You are on page 1of 6

Fly ash brick

Fly ash brick (FAB) are building materials, specifically masonry units, containing Class C fly ash and water. Compressed at 4,000 psi and cured for 24 hours in a 150 ! ("" C) steam bath , then toughened with an air entrainment agent, the bric#s last for more than 100 free$e%thaw cycles. &wing to the high concentration of calcium o'ide in class C fly ash, the bric# can be described as (self%cementing(. )he manufacturing method is said to sa*e energy, reduce mercury pollution, and costs 20+ less than traditional clay bric# manufacturing.

The raw materials


!unton Cree#. ,resumably this was a na*igable channel in the days when the bric# wor#s was ser*iced by barges bringing fly%ash from -ondon and returning with loads of bric#s.

)he raw material that is used for fly ash bric# are. !ly ash, /and0/tone dust, -ime, 1ypsum and Cement. !lyash bric#s are lighter than clay bric#s. 2 !ly ash 2 /and or /tone dust 2 -ime 2 1ypsum 2 Cement

Advantages
1. 3ue to high strength, practically no brea#age during transport 4 use. 2. 3ue to uniform si$e of bric#s mortar re5uired for 6oints 4 plaster reduces almost by 50+. 7. 3ue to lower water penetration seepage of water through bric#s is considerably reduced. 4. ,laster of ,aris 0 1ypsum ,laster can be directly applied on these bric#s without a bac#ing coat of plaster 5. )hese bric#s do not re5uire soa#ing in water for 24 hours. &nly sprin#ling of water before use is enough. !ly ash bric# 11

Dis-advantages
1. ,oor 5uality and outloo# in colour without plastering 2. 8echanical bonding strength is wea#. 9ut this can be rectified by adding marble waste. 7. -imitation of si$e. &nly modular si$e can be produces. -arge si$e will ha*e more brea#ages

Appearance
)hese bric#s ha*e a pleasing colour li#e cement, are uniform in shape and smooth in finish, also, they re5uire no plastering for building wor#. )he bric#s are of dense composition, uniformly shaped with0without a frog, free from *isible crac#s, warp%age, organic matter, pebbles and nodules of free lime. )hey are lighter in weight than ordinary clay bric#s and less porous too. )he colour of flyash bric#s can be altered with the addition of admi'tures during the process of bric# ma#ing. )hey come in *arious si$es, but generally are similar to the si$es of clay bric#s.

Structural Capability
)hese bric#s can pro*ide ad*antages being a*ailable in se*eral load%bearing grades, sa*ings in mortar plastering, and gi*ing smart loo#ing bric#wor#. :igh compressi*e strength eliminates brea#ages0wastages during transport and handling, the crac#ing of plaster is reduced due to lower thic#ness of 6oints and plaster and basic material of the bric#s, which is more compatible with cement mortar. 3ue to its comparable density the bric#s do not cause any e'tra load for design of structures and pro*ides better resistance for earth5ua#e loads due to panel action with high strength bric#s. Compressi*e strength of fly ash sand lime bric#s is a*. ;.00 <0mm2 (as against 7.50 <0mm2 for handmade clay bric#s).

Thermal properties
)hermal conducti*ity is 0.;0%1.05 =0m2 >C (20%70+ less than those of concrete bloc#s). )hese bric#s do not absorb heat? they reflect heat and gi*es ma'imum light reflection without glare.

Sound insulation

@t pro*ides an acceptable degree of sound insulation.

Fire and vermin resistance


!lyash bric#s ha*e a good fire rating. @t has no problems of *ermin attac#s or infestation.

Durability and moisture resistance


)hese bloc#s are highly durable, after proper pointing of 6oints, the bric#s can be directly painted in dry distemper and cement paints, without the bac#ing coating of plaster. Aectangular faced with sharp corners, solid, compact and uniformly =ater absorption is "%12+ as against 20%25+ for handmade clay bric#s, reducing dampness of the walls. !ly ash bric# 12

Toxicity and Breath-ability


)here are no definite studies on the to'ic fume emissions or the indoor air 5uality of structures built with flyash bric#s, though claims of radio acti*e emissions by these blocs ha*e been made at some scientific forums. !lyash as a raw material is *ery fine and care has to be ta#en to pre*ent from being air%borne and causing serious air pollution as it can remain airborne for long periods of time, causing serious health problems relating to the respiratory system. )hough bloc# manufactured from flyash has no such problems.

