# Buckling - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Buckling

In science, buckling is a mathematical instability, leading to a failure mode. Theoretically, buckling is caused by a bifurcation in the solution to the equations of static equilibrium. At a certain stage under an increasing load, further load is able to be sustained in one of two states of equilibrium: an undeformed state or a laterally-deformed state. In practice, buckling is characterized by a sudden failure of a structural member subjected to high compressive stress, where the actual compressive stress at the point of failure is less than the ultimate compressive stresses that the material is capable of withstanding. Mathematical analysis of buckling often makes use of an axial load eccentricity that introduces a secondary bending moment, which is not a part of the primary applied forces to which the member is subjected. As an applied load is increased on a member, such as column, it will ultimately become large enough to cause the member to become unstable and is said to have buckled. Further load will cause significant and somewhat unpredictable deformations, possibly leading to complete loss of the member's load-carrying capacity. If the deformations that follow buckling are not catastrophic the member will continue to carry the load that caused it to buckle. If the buckled member is part of a larger assemblage of components such as a building, any load applied to the structure beyond that which caused the member to buckle will be redistributed within the structure.

Contents
■ 1 Columns ■ 1.1 Self-buckling ■ 2 Buckling under tensile dead loading ■ 3 Constraints, curvature and multiple buckling ■ 4 Flutter instability ■ 5 Various forms of buckling ■ 6 Bicycle wheels ■ 7 Surface materials ■ 8 Cause ■ 9 Accidents ■ 10 Energy method ■ 11 Flexural-torsional buckling ■ 12 Lateral-torsional buckling ■ 12.1 The modification factor (Cb) ■ 13 Plastic buckling ■ 14 Dynamic buckling ■ 15 Buckling of thin cylindrical shells subject to axial loads ■ 16 Buckling of pipes and pressure vessels subject to external overpressure ■ 17 See also ■ 18 References ■ 19 External links

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckling

05-02-2014

the introduction of the slightest lateral force will cause the column to fail by buckling. ■ A short concrete column is one having a ratio of unsupported load exhibiting the characteristic length to least dimension of the cross section equal to or less than deformation of buckling 10. but a long column loaded in the same manner will fail by buckling (bending). In 1757. The formula derived by Euler for columns with no consideration for lateral forces is given below. ■ Timber columns may be classified as short columns if the ratio of the length to least dimension of the cross section is equal to or less than 10. if lateral forces are taken into consideration the value of critical load remains approximately the same. slender. If the load on a column is applied through the center of gravity (centroid) of its cross section. it is called an axial load.wikipedia. the buckling effect being so large that the effect of the axial load may be neglected. All the following are approximate values used for convenience. A short column under the action of an axial load will fail by direct compression before it buckles.org/wiki/Buckling 05-02-2014 . However.Buckling . while a long steel column may be assumed to have a slenderness ratio greater than 200 and its behavior is dominated by the modulus of elasticity of the A column under a concentric axial material. The maximum load. Since The eccentricity of the axial force K depends on the modulus of elasticity and the allowable results in a bending moment acting on compressive stress parallel to the grain. an intermediate length steel column has a slenderness ratio ranging from about 50 to 200. it can be seen that this arbitrary limit would vary with the species of the timber. mathematician Leonhard Euler derived a formula that gives the maximum axial load that a long. Slenderness ratio is important for design considerations. homogeneous. it is considered a long column (sometimes referred to as a slender column). A load at any other point in the cross section is known as an eccentric load. the free encyclopedia Page 2 of 13 Columns The ratio of the effective length of a column to the least radius of gyration of its cross section is called the slenderness ratio (sometimes expressed with the Greek letter lambda. If the ratio is greater than 10. One way of defining the lower limit of long timber columns would be to set it as the smallest value of the ratio of length to least cross sectional area that would just exceed a certain constant K of the material. λ). and free from initial stress. The the beam element. ■ A short steel column is one whose slenderness ratio does not exceed 50. ideal column can carry without buckling.Wikipedia. sometimes called the critical load. value of K is given in most structural handbooks. and are dominated by the strength limit of the material. An ideal column is one that is perfectly straight. The dividing line between intermediate and long timber columns cannot be readily evaluated. causes the column to be in a state of unstable equilibrium. This ratio affords a means of classifying columns. that is. The intermediate-length column will fail by a combination of direct compressive stress and bending. http://en.

