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RENR5434 November 2001 Systems Operation 330C Excavator Hydraulic System CYA1-Up (Machine) HAA1-Up (Machine) MCA1-Up (Machine) JAB1-Up

RENR5434

November 2001

Systems Operation

330C Excavator Hydraulic System

CYA1-Up (Machine) HAA1-Up (Machine) MCA1-Up (Machine) JAB1-Up (Machine) KDD1-Up (Machine) GAG1-Up (Machine) RBH1-Up (Machine) BTM1-Up (Machine) CAP1-Up (Machine) GKX1-Up (Machine) DKY1-Up (Machine) CGZ1-Up (Machine)

i01097883

Important Safety Information

Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.

Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could result in injury or death.

Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.

Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.

The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as “DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.

i01097883 Important Safety Information Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:

Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.

The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or pictorially presented.

Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in this publication.

Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair procedures that you choose.

The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before you start any job. Caterpillar dealers have the most current information available. For a list of the most current publication form numbers available, see the Service Manual Contents Microfiche, REG1139F.

i01097883 Important Safety Information Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by

When replacement parts are required for this product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpil- lar replacement parts or parts with equivalent specifications including, but not limited to, phys- ical dimensions, type, strength and material.

Failure to heed this warning can lead to prema- ture failures, product damage, personal injury or death.

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Hydraulic System Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Systems Operation Section

General Information

General Information

4

4

9

Pilot System

Pilot Hydraulic System

10

Gear Pump (Pilot)

17

17

18

19

21

23

System)

26

Pump System

Main Hydraulic Pump

28

31

Main Control Valve

Main Control Valve

38

Relief Valve (Main)

48

Relief Valve (Line)

50

Check Valve (Load)

53

55

Boom System

Boom Hydraulic System

63

73

Stick System

Stick Hydraulic System

75

84

Bucket System

Bucket Hydraulic System

86

Cylinders

Cylinders (Boom, Stick and Bucket)

90

Travel System

Travel Hydraulic System

91

98

Travel Motor

100

103

106

Travel Counterbalance Valve

109

Oil Makeup (Travel System)

116

Final Drive

117

Swivel

120

Swing System

Swing Hydraulic System

122

Swing Motor

132

134

Oil Makeup (Swing System)

140

Valves)

141

Swing Drive

148

Return System

Return Hydraulic System

151

Valve)

152

Bypass Valve (Return) (Bypass Check Valve)

153

Hydraulic Tank and Filter

155

156

Hydraulic Oil Cooler

156

156

Reference

Graphic Color Codes

157

Index Section

Index

160

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Systems Operation Section General Information

i01584866

General Information

SMCS Code: 4000; 4250; 4265; 4284; 4300; 4801;

5050

Reference: For testing and adjusting of the hydraulic system, refer to Testing and Adjusting, Excavator Hydraulic Systemfor your machine.

Reference: For systems operation of the electronic control unit and electronic system, refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, Excavator Engine and Pump Controlfor your machine.

Reference: For more information on specifications with illustrations, refer to Specifications, Excavator Machine System Specificationsfor your machine.

Reference: For more information on the hydraulic schematics, refer to Schematic, Excavator Hydraulic Systemfor your machine.

Reference: For more information on electrical schematics, refer to Schematic, Excavator Electrical Systemfor your machine.

i01630597

Main Hydraulic System

SMCS Code: 5050; 5051; 5069; 5117; 5472

Main Hydraulic Schematic

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

6

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Illustration 1

g00845030

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

(1) Swing motor (2) Left travel motor (3) Right travel motor (4) Stick cylinder (5) Travel brake valve (left) (6) Travel brake valve (right) (7) Bucket cylinder (8) Boom cylinder (9) Swivel (10) Pilot control valve (travel) (11) Stick drift reduction valve (12) Main control valve (13) Boom drift reduction valve (14) Pressure switch (15) Pressure switch (16) Pilot control valve (swing and stick) (17) Pilot control valve (boom and bucket) (18) Main relief valve (19) Pressure switch (20) Accumulator (21) Reducing valve (boom priority mode or swing priority mode) (22) Pressure sensor (drive pump) (23) Swing parking brake solenoid valve (24) Valve (25) Solenoid valve (hydraulic activation) (26) Drive pump (view from shaft end) (27) Travel speed solenoid valve (28) Pilot oil manifold (29) Drain filter (30) Pilot relief valve (31) Pilot filter (32) Idler pump (view from shaft end) (33) Pilot pump (34) Slow return check valve (35) Bypass check valve (36) Pressure sensor (idler pump) (37) Proportional reducing valve (power shift pressure) (38) Oil cooler (39) Return filter (40) Hydraulic tank (41) Gear pump (fan motor) (42) Relief valve (fan pump) (43) Fan motor (hydraulic oil cooler)

Hydraulic Pump Flow and Pressure Control System

g00847825 Illustration 2
g00847825
Illustration 2

Pump compartment

(26) Drive pump (32) Idler pump (37) Proportional reducing valve (power shift pressure) (44) Delivery line (idler pump) (45) Delivery line (drive pump)

This machine is driven and controlled by the following systems.

The main hydraulic system controls the cylinders, the travel motors and the swing motor.

The pilot hydraulic system supplies oil to the main pumps, the main control valve, the swing brake and the travel motors.

The electronic control system controls the outputs of the engine and pump.

The hydraulic oil cooling system provides oil to the fan motor in order to cool the hydraulic oil.

The main hydraulic system delivers oil flow from idler pump (32) and drive pump (26) in order to control the following components: bucket cylinder (7), stick cylinder (4), boom cylinders (8), right travel motor (3), left travel motor (2), and swing motor (1).

g00819746 Illustration 3 Main control valve
g00819746
Illustration 3
Main control valve

(18) Main relief valve (45) Right control valve body (46) Left control valve body

Idler pump (32) and drive pump (26) are bent axial piston type pumps. The performance of both pumps is equal.

Drive pump (26) is directly connected to the engine by a flexible coupling. The drive pump delivers oil to the left control valve body (46) of the main control valve. Idler pump (32) is mechanically connected to the drive pump through gears. The idler pump delivers oil to the right control valve body (45) of the main control valve. Gear type pilot pump (33) supplies oil to the pilot hydraulic system. Gear type pilot pump (33) is mechanically connected to idler pump (32) through gears. Gear type fan pump (41) supplies oil to the oil cooling system. Gear pump (41) is mechanically connected to the engine through gears. All engine output is used to drive these three pumps.

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

As the load pressure increases during working conditions, the main pumps increase the delivery pressure and the pumps decrease the flow rate. The hydraulic horsepower remains constant even though the delivery pressure and the flow rates change. The hydraulic horsepower is approximately identical to the engine horsepower.

When no work is being performed, pump oil flows through main control valve (12) and into hydraulic tank (40). The main control valve sends a negative flow control signal to each main pump regulator in order to destroke the pump to the minimum output flow.

If an operation is being performed, main control valve (12) directs pump oil to the respective cylinders (boom, bucket, and stick) and/or motors (swing and travel). Main control valve (12) contains numerous valve stems, passages, check valves, and orifices in order to carry out a single operation or a combined operation. The working pressure of the main hydraulic system is regulated by main relief valve (18).

g00819749 Illustration 4
g00819749
Illustration 4

Cab

(47) Monitor panel (48) Joystick (stick and swing) (49) Joystick (boom and bucket) (50) Left travel lever/pedal (51) Right travel lever/pedal (52) Engine speed dial

The pilot hydraulic system receives oil flow from pilot pump (33). The pilot hydraulic system controls the following functions.

1. The pilot hydraulic system controls the operation of the implement control valves.

Pilot oil flows from pilot pump (33) through pilot manifold (28). The pilot oil then flows to the pilot control valves for machine operation (implement operations, swing operations and travel operation). These pilot control valves are activated by the joysticks and the travel levers/pedals.

When joystick (48), joystick (49), left travel lever/pedal (50) and/or right travel lever/pedal (51) are moved from the NEUTRAL position, the pilot oil flows through the pilot control valves to the corresponding spools at the main control valve (12).

The pilot pressure oil at that end of the valve spool forces the valve spool to shift. The pilot oil on the other end of the valve spool drains to the hydraulic tank. When the valve spool shifts, oil is then delivered from idler pump (32) or drive pump (26) to the cylinders and motors.

Thus, pilot oil drives each system of the main control valve.

  • 2. The pilot hydraulic system controls the output flow of the main pumps. During machine operation, pilot pressure is sent to the main pump regulators as a signal pressure. This signal pressure is called power shift pressure. The engine and pump controller receives input signals from various components on the machine. The engine and pump controller processes the input signals. The engine and pump controller then sends an electrical signal to proportional reducing valve (37) at the idler pump regulator in order to regulate the power shift pressure. The power shift pressure controls the output flow of idler pump (32) and drive pump (26). Power shift pressure adjusts the output flow of the main pumps in accordance with the engine speed. For more information concerning power shift pressure, refer to Systems Operation, Pilot Hydraulic System.

  • 3. The pilot hydraulic system generates signal pressure in order to perform the following operations.

    • a. Pilot signal pressure activates the Automatic Engine Speed Control (AEC) system. This causes functions to automatically reduce the engine speed when no hydraulic operation is called for.

    • b. Pilot signal pressure releases the swing parking brake.

    • c. Pilot signal pressure will automatically change the travel speed to either HIGH or LOW in accordance with the hydraulic system load.

    • d. Pilot signal pressure operates the straight travel control valve. This maintains straight travel during the operation of an implement.

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

e. Pilot signal pressure controls the operation of the valves that can be used during a loading operation or a trenching operation.

For more information concerning the pilot hydraulic system, refer to Systems Operation, Pilot Hydraulic System.

i01638098

Electronic Control System

SMCS Code: 1900

g00847734 Illustration 5
g00847734
Illustration 5

(1) Engine and pump controller (2) Fuse panel (3) Engine (4) Engine speed sensor (5) Main pumps (6) Governor lever (7) Engine start switch (8) Battery (9) Backup switch (10) Governor actuator (11) Feedback sensor (12) Monitor (13) Action alarm (14) Engine speed dial (15) Switch panel

(16) Engine coolant temperature sensor (17) Hydraulic oil temperature sensor (18) Alternator (19) Fuel level sensor (20) Engine oil pressure sensor (21) Manual low idle switch (22) Engine oil level switch (23) Hydraulic oil level switch (24) Water separator (25) Implement/swing pressure switch (26) Right travel pressure switch (27) Left travel pressure switch (28) Straight travel pressure switch (29) Pressure sensor (idler pump) (30) Pressure sensor (drive pump)

(31) Power shift solenoid (32) Straight travel solenoid (33) Travel speed solenoid (34) Swing parking brake solenoid valve (35) Travel alarm (36) Restricted air filter switch (37) Restricted hydraulic return filter indicator (38) Air heater indicator (39) Engine coolant level switch (40) Pressure switch (attachment pump) (41) Attachment pedal pressure switch (1) (42) Attachment pedal pressure switch (2) (43) Proportional reducing valve for auxiliary hydraulics

10

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

10 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 6 (1) Engine and pump controller g00819687 g00673780 Illustration

Illustration 6 (1) Engine and pump controller

g00819687

g00673780 Illustration 7
g00673780
Illustration 7

(12) Monitor

The electronic control system consists of monitor (12) in the cab and the engine and pump controller (1) that is located in the compartment behind the cab. The electronic control system controls the engine speed and the pumps through the engine and pump controller.

Engine and pump controller (1) receives input signals from various components on the machine. The engine and pump controller continuously monitors the input signals in order to control the output flow rate of the main pumps, engine speed and various components of the machine hydraulic systems.

The electronic control system has the following three major functions.

The electronic control system controls the output flow rate of the main pumps. The engine and pump controller sends an electrical signal to the power shift solenoid that is based on engine speed and the position of the engine speed dial. This allows the main pumps to supply the optimum output that matches the hydraulic load to the machine and the engine speed. When a large load is placed on the machine, the system allows the pumps to destroke. The system utilizes the available maximum engine horsepower.

The electronic control system controls the engine speed. This is called Automatic Engine Speed Control (AEC). When there is a very small load condition or no load condition, the system automatically decreases the engine speed. The AEC system is designed to reduce fuel consumption and noise.

The electronic control system controls various components of the machine hydraulic systems. The engine and pump controller sends output signals to the swing parking brake solenoid valve, the travel speed solenoid valve and the straight travel solenoid.

Note: If a problem occurs in the electronic control system, temporary operation of the machine is possible by use of the backup switches that are located in the cab. For more information concerning the backup system, refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual, Backup Controls.

Reference: For more information concerning the operation of the electronic control system, refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, Engine and Pump Electronic Control System.

Pilot System

i01630521

Pilot Hydraulic System

SMCS Code: 5050-PS

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

12

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Illustration 8

g00844748

13

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

(1) Swing parking brake (2) Displacement change valve (left travel motor) (3) Displacement change valve (right travel motor) (4) Line (pilot oil from swing parking brake solenoid valve) (5) Travel pilot control valve (6) Pilot line (BOOM LOWER) (7) Pilot line (boom drift reduction valve) (8) Pilot line (STICK IN) (9) Pilot line (stick drift reduction valve) (10) Stick drift reduction valve (11) Main control valve (12) Boom drift reduction valve (13) Solenoid valve (straight travel) (14) Pilot line (pilot pressure to left travel pressure switch) (15) Pilot line (pilot oil to travel pilot control valve) (16) Right travel control valve (17) Boom I control valve (18) Straight travel control valve (19) Travel pressure switch (left) (20) Pilot line (pilot pressure to right travel pressure switch) (21) Travel pressure switch (right) (22) Pilot line (pilot oil to pilot control valve for stick and swing) (23) Pilot line (pilot oil to pilot control valve for boom and bucket) (24) Left travel control valve (25) Pilot control valve for stick and swing (26) Pilot control valve for boom and bucket (27) Variable swing priority valve (28) Pilot line (STICK OUT) (29) Pilot line (STICK IN) (30) Pilot line (SWING RIGHT) (31) Pilot line (SWING LEFT) (32) Pilot line (BUCKET CLOSE) (33) Pilot line (BOOM RAISE) (34) Pilot line (BOOM LOWER) (35) Pilot line (BUCKET OPEN) (36) Pilot line (pilot oil from boom pilot control valve) (37) Pilot line (BOOM RAISE) (38) Pilot line (pilot oil to the pressure reducing valve for boom priority) (39) Pilot line (pilot pressure to implement/swing pressure switch) (40) Implement/swing pressure switch (41) Pilot line (pilot pressure to displacement change valves) (42) Pilot line (pilot oil to pressure reducing valve for swing priority) (43) Pilot line (pilot oil to pilot control valves) (44) Pilot line (pilot oil to straight travel control valve) (45) Swing parking brake solenoid valve (46) Valve (hydraulic activation) (47) Pressure reducing valve for swing priority (48) Pressure reducing valve for boom priority (49) Drive pump (50) Passage (power shift pressure) (51) Pilot manifold (52) Travel speed solenoid valve (53) Passage (54) Hydraulic activation solenoid valve (55) Passage (56) Passage (57) Passage (58) Idler pump (59) Pilot pump (60) Pilot line (pilot oil flow to pilot oil manifold) (61) Pilot filter (62) Passage (power shift pressure) (63) Proportional reducing valve (power shift pressure) (64) Pilot relief valve (65) Passage (66) Pilot line (pilot oil flow from pilot pump to pilot oil filter) (67) Pilot line (pilot oil flow to pump regulators)

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

14 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 9 Ports and solenoids at pilot manifold (45) Swing

Illustration 9 Ports and solenoids at pilot manifold (45) Swing parking brake solenoid valve (46) Valve (hydraulic activation)

g00746504

(52) Travel speed solenoid valve (54) Hydraulic activation solenoid valve

Pilot Oil Circuit

Straight travel valve circuit

The pilot circuit pressure is limited by pilot relief valve (64).

Swing parking brake

Boom priority

The oil delivery from pilot pump (59) performs the following main functions.

Swing priority

Create pilot oil pressure in order to control the output flows of the main pumps.

Automatic travel speed change

Provide pilot oil pressure to the pilot control valves for implements, swing and travel in order to perform machine operations.

Create pilot oil pressure in order to automatically operate the control devices.

The pilot circuit is classified into the following circuits and each circuit performs one of the above functions.

Power shift pressure system

Pilot control valve circuit

Pressure switch circuits

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Power Shift Pressure System

g00847156 Illustration 10
g00847156
Illustration 10

(49) Drive pump (58) Idler pump (63) Proportional reducing valve (PS pressure) (59) Pilot pump

(68) Engine and pump controller (69) Monitor (70) Engine speed dial (71) Idler pump pressure sensor (72) Drive pump pressure sensor

(73) Feedback sensor (74) Governor actuator (75) Engine speed sensor (flywheel housing)

During machine operation, engine and pump controller (68) receives input signals from the following components:

Engine speed dial (70)

Engine speed sensor (75) that is located on the flywheel housing

Idler pump pressure sensor (71)

Drive pump pressure sensor (72)

Monitor in the cab (69)

Feedback sensor (73) at governor actuator (74)

The engine and pump controller (68) continually monitors all of the input signals. The input signals are processed by the engine and pump controller and an output signal is sent to proportional reducing valve (63) at the pump regulator. The proportional reducing valve assists in controlling the output flow of idler pump (58) and drive pump (49).

The oil delivery from pilot pump (59) flows through the pilot filter to proportional reducing valve (63) at the pump regulator. The electrical signal that is sent from engine and pump controller (68) causes proportional reducing valve (63) to regulate the pilot pressure to a reduced pressure. This reduced pressure is called power shift pressure (PS). The proportional reducing valve sends the reduced pilot oil pressure through the idler pump regulator and through the drive pump regulator. The output flow of idler pump (58) and drive pump (49) is controlled in accordance with the power shift pressure. The power shift pressure is used to regulate the maximum allowable hydraulic pump output.

The output signal that is sent from the engine and pump controller to the proportional reducing valve will change when the engine and pump controller detects a change in any of the input signals. The power shift pressure that is sent to the regulators at the idler pump and the drive pump will change in order to regulate the maximum allowable hydraulic pump output. The desired engine speed is maintained.

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

A decrease in engine speed increases the power shift pressure. An increase in power shift pressure causes destroke condition of the idler pump and the drive pump. The maximum allowable hydraulic power output is decreased.

An increase in engine speed decreases the power shift pressure. A decrease in power shift pressure causes an upstroke condition of the idler pump and the drive pump. The maximum allowable hydraulic power output is increased.

Note: For more information concerning the operation of the engine and pump controller, refer to Systems Operation/Testing and Adjusting, Engine and Pump Electronic Control System.

Pilot Control Valve Circuits

Oil from pilot pump (59) flows through pilot line (66), pilot filter (61) and pilot line (60) to pilot manifold (51). When the hydraulic activation control lever is shifted to the UNLOCKED position, the engine and pump controller energizes the hydraulic activation solenoid valve (54). The pilot oil then shifts valve (46). The pilot oil now flows through valve (46) and pilot line (43). The pilot oil now flows to pilot control valves (5), (25) and (26) for implements, swing and travel in order to perform machine operations. When the joysticks and/or travel levers/pedals are moved, the pilot oil flows to main control valve (11) in order to control the machine functions.

The following example is given for the BOOM LOWER operation and the BOOM RAISE operation. Machine operations for a stick operation, bucket operation, travel operation and swing operation are accomplished in the same manner as the boom operation.

When the joystick for the boom is moved to the BOOM RAISE position, pilot oil from pilot control valve (26) flows through pilot line (37) to boom I control valve (17). The pilot pressure shifts the boom I control valve. The oil delivery from the idler pump flows to the head end of the boom cylinders in order to perform the BOOM RAISE operation.

When the joystick for the boom is moved to the BOOM LOWER position, pilot oil from pilot control valve (26) flows through pilot line (6) to boom I control valve (17). The pilot pressure shifts the boom I control valve. The pilot oil also flows through pilot line (7) in order to open boom drift reduction valve (12). The return oil from the head end of the boom cylinders flows through the boom drift reduction valve and the boom I control valve to the hydraulic tank. The BOOM LOWER operation is now performed.

Pressure Switch Circuits

Pressure switches (19) and (21) are connected to travel pilot control valve (5). Pressure switch (40) is connected to pilot control valve (25) and pilot control valve (26). When all of the joysticks and/or travel levers/pedals are in the NEUTRAL position, the pilot oil pressure to the pressure switches is low. Pressure switches (19), (21) and (40) are OFF. The engine and pump controller recognizes the OFF condition of all of the pressure switches. The AEC system is activated in order to lower the engine rpm.

If any of the joysticks and/or travel levers/pedals are moved from the NEUTRAL position, the increased pilot oil pressure is sent to the pressure switches. If pressure switch (19), (21) and/or (40) is ON, the engine and pump controller activates the AEC system in order to increase the engine rpm.

Straight Travel Valve Circuit

When a swing operation and/or implement operation is performed during a travel operation, the increase of pilot pressure in pilot line (39) activates implement/swing pressure switch (40). The implement/swing pressure switch sends an electrical signal to the engine and pump controller. The engine and pump controller energizes straight travel solenoid (13). Pilot pressure now activates straight travel control valve (18). The straight travel control valve maintains straight travel even though there is a swing operation or an implement operation during travel. For more information concerning the operation of the straight travel control valve, refer to Systems Operation, Control Valve (Straight Travel).

Swing Parking Brake

When the hydraulic activation control lever is placed in the UNLOCKED position, pilot oil in passage (57) flows through valve (46) and passage (53) to swing parking brake solenoid valve (45). When any of the joysticks are moved from the NEUTRAL position, the increase of pilot pressure in pilot line (39) activates implement/swing pressure switch (40). The implement/swing pressure switch sends an electrical signal to the engine and pump controller. An electrical signal from the engine and pump controller energizes the swing parking brake solenoid valve (45). Pilot oil in line (4) flows to swing parking brake (1). This oil releases the swing parking brakes. For more information concerning the operation of the swing parking brake, refer to Systems Operation, Pilot Valve (Swing Parking Brake).

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Boom Priority

During combined operations of BOOM RAISE and STICK IN, the pilot oil pressure in pilot line (36) and pilot line (38) activates the pressure reducing valve for boom priority. The pressure reducing valve for boom priority allows priority flow to the head end of the boom cylinders during these combined hydraulic operations by disabling the stick II control valve. For more information concerning the pressure reducing valve for boom priority, refer to Systems Operation, Boom Hydraulic System.

