 40
Reynolds number 52
temperature 40
velocity 51
d
Dalambert formulas 117
damping of pressure bow shock at
wave front of hydraulic shock 133
DarcyWeisbach
law 48
relation 67
density of
internal energy 6
medium 5
transported 7
dependences characterizing internal
structure of medium ow 30
derived measurement units,
see secondary measurement units
descending sections of pipeline 68
developed turbulent ow 52
differential
equation of longitudinal mixing
194
head 17
of pump 180
differentiation of integral quantity
regarding uid volume 7
dilatant uid 37
dimensional
formula 159
quantities 158
dimensionality of quantities 159
dimensionless quantities 157
dimensional theory 157
dimensionaldependent quantities 164
dimensionalindependent quantities 164
direct hydraulic shock 131
discharge line 17
discontinuity of
ow rate 126
velocity 126
dissipation of mechanical energy 15
divergence of vector 144
divergent form of differential equations
143
drag force 4
dynamic pressure 8
dynamic
velocity 55
viscosity 33
e
effective factor of longitudinal mixing
192
efciency of the model 2
elastic
modulus 34
spring 1
elasticity 3
elementary surface 32
energy equation 24
energy of material point system 6
enforced ow 67
enthalpy 25
equation for
head before oilpumping stations
84
variation of pressure jump 133
equation of
uid motion 9
heat inow 24
internal motion kinetic energy change
17
mechanical energy balance 11
medium state 29
pipeline state 30
state 30
total energy 29
Euclidian geometry 2
Euler function 90
Eulerian derivative, see partial derivative
Subject Index 209
external
force 9
inow of heat 22
sources of mechanical energy
24
f
factor of
dynamic viscosity 33
kinematic viscosity 33
volume expansion 35
feed 76
lling degree of gravity ow 151
rst law of thermodynamics 22
ow
in hydraulic smooth pipe 21
core 50
curve 36
uid particle of transported medium
7
uid volume 193
force of dry friction 2
force of viscous friction 2
formation of oil product mixtures in
contact zones 188
friction
factor 20
force 13
Froude number 177
fundamental laws of continuum
physics 4
Funning factor 20
g
gas
compression 100
compressor station (GCS) 100
constant 28
enthalpy 105
isotherm 38
outow from a pipeline 146
specic capacity at constant
pressure 28
gaspumping aggregates (GPA) 98
gate valve 127
closing 153
generalized
Reynolds number 48
theory of hydraulic shock 154
geometric
head 14
modeling 173
similarity 174
governing factors 3
gravity
acceleration 4
ow 66
of incompressible uid in a pipeline
186
force 9
stratied ow 66
h
head 75
balance equation 81
before pump 81
before pumping station 80
headdischarge (Q H) characteristic of
pump 76
heat
conduction equation 194
conductivity 3
energy inow 23
exchange between transported medium
and environment 30
ux 23
heattransfer factor 26
height of pipeline axis above sea level 5
Hedstroem number 62
homogeneous uid 15
homogeneous incompressible uid 15
Hooke law of elasticity 43
hydraulic
dependence 30
gradient 15
hammer 42
losses 18
radius 66
resistance factor 20
resistance in laminar ow of viscous
incompressible
uid in circular pipe 47
shock 127
in industrial pipeline caused by
instantaneous
closing of gate valve 135
wave velocity 130
smooth pipe 21
smooth surface 21
hydrodynamic stability 51
hyperbolic differential equations 139
hypothesis of quasistationarity 109
i
Ilyushin number 51
impeller 76
210 Subject Index
incident wave 134
incompressible
uid 8
medium 18
independent dimensionless
combinations 4
individual
derivative 11
particle of continuum 6
inertial properties of uid in non
stationary processes 112
initial and boundary conditions
124
initial value (Cauchy) problem 2
input of external energy 16
integral characteristics of uid
volume 5
integral with variable integration
limits 13
interaction of waves in pipeline
section 120