For both ends fixed. 3. = 0. For a given size column. apart from the boundary conditions. The closer together the inflection points are. the free encyclopedia Page 3 of 13 where = maximum or critical force (vertical load on column). is the effective length of the column. = area moment of inertia. The boundary conditions determine the mode of bending and the distance between inflection points on the deflected column. This can be done without increasing the weight of the column by distributing the material as far from the principal axis of the cross section as possible. 2. The boundary conditions have a considerable effect on the critical load of slender columns. Elasticity and not the compressive strength of the materials of the column determines the critical load. Examination of this formula reveals the following interesting facts with regard to the load-bearing ability of slender columns.0. 1. Notice that each of the columns are identical. The strength of a column may therefore be increased by distributing the material so as to increase the moment of inertia. = 1.. The model shows how the boundary conditions affect the critical load of a slender column.org/wiki/Buckling 05-02-2014 . = unsupported length of column. whose value depends on the conditions of end support of the column. doubling the unsupported length quarters the allowable load. = 2.50. A demonstration model illustrating the different "Euler" buckling modes. http://en. The restraint offered by the end connections of a column also affects the critical load. Another bit of information that may be gleaned from this equation is the effect of length on critical load. If the connections are perfectly rigid. while keeping the material thick enough to prevent local buckling. the critical load will be four times that for a similar column where there is no resistance to rotation (in which case the column is idealized as having hinges at the ends). For one end fixed and the other end free to move laterally.. = column effective length factor. free to rotate). The inflection points in the deflection shape of the column are the points at which the curvature of the column change sign and are also the points at which the internal bending moments are zero. The critical load is directly proportional to the second moment of area of the cross section.0. For one end fixed and the other end pinned.Buckling . the higher the resulting capacity of the column. For both ends pinned (hinged.. This bears out the well-known fact that a tubular section is much more efficient than a solid section for column service.Wikipedia. = modulus of elasticity.699. = 0. as follows.wikipedia.

Using the Euler formula for hinged ends. the free encyclopedia Page 4 of 13 Since the radius of gyration is defined as the square root of the ratio of the column's cross section to its area. Another example involving flexure of a structure made up of beam elements governed by the equation of http://en. Consequently.wikipedia.. vertical column. Noselli and Misseroni (2011)[4] have shown that buckling and instability can also occur in elastic structures subject to dead tensile load.org/wiki/Buckling 05-02-2014 . This formula typically produces a conservative estimate of Fmax. all of which embody the slenderness ratio. appropriate safety factors are introduced into these formulae. Issues that cause deviation from the pure Euler column behaviour include imperfections in geometry in combination with plasticity/non-linear stress strain behaviour of the column's material. 1. Buckling under tensile dead loading Usually buckling and instability are associated to compression. and B is the first zero of the Bessel function of the first kind of order -1/3. The Rankine Gordon formula (Named for William John Macquorn Rankine and Perry Hugesworth Gordon (1899 – 1966)) is also based on experimental results and suggests that a column will buckle at a load Fmax given by: where Fe is the Euler maximum load and Fc is the maximum compressive load.86635086. I is the second moment of area of the beam cross section. An example of a singledegree-of-freedom structure is shown in Fig. For design.Wikipedia. and is the slenderness ratio. One such formula is the Perry Robertson formula which estimates the critical buckling load based on an initial (small) curvature. Self-buckling A free-standing. will buckle under where g is the acceleration due to gravity. but recently Zaccaria. the Euler formula on its own has little practical application for ordinary design. where the critical load is also indicated. and radius ..Buckling . Bigoni. and substituting A·r2 for I. which is equal to 1. the following formula results. a number of empirical column formulae have been developed to agree with test data. and it is impossible to obtain an ideal column. Young's modulus its own weight if its height exceeds a certain critical height:[1][2][3] . Since structural columns are commonly of intermediate length. where is the allowable stress of the column. the above formula may be rearranged as follows. with density .