Swing Priority

During a swing operation, pilot oil flows from pilot control valve (25) to the pressure reducing valve for swing priority (47). The pressure reducing valve for swing priority shifts. The pilot oil flow in pilot line (42) from pilot oil manifold (51) is blocked by the pressure reducing valve for swing priority. Most of the drive pump delivery flow goes to the swing motor. For more information concerning the pressure reducing valve for swing priority, refer to Systems Operation, Swing Hydraulic System.

Automatic Travel Speed Change Valve

Pilot oil in passage (56) flows to travel speed solenoid valve (52). When the travel speed switch on the right console is set at the HIGH SPEED position, the travel speed solenoid valve opens. This allows pilot oil to flow through travel speed solenoid valve (52) and through line (41). The oil then flows to the displacement change valve for the left travel motor (2) and the displacement change valve for the right travel motor (3). As the displacement change valve operates, the travel speed is maintained at the HIGH SPEED position.

When the travel speed switch on the right console is set at the HIGH SPEED position, the pressure sensors for the pump delivery pressure control the travel speed in accordance with the travel load. For example, low speed during a high load condition and high speed during a low load condition.

For more information concerning the operation of the displacement change valves, refer to Systems Operation, Displacement Change Valve.

i01630707

Gear Pump (Pilot)

SMCS Code: 5073; 5085

g00847612 Illustration 11
g00847612
Illustration 11

Pilot pump

The pilot pump is a gear type pump that supplies oil flow to the pilot system. The pilot pump is located inside the main pump housing. The pilot pump is mechanically connected to the drive pump. The pump delivery rate with load is approximately 34 L/min (9.0 US gpm).

i01630709

Hydraulic Filter (Pilot)

SMCS Code: 5068; 5092

g00847833 Illustration 12 (1) Pilot oil filter
g00847833
Illustration 12
(1) Pilot oil filter

The oil delivery from the pilot pump flows through pilot oil filter (1) and into the components in the pilot system.

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

g00681502 Illustration 13
g00681502
Illustration 13

(1) Pilot oil filter (2) Filter element (3) Bypass relief valve

Filter element (2) in pilot oil filter (1) removes contaminants from the pilot oil.

If the pilot oil is extremely cold or if the flow of pilot oil through filter element (2) becomes restricted by contaminants, the oil bypasses filter element (2) through bypass relief valve (3). Bypass relief valve (3) is built into the base for the pilot oil filter.

i01630729

Relief Valve (Pilot)

SMCS Code: 5072

g00847828 Illustration 14
g00847828
Illustration 14

(1) Inlet port (oil flow from pilot pump) (2) Pilot relief valve (3) Port (oil flow to hydraulic tank) (4) Outlet lines (regulated pilot oil pressure)

Pilot relief valve (2) is located on the mounting base for the pilot oil filter. The pilot relief valve limits the pressure in the pilot system. The pilot relief valve setting is adjustable.

The pilot oil flows from the pilot pump to inlet port (1). When the pressure in the pilot oil system reaches the pressure setting of pilot relief valve (2), part of the pilot oil flow is returned to the hydraulic tank through port (3). The pressure of the pilot system oil in outlet lines (4) is equal to the pressure setting of the pilot relief valve.

Reference: For more information concerning the pilot relief valve setting, refer to Testing and Adjusting, Relief Valve (Pilot) - Test and Adjust.

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

i01286470

Accumulator (Pilot)

SMCS Code: 5077

g00681745 Illustration 15
g00681745
Illustration 15

(5) Accumulator (16) Line (pilot oil from pilot oil manifold) (17) Mounting block

The accumulator stores pilot pressure oil for use at the main control valves. During some operations, the pilot system needs more oil because there is insufficient flow from the pilot pump. Accumulator (5) will provide pilot pressure oil to the pilot system when the pilot pump flow is inadequate. Insufficient supply of pilot oil flow to the pilot system may be caused by the following two reasons:

Implements are lowered while the engine is stopped and oil supply to the main control valves is stopped.

Combined operations

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

g00681748 Illustration 16
g00681748
Illustration 16

Accumulator

(5) Accumulator (16) Line (pilot oil flow from pilot oil manifold to the mounting block for the accumulator) (17) Mounting block (18) Passage

(19) Inlet port (20) Pressure oil chamber (21) Vessel (22) Bladder (23) Gas chamber (24) Passage

Pilot oil from the pilot filter enters inlet port (27) of the pilot oil manifold. Pilot oil flows through passage (28) and opens check valve (29). Pilot oil now flows through passages (24) and (26) to the pilot control valves (joysticks and travel levers/pedals).

The pilot oil also flows through passage (25) and line (16) to the mounting block for the accumulator. The pilot oil now flows through passage (18) and inlet port (19) into pressure oil chamber (20). The pilot oil acts against bladder (22) and the nitrogen gas in gas chamber (23) is compressed. Check valve (29) prevents a backflow of the stored oil in the accumulator. The stored oil is used for solely operating the stems of the main control valve.

(25) Passage (26) Passage (27) Inlet port (pilot oil manifold) (28) Passage (29) Check valve

21

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

i01579461

Solenoid Valve (Hydraulic Activation)

SMCS Code: 5479

g00681573 Illustration 17 Pilot oil manifold
g00681573
Illustration 17
Pilot oil manifold

(1) Pilot oil manifold (2) Hydraulic activation solenoid valve

21 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section i01579461 Solenoid Valve (Hydraulic Activation) SMCS Code: 5479 g00681573 Illustration

Illustration 18 Cab (3) Hydraulic activation control lever (LOCKED position)

g00820055

21 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section i01579461 Solenoid Valve (Hydraulic Activation) SMCS Code: 5479 g00681573 Illustration

Illustration 19 Cab (3) Hydraulic activation control lever (UNLOCKED position)

g00820057

g00681584 Illustration 20
g00681584
Illustration 20

(3) Hydraulic activation control lever (4) Limit switch (5) Plunger (6) Box

g00773160 Illustration 21 Cab (bottom view) (6) Box
g00773160
Illustration 21
Cab (bottom view)
(6) Box

Limit switch (4) and plunger (5) are contained in box (6). The limit switch is activated by hydraulic activation control lever (3).

When hydraulic activation control lever (3) is shifted to the LOCKED position, solenoid valve (2) of pilot oil manifold (1) is not energized. Pilot oil is not supplied to the pilot control valves. Thus when the joysticks and/or the travel levers/pedals are operated, the cylinders or the motors are not activated.

The engine will not start unless hydraulic activation control lever (3) is in the LOCKED position. If some one unexpectedly operates the machine, the machine will not operate.

When hydraulic activation control lever (3) is placed in the UNLOCKED position, solenoid valve (2) is energized and pilot oil passes through the solenoid valve. Pilot oil now flows to the pilot control valves.

22

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

22 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 22 Partial diagram of solenoid valve (hydraulic activation) (UNLOCKED

Illustration 22 Partial diagram of solenoid valve (hydraulic activation) (UNLOCKED circuit)

(2) Hydraulic activation solenoid valve (7) Solenoid (8) Spring (9) Spool (10) Control valve (11) Passage

(12) Passage (13) Passage (14) Passage (return oil) (15) Passage (pilot oil to swing parking brake solenoid valve) (16) Swing parking brake solenoid valve

g00747088

(17) Pilot oil flow to pilot valves (joysticks) (18) Valve (hydraulic activation) (19) Passage

When hydraulic activation control lever (3) is placed in the UNLOCKED position, plunger (5) of limit switch (4) is depressed by control lever (3). Limit switch (4) is in the ON state.

The hydraulic activation solenoid valve (2) consists of solenoid (7) and control valve (10). When hydraulic activation control lever (3) is in the UNLOCKED position, solenoid (7) controls valve (10). When solenoid (7) is energized, spool (9) moves in a downward direction against the force of spring (8). Passage (12) opens. Pilot pressure oil from passage (13) flows through passage (11) to valve (18). The spool in valve (18) moves in a downward direction. Pilot pressure oil in passage (19) flows through valve (18). Pilot oil is now delivered through passage (15) to swing parking brake solenoid valve (16). Pilot pressure oil in passage (19) is also delivered to the pilot control valves (joysticks and travel levers/pedals) through line (17).

23

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

23 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 23 Partial drawing of solenoid valve (hydraulic activation) (LOCKED

Illustration 23 Partial drawing of solenoid valve (hydraulic activation) (LOCKED position)

(1) Hydraulic activation solenoid valve

(9) Spool

(7) Solenoid

(11) Passage

(8) Spring

(12) Passage

When hydraulic activation control lever (3) is moved to the LOCKED position, plunger (5) of limit switch (4) is not depressed by control lever (3). Limit switch (4) is in the OFF state.

When hydraulic activation control lever (3) is in the LOCKED position, solenoid (7) is not energized. Spool (9) is forced upward by spring (8). Passage (20) opens and passage (12) closes. Passage (13) is not open to passage (11). Pilot oil supply to line (17) is stopped. Pilot oil supply to the pilot control valves (joysticks and travel levers/pedals) is blocked. The cylinders and the motors can not be activated.

 

g00747089

(13) Passage (14) Passage (return oil) (20) Passage

 

i01579519

Pilot Valve (Joystick)

SMCS Code: 5705-V4

g00693699 Illustration 24
g00693699
Illustration 24

Cab

(1) Joystick (stick and swing) (2) Joystick (boom and bucket)

24

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

24 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 25 Pilot lines at the main control valve (top

Illustration 25 Pilot lines at the main control valve (top view)

g00820093

When joystick (1) and/or joystick (2) are operated, the pilot control valves send pilot pump oil through the pilot lines to pilot ports at the main control valve in order to shift the spools in the main control valve. Refer to Illustration 25 and Table 1 for the location of the pilot lines and machine operations.

Table 1

   

Machine

Pilot line

Control Valve

Operation

(3)

Boom I control valve

BOOM LOWER

(4)

Bucket control

BUCKET

valve

CLOSE

(5)

Swing control

SWING LEFT

valve

(6)

Boom II control valve

BOOM RAISE

(7)

Stick II control valve

STICK IN

(8)

Right travel

REVERSE

control valve

RIGHT TRAVEL

(9)

Left travel control

REVERSE LEFT

valve

TRAVEL

(10)

Stick I control valve

STICK IN

Pilot oil from the pilot control valves flows through pilot lines to the ports on the bottom of the main control valve in order to perform the opposite operation.

25

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

25 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 26 Pilot control valve (stick and swing) (1) Joystick

Illustration 26 Pilot control valve (stick and swing) (1) Joystick (2) Rod (3) Return passage (4) Passage (5) Spool (6) Plate (7) Rod

(8) Spring (9) Seat (10) Seat (11) Spring (12) Spring (13) Return chamber (14) Return passage

When joystick (1) is moved to the right, plate (6) tilts to the right. Plate (6) pushes down on rod (7). Seat (10) moves down against the force of metering spring (11) and spring (12). The force of metering spring (11) shifts spool (16) downward. Passage (15) opens. The pilot oil flows through passage (20), passage (18), passage (15) and port (19) to the main control valve. The pilot oil pressure shifts the spool of the main control valve. This enables the implement operation or swing operation.

The return pilot oil at the opposite end of the spool in the main control valve returns to the pilot control valve through port (17). Since rod (2) is not pushed down by plate (6), return passage (3) is open and passage (4) is closed. The return pilot oil flows through return passage (3), return chamber (13) and port (21) to the hydraulic tank.

g00747093

(15) Passage (16) Spool (17) Port (return pressure to valve) (18) Passage (pilot supply pressure) (19) Port (reduced pressure to valve) (20) Port (pilot supply) (21) Port (tank)

The force of metering spring (11) varies with the position of the joystick. Since spool (16) is moved by the force of metering spring (11), the pilot oil pressure that flows through passage (15) to the main control valve directly corresponds with the position of the joystick. Spool modulation in the main control valve directly corresponds with the amount of movement of the joystick.

26

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

When the joystick is moved slightly from the NEUTRAL position, metering spring (11) moves spool (16) slightly. Low pilot oil pressure is sent to the spool of the main control valve. The main control valve spool shifts a slight amount. The volume of oil delivery to the cylinders and/or motors is small. The speed of the cylinders and/or motors is slow. As the joystick is moved farther from the NEUTRAL position, the force of metering spring (11) on spool (16) increases. The pilot oil pressure that is sent to the main control valve increases. The spool in the main control valve shifts farther and the speed of the cylinders and/or motors increases. Thus, cylinder speed and motor speed is controlled by the amount of movement and the position of the joystick.

When the joystick is moved slightly from the NEUTRAL position, only metering spring (11) acts on spool (16). Fine control of the cylinders and/or motors is accomplished since the pilot oil pressure that is sent to the main control valve is decreased. As the joystick is moved farther from the NEUTRAL position, the bottom of rod (7) comes in contact with spring (8). Now, the combined force of metering spring (11) and spring (8) act on spool (16). The pilot oil pressure increases rapidly. The cylinders and/or motors respond more rapidly.

When the joystick is released, the joystick will return to the NEUTRAL position due to the force of spring

(12).

i01630751

Solenoid Valve (Proportional Reducing) (Power Shift System)

SMCS Code: 5479

26 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section When the joystick is moved slightly from the NEUTRAL position,

Illustration 27 Proportional reducing valve (power shift solenoid) (1) Solenoid (3) Body (main pump) (9) Line (pilot oil flow)

g00847161

The proportional reducing valve for the power shift pressure is located on the main pump housing. The proportional reducing valve is a solenoid operated control valve. The proportional reducing valve receives supply oil from the pilot pump. The solenoid receives a pulse width modulated signal (PWM signal) from the engine and pump controller. The PWM signal that is sent from the engine and pump controller causes the proportional reducing valve to regulate the pilot pressure to a reduced pressure. This reduced pressure is called power shift pressure (PS). The proportional reducing valve sends the reduced pilot oil pressure to the regulators at the idler pump and the drive pump. The output flow of the idler pump and the drive pump is controlled in accordance with the power shift pressure. The power shift pressure is used to control the maximum allowable hydraulic pump output.

26 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section When the joystick is moved slightly from the NEUTRAL position,

Illustration 28 Proportional reducing valve (increase in PWM signal)

g00678718

(1) Solenoid (2) Spring (3) Valve body (4) Spool (5) Passage (return oil flow) (6) Passage (power shift pressure to pump regulators) (7) Spool chamber (8) Passage (pilot oil flow)

A decrease in engine speed causes an increase in power shift pressure and a decrease in pump flow.

27

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

While the engine is operating, the engine and pump controller senses a decrease in engine speed. A decrease in engine speed causes the engine and pump controller to increase the PWM signal that is sent to solenoid (1). The magnetic force of the solenoid increases. As the magnetic force of the solenoid becomes greater than the force of spring (2), spool (3) moves in a downward direction against the force of the spring. The downward movement of spool (3) blocks the flow of oil from passage (6) to passage (5). Pilot oil in line (9) now flows through passage (8), into spool chamber (7) and into passage (6) at a reduced pressure (power shift pressure). The increased power shift pressure in passage (6) acts on the idler pump regulator and the drive pump regulator. The idler pump and the drive pump destroke as a result of an increase in power shift pressure.

27 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section While the engine is operating, the engine and pump controller

Illustration 29 Proportional reducing valve (decrease in PWM signal)

g00678719

(1) Solenoid (2) Spring (3) Valve body (4) Spool (5) Passage (return oil flow) (6) Passage (power shift pressure to pump regulators) (7) Spool chamber (8) Passage (pilot oil flow)

An increase in engine speed causes a decrease in power shift pressure and an increase in pump flow.

While the engine is operating, the engine and pump controller senses an increase in engine speed. An increase in engine speed causes the engine and pump controller to decrease the PWM signal that is sent to solenoid (1). The magnetic force of the solenoid decreases. As the force of spring (2) becomes greater than the magnetic force of the solenoid, spool (3) moves in an upward direction. The upward movement of spool (3) blocks the flow of pilot oil from passage (8). Power shift pressure oil in passage (6) now drains into spool chamber (7) and into passage (5). The decreased power shift pressure in passage (6) that is acting on the idler pump regulator and the drive pump regulator causes the idler pump and the drive pump to move to an upstroke position. The idler pump and the drive pump upstroke as a result of a decrease in power shift pressure.

Reference: For more information concerning power shift pressure (PS), refer to Systems Operation, Pilot Hydraulic System.

28

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Pump System

i01638366

Main Hydraulic Pump

SMCS Code: 5070-MV

Construction

g00700449 Illustration 30
g00700449
Illustration 30

Main pumps

(1) Port (negative flow control pressure) (2) Outlet port (pilot pump) (3) Idler pump (4) Outlet port (idler pump)

(5) Inlet port (6) Port (power shift pressure) (7) Port (negative flow control pressure) (8) Drive pump

(9) Outlet port (drive pump) (10) Housing (11) Pilot pump

The main pumps consist of idler pump (3) and drive pump (8). The main pumps and the port block are bolted together in order to form one assembly. The idler pump and the drive pump are identical in construction and identical in operation. The pumps have identical control systems.

Oil from the hydraulic tank flows into inlet port (5) of the port block. Idler pump (3) delivers oil through outlet port (4). Drive pump (8) delivers oil through outlet port (9). Pilot pump (11) draws oil through inlet port (5). Pilot pump (11) delivers oil through outlet port (2).

29

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

The power shift pressure is determined by the electronic controller. The power shift pressure flows into the main pumps through port (6). The negative flow control (NFC) pressure from the main control valve flows into idler pump (3) through port (1). The NFC pressure from the main control valve flows into drive pump (8) through port (7).

29 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section The power shift pressure is determined by the electronic controller.

Illustration 31 Main pumps (sectional views)

g00814544

(4) Outlet port (idler pump) (5) Inlet port (9) Outlet port (drive pump) (10) Housing (11) Pilot pump (12) Gear (pilot pump) (13) Plate

(19) Center line (20) Trunnion (21) Housing (22) Center line (23) Gear (drive pump) (24) Piston (25) Cylinder

(29) Shaft (idler pump) (30) Cylinder passage (31) Inlet passage (32) Inlet passage (33) Center hole (34) Outlet passage (35) Outlet passage

(14) Pin

(26) Valve plate

  • (C) Radial direction

(17) Regulator (18) Drive shaft (drive pump)

(27) Piston (28) Gear (idler pump)

  • (D) Radial direction

Idler pump (3) and drive pump (8) are bent axial piston type pumps. The term bent axialdescribes the angular movement of the piston pump assembly. This movement is around the point of intersection of center lines (19) and (22). The output of the pumps changes depending on the angle of cylinder (25).

Drive shaft (18) of the drive pump is coupled with the engine flywheel. Gear (23) of drive shaft (18) engages with gear (28) of shaft (29). When shaft (18) is driven by the engine flywheel, shaft (29) is driven through a mechanical linkage between gear (23) and gear (28). Gear (23) has the same number of teeth as gear (28). Therefore, both pumps rotate at the same speed as the engine.

Because gear (23) engages with gear (12) of the pilot pump, pilot pump (11) rotates with the main pumps.

Main Pump Operation

The idler pump (3) and drive pump (8) are identical in operation. The drive pump is described below.

30

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Drive shaft (18) is driven by the engine. Drive shaft (18) turns seven pistons (24). Therefore, angle cylinder (25) rotates. Angle cylinder (25) is in contact with valve plate (26). Angle cylinder (25) rotates on valve plate (26). Angle cylinder (25) pivots on pin (14). Gear (23) has plate (13) that retains the heads of pistons (24). Therefore, pistons (24) swivel in the sockets.

g00293029 Illustration 32
g00293029
Illustration 32

(4) Outlet port (idler pump) (5) Inlet port (9) Outlet port (drive pump) (20) Trunnion (21) Housing (26) Valve plate (31) Inlet passage (33) Center hole (35) Outlet passage (36) Grooves

Oil from the hydraulic tank goes into pump housing (21) through inlet port (5). The oil goes through inlet passages (32) and (31) in plate (26). The oil then enters cylinder passage (30) of angle cylinder (25). Cylinder passage (30) is positioned over inlet passage (31). Angle cylinder (25) turns. The openings of passage (30) in angle cylinder (25) rotate. The openings line up with the position of passage (31).

The displacement of pistons (24) changes depending on the position of angle cylinder (25). The piston draws oil by moving out of the bore of angle cylinder (25). Oil is pushed ahead of the piston as the piston moves through the bore. The oil that is pushed ahead of the piston goes through passage (30) and then through outlet passage (35) in valve plate (26). The oil passes through the drive pump through outlet port (9). The oil flows to the hydraulic circuit.

g00293030 Illustration 33
g00293030
Illustration 33

(26) Valve plate (drive pump) (37) Valve plate (idler pump)

Valve plate (26) moves on machined grooves (36) of housing (21). Housing (21) has a circular contour. Center hole (33) of valve plate (26) holds one end of trunnion (20). The other end of the trunnion is held to piston (27) of regulator (17). Piston (27) moves in and out during regulator operation. Trunnion (20) is connected to valve plate (26). Therefore, the angle cylinder will move to a new position. Valve plate (26) moves in radial direction (C), and the angle cylinder decreases the angle of position. The stroke of pistons (24) decreases, and the pump output will decrease. When valve plate (26) moves in radial direction (D), pump output will increase.

Inlet oil is sealed from outlet oil by a metal seal. The seal is formed between the face of valve plate (26) and the face of angle cylinder (25). On the opposite side of valve plate (26), a seal is made with the face of grooves (36). The sealing faces are made with precision in order to protect the faces from damage during disassembly and assembly.