Sustainability
(en*ironmental impacts) !ly ash is a coc#tail of unhealthy elements silica, aluminum, iron o'ides, calcium, magnesium, arsenic, mercury, and cadmium, and poses serious en*ironment and health ha$ards for a large population. 9ut the bric# is better off, for flyash changes into a non%to'ic product when mi'ed with lime at ordinary temperature as the calcium silicate hydrates and forms a dense composite inert bloc#. )hus ha*ing the potential as a good building material, while offsetting about 100million tonnes of flyash annually produced in @ndia by the numerous thermal power plants, which could cause serious contamination of land, groundwater and air.

Buildability availability and cost


)he bloc#s ha*e an easy wor#ability and high compressi*e strength eliminates brea#ages0wastage during handling gi*ing a neat finish, with lower thic#ness of 6oints and plaster. )he construction techni5ue remains the same as regular bric#s ensuring easy change of material, without re5uiring additional training for the masons. )hough these bric#s are abundantly a*ailable closer to thermal power plants all o*er the country for ob*ious reasons, finding dealers in all ma6or cities and towns wouldnt be a problem.

Applicability
)he bloc#s being a*ailable in se*eral load bearing grades are suitable for use. % -oad bearing e'ternal walls, in low and medium si$e structures. <on%load bearing internal walls in low and medium si$e structures. <on%load bearing internal or e'ternal walls in high%rise buildings. 1eopolymers 17

!eopolymers
!eopolymer is a term co*ering a class of synthetic aluminosilicate materials with potential use in a number of areas, essentially as a replacement for ,ortland cement and for ad*anced high%tech composites, ceramic applications or as a form of cast stone. )he name 1eopolymer was first applied to these materials by Boseph 3a*ido*its C1D in the 1;E0s, although similar materials had been de*eloped in the former /o*iet Fnion since the 1;50s, originally under the name (soil cements(.C2DC7D :owe*er, this name ne*er found widespread usage in the Gnglish language, as it is more often applied to the description of soils which are consolidated with a small amount of ,ortland cement to enhance strength and stability. 1eopolymer cements are an e'ample of the broader class of al#ali%acti*ated binders, which

also includes al#ali%acti*ated metallurgical slags and other related materials. C4D

"esearch
8uch of the dri*e behind research carried out in academic institutions in*ol*es the de*elopment of geopolymer cements as a potential large%scale replacement for concrete produced from ,ortland cement. )his is due to geopolymers alleged lower carbon dio'ide production emissions, greater chemical and thermal resistance and better mechanical properties at both ambient and e'treme conditions. &n the other side, industry has implemented geopolymer binders in ad*anced high%tech composites and ceramics for heat% and fire%resistant applications, up to 1200 C. )here is some debate as to whether geopolymer cement has lower C&2 emissions compared to ,ortland cement. Calcination of limestone in production of ,ortland cement is responsible for C&2 emissions (one ton of cement produced releases one ton of C&2), while some processes of formation of lyme also release C&2. 8ainly it is the ratio of C&2 reduction that is under debate, and it is process%dependent.

#roduction
1eopolymer binders and geopolymer cements are generally formed by reaction of an aluminosilicate powder with an al#aline silicate solution at roughly ambient conditions. 8eta#aolin is a commonly used starting material for laboratory synthesis of geopolymers, and is generated by thermal acti*ation of #aolinite clay. 1eopolymer cements can also be made from sources of po$$olanic materials, such as la*a or fly ash C5D from coal. 8ost studies on geopolymer cements ha*e been carried out using natural or industrial waste sources of meta#aolin and other aluminosilicates. @ndustrial and high%tech applications rely on more e'pensi*e and sophisticated siliceous raw materials.