the so-called 'Ziegler column' is shown in Fig. leading to multiple bifurcations. Constraints. This two-degree-of-freedom system does not display a quasistatic buckling.ing.wikipedia.Buckling .html) for more details. Misseroni. allowing only relative sliding between the connected pieces.Wikipedia.2. in that case a discontinuity of the constraint's curvature is introduced.4. The two circular profiles can be arranged in a 'S'-shaped profile. Fig. as shown in Fig.org/wiki/Buckling 05-02-2014 . the free encyclopedia Page 5 of 13 the Euler's elastica is shown in Fig. but becomes dynamically unstable. curvature and multiple buckling Buckling of an elastic structure strongly depends on the curvature of the constraints against which the ends of the structure are prescribed to move (see Bigoni.[6] For instance. The instability and buckling in tension are related to the presence of the slider.unitn. Fig.5. In both cases. 4: A one-degree-of-freedom structure with a 'S'-shaped bicircular profile exhibiting multiple bifurcations (both tensile and compressive).4 has two buckling loads (one tensile and one compressive). http://en. Flutter instability Structures subject to a follower (nonconservative) load may suffer instabilities which are not of the buckling type and therefore are not detectable with a static approach. Watch a movie (http://www. even a single-degree-of-freedom system (see Fig. 3: A one-degree-of-freedom structure exhibiting a tensile (compressive) buckling load as related to the fact that the right end has to move along the circular profile labeled 'Ct' (labelled 'Cc'). we note that the equations of motion are Fig. there are no elements subject to compression. Note that the single-degree-of-freedom structure shown in Fig. To see this. In fact. 2012[5]).it/~bigoni/multiple_bifurcations. Noselli and Zaccaria.3) may exhibit a tensile (or a compressive) buckling load as related to the fact that one end has to move along the circular profile labeled 'Ct' (labelled 'Cc'). 2: Elastic beam system showing buckling under tensile dead loading. the junction between the two rods.

watch the movie (http://www. of linear mass density ρ. http://en. a two-degree-of-freedom system subject to a follower load (the force P remains always parallel to the rod BC).Wikipedia. Bigoni and Noselli (2011)[7] have experimentally shown that flutter and divergence instabilities can be directly related to dry friction.Buckling . exhibiting flutter and divergence instability. are rigid and connected through two rotational springs of stiffness k1 and k2. the free encyclopedia Page 6 of 13 Fig.unitn.ing.it/~bigoni/flutter. The two rods.html) for more details.6 (upper part) together with the divergence instability (lower part) consisting in an exponential growth.wikipedia. and their linearized version is Assuming a time-harmonic solution in the form we find the critical loads for flutter ( ) and divergence ( ). Flutter instability corresponds to a vibrational motion of increasing amplitude and is shown in Fig. Recently. where and . 5: A sketch of the 'Ziegler column'.org/wiki/Buckling 05-02-2014 .

[9][10] the applied load is increased by a small amount beyond the critical load. the structure undergoes a large deformation into a different stable configuration which is not adjacent to the original configuration. In structures experiencing limit point instability. Fig. the Euler column pictured will start to bow when loaded slightly above its critical load.Buckling . but will not suddenly collapse. the buckling of plates. http://en. the free encyclopedia Page 7 of 13 Various forms of buckling Buckling is a state which defines a point where an equilibrium configuration becomes unstable and can manifest itself in several different phenomena.[8] In Euler buckling. which is well-known to be a highly dangerous. which is well known to be relatively safe and the buckling of shells. For example.Wikipedia.wikipedia. These comprise two types of pitchfork bifurcation. if the load is increased infinitesimally beyond the critical load. one saddle-node bifurcation (often referred to as a limit point) and one transcritical bifurcation.5 and exhibiting flutter (upper part) and divergence (lower part) instability. sometimes known as Euler buckling. An example of this type of buckling is a toggle frame (pictured) which 'snaps' into its buckled configuration. sometimes known as local buckling. There are four basic forms of bifurcation associated with loss of structural stability or buckling. The pitchfork bifurcations are the most commonly studied forms and include the buckling of columns and struts. All can be classified as forms of bifurcation. 6: A sequence of deformed shapes at consecutive times intervals of the structure sketched in Fig.org/wiki/Buckling 05-02-2014 . the structure deforms into a buckled configuration which is adjacent to the original configuration.