Valve plate (26) in the drive pump is not similar to valve plate (37) in the idler pump. Use extra care to install valve plates (26) and (37) in the correct position.

i01638292

Pump Control (Main Hydraulic)

SMCS Code: 3222; 5070; 5086

31

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Main Pump Regulator

31 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Main Pump Regulator Illustration 34 Regulator (Idler Pump) (5) Passage

Illustration 34 Regulator (Idler Pump)

(5) Passage (7) Passage (8) Housing (9) Outlet port (idler pump) (10) Outlet passage (11) Negative flow control line (idler pump) (12) Port (13) Piston (14) Control piston (15) Passage (17) Passage (18) Spring

(19) Bushing (20) Passage (21) Pin (22) Spring (23) Line (power shift pressure) (24) Control piston (25) Passage (26) Spring chamber (27) Spring (28) Spring (29) Spring spacer (30) Spring

g00704757

(31) Trunnion (32) Piston (33) Bolt (34) Ring (35) Passage (37) Piston chamber (38) Bolt (57) Idler pump delivery pressure (58) Drive pump delivery pressure (59) Negative flow control pressure (60) Power shift pressure

32

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

g00847844 Illustration 35
g00847844
Illustration 35

Pump Compartment

(11) Negative flow control line (idler pump) (23) Line (power shift pressure) (39) Regulator (idler pump) (41) Regulator (drive pump) (42) Negative flow control line (drive pump)

See the following list for the pump regulator operation.

The pump regulator receives power shift pressure (60) from the electronic control system. The pump regulator controls the pump flow.

The pump regulator maintains a constant horsepower between the engine and the pump. The pump regulator receives a summation of idler pump delivery pressure (57) and drive pump delivery pressure (58). This operation is called the horsepower control characteristic.

When the control levers are in NEUTRAL position or in PARTIAL position, the pump regulator receives the negative flow control pressure (59). Negative flow control pressure (59) controls the pump output flow. This is called the negative flow control.

The pump regulator of the idler pump and drive pump are identical in construction and in operation. The following description identifies the idler pump regulator.

Oil from the idler pump flows to pump regulator (39). Oil from the idler pump goes through passages (10) and (7) in housing (8) to passages (15) and (17). Oil through passage (15) controls piston (14). Oil through passage (17) goes to passage (25). Also, oil goes to piston chamber (37) through passage (35). Oil from the drive pump goes through passage (5) to control piston (14).

Power shift pressure (60) goes through line (23) to a port on the pump regulator. The port is common to idler pump regulator (39) and drive pump regulator

(41).

During the horsepower control characteristic, both idler pump delivery pressure (57) and drive pump delivery pressure (58) act against the rings of control piston (14) while power shift pressure (60) is acting against the top end face of control piston (14). Control piston (14), pin (21), and control piston (24) shift in order to control the pump output.

During negative flow control, negative flow control pressure (59) from line (11) acts against the top surface of piston (13). Control piston (14) shifts in order to move control piston (24) for pump flow control.

Note: For further information on the horsepower control characteristic and negative flow control, refer to the Regulator Operationsection in this module.

33

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Regulator Operation

Horsepower Control Characteristic (Period Before Decreased Pump Stroke)

g00704758 Illustration 36
g00704758
Illustration 36

Regulator Operation

(5) Passage (14) Control piston (15) Passage (17) Passage (21) Pin (22) Spring (24) Control piston (25) Passage (26) Spring chamber (27) Spring (30) Spring (31) Trunnion (32) Piston (33) Bolt (34) Ring (35) Passage (37) Piston chamber (38) Bolt

(45) Idler pump (57) Idler pump delivery pressure (58) Drive pump delivery pressure (60) Power shift pressure

33 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Regulator Operation Horsepower Control Characteristic (Period Before Decreased Pump Stroke)

Illustration 37 Regulator Operation (Partial View)

(5) Passage (14) Control piston (15) Passage (17) Passage (20) Passage (21) Pin (22) Spring (24) Control piston (25) Passage (26) Spring chamber (27) Spring (47) Top surface (48) Passage (49) Passage (57) Idler pump delivery pressure (58) Drive pump delivery pressure (60) Power shift pressure

g00704760

34

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

When the machine operates with a low load, pump pressure acts on control piston (14). Idler pump delivery pressure (57) from passage (15) and drive pump delivery pressure (58) from passage (5) act on the ring grooves of control piston (14). Control piston (14) pushes down against pin (21). The force tries to move control piston (24) in the downward direction. Control piston (24) does not move down because the total forces of idler pump delivery pressure (57), drive pump delivery pressure (58) and power shift pressure (60) are less than the combined forces of springs (22), (27) and (30). The force of spring (30) is less than spring (27). Spring (30) is compressed before spring (27) is compressed. Passage (48) closes and passage (49) opens making an open connection between passage (25) and spring chamber (26). Tank pressure in spring chamber (26) acts on the bottom surface of ring (34). Idler pump delivery pressure (57) in piston chamber (37) pushes down piston (32) and ring (34). When bolt (33) comes in contact with bolt (38) movement stops. The mechanical linkage of piston (32) and the cylinder through trunnion (31) hold the cylinder at the maximum angle position. This allows the pump to maintain the maximum output flow.

Horsepower Control Characteristic (Period Before Destroke)

g00704761 Illustration 38
g00704761
Illustration 38

Regulator Operation

35

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

(5) Passage (14) Control piston (15) Passage (17) Passage (20) Passage (21) Pin (22) Spring (24) Control piston (25) Passage (26) Spring chamber (27) Spring (28) Spring (30) Spring (31) Trunnion (32) Piston (34) Ring (35) Passage (37) Piston chamber (45) Idler pump (50) Set screw (57) Idler pump delivery pressure (58) Drive pump delivery pressure (60) Power shift pressure

35 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section (5) Passage (14) Control piston (15) Passage (17) Passage (20)

Illustration 39 Regulator Operation (Partial View)

(5) Passage (14) Control piston (15) Passage (17) Passage (20) Passage (21) Pin (22) Spring (24) Control piston (25) Passage (26) Spring chamber (27) Spring (47) Top surface (48) Passage (49) Passage (50) Set screw (57) Idler pump delivery pressure (58) Drive pump delivery pressure (60) Power shift pressure

g00704762

An increased load on the main pump increases idler pump delivery pressure (57) from passage (15) and increases drive pump delivery pressure (58) from passage (5). The force acts on ring grooves of piston (14).

The combined forces of increased power shift pressure (60) through passage (20) acts on top surface (47) of control piston (14) to overcome the total forces of springs (22) and (30). Control piston (14) pushes down on control piston (24) through pin (21). Passage (49) closes and passage (48) opens. Therefore, idler pump delivery pressure (57) from passage (17) goes through passage (25) to the bottom surface of ring (34).

36

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Idler pump delivery pressure (57) acts on the top surface of ring (34). Therefore, oil is supplied to piston chamber (37) through passage (35). Idler pump delivery pressure (57) is common to both top and bottom surfaces of ring (34). The bottom surface area of ring (34) is larger than the top surface area. Therefore, ring (34) pushes up piston (32) against the forces of springs (30) and (28). The mechanical linkage of piston (32) and the cylinder through trunnion (31) cause the cylinder to move in a smaller angular direction. Therefore, the pump stroke decreases.

As piston (32) moves up, spring (30) compresses. Spring (30) pushes up on control piston (24). Passage (48) closes and passage (49) partially opens. Therefore, oil flows from passage (25) to spring chamber (26). Because spring chamber (26) is open to tank pressure, the pressure on the bottom surface of ring (34) becomes less than idler pump delivery pressure (57). Piston (32) starts to stop upward movement. When the force of idler pump delivery pressure (57) on the top surface of ring (34) becomes more than the force on the bottom surface, piston (32) starts to move down. Because of the decreased compression force of spring (30), control piston (24) also starts to move down. Passage (49) now closes and passage (48) partially opens. Piston (32) now starts to move up again because of idler pump delivery pressure (57) through passage (25) to the bottom surface of the ring.

When the idler pump delivery pressure (57) compresses spring (27), pistons (24) and (32) operate.

Idler pump delivery pressure (57) is equal to the combined force of springs (28), (30), and (27). Piston (32) is in a balanced position and the angle of the cylinder is held at this point. Control piston (24) is held at a balanced position by keeping the openings slightly opened at passages (48) and (49).

Turning set screw (50) changes the compression force of spring (22) which changes the pump output flow. Increased compression force of the spring increases the pump output flow.

Negative Flow Control

36 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Idler pump delivery pressure (57) acts on the top surface

Illustration 40 Negative Flow Control Operation (Partial View)

g00704763

37

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

(11) Negative flow control line (idler pump) (12) Port (13) Piston (14) Control piston (17) Passage (19) Bushing (21) Pin (24) Control piston (27) Spring (28) Spring (30) Spring (32) Piston (45) Idler pump (47) Top surface (48) Passage (49) Passage (51) Passage (52) Center bypass passage (53) Negative flow control orifice (54) Main control valve (55) Spring spacer (56) Spring spacer (57) Idler pump delivery pressure (58) Drive pump delivery pressure (59) Negative flow control pressure (60) Power shift pressure

The rate of oil flow through center bypass passage (52) in main control valve (54) is maximum when all control levers are in NEUTRAL position. When the control levers are partially moved for a leveling operation, part of idler pump oil flows to passage (51) in order to decrease the rate of oil flow in passage (52).

The oil flow in center bypass passage (52) is then restricted at negative flow control orifice (53). Negative flow control pressure (59) now develops in line (11). Negative flow control pressure (59) is dependent on the rate of oil flow through center bypass passage (52). Negative flow control pressure (59) is maximum when all control levers are in NEUTRAL position. The pump output flow is minimum.

Note: For more information on negative flow control pressure (59), see Systems Operation, Main Control Valve.

Negative flow control pressure (59) in line (11) enters the regulator through port (12). The force acts on the top surface of piston (13). Piston (13) tries to move down. Power shift pressure (60) acts on top surface (47) of control piston (14). Idler pump delivery pressure (57) and drive pump delivery pressure (58) act on the body of control piston (14). The combination acts on the inner surface of bushing (19). Bushing (19) tries to push up on piston (13).

Negative flow control pressure (59) acts on piston (13). The force which acts on piston (13) becomes greater than the force which acts on bushing (19). Piston (13) moves down allowing the negative flow control to function. When piston (13) moves down, bushing (19) is pushed down. Bushing (19) pushes down control piston (14). The cylinder decreases the angle of the cam which destrokes the pump. This operation is similar to the horsepower control characteristic.

All control levers are in NEUTRAL position because negative flow control pressure (59) is maximum. Control piston (14) pushes down against pin (21). Pin (21) moves control piston (24) down opening passage (48). Idler pump delivery pressure (57) or drive pump delivery pressure (58) from passage (17) pushes piston (32) upward. The movement of piston (32) compresses springs (27), (28) and (30). When the top surface of spring spacer (56) comes in contact with spring spacer (55), control piston (24) and piston (32) are pushed up by the force of idler pump delivery pressure (57) or drive pump delivery pressure (58). A pressure balance is attained. Control piston (24) remains in the balance position in order to keep the openings of passages (48) and (49) slightly open. This operation is similar to the horsepower control characteristic. The cylinder is now held at the minimum angle position for minimum pump output flow.

When the control levers are partially moved, negative flow control pressure (59) gradually decreases force on piston (13). The forces of compressed springs (27) and (30) overcome the force of the decreased negative flow control pressure (59). Therefore, control piston (24) moves up before spring spacer (56) comes in contact with spring spacer (55). During a leveling operation, the pump output flow is controlled between a minimum and a maximum. The flow depends on negative flow control pressure (59).

When piston (13) moves up due to a lower negative flow control pressure (59), the total horsepower control functions.

38

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Pressure/Flow Characteristic Curves

38 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Pressure/Flow Characteristic Curves Illustration 41 P-Q Characteristic Curves (1) Destroked

Illustration 41 P-Q Characteristic Curves (1) Destroked position (2) Horsepower characteristics

g00297449

The output characteristics of each pump depends on the following four pressures.

Pump output circuit pressure of top pump

Pump output circuit pressure of bottom pump

Power shift pressure

Negative flow control pressure

After a pump starts to operate, each pump has a set of pressure/flow characteristic curves. The pressure/flow characteristic curve represents a set of flow rates for distinct pump circuit pressures. Each point on horsepower characteristic (2) represents the respective flow rate and the respective pressure in order to maintain a constant output from the pump.

Main Control Valve

i01630775

Main Control Valve

SMCS Code: 5051

39

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

40

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Illustration 42

g00847201

41

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Hydraulic schematic

(1) Stick drift reduction valve (2) Line relief valve (stick cylinder rod end) (3) Boom drift reduction valve (4) Line relief valve (boom cylinder head end) (5) Return port (6) Main control valve (7) Stick regeneration valve (8) Load check valve (9) Parallel feeder passage (10) Straight travel solenoid valve (11) Right travel control valve (12) Attachment control valve (13) Bucket control valve (14) Center bypass passage (15) Boom I control valve (16) Stick II control valve (17) Relief valve (negative flow) (18) Straight travel control valve (19) Relief valve (negative flow) (20) Negative flow control orifice (21) Boom II control valve (22) Stick I control valve (23) Center bypass passage (24) Swing control valve (25) Left travel control valve (26) Load check valve (27) Boom regeneration valve (28) Line relief valve (boom cylinder rod end) (29) Negative flow control orifice (30) Line relief valve (stick cylinder head end) (31) Variable swing priority valve (32) Main relief valve (33) Stick unloading valve (34) Line relief valve (bucket cylinder rod end) (35) Line relief valve (bucket cylinder head end) (36) Parallel feeder passage (37) Inlet port (drive pump) (38) Negative flow control line (drive pump) (39) Inlet port (Idler pump) (40) Negative flow control line (idler pump) (41) Drive pump (42) Pilot pump (43) Idler pump (44) Hydraulic tank

42

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

42 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 43 Main control valve ports g00689563

Illustration 43 Main control valve ports

g00689563

43

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

(AR1) Right travel control valve (REVERSE TRAVEL) (AR2) Attachment control valve (port) (AR3) Bucket control valve (BUCKET CLOSE) (AR4) Boom I control valve (BOOM LOWER) (AR5) Stick II control valve (STICK IN) (BR1) Right travel control valve (FORWARD TRAVEL) (BR2) Attachment control valve (port) (BR3) Bucket control valve (BUCKET OPEN) (BR4) Boom I control valve (BOOM RAISE) (BR5) Stick II control valve (STICK OUT) (AL1) Left travel control (REVERSE TRAVEL) (AL2) Swing control valve (SWING LEFT) (AL3) Stick I control valve (STICK IN) (AL4) Boom II control valve (BOOM RAISE) (BL1) Left travel control valve (FORWARD TRAVEL) (BL2) Swing control valve (SWING RIGHT) (BL3) Stick I control valve (STICK OUT) (aR1) Pilot port at right travel control valve (REVERSE TRAVEL)

(aR2) Pilot port at attachment control valve (aR3) Pilot port at bucket control valve (BUCKET CLOSE) (aR4) Pilot port at boom I control valve (BOOM LOWER) (aR5) Pilot port at stick II control valve (STICK IN) (aL1) Pilot port at left travel control valve (REVERSE TRAVEL) (aL2) Pilot port at swing control valve (SWING LEFT) (aL3) Pilot port at stick I control valve (STICK IN) (aL4) Pilot port at boom II control valve (BOOM RAISE) (bR1) Pilot port at right travel control valve (FORWARD TRAVEL) (bR2) Pilot port at attachment control valve (bR3) Pilot port at bucket control valve (BUCKET OPEN) (bR4) Pilot port at boom I control valve (BOOM RAISE) (bR5) Pilot port at stick II control valve (STICK OUT)

(bL1) Pilot port at left travel control valve (FORWARD TRAVEL) (bL2) Pilot port at swing control valve (SWING RIGHT) (bL3) Pilot port at stick I control valve (STICK OUT) (bL4) Pilot port at boom II control valve (STICK IN) (DST) Drain port (straight travel control valve) (HL) Negative flow signal pressure port (drive pump) (HR) Negative flow signal pressure port (idler pump) (Pi1) Pilot port (boom regeneration valve) (Pi2) Pilot port (stick regeneration valve) (Pi3) Pilot port (variable swing priority valve) (Pi4) Pilot port (straight travel solenoid valve) (R2) Return port (R3) Return port

Introduction

g00689566 Illustration 44
g00689566
Illustration 44

(10) Straight travel solenoid valve (11) Right travel control valve (12) Attachment control valve (13) Bucket control valve (15) Boom I control valve (16) Stick II control valve (18) Straight travel control valve (21) Boom II control valve (22) Stick I control valve (24) Swing control valve (25) Left travel control valve (28) Line relief valve (boom cylinder rod end) (30) Line relief valve (stick cylinder head end) (32) Main relief valve (34) Line relief valve (bucket cylinder rod end) (45) Right body (46) Left body

43 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section (AR1) Right travel control valve (REVERSE TRAVEL) (AR2) Attachment control

Illustration 45 Main control valve (bottom view)

g00689579

(3) Boom drift reduction valve (4) Line relief valve (boom cylinder head end)

43 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section (AR1) Right travel control valve (REVERSE TRAVEL) (AR2) Attachment control

Illustration 46 Bottom view of main control valve

g00689582

(1) Stick drift reduction valve (2) Line relief valve (stick cylinder rod end)

44

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Main control valve (6) is located in the hydraulic system between the main pumps and actuators (cylinders and motors). Depending on the machine operation, the oil flow from idler pump (43), drive pump (41) and pilot pump (42) to the hydraulic circuits are controlled by the operation of each component in the main control valve. By this control, the speed and direction of the cylinders and the motors can be controlled and adjusted. The pump delivery pressure can be controlled and adjusted.

The main control valve includes right body (46) and left body (45). The main control valve is coupled together with bolts in order to make one assembly.

1. The right travel control valve (11), attachment control valve (12), bucket control valve (13), boom I control valve (15) and stick II control valve (16) are located in right body (46). Hydraulic oil from the idler pump is delivered through inlet port (39), center bypass passage (14) and return port (5) to hydraulic tank (44). In addition, the following components are located in right body (46).

  • a. The line relief valve (bucket cylinder rod end) (34) and the line relief valve (bucket cylinder head end) (35) limit the pressure in the bucket circuit due to external forces.

  • b. When the joysticks and/or travel levers/pedals are in the NEUTRAL position, or when the joysticks and/or travel levers/pedals are partially moved from the NEUTRAL position, negative flow control relief valve (19) and the negative flow control orifice (29) decrease the pump flow.

  • c. Boom drift reduction valve (3) prevents boom drift when the joystick for the boom is in the NEUTRAL position. The line relief valve (boom cylinder head end) (4) is mounted on the boom drift reduction valve. The line relief valve (boom cylinder rod end) (28) is also located on the right body.

  • d. Boom regeneration valve (27) supplies return oil from the head end of the boom cylinders to the rod end of the boom cylinders when the boom is lowered.

  • e. Load check valves (26) are part of the following control valves: attachment control valve (12), bucket control valve (13), boom I control valve (15), and stick II control valve (16).

1. Straight travel control valve (18), left travel control valve (25), swing control valve (24), stick I control valve (22) and boom II control valve (21) are located in left body (45). Hydraulic oil from the drive pump is delivered through inlet port (37), center bypass passage (23) and return port (5) to hydraulic tank (44). In addition, the following components are located in left body (45).

  • a. Stick drift reduction valve (1) prevents stick drift when the joystick for the stick is in the NEUTRAL position. The line relief valve (stick cylinder rod end) (2) is mounted on the stick drift reduction valve. The line relief valve (stick cylinder head end) (30) is also located on the left body.

  • b. When the joysticks and/or travel levers/pedals are in the NEUTRAL position, or when the joysticks and/or travel levers/pedals are partially moved from the NEUTRAL position, negative flow control relief valve (17) and the negative flow control orifice (20) decrease the pump flow.

  • c. Stick regeneration valve (7) supplies return oil from the rod end of the stick cylinder to the head end of the stick cylinder during the stick in function.

  • d. Stick unloading valve (33) reduces the back pressure in the rod end of the stick cylinder during the stick in function.

  • e. Load check valves (8) are part of the following control valves: swing control valve (24) and stick I control valve (22).

  • f. Main relief valve (32) limits the main hydraulic system pressure.

When the main control valve is in the NEUTRAL position, no pump oil flows to the cylinders and the motors. Main control valve operation in the NEUTRAL position is described later in this section.

The main control valve controls the negative flow control signal. For more information on the negative flow control operation, refer to Systems Operation, Negative Flow Control.

The main control valve prevents cylinder drift with the load check valves. For more information on the load check valves, refer to Systems Operation, Check Valve (Load).

45

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

The main control valve limits the circuit pressure with relief valve operation. For more information on the limitation of circuit pressure, refer to Systems Operation, Relief Valve (Main)and Systems Operation, Relief Valve (Line).

The description of other components that are installed on the main control valve or in the main control valve will be listed separately. Refer to the appropriate sections that are in this manual for further information on the components.

Main Control Valve Operation in NEUTRAL Position

45 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section The main control valve limits the circuit pressure with relief

Illustration 47 Main control valve (neutral position)

(1) Stick II control valve (2) Boom I control valve (3) Bucket control valve (4) Attachment control valve (5) Right travel control valve (6) Parallel feeder passage (7) Inlet port (8) Straight travel control valve

(9) Left travel control valve (10) Parallel feeder passage (11) Swing control valve (12) Stick I control valve (13) Boom II control valve (14) Right body (15) Left body (16) Negative flow control orifice

The idler pump supplies oil to right body (14) through inlet port (7). The oil then flows through center bypass passage (20) and parallel feeder passage (6). The drive pump supplies oil to left body (15) through inlet port (21). The oil then flows through center bypass passage (22) and parallel feeder passage (10).

g00747315

(17) Return port (18) Negative flow control orifice (19) Return passage (20) Center bypass passage (21) Inlet port (22) Center bypass passage (23) Return passage

46

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

When all of the joysticks and/or travel levers/pedals are in the NEUTRAL position, hydraulic oil from the idler pump flows through center bypass passage (20), negative flow control orifice (18), return passage (19), return passage (23) and return port (17) back to the hydraulic tank. Hydraulic oil from the drive pump from inlet port (21) flows through center bypass passage (22), negative flow control orifice (16) and return port (17) back to the hydraulic tank. Oil in parallel feeder passages (6) and (10) remains blocked by each control valve spool.

Activation of any joystick and/or travel levers/pedals provides two paths for hydraulic oil from the idler pump. One path flows through center bypass passage (20) to right travel control valve (5). The other path flows through parallel feeder passage (6), attachment control valve (4), bucket control valve (3) and boom I control valve (2). Activation of any joystick and/or travel levers/pedals also provides two paths for hydraulic oil from the drive pump. One path flows through center bypass passage (22) to left travel control valve (9) and stick I control valve (12). The other path flows through parallel feeder passage (10) to swing control valve (11).