intermittency factor 21
internal energy 23
of uid volume 6
international system of
measurement units SI
158
invariant form 4
of equations 153
isotherm of real gas 38
iteration method 81
j
Joukowski formula 93
JouleThompson
effect 94
factor 93
jump of parameter at discontinuity
front 128
k
Karman
constant 54
formula 54
model 61
kinematic
consistency 62
viscosity 19
kinetic energy 11
of uid volume 6
of internal motion relative mass
centre 12
of particle mass centre 12
kinetic head 14
l
Lagrangian derivative, see individual
derivative
laminar ow
of nonNewtonian Ostwald power uid
in circular pipe 47
of viscous uid 45
of viscousplastic uid in circular pipe
49
regime 12
law of
longitudinal mixing 192
momentum change 9
total energy conservation 22
limit shear stress 37
line of hydraulic gradient 16
local derivative with respect to time 6
longitudinal mixing 189
loss of head in DarcyVeisbach form 20
m
Mach number 185
mass 4
conservation law 7
mass ow rate 5
of uid volume 5
of material point system 5
mathematical model 1
of centrifugal blower operating in
stationary regime 101
of mixture formation 190
of nonstationary gravity uid ow
149
of pump 75
of slightly compressible uid 109
mathematical modeling 1
mean asperity height of pipeline internal
surface 19
mean ow rate velocity 46
measurement units 157
mechanical energy
balance equation 11
energy change law 14
medium macroscopic volume 3
mesh cell 144
method of
characteristics 121
successive approximation, see iteration
method
mixture volume 146
model 1
model of
uid baric and heat expansion 34
Subject Index 211
continuum 3
elastic deformable pipeline 42
elastic uid 34
uid 5
with heat expansion 34
gaseous continuum 31
ideal uid 32
homogeneous uid 34
incompressible uid 34
material point 1
medium 31
nondeformable pipeline 42
nonNewtonian uid 36
nonstationary gas ow in pipeline
112
nonstationary isothermal ow of
slightly compressible
uid in pipeline 109
perfect gas 39
power Ostwald uid 36
real uid 5
real gas 5
ShvedovBingham uid 37
valve 127
viscous uid 32
modeling of
blower operation 100
uid outow from tank 178
gravity uid ow 176
mixture formation in oil product
batching 188
stationary ow of compressible gas
in gaspipeline 92
stationary ow of viscous
incompressible uid in a pipe 175
molecular weight 39
momentum
equation 29
of uid volume 6
of material point system 6
motion equation 29
movable
uid volume of continuum 5
individual uid volume 5
multistep compression 101
mutual displacement of oil products
188
n
nearwall turbulence 63
negative slope characteristic 131
Newton formula 25
NewtonLeibniz formula 7
Newtonian viscous uid 36
nonisothermal uid ow 89
nonNewtonian uid 36
nonstationary
uid ow with ow discontinuities
152
nonisothermal gas ow in
gaspipelines 138
normal depth 151
o
oil
product batching by direct contact
188
pumping station 75
onedimensional
ow 1
model 45
nonstationary ow of slightly
compressible uid
in pipeline 184
theory 12
operation of pipeline with intermediate
oilpumping stations 84
origination of similarity criteria in
equations of mathematical
model 183
oscillation of small load 1
Ostwald rheological law 61
overcompressibility factor 40
for natural gas 40
p
parabolic (Q H)characteristic of
centrifugal pump 181
parallel connection of pumps 79
parameter of pipeline internal surface
smoothness 21
partial derivative 10
Peclet number 194
perfect gas 28
phase of
direct hydraulic shock 131
reected wave 132
phenomenological Karman theory 54
physical modeling 173
piezometric head 14
pipeline
prole 14
transportation of oil products 187
piston 100
engine 100
212 Subject Index
planedeformable state 43
planestressstate 43
point mass 1
Poiseuille
formula 46
law 48
Poisson ratio 43
positive slope characteristic 115
power of
external mechanical devices 13
gravity force 13