It can be considered as a loaded column that has been bent into a circle. Surface materials Buckling is also a failure mode in pavement materials.org/wiki/Buckling 05-02-2014 . often pulling the underlain railroad ties (sleepers) along. It is more common for rails to move laterally. This is normally a purely elastic deformation and the rim will resume its proper plane shape if spoke tension is reduced slightly. rail tracks also expand when heated. Going over a buckled section can be very jarring to automobile drivers. since asphalt is more flexible. If spoke tension is increased beyond a safe level. a phenomenon called sun kink.Buckling . described as running over a speed hump at highway speeds. and can fail by buckling. primarily with concrete. forcing adjacent pieces to push against each other.wikipedia. causing it to expand.Wikipedia. Radiant heat from the sun is absorbed in the road surface. Similarly. the pavement can lift up and crack without warning. the wheel spontaneously fails into a characteristic saddle shape (sometimes called a "taco" or a "pringle") like a three-dimensional Euler column. More on sun kink Sun kink in rail tracks Cause The buckling force in the track due to warming up is a function of the rise in temperature only and is independent of the track length: http://en. the free encyclopedia Page 8 of 13 Bicycle wheels A conventional bicycle wheel consists of a thin rim kept under high compressive stress by the (roughly normal) inward pull of a large number of spokes. If the stress is great enough.

the free encyclopedia Page 9 of 13 . near Crescent City. 2002 Amtrak Auto-Train derailment. http://en.wikipedia. Derivation of buckling force function: The linear thermal expansion due to heating of the track is found using where ■ ■ ■ ■ ∆L = thermal expansion of the rail L = length of the rail/track α = coefficient of thermal expansion ∆T = increase in temperature According to Hooke's law the extension due to a force (in the rail) is where ■ ∆L = extension of the rail/track ■ F = the force extending a rod. here the induced force in the rail ■ E = modulus of elasticity of rail material (steel) ■ A = cross section of rail ■ L = length of rail Putting these together gives or Accidents These accidents were deemed to be sun kink related (more information available at List of rail accidents (2000–2009)): ■ April 18. off CSX tracks.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Buckling 05-02-2014 . Florida.Buckling .

wikipedia. due to the difficulty in deciding the constant K. When a slender member is subjected to an axial force. the more accurate the result. perpendicular to the plane of bending). the free encyclopedia Page 10 of 13 ■ July 29. 2002 Amtrak Capitol Limited derails. Maryland.. The more accurate the displacement function. failure takes place due to bending or torsion rather than direct compression of the material. structural tees.[11] Energy method Often it is very difficult to determine the exact buckling load in complex structures using the Euler formula. the top side is in compression. Energy conservation yields: and refer to the first and second Flexural-torsional buckling Occurs in compression members only and it can be described as a combination of bending and twisting of a member. double-angle shapes. This mostly occurs in channels. where is the displacement function and the subscripts derivatives of the displacement. such as displacement and rotation. If the beam is not supported in the lateral direction (i. and the flexural load increases to a critical limit. maximum buckling load often is approximated using energy conservation. Maryland. there are two equations used (for small deformations) to approximate the "inner" energy (the potential energy stored in elastic deformation of the structure) and "outer" energy (the work done on the system by external forces). ■ July 8. near Kensington.org/wiki/Buckling 05-02-2014 . This way of calculating the maximum buckling load is often referred to as the energy method in structural analysis. and the bottom side is in tension. This function must satisfy the most important boundary conditions. North Carolina. Lateral-torsional buckling When a simply supported beam is loaded in flexure. And it must be considered for design purposes.e. the beam http://en. 2012 WMATA Metrorail train derails off tracks near Hyattsville.Wikipedia. The first step in this method is to suggest a displacement function. Therefore. In this method. off CSX tracks. and equal-leg single angles. 2010 CSX train derails off tracks in Waxhaw. ■ July 6. since the shape and cross sections are very critical.Buckling .