Individual Valve Operation

46 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section When all of the joysticks and/or travel levers/pedals are in

Illustration 48 Bucket control valve (NEUTRAL position)

g00747317

(1) Line relief valve (bucket cylinder rod end) (2) Port (3) Parallel feeder passage (4) Load check valve (5) Passage (6) Port (7) Line relief valve (bucket cylinder head end) (8) Pilot port (9) Pilot port (10) Return passage (11) Spool (12) Center bypass passage (13) Spring

The bucket control valve is used as a typical example for describing the operation of individual control valves.

When the joysticks and/or travel levers/pedals are in the NEUTRAL position, pilot oil does not flow to port (8) and port (9). Spool (11) is centered in the NEUTRAL position by the force of spring (13). The hydraulic oil from the idler pump flows through center bypass passage (12) to the hydraulic tank.

47

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

47 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 49 Bucket control valve BUCKET CLOSE (2) Port (3)

Illustration 49 Bucket control valve BUCKET CLOSE (2) Port (3) Parallel feeder passage (4) Load check valve (5) Passage (6) Port (8) Pilot port (10) Return passage (11) Spool (12) Center bypass passage (14) Passage (15) Passage

g00747318

When the joystick for the bucket is moved to the BUCKET CLOSE position, pilot oil is supplied to pilot port (8). Spool (11) moves to the left. Center bypass passage (12) is closed and passage (15) becomes opened. Port (14) is now connected to return passage (10).

Oil that is in parallel feeder passage (3) flows through load check valve (4), passage (5) and passage (15). The oil then flows to port (6). The bucket cylinder rod extends. When the bucket cylinder rod extends, the displaced oil in the rod end flows to port (2).

Oil flows through port (2) to return passage (14) and back to the hydraulic tank.

48

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

i01638137

Relief Valve (Main)

SMCS Code: 5069

48 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section i01638137 Relief Valve (Main) SMCS Code: 5069 Illustration 50 Cross

Illustration 50 Cross section of straight travel control valve and main relief valve

(1) Straight travel control valve (2) Main control valve (3) Right travel control valve (4) Check valve

(5) Check valve (6) Main relief valve (7) Delivery line (drive pump) (8) Delivery line (idler pump)

Main relief valve (6) is located in the left side of the main control valve. The main relief valve limits the maximum operating pressure of the travel hydraulic circuit and the implement hydraulic circuits when the machine is at a load condition.

(9) Drive pump (10) Idler pump (11) Internal passage

g00847892

49

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

The oil delivery from idler pump (10) enters main control valve (2) through delivery line (8). The oil delivery from drive pump (9) enters main control valve (2) through delivery line (7). Oil from the idler pump and the drive pump flow through check valves (4) and (5) to passage (11). Check valves (4) and (5) ensure that only the higher oil pressure from the idler pump or the drive pump flows through passage (11) to main relief valve (6).

Closed Position

49 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section The oil delivery from idler pump (10) enters main control

Illustration 51 Main relief valve (closed position) (11) Passage (12) Seat (13) Valve (14) Spring

(15) Spring chamber (16) Seat (17) Poppet (18) Spring

Poppet (17) is positioned to the left against seat (16) by the force of spring (18). Valve (13) is positioned to the left against seat (12) by the force of spring (14).

(19) Passage (20) Orifice (21) Return passage

g00677421

System pressure oil in passage (11) flows through orifice (20) into spring chamber (15). The force of the system pressure oil acts on poppet (17). When the force of system pressure oil in passage (11) is less than the force of spring (18), poppet (17) remains against seat (16). The pressure in passage (11) and the pressure in spring chamber (15) are now equal. System pressure oil in spring chamber (15) and the force of spring (14) maintain valve (13) against seat (12). There is no oil flow from passage (11) to return passage (21). When main pump oil pressure in passage (11) is less than the main relief pressure setting, main relief valve (6) remains in the closed position.

50

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Open Position

g00677470 Illustration 52 Main relief valve (open position) (11) Passage (12) Seat (13) Valve (14) Spring
g00677470
Illustration 52
Main relief valve (open position)
(11) Passage
(12) Seat
(13) Valve
(14) Spring
(15) Spring chamber
(16) Seat
(17) Poppet
(18) Spring
(19) Passage
(20) Orifice
(21) Return passage
(22) Passage
(23) Valve chamber
(24) Locknut
(25) Adjustment screw

System oil pressure in passage (11) and spring chamber (15) nears the main relief valve pressure setting. The force of the system oil pressure in spring chamber (15) becomes greater than the force of spring (18). Poppet (17) away from seat (16). System oil pressure now flows through seat (16) into valve chamber (23). The oil in valve chamber (23) now flows through passage (22) into return passage (21). This low pressure oil now returns to the hydraulic tank.

At the same time as the oil in spring chamber (15) flows through seat (16), the system pressure oil in passage (11) flows through orifice (20). As the system oil pressure flows through orifice (20) into spring chamber (15) the pressure of the oil in spring chamber (15) decreases. The reduced pressure oil in spring chamber (15) allows the high pressure oil in passage (11) to force valve (13) away from seat (12). The high pressure oil in passage (11) now flows into passage (19) and return passage (21) to the hydraulic tank.

The amount of spring force of spring (18) that acts on poppet (17) determines the main relief valve pressure setting. Adjustments to the main relief valve pressure setting are made by changing the spring force of spring (18). The position of adjustment screw (25) determines the spring force of spring (18).

Reference: Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Relief Valve (Main) - Test and Adjustfor adjustment procedures.

i01423093

Relief Valve (Line)

SMCS Code: 5117

Each line relief valve contains a makeup valve. The line relief valves are located between each cylinder and the respective control valve.

51

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

When the control valves for the cylinders are in the NEUTRAL position and an external force acts on one end of the cylinder, the oil pressure increases on the opposite end of the cylinder. The oil pressure also increases in the passage of the line relief valve that is connected to the cylinder. The line relief valve relieves the high pressure. The line relief valves limit the circuit pressure to the specified pressure settings.

Reference: Refer to Testing and Adjusting, Pressure Specificationsfor the line relief valve pressure settings.

51 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section When the control valves for the cylinders are in the

Illustration 53 Line relief valve (CLOSED position) (1) Passage (2) Valve (3) Valve

(4) Spring chamber (5) Valve (6) Spring

The high pressure between the cylinder and the control valve is transmitted to passage (1). This pressurizes the line relief valve. The pressure oil flows from passage (1) through passage (9) of piston (7). The oil then flows into spring chamber (4). When the oil pressure is lower than the line relief valve pressure setting, valve (5) remains in the CLOSED position by the force of spring (6). The oil pressure in passage (1) and the oil pressure in spring chamber (4) are equal. The surface area of the right side of valves (2) and (3) is larger than the surface area of the left side. The force on the right side of valves (2) and (3) is greater than the force on the left side. Valves (2) and (3) are forced to the left. The pressure oil does not flow from passage (1) to passage (8).

(7) Piston (8) Return passage (9) Passage

g00747346

52

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

52 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 54 Line relief valve (OPEN position) (1) Passage (3)

Illustration 54 Line relief valve (OPEN position) (1) Passage (3) Valve (4) Spring chamber (5) Valve

(6) Spring (7) Piston (8) Return passage (9) Passage

When the high pressure oil in passage (1) reaches the line relief valve pressure setting, valve (5) overcomes the force of spring (6) and opens. The high pressure oil flows from valve chamber (10) through passage (12) to return passage (8). The pressure now becomes low pressure. The pressure in passage (1) pushes piston (7) to the right until the piston comes in contact with the left end of valve (5). The oil in passage (1) flows around the end of piston (7) and the oil enters spring chamber (4). Since the flow around the outside of piston (7) is restricted, the oil in spring chamber (4) becomes low pressure oil. As a result, valve (3) is pushed to the right. Passage (11) opens. the oil flows from passage (1) to passage (8).

(10) Valve chamber (11) Passage (12) Passage

g00747348

53

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

53 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 55 Line relief valve (makeup operation) (1) Passage (2)

Illustration 55 Line relief valve (makeup operation) (1) Passage (2) Valve (3) Valve

(4) Spring chamber (8) Return passage (9) Passage

The line relief valve functions as a makeup valve in the following manner.

When oil from one end of the cylinder is discharged through the line relief valve, a vacuum condition is created on the opposite end of the cylinder. Makeup oil is needed to prevent the vacuum condition in the cylinder.

When the vacuum condition occurs on the end of the cylinder that is connected to passage (1), a vacuum condition also occurs in spring chamber (4). The pressure of the oil in passage (8) acts on shoulder (13) of valve (2). Since a vacuum condition is present in spring chamber (4), the pressure in spring chamber (4) is lower than the pressure of the return oil in passage (8). Valves (2) and (3) are pushed to the right by the pressure of the return oil in passage (8). Return oil flows from passage (8) to passage (1) as makeup oil in order to remove the vacuum condition in the cylinder.

i01638151

Check Valve (Load)

SMCS Code: 5472

The load check valve performs the following two functions.

The load check valve prevents unexpected movement of an implement when a joystick is initially activated at a low pump delivery pressure.

(13) Shoulder

g00747349

The load check valve prevents oil loss from a high pressure circuit to a lower pressure circuit.

54

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

54 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 56 Boom I control valve (partial shift) (1) Port

Illustration 56 Boom I control valve (partial shift) (1) Port (boom cylinder head end) (2) Passage (3) Spring (4) Load check valve

(5) Port (boom cylinder rod end) (6) Return passage (7) Parallel feeder passage (8) Spring

g00747355

(9) Pilot port (10) Spool (11) Center bypass passage

When the joystick for the boom is in the NEUTRAL position, spring (8) positions spool (10) in the center position. The idler pump is at a destroked position. The idler pump is delivering standby pressure to the boom I control valve. The pump delivery pressure in center bypass passage (11) and parallel feeder passage (7) is lower than the pressure in the boom cylinder head end at port (1). Load check valve (4) is in the CLOSED position.

Slight movement of the joystick for the boom toward the BOOM RAISE position causes low pilot oil pressure to enter port (9). Spool (10) shifts slightly to the right. The idler pump begins to move to an upstroke position. A passage partially opens allowing the oil from the rod end of the boom cylinders in port (5) to flow to return passage (6). A passage partially opens allowing the oil from the head end of the boom cylinders in port (1) to flow through passage (2). The work load pressure from the head end of the boom cylinders and the force of spring (3) now acts on load check valve (4). Since the pump delivery pressure is lower than the work load pressure in passage (2), load check valve (4) remains in the closed position. The oil in the boom cylinder head end is blocked.

55

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

55 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 57 Boom I control valve (full shift) (1) Port

Illustration 57 Boom I control valve (full shift) (1) Port (boom cylinder head end) (2) Passage (3) Spring (4) Load check valve

 

g00747356

(9) Pilot port (10) Spool (11) Center bypass passage

 

i01630792

(5) Port (boom cylinder rod end) (6) Return passage (7) Parallel feeder passage (8) Spring

As the joystick for the boom is moved farther from the NEUTRAL position, the pilot oil pressure at pilot port (9) increases. Spool (10) shifts farther to the right. The idler pump upstrokes farther. The pump delivery pressure in center bypass passage (11) and parallel feeder passage (7) increases. Load check valve (4) will not open until the pump delivery pressure becomes greater than the combined force of the work load pressure in passage (2) and the force of spring (8). Unexpected downward movement of the boom during a BOOM RAISE operation is prevented.

Load check valve (4) also prevents oil loss from a high pressure circuit to a lower pressure circuit. For example, the bucket cylinder is moved under a light load, and the boom cylinders are raised at the same time. The high pressure oil of the boom cylinders wants to flow toward the low pressure side of the bucket cylinder. The load check valve prevents the boom from lowering.

Negative Flow Control System

SMCS Code: 5050-NE; 5455

Introduction

The idler pump and the drive pump receive signal oil pressure from the center bypass passages of the main control valve. This signal oil pressure that is created in the center bypass passages of the main control valve is called negative flow control pressure. Negative flow control pressure flows to the regulators at the idler pump and the drive pump in order to control the output flow of the pumps. Negative flow control pressure is created during the following machine operating conditions.

All of the joysticks and travel levers/pedals are in the NEUTRAL position.

56

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Any of the joysticks and/or travel levers/pedals are partially moved from the NEUTRAL position in order to perform a fine control operation.

A boom lower operation is performed alone.

56 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Any of the joysticks and/or travel levers/pedals are partially moved

Illustration 58 Main control valve (top view)

g00819938

(12) Negative flow control line to drive pump (13) Negative flow control line to idler pump

The right body of the control valve receives supply oil from the idler pump. Negative flow control pressure from the right body of the main control valve flows through negative flow control line (13) to the idler pump. The left body of the control valve receives supply oil from the drive pump. Negative flow control pressure from the left body of the main control valve flows through negative flow control line (12) to the drive pump. The negative flow control operation of the idler pump and the drive pump is identical.

57

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

58

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Illustration 59

g00847913

59

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Negative flow control operation (control valves in the NEUTRAL position)

(1) Center bypass passage (2) Return line (3) Center bypass passage (4) Passage (5) Relief valve (negative flow control) (6) Relief valve (negative flow control) (7) Negative flow control orifice (8) Port (9) Negative flow control orifice (10) Passage (11) Return passage (12) Negative flow control line (13) Negative flow control line (14) Drive pump (15) Idler pump (16) Pilot pump

59 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Negative flow control operation (control valves in the NEUTRAL position)

Illustration 60 Bucket control valve (NEUTRAL position) (3) Center bypass passage

g00747365

Illustration 59 shows the negative flow control operation at the main control valve when all of the control valves are in the NEUTRAL position. When all of the joysticks and the travel levers/pedals are in the NEUTRAL position, the spools of the individual control valves are in the NEUTRAL position. Oil flow to the cylinders and motors is blocked. Center bypass passages (1) and (3) are open.

All of the oil delivery from idler pump (15) flows through center bypass passage (3), passage (4) and negative flow control orifice (9) to return line (2). Negative flow control orifice (9) restricts the oil flow. The pressure in passage (4) increases. Increased negative flow control pressure now flows through passage (10) and negative flow control line (13) to the pump regulator. The negative flow control operation of the idler pump regulator causes the swashplate of the idler pump to move to the minimum angle position. The output flow of the idler pump is decreased due to the increased negative flow control pressure that is created in center bypass passage (3).

Since center bypass passage (1) is also open, the negative flow control operation of the drive pump regulator is identical to the negative flow control operation of the idler pump regulator.

Reference: For more information concerning the negative flow control operation of the main pump regulators, refer to Systems Operation, Pump Control (Main Hydraulic).

60

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Illustration 61

g00847924

61

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Negative flow control operation (bucket control valve in the BUCKET CLOSE position)

(1) Center bypass passage (2) Return line (3) Center bypass passage (4) Passage (5) relief valve (negative flow control) (6) relief valve (negative flow control) (7) Negative flow control orifice (8) Port (9) Negative flow control orifice (10) Passage (11) Return passage (12) Negative flow control line (13) Negative flow control line (14) Drive pump (15) Idler pump (16) Pilot pump

61 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Negative flow control operation (bucket control valve in the BUCKET

Illustration 62 Bucket control valve (BUCKET CLOSE position) (3) Center bypass passage

g00747366

Illustration 61 shows the negative flow control operation at the main control valve when only the bucket control valve is in the BUCKET CLOSE position.

All of the control valves in the left body of the main control valve are in the NEUTRAL position. Center bypass passage (1) is open. All of the oil delivery from the drive pump flows through center bypass passage (1) to negative flow control orifice (7). Since all of the oil delivery from drive pump (14) is restricted by negative flow control orifice (7), negative flow control pressure (PN) in center bypass passage (1) is at maximum pressure. The negative flow control pressure flows through negative flow control line (12) to the drive pump regulator. The negative flow control operation of the drive pump regulator causes the swashplate of the drive pump to move to the minimum angle position. The output flow of the drive pump is decreased due to the increased negative flow control pressure that is created in center bypass passage (1).

The joystick for the bucket has been moved fully to the BUCKET CLOSE position. Pilot oil has fully shifted the bucket control valve. The oil delivery from idler pump (15) flows into the right body of the main control valve. The oil delivery flows through center bypass passage (3) to the bucket control valve. Since the spool in the bucket control valve is fully shifted, center bypass passage (3) is blocked. All of the oil delivery from the idler pump flows to the head end of the bucket cylinder. No oil flows to negative flow control orifice (9) and no negative flow control pressure is created in center bypass passage (3). Since no negative flow control pressure is sent to the idler pump regulator, the idler pump regulator moves the swashplate of the idler pump toward the maximum angle position. The output flow of the idler pump is increased since no negative flow control pressure is created in center bypass passage (3).

Fine Control Operation

61 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Negative flow control operation (bucket control valve in the BUCKET

Illustration 63 Bucket control valve (fine control) (3) Center bypass passage (21) Parallel feeder passage (22) Port (23) Spool (24) Passage (P) Pilot pressure

g00747367

When the joystick for the bucket is in the NEUTRAL position, spool (23) is in the NEUTRAL position. The oil delivery from the idler pump flows through center bypass passage (3) to negative flow control orifice (9). When the joystick for the bucket is partially moved from the NEUTRAL position in order to perform a fine control operation, pilot pressure (P) enters the control valve at the pilot port. Pilot pressure shifts spool (23) slightly to the left. The movement of spool (23) partially opens passage (24). Center bypass passage (3) is partially blocked.

62

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

The oil delivery from the idler pump is now divided into two flow paths. A portion of the oil delivery from the idler pump flows through center bypass passage (3) to negative flow control orifice (9). The remainder of the oil delivery from the idler pump flows through parallel feeder passage (21) and passage (24) to port (22). The oil flow from center bypass passage (3) to negative flow control orifice (9) decreases. The flow resistance through the negative flow control orifice decreases and the negative flow control pressure (PN) in passage (4) decreases. The negative flow control pressure that is sent to the regulator at the idler pump decreases. The pump regulator causes the swashplate of the idler pump to move toward the maximum angle position. The output flow of the pump is increased due to the decrease in negative flow control pressure (PN).

When the joystick for the bucket is moved to the full stroke position, spool (23) shifts fully to the left. Center bypass passage (3) is now blocked by spool (23). Since there is no oil flow through center bypass passage (24), no negative flow control pressure is created. The swashplate of the idler pump is moved to the maximum angle position. The output flow of the idler pump is maximum. The output flow of the idler pump is now controlled by the constant horsepower flow control.

The ability to modulate the negative flow control pressure by partial movement of the joystick enables fine control of the implements.

63

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Relief Valve (Negative Flow Control)

63 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Relief Valve (Negative Flow Control) Illustration 64 Relief valve (negative

Illustration 64 Relief valve (negative flow control) (2) Return line (3) Center bypass passage (4) Passage

(5)

(9) Negative flow control orifice (11) Return passage (17) Plug (18) Spring

g00747369

(19) Relief valve body (20) Valve (PN) Negative flow control pressure

The following description is given for the operation of the relief valve that is located in the right body of the main control valve. The operation of the relief valve for the negative flow control that is located in the left body of the main control valve is identical.

Relief valve (5) for the negative flow control consists of plug (17), spring (18), relief valve body (19) and valve (20). When any one of the joysticks and/or travel levers/pedals is at the full stroke position, the oil flow through center bypass passage (3) is blocked. No oil flows to the relief valve for the negative flow control.

When all of the joysticks and/or travel levers/pedals are suddenly returned to the NEUTRAL position, all of the output flow from the idler pump flows through center bypass passage (3). The negative flow control pressure in center bypass passage (3) and passage (4) suddenly increases. When the negative flow control pressure becomes higher than the pressure setting of relief valve (5) for the negative flow control, valve (20) shifts to the left against the force of spring (18). Oil in center bypass passage (3) is now allowed to flow past valve (20) into return passage (11) to the hydraulic tank. This prevents the hydraulic shock that occurs due to sudden changes in negative flow control pressure.

After the hydraulic shock is relieved by the relief valve for the negative flow control, the force of spring (18) shifts valve (20) to the right. All of the output flow from the idler pump flows through center bypass passage (3), negative flow control orifice (9) and return line (2) to the hydraulic tank.

Negative flow control pressure (PN), that is created in center bypass passage (3), reaches maximum pressure since all of the oil flow is restricted by negative flow control orifice (9). The negative flow control pressure flows to the idler pump regulator. The regulator at the idler pump causes the swashplate of the idler pump to move to the minimum angle position. The output flow of the idler pump is decreased due to the increase in negative flow control pressure (PN).

Boom System

i01630795

Boom Hydraulic System

SMCS Code: 5050-BM

Boom Raise (High Speed)

64

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Illustration 65

g00848007

65

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Hydraulic schematic for BOOM RAISE (high speed)

(1) Boom cylinders (2) Line (oil flow from boom cylinder rod end) (3) Line (oil flow to boom cylinder head end) (4) Valve (5) Boom drift reduction valve (6) Return line (7) Port (8) Parallel feeder passage (9) Return passage (10) Line (11) Main control valve (12) Passage (13) Check valve (14) Load check valve (15) Port (16) Boom II control valve (17) Parallel feeder passage (18) Return passage (19) Boom I control valve (20) Port (21) Pilot line (22) Pilot control valve (boom and bucket) (23) Pilot line (24) Pilot line (25) Pilot line (26) Pressure reducing valve for boom priority (27) Drive pump (28) Idler pump (29) Pilot pump (33) Spring (37) Spring

A BOOM RAISE operation at high speed is accomplished when the oil delivery from both drive pump (27) and idler pump (28) is supplied to the head end of boom cylinders (1). Boom I control valve (19) and boom II control valve (16) operate during the high speed operation. A BOOM RAISE operation at low speed is accomplished when the oil delivery from only idler pump (28) is supplied to the head end of boom cylinders (1). During the low speed operation, boom I control valve (19) operates alone.

65 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Hydraulic schematic for BOOM RAISE (high speed) (1) Boom cylinders

Illustration 66 Main control valve compartment

(16) Boom II control valve (19) Boom I control valve

g00747466

65 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Hydraulic schematic for BOOM RAISE (high speed) (1) Boom cylinders

Illustration 67 Boom drift reduction valve (bottom view) (5) Boom drift reduction valve

g00694273

The oil delivery from idler pump (28) flows through parallel feeder passage (17) in main control valve (11) to boom I control valve (19). The oil delivery from drive pump (27) flows through parallel feeder passage (8) in main control valve (11) to boom II control valve (16).