Theory
)he ma6ority of the Garths crust is made up of /i%Hl compounds. 3a*ido*its proposed in 1;EI that a single aluminium and silicon%containing compound, most li#ely geological in origin, could react in a polymeri$ation process with an al#aline solution. )he binders created were termed (geopolymers( but, now, the ma6ority of aluminosilicate sources are by%products from organic combustion, such as fly ash from coal burning. )hese inorganic polymers ha*e a chemical composition somewhat similar to $eolitic materials but e'ist as amorphous solids, rather than ha*ing a crystalline microstructure. /ome ha*e alleged that ancient (Aoman cement( is a geopolymer cement, but in reality this material is chemically unli#e al#ali acti*ated geopolymer cements because it is made using lime and forms calcium%silicate%hydrates, ma#ing it much closer to ,ortland cement from a chemical standpoint. 1eopolymers 14

Structure
)he chemical reaction that ta#es place to form geopolymers follows a multi%step process. 1. 3issolution of /i and Hl atoms from the source material due to hydro'ide ions in solution, 2. Aeorientation of precursor ions in solution, and 7. /etting *ia polycondensation reactions into an inorganic (polymer( (actually a crystalline%li#e lattice). )he inorganic polymer networ# is in general a highly%coordinated 7%dimensional aluminosilicate gel, with the negati*e charges on tetrahedral Hl(@@@) sites charge%balanced by al#ali metal cations.

$istory
3a*ido*its has proposed that some of the ma6or pyramids, rather than being bloc#s of solid limestone hauled into position, are composed of geopolymers, cast in their final positions in the structure. :e also considers that Aoman cement and the small artifacts, pre*iously thought to be stone, of the )iwana#u ci*ilisation were made using #nowledge of geopolymer techni5ues. :owe*er, because Aoman cement forms calcium%silicate%hydrates, and re5uires calcined limestone as a reactant0precursor, it is more similar to ,ortland cement than al#ali%acti*ated (geopolymer cements( such as ,yrament cement of -one/tar. C"DCED

"e%erences
C1D 3a*ido*its, Boseph (200I). Geopolymer Chemistry and Applications (http.0 0 www. geopolymer. org0 learning0 boo#%geopolymer%chemistry%and%applications) (2nd ed.). /aint%Juentin, !A. 1eopolymer @nstitute. @/9< ;EI%2%;514I20%1%2. .

C2D /tabili$ation0solidification of ha$ardous and radioacti*e wastes with al#ali%acti*ated cements (http.0 0 d'. doi. org0 10. 101"0 6. 6ha$mat. 200". 05. 00I) /cience 3irect Journal of Hazardous Materials 2005%0I%17 C7D 1eopolymer technology. the current state of the art (http.0 0 d'. doi. org0 10. 100E0 s10I57%00"%0"7E%$) Journal of Materials Science, 200"%0"%04 C4D /hi, Cai6un? Kri*en#o, ,a*el L.? Aoy, 3ella 8. (200"). Alkali-Activated Cements and Concretes. Hbingdon, FK. )aylor 4 !rancis. C5D http.0 0 www. sciencedirect. com0 scienceMNobOHrticleFA-4 NudiO9")=!%4P<C1,5%24 NuserO"0E4744 Nco*er3ateO0E+2!71+2!20104 NalidO152E;017II4 NrdocO24 NfmtOhigh4 NorigOsearch4 NoriginOsearch4 N$oneOrsltNlistNitem4 NcdiO55"14 NsortOr4 NstO174 NdocanchorO4 *iewOc4 NctO74 NacctOC00007157;4 N*ersionO14 NurlLersionO04 NuseridO"0E4744 md5O1dIa"a1cf54b"ef77e4;2a70d;Ea24f24 searchtypeOa C"D 3a*ido*its, Boseph? 8orris, 8argie (1;II). The pyramids: an eni ma solved. <ew Por#. :ippocrene 9oo#s. @/9< 0%IE052%55;% Q. CED 3a*ido*its, Boseph? Hliaga, !rancisco (1;I1). (!abrication of stone ob6ects, by geopolymeric synthesis, in the pre%incan :uan#a ci*ili$ation (,eru)( (http.0 0 www. geopolymer. org0 inde'. phpMpO55). Makin Cements !ith "lant #$tracts. 1eopolymer @nstitute. . Aetrie*ed 200I%01%0;.

&xternal links
2 1eopolymer @nstitute (http.0 0 www. geopolymer. org) 2 1eopolymer Hlliance (http.0 0 www. geopolymers. com. au0 ) Hluminosilicate 15

Aluminosilicate
Kyanite Hndalusite /illimanite
,hase diagram of the Hluminosilicates.C1D

Aluminosilicate minerals are minerals composed of aluminium, silicon, and o'ygen, plus countercations. )hey are a ma6or component of #aolin and other clay minerals. Hndalusite, #yanite, and sillimanite are naturally occurring aluminosilicate minerals that ha*e the composition Hl2/i&5.C2DC7DC4D )he triple point of the three polymorphs is located at a temperature of 500 C and a pressure of 0.4 1,a. )hese three minerals are commonly used as inde' minerals in metamorphic roc#s. :ydrated aluminosilicate minerals are referred to as $eolites and are porous structures that are naturally occurring materials. )he catalyst silica%alumina is an amorphous substance which is not an aluminosilicate compound.