The duration of compression at the impact end is the time required for a stress wave to travel up the rod to the other (free) end and back down as a relief wave. The conservative value for Cb can be taken as 1. A table of values of Cb for simply supported beams are shown in Figure 1. Plots of the tangent modulus of elasticity for a variety of materials are available in standard references. the cross section will also twist in torsion. but in some cases it may be excessively conservative. The tangent modulus is a line drawn tangent to the stress-strain curve at a particular value of strain. This lower rigidity reduces the buckling strength of the structure and causes at a load less than that predicted by the assumption of lineal elastic behavior.Buckling . (kipin) Plastic buckling Buckling will generally occur slightly before the calculated elastic buckling strength of a structure. the structure will bow significantly and the material of the column will diverge from a linear stress-strain behavior. Maximum buckling occurs http://en. it can be obtained via the following formula: where = absolute value of maximum moment in the unbraced segment. Cb is equal to 1.Wikipedia. The reason for this factor is to allow for non-uniform moment diagrams when the ends of a beam segment are braced. the free encyclopedia Page 11 of 13 will fail due to lateral buckling of the compression flange. due to non-linear behavior of the material. and significantly so as the stresses approach the yield strength. For cantilevers or overhangs where the free end is unbraced. A more accurate approximation of the buckling load can be had by the use of the tangent modulus of elasticity. In wide-flange sections. Cb is always equal to or greater than 1. When the compressive load is near the buckling load. regardless of beam configuration or loading. The stress-strain behavior of materials is not strictly linear even below yield. in place of the elastic modulus of elasticity. Et. (kip-in) = absolute value of maximum moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment. if the compression flange buckles laterally. This can happen in a long. Dynamic buckling If a column is loaded suddenly and then the load released. never less. (kip-in) = absolute value of maximum moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment. unsupported column (rod) used as a drop hammer.org/wiki/Buckling 05-02-2014 . (kip-in) = absolute value of maximum moment at centerline of the unbraced segment. If an appropriate value of Cb is not given in the table. resulting in a failure mode known as lateral-torsional buckling. the column can sustain a much higher load than its static (slowly applied) buckling load. and the modulus of elasticity decreases as stress increases. The modification factor (Cb) Cb is a modification factor used in the equation for nominal flexural strength when determining lateraltorsional buckling.wikipedia.

Austria: J. So it is customary to find the critical buckling load for various structures which are cylindrical in shape from pre-existing design curves where critical buckling load Fcr is plotted against the ratio R/t.org/wiki/Buckling 05-02-2014 . 2. But this analysis. L the length of the cylinder. ^ Ratzersdorfer. Die Knickfestigkeit von Stäben und Stabwerken.it/~bigoni/tensile_buckling. 3. pp. caused for example by steam cooling within the pipe and condensing into water with subsequent massive pressure drop. Springer. is the elastic wave speed.Buckling . (1915). "The Shape of the Tallest Column". critical buckling loads as well as pre-buckling modes will be affected. (http://www. Journal of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers 19: 41. Structures buckling under tensile dead load. the free encyclopedia Page 12 of 13 near the impact end at a wavelength much shorter than the length of the rod. Misseroni. The critical condition for buckling amplitude to remain less than about 25 times the effective rod straightness imperfection at the buckle wavelength is where is the impact stress. Buckling of pipes and pressure vessels subject to external overpressure Pipes and pressure vessels subject to external overpressure. and lateral dimension of a rectangular rod. Design rules for calculation of the required wall thickness or reinforcement rings are given in various piping and pressure vessel codes. K. C. 2011. G. Maeve McCarthy (1998). Bigoni. where R is the radius and t is the thickness of the cylinder for various values of L/R. See also ■ Perry Robertson formula ■ Stiffening ■ Wood method References 1. Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 467. Because the buckle wavelength depends only on same formula holds for thin cylindrical shells of thickness . 1686-1700. Julius (1936).html) http://en. this Buckling of thin cylindrical shells subject to axial loads Solutions of Donnell's eight order differential equation gives the various buckling modes of a thin cylinder under compression. ^ Kato. If cut-outs are present in the cylinder. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics 29: 547–554. Wein. ^ D.ing. Zaccaria. Noselli and D.unitn. Presence or absence of reinforcements of cut-outs will also affect the buckling load. ^ Cox.Wikipedia.[12] is the smaller and . Steven J. risk buckling due to compressive hoop stresses. is the length of the rod. D.. 4. and at a stress many times the buckling stress of a statically-loaded column. "Mathematical Investigation on the Mechanical Problems of Transmission Line". which is in accordance with the small deflection theory gives much higher values than shown from experiments.wikipedia. 107–109.