When the joystick for the boom is moved to the full BOOM RAISE position, the pilot oil flows from pilot control valve (22) through pilot line (24). The pilot oil flow then divides into two flow paths. Part of the pilot oil flows through pilot line (21) to port (7) of main control valve (11). The remainder of the pilot oil flows through pilot line (23) to port (20) of the main control valve.

A portion of the oil in pilot line (23) also flows through pilot line (25) to the pressure reducing valve for boom priority (26). During a combined operation of BOOM RAISE and STICK IN, the pilot oil flow to the pressure reducing valve for boom priority (26) causes the boom circuit to receive oil flow priority. This allows the boom to raise at a high speed.

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

g00747467 g00827976 Illustration 68 Boom I control valve (BOOM RAISE position) (14) Load check valve (17)
g00747467
g00827976
Illustration 68
Boom I control valve (BOOM RAISE position)
(14) Load check valve
(17) Parallel feeder passage
(18) Return passage
(20) Port
(30) Port
(31) Passage
(32) Passage
(33) Spring
(34) Passage
(35) Spool
Illustration 69
Boom II control valve (BOOM RAISE position)
(7) Port
(8) Parallel feeder passage
(13) Check valve
(15) Port
(36) Passage
(37) Spring
(38) Spool
(39) Passage
The pilot oil flow from port (20) shifts spool (35) of
boom I control valve (19) against the force of spring
(33). The oil delivery from the idler pump in parallel
feeder passage (17) flows through load check valve
(14), passage (31), passage (34) and port (30)
to boom drift reduction valve (5). The oil delivery
from the idler pump shifts valve (4) in boom drift
reduction valve (5) to the right. The oil delivery from
the idler pump then flows through line (3) to the
head end of boom cylinders (1).
The pilot oil flow in port (7) of boom II control valve
(16) shifts spool (38) against the force of spring
(37). The oil delivery from the drive pump in parallel
feeder passage (8) now flows through passage
(36), passage (39), check valve (13) and flows out
of port (15) to line (10). The oil delivery from the
drive pump combines with the oil delivery from the
idler pump at boom drift reduction valve (5). The
combined pump oil flows through passage (12) and
line (3) to the head end of boom cylinders (1).
Note: The swing priority valve does not affect the
boom II control valve.
Note: For more information on the boom drift
reduction valve, refer to Systems Operation, “Boom
Drift Reduction Valve”.
Return oil from the rod end of boom cylinders (1)
flows through line (2) to boom I control valve (19).
The oil then flows through passage (32), return
passage (18), return passage (9) and return line
(6) to the hydraulic tank.

Boom Raise (Low Speed)

When the joystick for the boom is moved less than half of the travel distance for BOOM RAISE, low pilot oil pressure is supplied to boom I control valve (19) and boom II control valve (16).

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

When the boom is raised at a low speed, boom I control valve (19) opens and boom II control valve (16) remains closed. The force of spring (33) in boom I control valve (19) is less than the force of spring (37) in boom II control valve (16). Because of the low pilot oil pressure, boom I control valve (19) will open and boom II control valve (16) will remain closed.

The oil delivery from idler pump (28) now flows to the head end of boom cylinders (1). Without the oil delivery from drive pump (27), the cylinder rod movement slows down when the boom is raised. The low speed operation of the boom is performed.

Boom Priority

68

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Illustration 70

g00848029

69

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Hydraulic schematic for BOOM RAISE and STICK IN (1) Boom cylinders (22) Pilot control valve (boom and bucket) (26) Pressure reducing valve for boom priority (40) Stick II control valve (41) Pilot control valve (stick and swing)

During combined operations of BOOM RAISE and STICK IN, the pilot oil pressure from the pilot control valve for the boom (22) activates the pressure reducing valve for boom priority (26). The pressure reducing valve for boom priority (26) causes oil flow priority to the head end of the boom cylinders (1) during this combined hydraulic operation.

When the joystick for the stick is moved to the STICK IN position, a portion of the pilot oil from the pilot control valve for the stick (41) flows through the pressure reducing valve for the boom priority (26) to the stick II control valve (40). As the joystick for the boom is moved farther from the NEUTRAL position during a BOOM RAISE operation, pilot oil pressure from the pilot control valve for the boom (22) increases. This gradual increase in pilot oil pressure causes the spool in the pressure reducing valve for the boom priority (26) to gradually shift.

A portion of the pilot oil that flows to stick II control valve (40) from the pilot control valve for the stick (41) is routed to the hydraulic tank. The pilot oil pressure that acts on stick II control valve (40) decreases. Stick II control valve (40) shifts toward the NEUTRAL position. The amount of oil flow from the main pumps to the stick hydraulic circuit decreases. This causes a greater portion of the oil flow from the main pumps to flow to the head end of the boom cylinders (1).

Since the pilot oil pressure from the pilot control valve for the boom (22) directly corresponds to the amount of movement or position of the joystick a gradual change to boom priority occurs. Thus, boom priority is controlled by the position of the joystick for the boom and boom priority automatically activates when the joystick reaches a certain position during a BOOM RAISE operation.

Boom Lower

70

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Illustration 71

g00848035

71

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Hydraulic schematic for BOOM LOWER

(1) Boom cylinders (2) Line (oil flow to boom cylinder rod end) (3) Line (oil flow from boom cylinder head end) (4) Valve (5) Boom drift reduction valve (14) Load check valve (16) Boom II control valve (17) Parallel feeder passage (18) Return passage (19) Boom I control valve (22) Pilot control valve (boom and bucket) (27) Drive pump (28) Idler pump (29) Pilot pump (33) Spring (42) Orifice (43) Boom regeneration valve (44) Port (45) Orifice (46) Negative flow control line (47) Center bypass passage (48) Port (50) Valve (51) Passage (52) Drain line (53) Passage (54) Pilot line (55) Pilot line

During a BOOM LOWER operation, the oil delivery from only idler pump (28) is supplied to boom cylinders (1) through boom I control valve (19). Boom I control valve (19) operates alone. Boom II control valve (16) is not operational in the BOOM LOWER operation.

The BOOM LOWER operation contains a regeneration circuit. When the joystick for the boom is moved to the BOOM LOWER position, orifice (42) in boom I control valve (19) and boom regeneration valve (43) are operational in the boom hydraulic circuit. The return oil flow from the head end of boom cylinders (1) flows through boom regeneration valve (43) to the rod end of the boom cylinders. The boom regeneration valve is described later in this section.

When the joystick for the boom is moved to the BOOM LOWER position, pilot oil from pilot control valve (22) flows through pilot line (54). The pilot oil flow then divides into three flow paths. Part of the pilot oil flows through port (48) to boom I control valve (19). Part of the pilot oil flows through port (44) to boom regeneration valve (43). The remainder of the pilot oil flows through pilot line (45) of boom drift reduction valve (5).

Since the pilot oil pressure has caused the spool in boom I control valve (19) to shift against the force of spring (33), the oil delivery from the idler pump that flows through center bypass passage (47) is restricted by orifice (45). The negative flow control pressure in negative flow control line (46) decreases. The idler pump upstrokes because of the negative flow control operation.

Reference: For more information concerning the negative flow control operation, refer to Systems Operation, Negative Flow Control.

71 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Hydraulic schematic for BOOM LOWER (1) Boom cylinders (2) Line

Illustration 72 Boom I control valve (BOOM LOWER position) (14) Load check valve (17) Parallel feeder passage (18) Return passage (30) Port (32) Port (33) Spring (35) Spool (42) Orifice (45) Orifice (48) Port (49) Passage

g00747471

The pilot oil flow from port (48) shifts spool (35) in boom I control valve (19) against the force of spring (33). The oil delivery from the idler pump in parallel feeder passage (17) flows through load check valve (14), passage (49) and port (32). The oil delivery from the idler pump then flows through line (2) to the rod end of boom cylinders (1).

The return oil from the head end of boom cylinders (1) flows through line (3) into boom drift reduction valve (5). Since valve (50) is shifted by the pilot pressure from pilot line (45), passage (51) is open to drain line (52). The return oil pressure shifts valve (4) to the right. The return oil in line (3) enters passage (53).

72

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

A portion of the return oil flows into port (30) of boom I control valve (19). The return oil flow is restricted by orifice (40). The return oil pressure in passage (53) increases. Most of the return oil flows through boom regeneration valve (43). The return oil is now supplied to the head end of the boom cylinders through line (2).

Boom Regeneration Valve

g00766273 Illustration 73 Boom regeneration valve (slow boom down) (11) Main control valve (43) Spool (boom
g00766273
Illustration 73
Boom regeneration valve (slow boom down)
(11) Main control valve
(43) Spool (boom regeneration valve)
(45) Pilot port
(53) Passage
(56) Passage
(57) Check valve

73

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

73 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 74 Boom regeneration valve (fast boom down) (11) Main

Illustration 74 Boom regeneration valve (fast boom down) (11) Main control valve (43) Spool (boom regeneration valve)

(45) Pilot port (53) Passage

The boom hydraulic circuit contains a regeneration circuit. This regeneration circuit allows the return oil from the head end of the boom cylinders to be supplied to the rod end of the boom cylinders during the BOOM LOWER operation.

When the joystick for the boom is moved to the BOOM LOWER position, pilot oil flow from the pilot control valve (boom and bucket) enters pilot port (44). Spool (43) in the boom regeneration valve shifts downward. The return oil from the head end of the boom cylinders flows through passage (53) and through the throttling slots on the spool for the boom regeneration valve to check valve (57). Check valve (57) opens and the return oil flows through passage (56). The return oil from the head end of the boom cylinders in passage (56) combines with the oil delivery from the idler pump. This combined oil now flows to the rod end of the boom cylinders.

The oil delivery from only the idler pump is used for the BOOM LOWER operation. Since the boom regeneration valve supplies return oil from the head end to the rod end of the boom cylinders, more efficient use of the oil delivery from the idler pump is achieved during a BOOM LOWER operation.

 

g00747472

(56) Passage (57) Check valve

 

i01426779

Boom Drift Reduction Valve

SMCS Code: 5143-BM

The boom drift reduction valve is placed in the boom circuit between the main control valve and the boom cylinders. When the joystick for the boom is in the NEUTRAL position, the boom drift reduction valve stops oil leakage from the head end of the boom cylinders . Stopping oil leakage prevents boom drift.

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Boom Raise

g00747497 Illustration 75 Boom drift reduction valve (BOOM RAISE) (1) Passage (2) Valve (3) Spring (4)
g00747497
Illustration 75
Boom drift reduction valve (BOOM RAISE)
(1) Passage
(2) Valve
(3) Spring
(4) Spring chamber
(5) Passage
(6) Port
(7) Port
(8) Port
(9) Passage
(11) Spool
(15) Port
(16) Boom drift reduction valve

When the joystick is moved to perform a BOOM RAISE operation, pilot oil is not sent from the pilot control valve to port (15) of boom drift reduction valve (16). Spool (11) does not shift.

The oil flow from the boom II control valve enters port (6) of the boom drift reduction valve. The oil flow from the boom I control valve enters port (7) of the boom drift reduction valve. The combined oil flow from ports (6) and (7) flows into passage (1). As the oil pressure in passage (1) increases, valve (2) shifts against the force of spring (3). The oil in spring chamber (4) flows through passages (5) and (9) to port (8). The oil delivery in passage (1) now flows through port (8) to the head end of the boom cylinders.

75

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Boom Lower

75 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Boom Lower Illustration 76 Boom drift reduction valve (BOOM LOWER)

Illustration 76 Boom drift reduction valve (BOOM LOWER) (1) Passage (2) Valve (3) Spring (4) Spring chamber (5) Passage

(6) Passage (7) Port (8) Port (11) Spool (13) Drain line

When the joystick is moved to perform a BOOM LOWER operation, pilot oil is sent from the pilot control valve to port (15) of boom drift reduction valve (16). Spool (11) shifts downward until the spool contacts plug (21). The oil in spring chamber (4) flows through passage (5), the passage in spool (11), spring chamber (20), passage (6), port (18) and drain line (13) to the hydraulic tank.

The return oil from the boom cylinder head end enters port (8). Since the pressure in spring chamber (4) is low, the oil in port (8) shifts valve (2) against the force of spring (3). The oil from the head end of the boom cylinders flows through port (8), passage (1) and passage (7) to the boom I control valve.

 

g00747498

(15) Port (16) Boom drift reduction valve (18) Port (20) Spring chamber (21) Plug

Stick System

 

i01631101

Stick Hydraulic System

SMCS Code: 5050

Stick Out

76

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Illustration 77

g00848045

77

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Hydraulic schematic for STICK OUT

(1) Stick cylinder (2) Line (oil flow from stick cylinder rod end) (3) Line (oil flow to stick cylinder head end) (4) Valve (5) Stick drift reduction valve (6) Main control valve (7) Line (8) Passage (9) Return passage (10) Return passage (11) Return passage (12) Center bypass passage (13) Stick II control valve (14) Center bypass passage (15) Load check valve (16) Check valve (17) Passage (18) Center bypass passage (19) Check valve (20) Boom II control valve (21) Stick I control valve (22) Parallel feeder passage (23) Return line (24) Pilot line (25) Pilot line (26) Pilot line (27) Pilot control valve (stick and swing) (28) Drive pump (29) Idler pump (30) Pilot pump

g00695552 Illustration 78 Main control valve
g00695552
Illustration 78
Main control valve

(13) Stick II control valve (21) Stick I control valve

77 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Hydraulic schematic for STICK OUT (1) Stick cylinder (2) Line

Illustration 79 Main control valve (bottom view) (5) Stick drift reduction valve

g00695556

When the stick hydraulic circuit is operated independently of other hydraulic circuits, stick I control valve (21) and stick II control valve (13) are operational for both the STICK IN operation and the STICK OUT operation. When the stick I control valve and the stick II control valve are operated, the oil delivery from idler pump (29) and drive pump (28 ) is combined. The oil delivery from both pumps flows to stick cylinder (1) in order to perform a stick operation.

The oil delivery from idler pump (29) flows through parallel feeder passage (22) in main control valve (6) to stick II control valve (13). The oil delivery from drive pump (28) flows through center bypass passage (18) in main control valve (6) to stick II control valve (21).

When the joystick for the stick is moved to the STICK OUT position, the pilot oil flows from pilot control valve (27) through pilot line (26). The pilot oil flow then divides into two flow paths. Part of the pilot oil flows through pilot line (24) to stick I control valve (21) in main control valve (6). The remainder of the pilot oil flows through pilot line (25) to stick II control valve (13) in the main control valve.

The pilot oil in pilot line (24) shifts the spool of stick I control valve (21). The oil delivery from drive pump (28) that is in center bypass passage (18) flows through load check valve (15), passage (17) and passage (8). The oil delivery from the drive pump then enters stick drift reduction valve (5). Valve (4) shifts to the left and the oil delivery flows through line (3) to the rod end of stick cylinder (1).

The pilot oil in pilot line (25) shifts the spool of stick II control valve (13). The oil delivery from idler pump (29) in center bypass passage (12) cannot flow through the stick II control valve to center bypass passage (14) and return passage (11). Part of the oil delivery from the idler pump now flows through check valve (16) and the stick II control valve to line (7). The remainder of the oil delivery from the idler pump flows through parallel feeder passage (22), check valve (19) and the stick II control valve to line (7). All of the oil delivery from the idler pump in line (7) flows to stick drift reduction valve (5) and combines with the oil delivery from the drive pump. The combined pump oil flows to the rod end of stick cylinder (1). This combined pump oil causes the cylinder to retract at an increased rate of speed.

Return oil from the head end of the stick cylinder flows through line (2) and return passage (9) to stick I control valve (21). The return oil then flows through return passage (10) and return line (23) to the hydraulic tank.

Stick In

78

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Illustration 80

g00848052

79

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Hydraulic schematic for STICK IN (fast with regeneration)

(1) Stick cylinder (2) Line (oil flow to stick cylinder rod end) (3) Line (oil flow from stick cylinder head end) (4) Valve (5) Stick drift reduction valve (6) Main control valve (9) Passage (10) Return passage (11) Return passage (12) Center bypass passage (13) Stick II control valve (15) Load check valve (16) Check valve (18) Center bypass passage (19) Check valve (21) Stick I control valve (22) Parallel feeder passage (23) Return line (27) Pilot control valve (stick and swing) (28) Drive pump (29) Idler pump (30) Pilot pump (31) Stick regeneration valve (32) Stick unloading valve (33) Pilot line (34) Pilot line (35) Pilot line (36) Pilot line (37) Passage (38) Pilot line (39) Pilot line (40) Pressure reducing valve for boom priority (41) Pilot line (42) Line (43) Passage (44) Passage (45) Passage (46) Passage (47) Passage (48) Check valve

The STICK IN operation contains a regeneration circuit. When the joystick for the stick is moved to the STICK IN position, stick regeneration valve (31) and stick unloading valve (32) are operational in the stick hydraulic circuit. The return oil from the rod end of stick cylinder (1) is supplied to the head end of the stick cylinder. The regeneration circuit makes more effective use of the return oil from the stick cylinder. This allows the oil delivery from the idler pump and the drive pump to perform other implement functions during a STICK IN operation.

When the joystick for the stick is moved to the STICK IN position, pilot oil from pilot control valve (27) flows through pilot line (33). The pilot oil flow then divides into several flow paths. Part of the pilot oil flows through pilot line (34), pilot line (35) and pilot line (36) to stick I control valve (21). The pilot oil in pilot line (36) also flows through passage (37) in stick drift reduction valve (5). Part of the pilot oil flows through pilot line (38) to stick regeneration valve (31). The remainder of the pilot oil flows through pilot line (39), the pressure reducing valve for boom priority (40) and pilot line (41) to stick II control valve (13).

Since the pilot oil pressure has caused the spool in stick I control valve (21) to shift downward, the oil delivery from the drive pump flows through center bypass passage (18), load check valve (15), stick I control valve (21) and passage (9) to line (2).

The pilot oil pressure in pilot line (41) has caused the spool in stick II control valve (13) to shift downward. Part of the oil delivery from the idler pump that is in center bypass passage (12) flows through check valve (16) and stick II control valve (13) to line (42). The remainder of the oil delivery from the idler pump flows through parallel feeder passage (22), check valve (19) and stick II control valve (13) to line (42). All of the oil delivery from the idler pump in line (42) flows to line (2) and combines with the oil delivery from the drive pump. The combined pump oil flows to the head end of stick cylinder (1).

The return oil from the rod end of the stick cylinder flows through line (3) to stick drift reduction valve (5). Valve (4) in the stick drift reduction valve shifts to the left and the return oil enters passage (43). Part of the return oil in passage (43) flows through stick I control valve (21), return passage (10) and return line (23) to the hydraulic tank. The remainder of the return oil flows through the regeneration circuit to the head end of the stick cylinders.

80

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Illustration 81

g00848059

81

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Hydraulic schematic for STICK IN (slow without regeneration)

(1) Stick cylinder (2) Line (oil flow to stick cylinder rod end) (3) Line (oil flow from stick cylinder head end) (4) Valve (5) Stick drift reduction valve (6) Main control valve (9) Passage (10) Return passage (11) Return passage (12) Center bypass passage (13) Stick II control valve (15) Load check valve (16) Check valve (18) Center bypass passage (19) Check valve (21) Stick I control valve (22) Parallel feeder passage (23) Return line (27) Pilot control valve (stick and swing) (28) Drive pump (29) Idler pump (30) Pilot pump (31) Stick regeneration valve (32) Stick unloading valve (33) Pilot line (34) Pilot line (35) Pilot line (36) Pilot line (37) Passage (38) Pilot line (39) Pilot line (40) Pressure reducing valve for boom priority (41) Pilot line (42) Line (43) Passage (44) Passage (45) Passage (46) Passage (47) Passage (48) Check valve

When the stick is slowly moved in, the pilot pressure does not shift stick II control valve (13) and the pilot pressure does not shift stick regeneration valve (31).

82

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Stick Regeneration Valve

82 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Stick Regeneration Valve Illustration 82 Stick regeneration valve (6) Main

Illustration 82 Stick regeneration valve

(6) Main control valve (9) Passage

(31) Stick regeneration valve (38) Pilot line

The stick hydraulic circuit contains a regeneration circuit. This regeneration circuit allows the return oil from the rod end of the stick cylinder to be supplied to the head end of the stick cylinder during the STICK IN operation.

When the joystick for the stick is moved to the STICK IN position, pilot oil flow from the pilot control valve (stick and swing) flows through pilot line (38). Stick regeneration valve (31) shifts downward. The return oil from the rod end of the stick cylinder flows through passage (43) and through the throttling slots on valve (31) to check valve (48). Check valve (48) opens and the return oil flows through passage (9). The return oil from the rod end of the stick cylinder in passage (9) combines with the oil delivery from the idler pump and the drive pump. This combined oil flow now flows into the head end of the stick cylinder.

(43) Passage (48) Check valve

g00747505

83

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Stick Unloading Valve

g00747506 Illustration 83 Stick unloading valve (6) Main control valve (9) Passage (31) Stick regeneration valve
g00747506
Illustration 83
Stick unloading valve
(6) Main control valve
(9) Passage
(31) Stick regeneration valve
(32) Stick unloading valve
(38) Pilot line
(43) Passage
(44) Passage
(46) Passage
(47) Passage
(49) Passage
(50) Spring

Stick unloading valve (32) works in conjunction with stick regeneration valve (31) in order to relieve high pressure in the head end of the stick cylinder during a STICK IN operation.

When the joystick for the stick is moved to the STICK IN position, pilot oil flow from the pilot control valve (stick and swing) flows through pilot line (38). Stick regeneration valve (31) shifts downward. The return oil from the rod end of the stick cylinder flows through passage (43) and through the throttling slots on valve (31) to check valve (48). Check valve (48) opens and the return oil flows through passage (9). The return oil from the rod end of the stick cylinder in passage (9) combines with the oil delivery from the idler pump and the drive pump. This combined oil flow now flows into the head end of the stick cylinder.