internal friction forces 13
pressure force 13
pressure 5
jump 128
wave 127
primary measurement units 158
problem on
disintegration of arbitrary
discontinuity 155
oil and gas transportation 4
traveling waves 118
wave interaction in limited pipeline
section 119
prole
blades 76
hydraulic shock 153
propagation of waves in
bounded pipeline section 119
innite pipeline 115
semiinnite pipeline 117
protection of pipeline from hydraulic
shock 138
pseudoplastic uid 36
pump 16
efciency 17
power 17
pumptopump regime 84
pumped ow, see enforced ow
pumping
plant 16
pressure 76
pumps connected in series 78
q
quasilinear differential equations of
hyperbolic type 150
r
rarefaction wave 152
rate of
elementary volume change 13
internal energy change 25
reaction force 9
rectangular mesh 143
reduced
pressure 40
temperature 40
universal characteristic of centrifugal
blower 103
reected wave at the joint of two pipe
sections 134
relative roughness 66
of pipeline inner surface 19
relativistic effects of the relativity theory 2
restoring force 1
Reynolds
number 19
stresses 52
ReynoldsFilonov formula 33
rheological properties 49
rheology 30
Riemann invariants 115
rootmeansquare (rms) value 12
rule of integral quantity differentiation with
respect to time 6
s
safety valve 138
schematization of
initial conditions 2
onedimensional ows of uids and
gases in pipelines 4
phenomenon 2
second Newtonian law 2
secondary measurement units 158
separatrix 99
shear rate 36
shear stress 5
shock front 131
Shuchov formula 26
similarity 173
criteria 174
of operation of centrifugal pumps
179
factor 173
theory 157
slightly compressible uid 24
slug ow 68
saturated vapor tension (pressure) 68
selfsimilar
distribution of concentration 196
solutions 194
small perturbations 142
space coordinate measured along
pipeline 4
Subject Index 213
specic
mechanical energy dissipation 19
volume 38
speed of wave propagation in pipeline
110
square ow 21
stability of laminar uid ow 51
stationary
ow 8
of barotropic medium 15
operation regime of
hightemperature pumping
87
gaspipeline together with
compressor station 98
steady motion 4
stepwise variations (jumps) of
hydrodynamic ow parameter
128
sticking condition 46
Stokes formula 20
string elasticity factor 1
Strouchal number 185
suction
line 16
pressure 76
surface element 31
system matrix rank 166
system of
nite difference equations 144
measurement units 4
systems of pressure wave smoothing
138
t
tangential
friction tension 18
stress 32
temperature 5
thermodynamic equilibrium 23
time 4
Toms effect 62
total
derivative with respect to time
6
energy balance equation 22
head 14
kinetic energy 17
transfer section 68
transition of laminar ow into
turbulent ow 52
transmitted wave at the joint of two
pipe sections 134
traveling wave 114
turbulent
diffusion 189
dynamic viscosity 52
ow
in circular pipe 52
kinematic viscosity 52
of nonNewtonian uid 61
of power uid 61
regime 12
velocity prole 58
twoterm (Q H)characteristic of
centrifugal pump 78
u
undamped periodic oscillations 2
undeformable pipeline. 5
unit normal 31
universal
characteristic of centrifugal blower
103
gas constant 39
resistance law 59
unstable uid 152
useful power
of blower 105
needed for gas 105
v
vaporgas
cavities 68
phase 152
velocity
gradient 32
of medium 5
of perturbation propagation in
pipeline 129
of propagation of small
perturbations in gas (sound velocity)
142
of shock wave propagation in
pipeline 128
of transported medium 8
stepwise change 128
virtual mass of uid 112
viscosity 3
viscousplastic Bingham uid 37
void 152
volume
balance equation 192
expansion factor of metal pipeline
42
volumetric ow rate 157
214 Subject Index
w
wave equation 113
wetted perimeter 66
work of
external forces 9
internal forces 13
pressure and internal friction, see work
of internal forces
y
Young modulus 43