"e%erences
C1D =hitney, 3.-. (2002), (Coe'isting andalusite, #yanite, and sillimanite. /e5uential formation of three Hl 2/i&5 polymorphs during progressi*e metamorphism near the triple point, /i*rihisar, )ur#ey( (http.0 0 ammin. geoscienceworld. org0 cgi0 content0 abstract0 IE0 40 405), American Mineralo ist '( (4). 40541", C2D Hndalusite, :andboo# of 8ineralogy (http.0 0 rruff. geo. ari$ona. edu0 doclib0 hom0 andalusite. pdf) C7D Kyanite, :andboo# of 8ineralogy (http.0 0 rruff. geo. ari$ona. edu0 doclib0 hom0 #yanite. pdf) C4D /illimanite, :andboo# of 8ineralogy (http.0 0 rruff. geo. ari$ona. edu0 doclib0 hom0 sillimanite. pdf)

,o$$olana 1"

#o))olana
,o$$olana from 9acoli in the 9ay of <aples

#o))olana, also #nown as po$$olanic ash (pul*is puteolanus in -atin), is a fine, sandy *olcanic ash. ,o$$olanic ash was first disco*ered and dug in @taly, at ,o$$uoli. @t was later disco*ered at a number of other sites as well. Litru*ius spea#s of four types of po$$olana. blac#, white, grey, and red, all of which can be found in the *olcanic areas of @taly, such as <aples.

Chemistry
,o$$olana is a siliceous and aluminous material which reacts with calcium hydro'ide in the presence of water. )his forms compounds possessing cementitious properties at room temperature which ha*e the ability

to set underwater. @t transformed the possibilities for ma#ing concrete structures, although it too# the Aomans some time to disco*er its full potential. )ypically it was mi'ed two%to%one with lime 6ust prior to mi'ing with water. )he Aoman port at Cosa was built of ,o$$olana that was poured underwater, apparently using a long tube to carefully lay it up without allowing sea water to mi' with it. )he three piers are still *isible today, with the underwater portions in generally e'cellent condition e*en after more than 2100 years.

*odern use
8odern po$$olanic cements are a mi' of natural or industrial po$$olans and ,ortland cement. @n addition to underwater use, the high al#alinity of po$$olana ma#es it especially resistant to common forms of corrosion from sulfates. &nce fully hardened, the ,ortland cement%,o$$olana blend may be stronger than ,ortland cement, due to its lower porosity, which also ma#es it more resistant to water absorption and spalling. /ome industrial sources of materials with po$$olanic properties are. class ! (silicious) fly ash from coal%fired power plants, silica fume from silicon production, rice hus# ash from rice paddy%fields (agriculture), and meta#aolin from oil sand operations. 8eta#aolin, a powerful po$$olan, can also be manufactured, and is *alued for ma#ing white concrete. &ther industrial waste products used in ,ortland composite cements include class C (calcareous) fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag. ,o$$olana 1E

#o))olanic reaction
Ht the basis of the ,o$$olanic reaction stands a simple acid%base reaction between calcium hydro'ide, also #nown as ,ortlandite, or (Ca(&:)2), and silicic acid (:4/i&4, or /i(&:)4). /imply, this reaction can be schematically represented as follows. Ca(&:)2 R :4/i&4 Ca2R R :2/i&4 2% R 2 :2& Ca:2/i&4 S 2 :2& or summari$ed in abbre*iated notation of cement chemists.

C: R /: C/:
)he product of general formula (Ca:2/i&4 S 2 :2& ) formed is a calcium silicate hydrate, also abbre*iated as C/: in cement chemist notation. )he ratio Ca0/i, or C0/, and the number of water molecules can *ary and the abo*e mentioned stoichiometry may differ. Hs the density of C/: is lower than that of portlandite and pure silica, a conse5uence of this reaction is a swelling of the reaction products. )his reaction may also occur with time in concrete between al#aline cement porewater and poorly%crystalline silica aggregates. )his delayed process is also #nown as al#ali silica reaction, or al#ali% aggregate reaction, and may seriously damage concrete structures because the resulting *olumetric e'pansion is also responsible for spalling and decrease of the concrete strength.