Because of the volume of oil that is forced into the head end of the stick cylinder during the regeneration cycle of the STICK IN operation, the pressure of the oil in the head end of the stick cylinder increases. The high pressure oil flows through passage (9) and passage (44). The high pressure oil now acts on the end of stick unloading valve (32). When the force of the high pressure oil becomes greater than the force of spring (50), the stick unloading valve shifts downward. The return oil from the rod end of the stick cylinder in passage (43) flows past the throttling slots on stick regeneration valve (31), through passage (49), through stick unloading valve (32) and passage (47) and into the return circuit to the hydraulic tank. The return oil from the rod end of the stick cylinder is quickly unloaded. At this time, the regeneration circuit for the stick cylinder is inoperable.

84

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

When the oil pressure at the head end of the stick cylinder decreases, the oil pressure that acts on the end of stick unloading valve (32) also decreases. The force of spring (50) shifts the stick unloading valve upward. The return oil from the rod end of the stick cylinder is supplied to the head end of the stick cylinder. The regeneration circuit is again operable.

i01310189

Stick Drift Reduction Valve

SMCS Code: 5143-JJ

The stick drift reduction valve is placed in the stick circuit between the main control valve and the stick cylinder. When the joystick for the stick is in the NEUTRAL position, the stick drift reduction valve stops oil leakage from the rod end of the stick cylinder. Stopping oil leakage prevents stick drift.

85

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Stick Out

g00694228 Illustration 84 Stick drift reduction valve (STICK OUT) (1) Passage (2) Valve (3) Spring (4)
g00694228
Illustration 84
Stick drift reduction valve (STICK OUT)
(1) Passage
(2) Valve
(3) Spring
(4) Spring chamber
(5) Passage
(6) Port
(7) Port
(8) Port
(9) Passage
(11) Spool
(15) Port
(16) Stick drift reduction valve

When the joystick is moved to perform a STICK OUT operation, pilot oil is not sent from the pilot control valve to port (15) of stick drift reduction valve (16). Spool (11) does not shift.

The oil flow from the stick II control valve enters port (6) of the stick drift reduction valve. The oil flow from the stick I control valve enters port (7) of the stick drift reduction valve. The combined oil flow from ports (6) and (7) flows into passage (1). As the oil pressure in passage (1) increases, valve (2) shifts against the force of spring (3). The oil in spring chamber (4) flows through passages (5) and (9) to port (8). The oil delivery in passage (1) now flows through port (8) to the rod end of the stick cylinder.

86

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Stick In

86 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Stick In Illustration 85 Stick drift reduction valve (STICK IN)

Illustration 85 Stick drift reduction valve (STICK IN) (1) Passage (2) Valve (3) Spring (4) Spring chamber (5) Passage (6) Port (7) Port (8) Port

(11) Spool (13) Drain line (15) Port (16) Stick drift reduction valve (18) Port (20) Spring chamber (21) Passage (22) Plug

g00694231

When the joystick is moved to perform a STICK IN operation, pilot oil is sent from the pilot control valve to port (15) of stick drift reduction valve (16). Spool (11) shifts downward until the spool contacts plug (22). The oil in spring chamber (4) flows through passage (5), the orifice in spool (11), spring chamber (20), passage (21), port (18) and drain line (13) to the hydraulic tank.

Bucket System

i01631102

Bucket Hydraulic System

SMCS Code: 5050-YB

The return oil from the stick cylinder rod end enters port (8). Since the pressure in spring chamber (4) is low, the oil in port (8) shifts valve (2) against the force of spring (3). The oil from the rod end of the stick cylinder flows through port (8), passage (1) and passage (7) to the stick I control valve.

87

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

88

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Illustration 86

g00848088

89

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

(1) Pilot line (2) Line (3) Line (4) Bucket cylinder (5) Main control valve (6) Return line (7) Center bypass passage (8) Center bypass passage (9) Bucket control valve (10) Spring (11) Orifice (12) Load check valve (13) Spring (14) Negative flow control orifice (15) Pilot control valve (boom and bucket) (16) Parallel feeder passage (17) Return passage (18) Pilot line (19) Negative flow control line (20) Pilot oil manifold (21) Drive pump (22) Idler pump (23) Pilot pump

The oil delivery for the bucket hydraulic circuit is supplied by idler pump (22) only.

89 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section (1) Pilot line (2) Line (3) Line (4) Bucket cylinder

Illustration 87 (9) Bucket control valve

g00697166

The oil delivery from idler pump (22) flows through center bypass passage (8) in main control valve (5) to bucket control valve (9). The oil delivery from drive pump (21) flows through center bypass passage (7) in main control valve (5). Illustration 86 shows the main control valve when only the bucket hydraulic circuit is activated.

When the hydraulic activation control lever is in the UNLOCKED position, the oil delivery from pilot pump (23) flows through pilot oil manifold (20) to pilot control valve (15). When the joystick for the bucket is moved to the BUCKET CLOSE position, pilot oil flows through pilot control valve (15) and pilot line (1) to bucket control valve (9). The pilot oil pressure shifts the spool in the bucket control valve against spring (13). The pilot oil on the other end of the spool in the bucket control valve flows through pilot line (18) and pilot control valve (15) to the hydraulic tank.

Since the spool in the bucket control valve is fully shifted, center bypass passage (8) is blocked. None of the oil delivery from the idler pump flows to negative flow control orifice (14) and no negative flow control pressure is created in center bypass passage (8). Since no negative flow control pressure is sent through negative flow control line (19) to the idler pump regulator, the idler pump regulator moves the swashplate of the idler pump toward the maximum angle position. The output flow rate of the idler pump is increased and flows through parallel feeder passage (16), load check valve (12), bucket control valve (9) and line (3) to the head end of bucket cylinder (4).

Since the oil delivery for the bucket hydraulic circuit is supplied by the idler pump only, the negative control pressure in center bypass passage (7) is high. Drive pump (21) remains at the destroked position.

Reference: For more information concerning the negative flow control operation, refer to Systems Operation, Negative Flow Control.

The return oil from the rod end of the bucket cylinder flows through line (2), orifice (11) in bucket control valve (9), return passage (17) and return line (6) to the hydraulic tank. Orifice (11) restricts the return oil from the rod end of the bucket cylinder.

The BUCKET OPEN operation is similar to the BUCKET CLOSE operation.

When the joystick for the bucket is moved to the BUCKET OPEN position, pilot oil flow from pilot control valve (15) flows through pilot line (18) to the bucket control valve. The spool in the bucket control valve shifts against the force of spring (10). The oil delivery from the idler pump now flows to the rod end of the bucket cylinder.

When the joystick for the bucket is in the NEUTRAL position, springs (10) and (13) maintain the spool in the bucket control valve in the NEUTRAL position. The oil flow from the head end and the rod end of the bucket cylinder is blocked.

90

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Cylinders

i01468748

Cylinders (Boom, Stick and Bucket)

SMCS Code: 7562

g00766295 Illustration 88 (1) Rod end port (2) Head end port (3) Boom cylinder (4) Tube
g00766295
Illustration 88
(1) Rod end port
(2) Head end port
(3) Boom cylinder
(4) Tube
(5) Rod
(6) Snubber
(7) Piston
(8) Stick cylinder
(9) Snubber
(10) Bucket cylinder

91

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

g00766296 Illustration 89
g00766296
Illustration 89

Snubber operation

(6) Snubber

(11) Passage

When boom cylinders (3) or stick cylinder (8) moves close to the end of the extension stroke, passage (11) is restricted by snubber (6). The movement of the piston rod slows down before the piston rod stops.

Travel System

i01645775

Travel Hydraulic System

SMCS Code: 5050

Travel Control

91 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section g00766296 Illustration 89 Snubber operation (6) Snubber (11) Passage When
g00820118 Illustration 91 (1) Left travel motor (52) Travel brake valve g00766297 Illustration 90 Snubber operation
g00820118
Illustration 91
(1) Left travel motor
(52) Travel brake valve
g00766297
Illustration 90
Snubber operation (retracting rod)
(9) Snubber
(12) Passage
g00820120
Illustration 92

When stick cylinder (8) moves close to the end of the retraction stroke, passage (12) is restricted by snubber (9). The movement of the piston rod slows down before the piston rod stops. The shock load is absorbed when the piston is slowed down.

Final drive

(53) Track (54) Sprocket (55) Final drive

The output flow from the idler pump flows through the swivel to the right travel motor. The output flow from the drive pump flows through the swivel to the left travel motor. The pump delivery flow causes rotation of the travel motors. The torque of the travel motors is transmitted to the final drives. The rotational speed of the travel motors is reduced by gear reduction in the final drive. Final drive (55) increases the torque and the rotational force drives track (53) via sprocket (54).

92

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

92 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 93 Keypad (right console) (56) Travel speed control switch

Illustration 93 Keypad (right console) (56) Travel speed control switch

g00699127

The travel speed can be adjusted by the slight operation of the travel levers/pedals. The travel speed can also be controlled by travel speed control switch (56). This changes the travel speed when the travel levers/pedals are moved to the maximum position. The travel speed control switch can be set at the LOW SPEED position or the HIGH SPEED position. When the travel speed control switch is set at the LOW SPEED position, the tortoise appears on the default message display of the monitor. When the travel speed control switch is set at the HIGH SPEED position, the rabbit appears on the default message display of the monitor. During travel on a flat surface or during gradual downhill travel, the travel speed is set at the HIGH SPEED position in order to realize increased mobility.

When travel speed control switch (56) is set at the HIGH SPEED position, the pressure sensors for pump delivery pressure detect the change in pump load. If the pressure sensors detect a high load, the travel speed is automatically adjusted to LOW SPEED. If the pressure sensors detect a small load, the travel speed is automatically adjusted to HIGH SPEED.

93

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

g00699131 Illustration 94 Operation of travel (1) Left travel motor (15) Right travel motor (57) Forward
g00699131
Illustration 94
Operation of travel
(1) Left travel motor
(15) Right travel motor
(57) Forward travel
(58) Left travel lever/pedal
(59) Idler
(60) Right travel lever/pedal
(61) Cab
(62) Reverse travel

The direction of travel is relative to the position of the lower structure. For normal travel, idler (59) is positioned in front of cab (61) and travel motors (1) and (15) to the rear of the cab. With the machine in the normal position of travel, move the travel levers/pedals (58) and (60) forward. The machine will travel in forward direction (57). This movement is called forward travel. When the travel levers/pedals (58) and (60) are moved toward the operator, the machine travels in reverse direction (62). This direction is called reverse travel.

When cab (61) is rotated by 180 degrees, travel motors (1) and (15) are positioned in front of the cab. The direction of travel and the operation of the travel levers/pedals (58) and (60) are reversed from the normal travel direction.

When the machine is in the normal position of travel and when one of the travel levers/pedals (58) or (60) is moved forward, the respective track travels forward. The machine turns because the stationary track acts as the pivot point. This is called a pivot turn.

This machine will spot turn in order to change the travel direction of the machine in a narrow space. To complete a spot turn operation, move one travel lever/pedal to the rear and move the other travel lever/pedal forward at the same time. One track will travel to the rear and the other track will travel forward. The machine will spot turn around the center axis of the machine.

Forward Travel

94

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Illustration 95

g00850605

95

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Hydraulic schematic for FORWARD TRAVEL

(1) Left travel motor (2) Swashplate (3) Motor rotary group (4) Swashplate control piston (5) Passage (supply oil) (6) Brake pilot valve (7) Passage (8) Counterbalance valve (10) Parking brake (11) Passage (return oil) (12) Displacement change valve (13) Passage (14) Line (pilot system oil pressure) (15) Right travel motor (16) Swashplate (18) Passage (return oil) (20) Displacement change valve (21) Passage (supply oil) (22) Swashplate control piston (23) Passage (24) Passage (25) Passage (26) Passage (27) Line (pilot system oil pressure) (28) Line (return oil) (29) Line (supply oil) (30) Swivel (31) Line (supply oil) (32) Line (return oil) (33) Line (supply oil) (34) Line (return oil) (35) Passage (supply oil) (36) Passage (return oil) (37) Return passage (38) Left travel control valve (39) Passage (40) Center bypass passage (41) Right travel control valve (42) Pilot line (forward left travel) (43) Pilot line (forward right travel) (44) Travel pilot control valve (45) Return line (46) Pressure sensor for idler pump delivery (47) Pressure sensor for drive pump delivery (48) Travel speed solenoid valve (49) Drive pump (50) Idler pump (51) Pilot pump

g00820125 Illustration 96 Main control valve
g00820125
Illustration 96
Main control valve

(38) Left travel control valve (41) Right travel control valve

When both of the travel levers/pedals are operated, pilot system oil pressure flows from travel pilot control valve (44) through pilot lines (42) and (43) to left travel control valve (38) and right travel control valve (41). The pilot system oil pressure shifts the spools in both of the travel control valves in an upward direction. The travel control valves allow the oil delivery from the idler pump and the drive pump to flow to swivel (30). The swivel transfers the oil delivery from the rotating upper structure to the lines in the lower structure. The oil delivery flows to left travel motor (1) and right travel motor (15).

Note: The right and left travel controls function in the same manner. The explanation for the left travel control will be used to explain both the right and left travel controls.

When the left travel lever/pedal is moved to the FORWARD TRAVEL position, pilot system oil pressure from travel pilot control valve (44) flows through pilot line (42) to left travel control valve (38). The spool in the left travel control valve shifts in an upward direction. The oil delivery from the drive pump in center bypass passage (40) flows through passage (39), left travel control valve (38), passage (35), line (33), swivel (30) and line (29) to left travel motor (1).

The oil delivery from the drive pump enters left travel motor (1) and flows through counterbalance valve (8) and passage (5) to motor rotary group (3). At the same time, a portion of the oil delivery from the drive pump flows through passage (7) and brake pilot valve (6) to parking brake (10). The parking brake is released and the oil delivery from the drive pump causes the motor to rotate.

96

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

LOW SPEED

96 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section LOW SPEED Illustration 97 Left travel motor (LOW SPEED) (1)

Illustration 97 Left travel motor (LOW SPEED) (1) Left travel motor (2) Swashplate (3) Motor rotary group (4) Swashplate control piston (5) Passage (supply oil) (8) Counterbalance valve (11) Passage (return oil)

(12) Displacement change valve (13) Passage (27) Pilot line (46) Pressure sensor (drive pump) (48) Travel speed solenoid valve (49) Drive pump (51) Pilot pump

g00846149

(56) Travel speed control switch (58) Left travel lever/pedal

  • (A) Indicator for HIGH SPEED

  • (B) Indicator for LOW SPEED

  • (C) Engine and pump controller

When travel speed control switch (56) is set at the LOW SPEED position, an electrical signal is sent to engine and pump controller (C). The engine and pump controller does not energize travel speed solenoid valve (48) and pilot system oil pressure does not flow through pilot line (27) to displacement change valve (12). The spool in the displacement change valve does not shift. As a result, swashplate (2) is at the maximum displacement position. One rotation of motor rotary group (3) displaces a larger amount of oil flow. The rotational speed of the left travel motor decreases. The left track moves slowly and better traction is achieved.

The return oil from motor rotary group (3) flows through passage (11), counterbalance valve (8), line (28) and swivel (30). The return oil then flows through line (34), passage (36), left travel control valve (38), return passage (37) and return line (45) to the hydraulic tank.

Right travel motor (15) receives the oil delivery from the idler pump. The right travel motor functions in the same manner as the left travel motor in the LOW SPEED position.

97

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

HIGH SPEED

97 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section HIGH SPEED g00773193 Illustration 98 Illustration 99 Left travel motor
g00773193 Illustration 98
g00773193
Illustration 98

Illustration 99 Left travel motor (HIGH SPEED) (1) Left travel motor (2) Swashplate (3) Motor rotary group (4) Swashplate control piston (5) Passage (supply oil) (8) Counterbalance valve (11) Passage (return oil)

(12) Displacement change valve (13) Passage (27) Pilot line (46) Pressure sensor (drive pump) (48) Travel speed solenoid valve (49) Drive pump (51) Pilot pump

g00847814

(56) Travel speed control switch (58) Left travel lever/pedal

  • (A) Indicator for HIGH SPEED

  • (B) Indicator for LOW SPEED

  • (C) Engine and pump controller

98

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

When travel speed control switch (56) is set at the HIGH SPEED position, an electrical signal is sent to engine and pump controller (C). Pressure sensors (46) and (47) also send an electrical signal to the engine and pump controller. If the travel load is light and when the pump delivery pressure is below a certain pressure, the engine and pump controller energizes travel speed solenoid valve (48). Pilot system oil pressure flows through travel speed solenoid valve (48) and line (27) to displacement change valve (12). The spool in the displacement change valve shifts. A portion of the oil delivery from the drive pump flows through the displacement change valve to swashplate control piston (4). Swashplate control piston (4) moves swashplate (2) to the minimum displacement position. One rotation of motor rotary group (3) displaces a smaller amount of oil flow. The rotational speed of the left travel motor increases. The left track moves at a faster speed.

The return oil from motor rotary group (3) flows through passage (11), counterbalance valve (8), line (28) and swivel (30). The return oil then flows through line (34), passage (36), left travel control valve (38), return passage (37) and return line (45) to the hydraulic tank.

Right travel motor (15) receives the oil delivery from the idler pump. The right travel motor functions in the same manner as the left travel motor in HIGH SPEED position.

Automatic Travel Speed Change

98 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section When travel speed control switch (56) is set at the

Illustration 100 Main pump compartment

g00849827

(46) Pressure sensor for idler pump delivery (47) Pressure sensor for drive pump delivery

Pressure sensor (46) monitors the delivery pressure of the idler pump. Pressure sensor (47) monitors the delivery pressure of the drive pump. The motor displacement is low when the travel speed control switch is set at the HIGH SPEED position and the travel load is light. As the pump load increases, the delivery pressure of the pumps increases. When the delivery pressure of the pumps reaches a certain pressure, the pressure sensor sends an electrical signal to the engine and pump controller. The engine and pump controller de-energizes travel speed solenoid valve (48). Travel speed solenoid valve (48) blocks the flow of pilot system supply oil to displacement change valves (12) and (20). The oil in swashplate control pistons (4) and (22) now flows into the case drain of the travel motors. Swashplates (2) and (16) move to the maximum displacement position. One rotation of the motor rotary groups in the travel motors displaces a larger amount of oil flow. The rotational speed of the travel motors decreases. The travel speed is automatically changed to LOW SPEED.

When the pump load decreases and the travel speed control switch is set at the HIGH SPEED position, pressure sensors (46) and (47) will now cause the engine and pump controller to energize travel speed solenoid valve (48). Displacement change valves (12) and (20) will be shifted by pilot pressure so that the motor rotary groups will change to the minimum displacement position. One rotation of the motor rotary groups displaces a small amount of oil flow. The travel speed will automatically change to HIGH SPEED.

The ability of the machine to automatically change the travel speed allows good performance at high speed and better traction control.

i01323204

Pilot Valve (Travel and Steering)

SMCS Code: 5462

99

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

99 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 101 Travel pilot control valve (1) Travel lever/pedal (2)

Illustration 101 Travel pilot control valve (1) Travel lever/pedal (2) Pedal (3) Rod (4) Seat (5) Spring (6) Spring (7) Spool (8) Passage (9) Passage (10) Spring (11) Spool (12) Return port

(13) Return chamber (14) Passage (15) Passage (16) Pilot port (17) Passage (18) Port (19) Passage (20) Passage (21) Passage (22) Port (23) Piston chamber (24) Orifice

When travel lever/pedal (1) is moved to the FORWARD TRAVEL position, rod (3) moves downward. As rod (3) moves downward, seat (4) moves downward against the force of springs (5) and (6). Passage (19) opens.

(25) Piston (26) Spring (27) Spring (28) Spring chamber (29) Ball (30) Rod (31) Spring (32) Spring (33) Spring chamber (34) Ball

g00709830

As passage (19) opens, the pilot oil from pilot port (16) flows through passages (21), (19), (20), and (9) to port (18). The pilot oil flows through port (18) to the travel control valve. The pilot oil pressure shifts the spool of travel control valve. The oil delivery from the pump now flows through the travel control valve to the travel motor. The travel motor rotates. The machine travels forward.

100

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

The return pilot oil at the opposite end of the spool in the travel control valve returns to the travel pilot control valve through port (22). Since spool (11) is pushed upward by the force of spring (10), the return pilot oil flows through passage (17), passage (15), passage (14), return chamber (13) and port (12) to the hydraulic tank.

When travel lever/pedal (1) is moved slightly from the NEUTRAL position for fine travel, rod (3) moves downward and seat (4) moves downward. Spring (6) forces spool (7) downward. Passage (19) opens slightly and the pilot oil pressure increases in port (18). When this pilot oil pressure becomes higher than the force of spring (6), spool (7) moves upward opening passage (8). The pilot pressure oil from port (18) flows through passages (9), (20) and (8) into return chamber (13). The pilot oil pressure decreases slightly. Spool (7) is held in a pressure modulating position. Spool (7) establishes a balance between the pressure in port (18) and the force of spring (6).

When travel lever/pedal (1) is released, spring (5) forces seat (4) and rod (3) in an upward direction. The force of spring (6) decreases. Spool (7) moves upward. The pilot oil pressure at port (18) flows through passage (9), passage (20), passage (8) and return chamber (13) to the hydraulic tank.

A dampening function is built into the travel pilot control valve which allows the operational speed of the travel lever/pedal to correspond to the movement of the operators foot. The dampening function also prevents the vibration that occurs when the travel lever/pedal is released.

When travel lever/pedal (1) is moved suddenly from the NEUTRAL position, rod (3) is pushed downward. Rod (3) moves piston (25), spring (26) and spring (27) downward. The hydraulic oil in spring chamber (28) is pressurized. Ball (29) closes the opening. Orifice (24) allows the confined hydraulic oil in spring chamber (28) to gradually flow into piston chamber (23). The gradual flow of oil through orifice (24) causes the dampening function.

Rod (30) is forced upward by springs (31) and (32). The oil pressure in spring chamber (33) decreases. The return oil pressure in return chamber (13) forces ball (34) upward. The return oil in return chamber (13) now flows from return chamber (13) into spring chamber (33). As a result, rod (30) follows the movement of pedal (2).

When travel lever/pedal (1) is moved slightly from the NEUTRAL position for fine control, rod (3) is pushed down slowly. As a result, the oil pressure in spring chamber (28) becomes equal to the oil pressure in piston chamber (23). At this point, the dampening function is weak.

Travel lever/pedal (1) operates the same way in the REVERSE TRAVEL position.