Jones 10. J.php?title=Buckling&oldid=593015139" Categories: Elasticity (physics) Materials science Mechanical failure modes Structural analysis Mechanics ■ This page was last modified on 29 January 2014 at 21:10. T.midasuser.) ■ Willian T. Vol.. L.info/CompressionMemberDesign/CompressionMemberDesign. Journal of Aerospace Structures. and Florence. 2 ed.unitn. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.ing. Earls 11. 297–298. ISBN 9781107025417. 1973 9.aip. ^ D. Cambridge University Press. ■ Dhakal Rajesh and Koichi Maekawa (October 2002).2011. T.libdb. 2208–2226. the free encyclopedia Page 13 of 13 5. Segui (2007). ^ "Observations on eigenvalue buckling analysis within a finite element context" by Christopher J. ^ D. 1945.F.. United States. Zaccaria.it/~bigoni/multiple_bifurcations..Buckling .tw/t_support/tech_pds/files/Tech%20Note-Lateral%20Torsional% 20Buckling. Thompson & G. Noselli.org/wiki/Buckling 05-02-2014 . Theory of Elastic Stability.pdf) by W. ^ Bigoni. Wiley. pp. ■ Timoshenko. D. Misseroni.pdf Retrieved from "http://en. 11– 56.com. Bigoni.edu/DigitalCollection/1970/AFFDLTR70025. ■ Nenezich. Italy) (http://ssmg. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. H. A.com/user/RoyalSociety#p/u/0/EKngs1vvcJU) ■ Laboratory for Physical Modeling of Structures and Photoelasticity (University of Trento.iit.org. ^ "Buckling of Bars. Nonlinear Solid Mechanics: Bifurcation Theory and Material Instability. and Gere. W. McGraw-Hill. ■ Analysis and design of flight vehicle structures.wikipedia. (http://www. Plates. D. [1] (http://ascelibrary. 7.. http://en.wikipedia. “Steel Design” Fourth Edition. By using this site. M. 2012 .it) ■ http://www.Wikipedia. Experimental evidence of flutter and divergence instabilities induced by dry friction. additional terms may apply.youtube.0732. 2004.it/~bigoni) 8.Brune External links ■ Online Calculation Tool for Compression Member (Column) Design (http://www. a non-profit organization. G. Koiter. ■ The Stability of Elastic Equilibrium (http://contrails. PhD Thesis.html) 6.E. Effects of the constraint's curvature on structural instability: tensile buckling and multiple bifurcations. S. M.unitn. 59. ^ Lindberg. 2012.unitn. ^ "A general theory of elastic stability" By J. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.amesweb.. Hunt.com/tech/buklbook.htm ■ Video on Buckling under tensile dead loading (http://www. M. Dynamic Pulse Buckling. 1987. ■ Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Inc.1098/rspa.edu:8888/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet? filetype=pdf&id=JSENDH000128000010001253000001&idtype=cvips&ident=freesearch.. Noselli and D. 2011. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. "Reinforcement Stability and Fracture of Cover Concrete in Reinforced Concrete Members”. 4. Chris Carson.aspx) ■ The complete theory and example experimental results for long columns are available as a 39page PDF document at http://lindberglce.com/2012/07/excessive_heat_probable_cause_in_gr.ing. 1961.njit. and Shells" By Robert M.. E. Proceedings of the Royal Society A. ^ http://dcist.php 12. doi:10.org/w/index. (http://www. Bigoni and G.ing. P. Thermoplastic Continuum Mechanics.