"e%erences
2 Coo# 3.B. (1;I") <atural po$$olanas. @n. /wamy A.<., Gditor (1;I") Cement %eplacement Materials, /urrey Fni*ersity ,ress, p. 200. 2 8cCann H.8. (1;;4) ()he Aoman ,ort of Cosa( (2E7 9C), Scientific American& Ancient Cities, pp. ;2;;, by Hnna 8arguerite 8cCann. Co*ers, hydraulic concrete& of '"ozzolana mortar' and the ( piers& of the Cosa har)or& the *i hthouse on pier (& diagrams, and photographs. :eight of ,ort city. 100 9C.

Hrticle /ources and Contributors 1I

Article Sources and Contributors


Fly ash Source . http.00en.wi#ipedia.org0w0inde'.phpMoldidO4;1442E7" Contri)utors. Hbsolute Aelati*ity, Hchrn, Hdam 9ertrand, HheringTcogeco.ca, Hhoerstemeier, H#runch, Hle'france2502;1, HliTgwc.org.u#, Hmatulic, Hndy 3ingley, Hpothecia, Hryaniae, Hsr, 932412, 9abbage, 9adagnani, 9aldyman;1, 9earcat, 9eland, 9ergsten, 9eth7004, 9iscuittin, 9#ell, 9mh#im, 9obblewi#, 9ongwarrior, 9o*ineone, 9ullytr, 9urd.ra6ee*, CEEE, Cadmium, CaliforniaHli9aba, CanisAufus, Cgingold, Chintu ;22, Choongyong.#oh, Chris the speller, Chris.urs%o, ChrisAu*olo, Curugil, 3H7<, 3ab8achine, 3any"I0, 3a*ewho2, 3a*id=9roo#s, 3ino, 3oc=atson42, 3on/iano, 3shre*e, G. /n0 O7177EO, Gastlaw, GmersonE, Gmgold, Gpol#, Gumolpo, G'cirial, !antaQ, !laile', !ocal,oint, 1arion;", 1ene <ygaard, 1eomatician, 1obonobo, 1reat8i$uti, 1round Uero, :orsten, @cairns, @ceCreamHntisocial, @#e;I;I, @mran sr#rci*il, @rinotecan, B7"miles, B3@@<)G1AH)G3, Beremy Lisser, B#mchugh, Bohn 9roughton, Bohnpro*is, BonAichfield, Bpsgu6ral, Buliancolton, Kbh7rd, Kinimu##a, Kragen, Kuru, Kwertii, -amro, -eo<omis, -ightmouse, -il:elpa, -inguistic3emographer, 8;.6ustin, 8HAussell,G/G, 8GA%C, 8ambg, 8andara', 8aterialscientist, 8atheo3B, 8atyra, 8bur#e"E, 8i#eblas, 8onoman7I, 8oonriddengirl, <awlin=i#i, &rlady, ,/2pc1H8GA, ,a#ara#i, ,hnom,encil, ,latypus222, ,onydepression, Juadell, Juic#wic#E7, A,45;, Aanger;00, Aaymondwinn, Aifleman I2, A6wilmsi, AoadieAich, Aoaringindianlion, Aubywine, /aba50, /agredo, /hieber, /hin#olobwe, /illybilly, /imesa, /iobhan:ansa, /mithbrenon, /oft=ombat, /olardude, /u#isu#i, )3ogg710, )abby, )apaswe, )eles, )igerhaw#*o#, )odd Lierling, )op#en 8icrosilica, )wang, )winsday, F!u, Fnclepea, Fwmad, Lan helsing, Lerne G5uino', Lsmith, =abeggs, =atchpup, =a*elength, =ic#ifran#, =i$ard1;1, =#o*ari#, =olfy9, =riter:ound, 1;1 anonymous edits Fly ash brick Source. http.00en.wi#ipedia.org0w0inde'.phpMoldidO4I4I2151" Contri)utors. H.K.Karthi#eyan, Hmitsehgal;, H*oided blue, 932412, Karthi#eyan mylswamy, Katharineamy, -indsay:, 8alcolma, 8artin451, 8attgirling, 8ero*ingian, ,am3, ,inethic#et, Juic#wic#E7, Aettetast, /8asters, )orchwoodtwo, =ere/pielChe5uers, 12 anonymous edits !eopolymers Source . http.00en.wi#ipedia.org0w0inde'.phpMoldidO4;17I42;E Contri)utors. Hrs2E, H*icH=9, 9iscuittin, 3*ferret, !auco$ir, 1eopolymer guy, :u, B3a*ido*its, Bandalhandler, Berome Charles ,otts, Bohnbod, Bohnpro*is, Boshua @ssac, Keilana, -amro, -eonard 1., -oo#2/ee1, 8are#";, &ld 8oonra#er, /hin#olobwe, )abletop, )assedethe, )r#iehl, Fthbrian, , 1E anonymous edits Aluminosilicate Source . http.00en.wi#ipedia.org0w0inde'.phpMoldidO4E104I5"1 Contri)utors. Hcabtp, H#'cantab, Hndres, H'iosaurus, 9run#y, Chris.urs%o, Crystal whac#er, Cybercobra, 3edgeord, Gnemenemu, !rap, 1regor9, @an /utanto, Bac#bauersd, Khalid hassani, Kreu$feld, -1<A, -il:elpa, 80ff', 8ac, 8etalloid, 8r.crispy, <*anbuer, ,onydepression, A6wilmsi, /mith"0;, /tan B Klimas, /u%no%1, )hats6ustnotcric#et, )hricecube, Lisor, Lsmith, 21 anonymous edits #o))olana Source . http.00en.wi#ipedia.org0w0inde'.phpMoldidO451""0II7 Contri)utors. Hndre6 Valo*, Hrgyriou, 9e$ard1, C83 9ea#er, Cohesion, 3anielC3, 3eine#a, 3inesh smita, 3oc=atson42, Glement1", Grpbridge, !ocal,oint, !oobar, @thunn, @*builie*, Kpeyn, -amro, -il:elpa, 8aury 8ar#owit$, 8mcannis, <atma#a, &hms law, ,etri Krohn, Aoaringindianlion, /hin#olobwe, /ho Femura, /orsanmetsasta6a, )3ogg710, Lsmith, =ole*er, 22 , anonymous edits