Travel Motor

SMCS Code: 79PC-QP

i01631105

101

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

101 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 102 Travel motor (1) Drive shaft (4) Swashplate (5)

Illustration 102

Travel motor

(1) Drive shaft (4) Swashplate (5) Slipper (6) Retainer (7) Barrel (8) Passage (9) Check valve (10) Check valve (11) Passage (12) Brake pilot valve (13) Port

(14) Valve plate (15) Head (16) Stopper (17) Piston (18) Guide (19) Spacer (20) Spring (21) Piston (22) Friction plate (23) Separator plate (24) Passage

(25) Passage (26) Brake spring (27) Brake piston (28) Pilot Port (29) Drain port (30) Port (31) Port (32) Spool (33) Spring (34) Displacement change valve

g00845040

102

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

102 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 103 Travel motor (partial schematic) (4) Swashplate (9) Check

Illustration 103 Travel motor (partial schematic) (4) Swashplate (9) Check valve (10) Check valve (12) Brake pilot valve (17) Piston

(28) Pilot Port (29) Drain port (30) Port (31) Port (34) Displacement change valve

g00846570

The travel motor can be divided into the following three groups:

The rotary group consists of the following components: drive shaft (1), slippers (5), retainer (6), barrel (7), guide (18), spacer (19), spring (20), and piston (21).

The parking brake consists of the following components: brake pilot valve (12), friction plates (22), separator plates (23), brake spring (26), and brake piston (27).

The displacement change valve consists of the following components: check valve (9), check valve (10), piston (17), and displacement change valve (34).

The flow of the oil delivery from the pump depends on the direction of travel. The oil delivery from the pump flows into the travel motor through port (30) or port (31). Pump oil is forced out of the travel motor through port (31) or (30).

The case drain oil returns to the hydraulic tank through drain port (29) of head (15).

The oil delivery from the drive pump flows into the left travel motor through port (30) during forward travel. The oil from port (30) flows through passage (11) in head (15) and through passage (25) in valve plate (14). The oil then flows through passage (24) of barrel (7) and the oil forces pistons (21) to move to the left.

103

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

g00700542 Illustration 104 Motor passage (side view from head) (A) Top center (B) Outlet side (low
g00700542
Illustration 104
Motor passage (side view from head)
(A)
Top center
(B)
Outlet side (low pressure)
(C)
Bottom center
(D)
Inlet side (high pressure)

(24) Passage (barrel) (25) Passage (valve plate) (35) Passage (valve plate)

Slipper (5) is coupled to the piston. Slipper (5) and the piston slide on the surface of swashplate (4) from the top center to the bottom center. Slipper (5) and the piston rotate with barrel (7). Supply oil from the drive pump flows through passage (25) of valve plate (14) into pistons (21). The oil then flows through passage (35) of valve plate (14). Oil is discharged from piston (21) through passage (8). The oil then flows through port (31). The barrel turns counterclockwise.

Drive shaft (1) is splined to barrel (7). The shaft and barrel of the left travel motor rotate counterclockwise for forward travel.

In reverse travel, port (30) functions as an oil return port. Port (31) functions as a supply port. The left travel motor rotates clockwise.

When the right travel motor receives the oil delivery from the idler pump through port (30), the right travel motor turns clockwise for forward travel. When the oil delivery from the idler pump flows through port (31), the right travel motor turns counterclockwise for reverse travel.

i01635738

Travel Parking Brake

SMCS Code: 4267

The travel parking brake is built into the travel motor. When the oil delivery from the pump flows to the travel motor, the parking brake releases and the travel motor starts rotating. When no oil delivery flows to the travel motor, the rotation of the travel motor stops and the travel parking brake engages. For more information concerning the operation of the travel motor, refer to Systems Operation, Travel Motor .

104

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

104 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 105 Parking brake (parking brake engaged) (1) Brake pilot

Illustration 105 Parking brake (parking brake engaged) (1) Brake pilot valve

(7) Housing

(14) Passage

(2) Port

(8) Barrel

(15) Spring

(3) Drive shaft

(9) Friction plate

(16) Valve

(4) Head

(10) Separator plate

(17) Retainer

(5) Passage (6) Brake spring

(12) Piston chamber (13) Brake piston

(18) Orifice

g00846729

In the parking brake section of the travel motor, separator plates (10) are splined to housing (7). Friction plates (9) are splined to barrel (8).

When the travel lever/pedal is returned to the NEUTRAL position, the oil delivery from the pump is blocked at the travel control valve in the main control valve. Valve (16) moves to the right by the force of spring (15). The oil delivery from the pump does not flow through valve (16). The force of the oil pressure on the left side of brake piston (13) now becomes lower than the force of brake spring (6). The brake piston is pushed slowly to the left by the force of the brake spring. The oil in piston chamber (12) now flows through passage (14) and passage (5). The oil flows through orifice (18) and into the valve of the motor case drain line. Friction plates (9) and separator plates (10) are forced together by the force of brake spring (6). Friction plates (9) are splined to barrel (8). Separator plates (10) are splined to housing (7). When the separator plates and the friction plates are forced together, the rotation of drive shaft (3) in the travel motor gradually slows to a stop as the parking brake engages.

105

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Orifice (18) restricts return oil flow from piston chamber (12). The restriction of the return oil flow delays the application of the parking brake. The parking brake is delayed in order to give the machine time to stop. Earlier wear and/or damage to the machine could result if the machine stayed in motion.

105 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Orifice (18) restricts return oil flow from piston chamber (12).

Illustration 106 Parking brake (brake released)

g00846864

(1) Brake pilot valve

(7) Housing

(14) Passage

(2) Port

(8) Barrel

(15) Spring

(3) Drive shaft

(9) Friction plate

(16) Valve

(4) Head

(10) Separator plate

(17) Retainer

(5) Passage (6) Brake spring

(12) Piston chamber (13) Brake piston

(18) Orifice

When a travel lever/pedal is moved from the NEUTRAL position, the oil delivery from the pump flows to the inlet port of the travel motor from the travel control valve in the main control valve. A portion of the oil delivery from the pump flows through port (2). Valve (16) moves to the left against the force of spring (15). The oil then flows through passages (5) and (14) to piston chamber (12). Brake piston (13) moves to the right against the force of brake spring (6). The spring force that is holding friction plates (9) and separator plates (10) together is released. Barrel (8) and drive shaft (3) start to rotate.

106

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

i01631107

Displacement Change Valve

SMCS Code: 3220

Small Displacement Change Operation

106 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section i01631107 Displacement Change Valve SMCS Code: 3220 Small Displacement Change

Illustration 107 Travel motor (partial diagram) (1) Check valve (2) Check valve (3) Pilot port (4) Displacement change valve

(5) Passage (6) Piston chamber (7) Port (supply oil or return oil) (8) Piston

g00846914

(9) Swashplate (10) Port (supply oil or return oil) (11) Drain port

107

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

107 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 108 Small displacement change operation (1) Check valve (2)

Illustration 108 Small displacement change operation

(1) Check valve (2) Check valve (3) Pilot port (4) Displacement change valve (6) Piston chamber (7) Port (supply oil or return oil)

(8) Piston (9) Swashplate (10) Port (supply oil or return oil) (12) Passage (13) Passage (return) (14) Hydraulic tank

When the travel speed control switch on the control panel is pushed and the rabbit appears on the display, the machine is in HIGH SPEED MODE. In this condition, an input signal from the travel speed control switch is sent to the engine and pump controller. The pressure sensor for the pump delivery also provides an input signal to the engine and pump controller. When the travel load is light and when the pump delivery pressure is below a certain level, the output signal from the pressure sensor for the pump delivery is below a certain level. When the pump delivery pressure is below a certain level, the engine and pump controller energizes the travel speed solenoid. When the travel speed solenoid is energized, pilot system oil flows into pilot port (3) of displacement change valve (4). Spool (16) moves to the left against the force of spring (17) until the spool contacts body (18). Main pump oil flows from port (10) of the travel motor through check valve (2). The main pump oil then flows through spool chamber (15) and passage (12) to piston chamber (6). The oil in piston chamber (6) moves piston (8) against swashplate (9). As a result, the angle of swashplate (9) is decreased and the motor displacement is decreased. The travel speed is maximum in this condition.

(15) Spool chamber (16) Spool (17) Spring (18) Body

g00846924

108

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Large Displacement Change Operation

108 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Large Displacement Change Operation Illustration 109 Large displacement change operation

Illustration 109 Large displacement change operation

(1) Check valve (2) Check valve (3) Pilot port (4) Displacement change valve (6) Piston chamber (7) Port (supply oil or return oil) (8) Piston (9) Swashplate

(10) Port (supply oil or return oil) (12) Passage (13) Passage (return) (14) Hydraulic tank (15) Spool chamber (16) Spool (17) Spring (18) Body

g00846939

When the angle of swashplate (9) in the travel motor increases, the displacement of the travel motor increases. The angle of swashplate (9) in the travel motor will increase and the travel speed will decrease during the following two conditions.

1. The angle of swashplate (9) in the travel motor will increase and the travel speed will decrease when an increase in pump pressure occurs.

When the machine is in HIGH SPEED MODE and the pump delivery pressure increases above a certain level, the engine and pump controller de-energizes the travel speed solenoid. When the travel speed solenoid is de-energized, pilot system oil stops flowing into pilot port (3) of displacement change valve (4). Spool (16) moves to the right by the force of spring (17) until the spool contacts the stopper. Oil from port (10) of the travel motor is blocked from passage (12). The oil is forced from piston chamber (6) through passage (12) and return passage (13) to hydraulic tank (14). As the angle of swashplate (9) increases, the displacement of the travel motor increases and the travel speed decreases.

2. The angle of swashplate (9) in the travel motor will increase and the travel speed will decrease when the travel speed control switch is pushed in order to obtain LOW SPEED MODE.

109

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

When the travel speed control switch on the control panel is pushed and the tortoise appears on the display, the machine is in LOW SPEED MODE. In this condition, an input signal from the travel speed control switch is sent to the engine and pump controller. The engine and pump controller de-energizes the travel speed solenoid. The angle of swashplate (9) increases and the displacement of the travel motor increases. The travel speed decreases.

i01638159

Travel Counterbalance Valve

SMCS Code: 5051-KV

109 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section When the travel speed control switch on the control panel

Illustration 110 Left travel motor and travel counterbalance valve

g00821157

(1) Crossover relief valve (reverse travel) (16) Crossover relief valve (forward travel) (24) Port (supply port for forward travel) (27) Port (supply port for reverse travel) (33) Counterbalance valve (35) Travel counterbalance valve (36) Left travel motor

Travel counterbalance valve (35) consists of counterbalance valve (33), crossover relief valve (1) and crossover relief valve (16). The travel counterbalance valve is bolted to the travel motor. The travel counterbalance valve has the following four functions.

The travel counterbalance valve prevents a shock load when travel is stopped.

The travel counterbalance valve prevents overspeed while the machine is travelling down a slope.

The travel counterbalance valve prevents cavitation.

The travel counterbalance valve routes a portion of the oil to the travel parking brake in order to release the brake.

110

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Counterbalance Valve Operation During Level Travel

110 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Counterbalance Valve Operation During Level Travel Illustration 111 Travel counterbalance

Illustration 111 Travel counterbalance valve (level travel)

(1) Crossover relief valve (reverse travel) (2) Passage (3) Valve (4) Passage (5) Passage (6) Passage (7) Passage (8) Valve (9) Spool (10) Spring (11) Passage

(12) Spring (13) Spring (14) Damper Spool (15) Ball (16) Crossover relief valve (forward travel) (17) Passage (18) Spring chamber (19) Passage (20) Damper Chamber (21) Orifice (22) Passage

g00826351

(23) Check valve (24) Port (supply port for forward travel) (25) Passage (26) Passage (27) Port (supply port for reverse travel) (28) Check valve (29) Passage (30) Spring (32) Passage (33) Counterbalance valve (35) Travel counterbalance valve

111

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Counterbalance valve (33) consists of spool (9), check valve (23), check valve (28), spring (13) and spring (30). During forward travel on level ground, pump oil is supplied to port (24). The oil flows through port (24), passage (25), and check valve (23). The oil flow forces check valve (23) to open. This allows oil to flow through port (24), passage (25), check valve (23), passage (2), and the port to the rotary group of the travel motor.

A portion of the oil delivery from the drive pump in port (24) flows through passage (22) and passage (17) against ball (15). Ball (15) moves to the right against the force of spring (12) in damper spool (14). The oil delivery then flows through passage (19) into spring chamber (18). The oil pressure in damper chamber (20) acts on the end of spool (9). Spool (9) shifts to the right against the force of spring (30). Passage (7) opens.

As spool (9) shifts to the right, return oil from the travel motor flows through the port, passage (7), passage (26), and port (27) to the hydraulic tank.

When the oil flow from port (24) is blocked, the pressure in damper chamber (20) decreases. The force of spring (30) shifts spool (9) to the left. Passage (7) closes. Return oil from the travel motor is blocked and the rotation of the travel motor stops.

When the direction of travel is reversed, pump oil flows to spool (9) through port (27). Spool (9) shifts to the left. The return oil flows through port (24). During reverse travel, the travel counterbalance valve operates in the same manner as the forward travel operation.

112

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Counterbalance Valve Operation During Slope Travel

112 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Counterbalance Valve Operation During Slope Travel Illustration 112 Travel counterbalance

Illustration 112 Travel counterbalance valve (slope travel)

(1) Crossover relief valve (reverse travel) (2) Passage (3) Valve (4) Passage (5) Passage (6) Passage (7) Passage (8) Valve (9) Spool (10) Spring (11) Passage

(12) Spring (13) Spring (14) Damper Spool (15) Ball (16) Crossover relief valve (forward travel) (17) Passage (18) Spring chamber (19) Passage (20) Damper Chamber (21) Orifice (22) Passage

g00826954

(23) Check valve (24) Port (supply port for forward travel) (25) Passage (26) Passage (27) Port (supply port for reverse travel) (28) Check valve (29) Passage (30) Spring (32) Passage (33) Counterbalance valve (35) Travel counterbalance valve

113

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

When the machine travels down a slope, the travel motors rotate at a higher speed. The higher speed is due to the mass (weight and size) of the machine. When this condition occurs, the pumps cannot maintain the oil supply to the travel motors. The lack of oil supply will cause cavitation in the travel motor. A pressure decrease occurs at port (24). A pressure decrease occurs in spring chamber (18) as well.

The force of spring (30) moves spool (9) to the left. Passage (7) begins to close. This blocks oil flow between passage (7) and passage (26). The return oil from the travel motor and the oil flow to the suction port of the travel motor are restricted. The rotation of the travel motor slows down.

The pressure of the oil delivery from the drive pump at port (24) increases. Part of the oil flows through passage (17). Spool (9) shifts to the right. Passage (7) opens. Return oil from the travel motor flows through port (27). The modulation of spool (9) maintains the proper opening of passage (7) when the machine travels down a slope. The travel motor begins to rotate in accordance with the amount of pump oil supply. This prevents cavitation in the travel motors.

When the machine is travelling down a slope, or the machine is suddenly stopped, spool (9) suddenly closes passage (7). This causes a hydraulic pressure spike to occur. A damper is provided at both ends of spool (9) in order to prevent hydraulic pressure spikes. As spool (9) shifts to the left, the oil in damper chamber (20) is pressurized. Ball (15) moves to the left. The oil in spring chamber (18) flows through orifice (21) and into passage (22). Spool (9) slowly moves to the left. Passage (7) slowly closes. The size and the position of orifice (21) maintains the proper shock damper.

114

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Operation Of Travel Crossover Relief Valves During Machine Stop

114 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Operation Of Travel Crossover Relief Valves During Machine Stop Illustration

Illustration 113 Travel counterbalance valve (travel stop)

(1) Crossover relief valve (reverse travel) (2) Passage (3) Valve (4) Passage (5) Passage (6) Passage (7) Passage (8) Valve (9) Spool (10) Spring (11) Passage

(12) Spring (13) Spring (14) Damper Spool (15) Ball (16) Crossover relief valve (forward travel) (17) Passage (18) Spring chamber (19) Passage (20) Damper Chamber (21) Orifice (22) Passage

g00826925

(23) Check valve (24) Port (supply port for forward travel) (25) Passage (26) Passage (27) Port (supply port for reverse travel) (28) Check valve (29) Passage (30) Spring (32) Passage (33) Counterbalance valve (35) Travel counterbalance valve

115

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

If the travel levers/pedals are returned to the NEUTRAL position during machine movement, the oil delivery from the pumps is blocked from the travel motors. The pressure at port (24) of the travel counterbalance valve decreases. The force of spring (30) moves spool (9) to the left to the neutral position. The mass (weight and size) of the machine causes the travel motor to continue to rotate. Passage (7) is closed and the flow of return oil is blocked. A sudden pressure increase occurs in passage (11). The return oil in passage (11) flows through passage (6) to crossover relief valve (1). Valve (3) shifts to the left. The return oil in passage (6) flows past the open valve (3) into suction passage (2) of the travel motor.

g00827097 Illustration 114 Travel crossover relief valve (3) Valve (2) Passage (6) Passage (39) Body (40)
g00827097
Illustration 114
Travel crossover relief valve
(3) Valve
(2) Passage
(6) Passage
(39) Body
(40) Orifice
(41) Orifice
(44) Passage
(45) Shock reducing piston
(42) Orifice
(43) Stem

The return oil pressure in passage (6) flows through orifice (41) in valve (3). The oil then flows through orifices (40) and (42) in stem (43). The return oil now flows through passage (44). Shock reducing piston (45) shifts to the right. The travel crossover relief valve maintains the circuit pressure at a lower pressure until the right end of shock reducing piston (45) contacts stem (43). When the shock reducing piston is fully shifted to the right, the oil pressure in passage (6) increases to the pressure setting of the crossover relief valve. All of the oil flow in passage (6) now flows past valve (3) into return passage (2).

The oil pressure gradually increases until the shock reducing piston shifts fully to the right. Pressure spikes in the travel circuit are eliminated. This is called a two-stage relief operation. The two-stage relief operation absorbs the shock load at the stop of a travel operation.

During forward travel of the left travel motor, oil flow opens crossover relief valve (1) when the machine is stopping. During reverse travel of the left travel motor, crossover relief valve (16) is activated when the machine is stopping.

Crossover relief valves (1) and (16) protect the travel motor by releasing the high pressure oil.

Crossover relief valves (1) and (16) also provide makeup oil from the outlet side of the travel motor to the inlet side of the travel motor. This makeup oil prevents a vacuum condition in the travel motor.

In order to adjust the pressure setting of the crossover relief valves, refer to the crossover relief valves by the functions of the travel control levers. Refer to crossover relief valve (16) as left travel (forward). Refer to crossover relief valve (1) as left travel (reverse).

116

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Reference: For more information concerning the pressure settings of the travel crossover relief valves, refer to Testing and Adjusting, Relief Valve (Crossover) - Test and Adjust.

Travel Parking Brake Operation

When the oil delivery from the drive pump at port (24) of the travel counterbalance valve is blocked, spool (9) moves to the right. Passage (4) opens. A portion of the oil delivery in passage (25) flows through passage (4) and passage (32) in order to release the travel parking brake. Since passage (4) opens before passage (7), the rotation of the motor rotary group does not start until the travel parking brake is released.

When the oil delivery to port (24) is blocked in order to stop the rotation of the travel motor, spool (9) returns to the NEUTRAL position. Passage (4) closes after passage (7) closes. This allows the movement of the machine to stop before the travel parking brake is engaged.

Reference: For more information concerning the operation of the travel parking brake, refer toSystems Operation, Travel Parking Brake.

i01631110

Oil Makeup (Travel System)

SMCS Code: 5080

g00845743 Illustration 115 Oil makeup operation
g00845743
Illustration 115
Oil makeup operation

(1) Motor rotary group (2) Left travel motor (3) Passage (4) Check valve (5) Line (6) Swivel (7) Line (8) Passage (9) Left travel control valve (10) Passage (11) Return passage

In order to prevent cavitation in the travel motor during travel stop, makeup oil is supplied to the travel motor.

The following description is given for travel stop of the left travel motor. The right travel motor functions in the same manner as the left travel motor.

117

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

During travel stop, the travel levers/pedals are moved to the NEUTRAL position. The oil delivery from the drive pump through passage (8) is blocked at travel control valve (9). The oil delivery from the drive pump is not supplied to the left travel motor.

Since no oil delivery is supplied to left travel motor (2), the travel motor will attempt to stop. However, the travel motor will continue to rotate because of the inertia (weight and size) of the machine. This causes a vacuum condition in passage (3) of the travel motor.

When travel control valve (9) is in the NEUTRAL position, return oil flows from return passage (11) through passage (8). The return oil then flows through line (7), swivel (6), line (5), check valve (4) and passage (3) to motor rotary group (1) as makeup oil. This makeup oil prevents cavitation in the travel motor during travel stop.

Makeup oil is supplied for forward travel in the same manner as reverse travel.

Final Drive

SMCS Code: 4050

i01631113

118

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

g00847597 Illustration 116
g00847597
Illustration 116

Final Drive

(1) Roller bearing (2) Planetary shaft (second stage) (3) Bolt (4) Planetary gear (second stage) (5) Roller bearing (6) Planetary gear (third stage) (7) Roller bearing (8) Planetary shaft (third stage) (9) Drive sprocket housing

(10) Motor housing (11) Travel motor (12) Planetary gear (first stage) (13) Planetary shaft (first stage) (14) Cover (15) Sun gear (first stage) (16) Planetary carrier (first stage) (17) Ring gear (first stage) (18) Planetary carrier (second stage)

(19) Sun gear (second stage) (20) Ring gear (second stage and third stage) (21) Planetary carrier (third stage) (22) Sun gear (third stage) (23) Output shaft (travel motor) (26) Roller bearing

The final drive reduces the rotational speed of travel motor (11). Output shaft (23) of travel motor (11) is splined to sun gear (first stage) (15).

The final drive consists of two groups. The first group consists of the three stages of the planetary gear reduction. The second group is the output group.

The first stage reduction group consists of the following components: sun gear (15), planetary gear (12), planetary carrier (16), and ring gear (17). The group for second stage reduction consists of the following components: sun gear (19), planetary gear (4), planetary carrier (18), and ring gear (20). The third stage reduction group consists of the following components: sun gear (22), planetary gear (6), planetary carrier (21), and ring gear (20).