@mage /ources, -icenses and Contributors 1;

+mage Sources ,icenses and Contributors


File-Fly Ash F$.A dot gov/0pg Source. http.00en.wi#ipedia.org0w0inde'.phpMtitleO!ile.!lyNHshN!:=HNdotNgo*.6pg *icense. ,ublic 3omain Contri)utors. Fnited /tates 3epartment of )ransportation % !ederal :ighway Hdministration File-Back-Scattered &lectron *icrograph o% Coal Fly Ash small/ti% Source. http.00en.wi#ipedia.org0w0inde'.phpMtitleO!ile.9ac#% /catteredNGlectronN8icrographNofNCoalN!lyNHshNsmall.tif *icense. Creati*e Commons Httribution%/hareali#e 7.0 Contri)utors. Fser.=abeggs image-Aerial view o% ash slide site Dec 12 133' T4A/gov 512331/0pg Source. http.00en.wi#ipedia.org0w0inde'.phpMtitleO!ile.HerialN*iewNofNashNslideNsiteN3ecN27N200IN)LH.go*N127002.6pg *icense. ,ublic 3omain Contri)utors. )ennessee Lalley Huthority. &riginal uploader was )ruthdowser at en.wi#ipedia File-Funton Creek - geograph/org/uk - 6227/0pg Source. http.00en.wi#ipedia.org0w0inde'.phpMtitleO!ile.!untonNCree#N%Ngeograph.org.u#N%N477".6pg *icense. Creati*e Commons Httribution%/hare Hli#e 2.0 1eneric Contri)utors. % +mage-Al1Si89 phase diagram/svg Source. http.00en.wi#ipedia.org0w0inde'.phpMtitleO!ile.Hl2/i&5NphaseNdiagram.s*g *icense. Creati*e Commons Httribution%/hareali#e 7.0 Contri)utors. /mith"0; +mage-#o))olana in $ands/0pg Source . http.00en.wi#ipedia.org0w0inde'.phpMtitleO!ile.,o$$olanaNinN:ands.6pg *icense. ,ublic 3omain Contri)utors. Gllywa, !/@@, AWmih

-icense 20

,icense
Creati*e Commons Httribution%/hare Hli#e 7.0 Fnported 00creati*ecommons.org0licenses0by%sa07.00