119

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

The output group is described in the following manner. The rotation of drive sprocket housing (9) drives the track. Drive sprocket housing (9), ring gear (20) and cover (14) are connected by bolts (3). The drive sprocket housing, the ring gear and the cover are supported by roller bearing (26). This planetary assembly rotates with ring gear (20).

The planetary gears reduce the travel speed. The travel speed is reduced by the ratio of teeth of the sun gear and the ring gear. The compact final drive offers a greater reduction ratio when the sun gear is incorporated inside the ring gear.

Operation

Sun gear (15) is splined to the output shaft of travel motor (23). The rotation of the output shaft is transmitted to the sun gear. When sun gear rotates clockwise, the final drive operates in the following manner.

119 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section The output group is described in the following manner. The

Illustration 117 First stage reduction group

g00581161

(1) Roller bearing (first stage) (12) Planetary gear (first stage) (13) Planetary shaft (first stage) (15) Sun gear (first stage) (16) Planetary carrier (first stage) (17) Ring gear (first stage) (27) Rotational direction (first stage reduction group)

In the first stage reduction group, sun gear (15) causes planetary gears (12) to rotate counterclockwise. Planetary gears (12) mesh with sun gear (15) and ring gear (17). Planetary gears (12) rotate around sun gear (15) and the internal teeth of ring gear (17). Each planetary gear (12) is mounted to planetary carrier (16) by shafts (13) and by roller bearings (1) in order to form a planetary assembly. Planetary carrier (16) rotates in a clockwise direction (27).

119 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section The output group is described in the following manner. The

Illustration 118 Engagement of splines

(12) Planetary gear (first stage) (13) Planetary shaft (first stage) (16) Planetary carrier (first stage) (19) Sun gear (second stage) (28) Engagement of splines

g00581164

The spline of planetary carrier (first stage) (16) meshes with sun gear (second stage) (19). The rotation of planetary carrier (16) is transmitted to sun gear (19). Sun gear (19) rotates clockwise.

In the group for second stage reduction, sun gear (19) causes planetary gears (4) to rotate counterclockwise. Planetary gears (4) mesh with sun gear (19) and ring gear (20). Planetary gears (4) rotate around sun gear (9) and the internal teeth of ring gear (20). Each planetary gear (4) is mounted to planetary carrier (18) by shafts (2) and by roller bearings (5) in order to form a planetary assembly. Planetary carrier (18) rotates clockwise.

119 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section The output group is described in the following manner. The

Illustration 119 Engagement of splines

g00581172

(18) Planetary carrier (second stage) (22) Sun gear (third stage) (27) Engagement of splines

120

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

The spline of planetary carrier (second stage) (18) meshes with sun gear (third stage) (22). The rotation of planetary carrier (18) is transmitted to sun gear (22). Sun gear (22) rotates clockwise.

In the third stage reduction group, the spline teeth of planetary carrier (21) mesh with teeth on the outer circumference of motor housing (10). Since motor housing (10) is fixed to the track frame, planetary carrier (21) does not rotate.

Planetary shaft (8) is stationary. The planetary gear (third stage) (6) rotates around planetary shaft (8). Since planetary carrier (21 ) is attached to the track frame and the planetary carrier does not move, ring gear (20) rotates counterclockwise. Since ring gear (20) and drive sprocket housing (9) are held together with bolts (3), drive sprocket housing (9) rotates counterclockwise. This causes the right track to move in a forward direction.

Swivel

SMCS Code: 5060

i01331085

121

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

121 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 120 Swivel (1) Retainer (9) Housing (17) Port (2)

Illustration 120

Swivel

(1) Retainer

(9) Housing

(17) Port

(2) Cover

(10) Port

(18) Port

(3) Drain port

(11) Port

(19) Port

(4) Drain hole

(12) Flange

(20) Port

(5) Port

(13) Seal

(21) Port

(6) Seal

(14) Rotor

(22) Swivel

(7) Port

(15) Plate

(23) Support

(8) Port

(16) Port

(24) Front direction

g00304968

122

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Table 2

Identification Of Port And Circuit

Ports (Housing)

Ports (Rotor)

Circuit

7

18

Right travel

(reverse)

10

21

Right travel

(forward)

 
  • 8 Left travel

20

(forward)

 
  • 5 Left travel

17

(reverse)

 
  • 3 Drain

19

 

11

16

Change of Travel speed

Swivel (22) accomplishes two functions. Swivel (22) supplies pump oil from the upper structure to the travel motors of the lower structure. The upper structure swings. The lower structure does not swing. Swivel (22) returns oil from the travel motors to the hydraulic tank.

Housing (9) is restrained to the upper structure through support (23). Support (23) is used as a torque arm in order to prevent housing (9) from rotating. Rotor (14) is bolted to the lower structure through plate (15). The ports of housing (9) are open to the ports of rotor (14). The passages in housing (9) and the passages in rotor (14) connect the ports.

Seal (6) for high pressure and seal (13) for low pressure are provided between the sliding surfaces of housing (9) and rotor (14). Seals (6) and (13) prevent oil leakage between the passages.

Swing System

i01631116

Swing Hydraulic System

SMCS Code: 5050

123

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

124

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Illustration 121

g00848115

125

Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

Hydraulic schematic for SWING RIGHT

(1) Pilot line (2) Passage (3) Swing parking brake (4) Swing motor (5) Motor rotary group (6) Relief valve (7) Anti-reaction valve (8) Return line (9) Line (10) Line (11) Passage (12) Load check valve (13) Parallel feeder passage (14) Main control valve (15) Parallel feeder passage (16) Passage (17) Passage (18) Swing control valve (19) Stick I control valve (20) Variable swing priority valve (21) Passage (22) Passage (23) Pilot control valve (swing and stick) (24) Pilot line (25) Implement/swing pressure switch (26) Line (27) Pressure reducing valve for swing priority (28) Drive pump (29) Idler pump (30) Pilot pump (31) Swing parking brake solenoid valve (32) Line (33) Slow return check valve (34) Hydraulic tank (35) Pilot oil manifold (36) Drain line (37) Pilot line (38) Pilot line (47) Line (48) Passage (49) Line (52) Center bypass passage (53) Center bypass passage (54) Negative flow control orifice (55) Negative flow control line

The oil delivery for the swing hydraulic circuit is supplied by drive pump (28) only. When either one of the joysticks (swing, stick, boom and/or bucket) is moved from the NEUTRAL position, swing parking brake (3) is released. Motor rotary group (5) starts to rotate. The swing motor is mounted on top of the swing drive. The swing drive is installed on the upper structure. The swing drive reduces the motor speed by two stages. The swing drive rotates the upper structure.

Reference: For more information concerning the operation of the swing motor, refer to Systems Operation, Swing Motor.

Reference: For more information concerning the operation of the swing drive, refer to Systems Operation, Swing Drive.

Reference: For more information concerning the operation of the swing parking brake and the swing parking brake solenoid valve, refer to Systems Operation, Pilot Valve (Swing Parking Brake).

125 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Hydraulic schematic for SWING RIGHT (1) Pilot line (2) Passage

Illustration 122 Main control valve compartment (4) Swing motor (8) Return line (9) Line (10) Line (18) Swing control valve

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g00697650 Illustration 123
g00697650
Illustration 123

(31) Swing parking brake solenoid valve (35) Pilot oil manifold

The oil delivery from drive pump (28) flows through center bypass passage (52) in main control valve (14) to swing control valve (18). The oil delivery from idler pump (29) flows through center bypass passage (53) in main control valve (14). Illustration 121 shows the main control valve when only the swing hydraulic circuit is activated.

When the hydraulic activation control lever is in the UNLOCKED position, the oil delivery from pilot pump (30) flows to pilot oil manifold (35) and swing parking brake solenoid valve (31). The oil delivery from the pilot pump also flows to pilot control valve

(23).

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

When the swing joystick is moved to the SWING RIGHT position, the implement/swing pressure switch senses the increase in pilot oil pressure. The implement/swing pressure switch changes to the ON position. The implement/swing pressure switch sends an input signal to the engine and pump controller. The engine and pump controller then energizes swing parking brake solenoid valve (31). The swing parking brake solenoid valve shifts. Pilot oil flows through pilot line (1) to swing parking brake (3). The swing parking brake releases in order to enable a swing operation.

The oil delivery from pilot pump (30) flows from pilot control valve (23) through pilot line (26) and into swing control valve (18). The spool in swing control valve (18) shifts upward. The pilot oil on the other end of the spool in the swing control valve flows through pilot line (37) and pilot control valve (23) to hydraulic tank (34).

Since the spool in swing control valve (18) is fully shifted, center bypass passage (52) is blocked. None of the oil delivery from the drive pump flows to negative flow control orifice (54) and no negative flow control pressure is created in center bypass passage (52). Since no negative flow control pressure is sent through negative flow control line (55) to the drive pump regulator, the drive pump regulator moves the swashplate of the drive pump toward the maximum angle position. The output flow rate of the drive pump increases. The oil delivery from the drive pump flows through parallel feeder passage (13), load check valve (12), passage (17), swing control valve (18), passage (16) and line (9) to the swing motor. The oil enters the swing motor and flows to motor rotary group (5). The motor rotary group rotates.

The oil delivery for the swing hydraulic circuit is supplied by the drive pump only. Since only a swing operation is being performed, the control valves that receive the oil delivery from idler pump (29) are in the NEUTRAL position. The negative flow control pressure in center bypass passage (53) is not blocked by any of the control valves. Idler pump (29) remains at the destroked position.

Reference: For more information concerning the negative flow control operation, refer to Systems Operation, Negative Flow Control.

Return oil from motor rotary group (5) flows through line (10) to the main control valve. The return oil flows through swing control valve (18), return passage (11), return line (8) and slow return check valve (33) to hydraulic tank (34). The upper structure swings to the right (clockwise direction).

The SWING LEFT operation is similar to the SWING RIGHT operation.

When the swing joystick is moved to the SWING LEFT position, pilot oil from pilot control valve (23) flows through pilot line (37) and into swing control valve (18). The spool in the swing control valve shifts downward. The oil delivery from the drive pump in parallel feeder passage (13) flows through passage (17) and line (10). The oil delivery enters motor rotary group (5). For a swing left operation, the supply ports and return ports are reverse of the swing right operation. This causes the upper structure to swing to the left (counterclockwise direction).

When the swing joystick is returned to the NEUTRAL position, the springs on each end of the swing control valve maintain the spool in the swing control valve in the NEUTRAL position. The oil flow to the swing motor and the oil flow from the swing motor is blocked by the swing control valve.

Swing Priority

The pilot oil pressure from the pilot control valve directly corresponds to the amount of movement or position of the joystick. The pilot oil pressure from the pilot control valve acts on the pressure reducing valve for swing priority and the variable swing priority valve. As the swing joystick is moved farther from the NEUTRAL position, the pilot oil pressure increases. This gradual increase in pilot oil pressure causes a gradual change to swing priority. Thus, swing priority is controlled by the position of the swing joystick and swing priority automatically activates when the joystick reaches a certain position.

When swing priority is activated, the output flow from the drive pump supplies hydraulic oil to the swing hydraulic circuit. Since swing priority increases the swing acceleration, swing priority is useful for loading operations. Swing priority is also useful for leveling operations and trenching operations when higher swing force is required.

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

127 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 124 Stick I control valve (swing priority OFF) (15)

Illustration 124 Stick I control valve (swing priority OFF) (15) Parallel feeder passage (20) Variable swing priority valve (22) Passage (24) Pilot line (swing pilot pressure) (27) Pressure reducing valve for swing priority (38) Pilot line (pilot system pressure)

(39) Pin hole (40) Spool (41) Spring (42) Passage (stick I) (43) Spool (44) Drain line (45) Check valve

(46) Orifice (47) Line (48) Passage (50) Spring (51) Passage (56) Drain Line

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

128 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 125 SWING RIGHT operation (swing priority OFF) (4) Swing

Illustration 125 SWING RIGHT operation (swing priority OFF) (4) Swing motor (13) Parallel feeder passage (15) Parallel feeder passage (18) Swing control valve (19) Stick I control valve (20) Variable swing priority valve (21) Passage

(22) Passage (23) Pilot control valve (swing and stick) (24) Pilot line (26) Pilot line (27) Pressure reducing valve for swing priority (28) Drive pump

(29) Idler pump (30) Pilot pump (38) Pilot line (41) Spring (47) Line (48) Passage (50) Spring

g00848162

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

When the swing joystick is in the NEUTRAL position, no pilot oil pressure acts on spool (40) of pressure reducing valve for swing priority (27). Full pilot oil pressure flows through pilot line (38), the pressure reducing valve for swing priority (27), line (47) and passage (22) to variable swing priority valve (20). Spool (43) in the variable swing priority valve is shifted upward against the force of spring (41). The oil delivery from drive pump (28) in parallel feeder passage (13) flows through parallel feeder passage (15) and variable swing priority valve (20). The oil delivery enters stick I control valve (19).

When the swing joystick is moved slightly from the NEUTRAL position in order to perform a SWING RIGHT operation, reduced pilot oil pressure from pilot control valve (23) flows through pilot line (26). The pilot oil then divides into two flow paths. Part of the pilot oil flows through passage (21) to swing control valve (18). The spool in the swing control valve shifts a slight amount that corresponds to the amount of movement of the swing joystick. The remainder of the pilot oil flows through pilot line (24) and passage (48). The pilot oil pressure acts on the shoulder of spool (40) in the pressure reducing valve for swing priority (27). Spool (40) shifts against the force of spring (50).

Since the reduced pilot oil pressure in passage (22) is still higher than the force of spring (41), spool (43) in variable swing priority valve (20) remains shifted upward. The oil delivery from drive pump (28) to stick I control valve (19) is not restricted. Swing priority is not activated.

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

130 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 126 Stick I control valve (swing priority ON) (15)

Illustration 126 Stick I control valve (swing priority ON) (15) Parallel feeder passage (20) Variable swing priority valve (22) Passage (24) Pilot line (swing pilot pressure) (27) Pressure reducing valve for swing priority (38) Pilot line (pilot system pressure) (39) Pin hole (40) Spool (41) Spring

(42) Passage (stick I) (43) Spool (44) Drain line (45) Check valve (46) Orifice (47) Line (48) Passage (50) Spring (51) Passage (56) Drain line

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

131 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 127 SWING RIGHT operation (swing priority ON) (4) Swing

Illustration 127 SWING RIGHT operation (swing priority ON) (4) Swing motor (13) Parallel feeder passage (15) Parallel feeder passage (18) Swing control valve (19) Stick I control valve (20) Variable swing priority valve (21) Passage (22) Passage

(23) Pilot control valve (swing and stick) (24) Pilot line (26) Pilot line (27) Pressure reducing valve for swing priority (28) Drive pump (29) Idler pump (30) Pilot pump

(38) Pilot line (41) Spring (45) Check valve (46) Orifice (47) Line (48) Passage (50) Spring

g00848163

As the swing joystick is moved to the FULL STROKE position during a SWING RIGHT operation, the pilot oil pressure in passage (21) increases. The spool in swing control valve (18) shifts fully upward. The pilot oil pressure in pilot line (24) and passage (48) also increases. Spool (40) in the pressure reducing valve for swing priority (27) shifts fully against the force of spring (50).

Passage (51) restricts the pilot oil flow from pilot line (38) through the pressure reducing valve for swing priority (27). The pilot oil pressure in line (47) and passage (22) also decreases. Spool (43) in variable swing priority valve (20) is pushed downward by the force of spring (41).

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

The oil delivery from drive pump (28) in parallel feeder passage (15) is restricted by orifice (46) in check valve (45). A portion of the oil delivery from the drive pump flows into passage (42). Swing priority is now activated. Most of the oil delivery from the drive pump is dedicated to the swing system and flows through the swing control valve to the swing motor. As a result, swing priority and higher swing force can be achieved with the swing joystick.

A portion of the pilot oil at passage (51) flows through passage (39) to spool (40). Pilot oil pressure that flows from passage (22) into variable swing priority valve (20) corresponds to the position of the swing joystick.

Swing Motor

SMCS Code: 5058-ZW

i01638171

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

g00773430 Illustration 128
g00773430
Illustration 128

Swing motor

(1) Relief valve (2) Relief valve (3) Motor head (4) Port (pilot system oil) (5) Separator plate (6) Friction plate (7) Plate (8) Body (9) Drive shaft

(10) Check valve (11) Makeup port (12) Drain port (13) Passage (supply oil or return oil) (14) Check valve (15) Passage (supply oil or return oil) (16) Port (supply oil or return oil) (17) Port (supply oil or return oil) (18) Passage (supply oil or return oil)

(19) Valve plate (20) Passage (supply oil or return oil) (21) Brake spring (22) Brake piston (23) Piston (24) Cylinder barrel (25) Retainer plate (26) Shoe

The swing motor may be divided into the following three groups :

The rotary group consists of the following components : cylinder barrel (24), pistons (23), shoes (26), retainer plate (25), and drive shaft (9).

The parking brake consists of the following components : brake spring (21), brake piston (22), separator plate (5), and friction plate (6).

The relief valves and the makeup valves consists of the following components : relief valve (1), relief valve (2), check valve (10), and check valve (14).

Supply oil from the drive pump is delivered to port (16) or port (17). During a SWING RIGHT operation, the oil delivery enters motor head (3) at port (17) and flows through passage (18). The oil then flows through passage (13) in valve plate (19) and passes through passage (20) in cylinder barrel (24). This oil pressurizes piston (23) in motor head (3).

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

g00682196 Illustration 129
g00682196
Illustration 129

Motor passages

  • (A) Bottom center position

  • (B) Inlet side (high pressure)

  • (C) Top center position

  • (D) Outlet side (low pressure)

(13) Passage (valve plate) (15) Return passage (16) Port (17) Port (18) Supply passage (20) Passage (cylinder barrel) (27) Passage (valve plate) (28) Direction of motor rotation (counterclockwise rotation)

Shoe (26) is pressed against the upper surface of plate (7) by the force of piston (23). The shoe and the piston slide along the slope of plate (7) in a counterclockwise direction. This sliding force causes cylinder barrel (24) to rotate in a counterclockwise direction (28). As each piston reaches the bottom center position (A), oil flows through passage (27) in valve plate (19). This oil then flows through passage (15) of motor head (3) to the hydraulic tank. As cylinder barrel (27) continues to rotate counterclockwise, the piston and the shoe continue to move up the inclined surface of plate (28). Since cylinder barrel (24) is splined to drive shaft (9), the drive shaft rotates in the same direction as the cylinder barrel.

For a SWING LEFT operation, swing pump supply oil is delivered to port (16). The supply ports and the return ports are reversed. Cylinder barrel (24) turns clockwise.

The case drain oil from the swing motors returns through drain port (12) of motor head (3) to the hydraulic tank.

Reference: For more information concerning the swing parking brake, refer to Systems Operation, Pilot Valve (Swing Parking Brake).

Reference: For more information concerning the swing relief valves , refer to Systems Operation, Relief Valve (Swing).

i01637490

Pilot Valve (Swing Parking Brake)

SMCS Code: 5059; 5483

134 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section g00682196 Illustration 129 Motor passages (A) Bottom center position (B)

Illustration 130 (2) Swing parking brake solenoid valve

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Swing parking brake solenoid valve (2) is located on the pilot oil manifold. When any one of the joysticks (swing, stick, boom and/or bucket) is moved from the NEUTRAL position, the swing parking brake solenoid valve is energized in order to release the swing parking brake. When the swing parking brake solenoid valve is energized, pilot oil flows to the swing motor in order to release the swing parking brake.

Note: Operation of the travel levers/pedals will not release the swing parking brake.

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

135 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 131 Swing parking brake (disengaged position) (2) Swing parking

Illustration 131 Swing parking brake (disengaged position)

(2) Swing parking brake solenoid valve (3) Spool (4) Spring (5) Passage (6) Passage (7) Port (pilot system oil)

(8) Pilot oil manifold (9) Spool chamber (10) Line (11) Body (swing motor) (12) Friction plate (13) Separator plate

(14) Piston chamber (15) Port (swing motor) (16) Cylinder barrel (17) Brake piston (18) Brake spring (19) Motor head

g00687102

The swing parking brake is located between motor head (19) of swing motor and body (11). The swing parking brake consists of the following components : brake spring (18), brake piston (17), separator plate (13), and friction plate (12). Friction plate (12) is splined to cylinder barrel (16). Separator plate (13) is splined to body (11). Separator plate (13) and friction plate (12) move in an axial direction.

When the joysticks are moved from the NEUTRAL position, the implement/swing pressure switch senses the increase in pilot oil pressure at the pilot control valves. The implement/swing pressure switch changes to the ON position. The implement/swing pressure switch sends an input signal to the engine and pump controller. The engine and pump controller energizes swing parking brake solenoid valve (2).

When swing parking brake solenoid valve (2) is energized, spool (3) moves in a downward direction against the force of spring (4). Pilot oil in passage (7) flows through spool chamber (6) and line (10) to port (15) of the swing motor. The pilot oil now enters piston chamber (14). The pilot pressure causes brake piston (17) to move upward against the force of brake spring (18). The force that holds separator plate (13) and friction plate (12) together is released. When the swing parking brake is released, the swing operation of the upper structure is enabled.

Note: If the swing parking brake becomes inoperable due to failure of swing parking brake solenoid valve (2), the swing brake can be released by turning the temporary brake release screw in a clockwise direction until the temporary brake release screw stops.

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Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section

136 Hydraulic System Systems Operation Section Illustration 132 Swing parking brake (engaged position) (2) Swing parking

Illustration 132 Swing parking brake (engaged position)

(2) Swing parking brake solenoid valve (3) Spool (4) Spring (5) Passage (6) Passage (7) Port (pilot system oil)

(8) Pilot oil manifold (9) Spool chamber (10) Line (11) Body (swing motor) (12) Friction plate (13) Separator plate

(14) Piston chamber (15) Port (swing motor) (16) Cylinder barrel (17) Brake piston (18) Brake spring (19) Motor head

g00686766

When the joysticks are returned to the NEUTRAL position, supply oil from the drive pump to the swing motor is stopped. The implement/swing pressure switch senses the decrease in pilot oil pressure at the pilot control valves. The implement/swing pressure switch changes to the OFF position. The engine and pump controller senses the change of signal at the implement/swing pressure switch. The engine and pump controller de-energizes swing parking brake solenoid valve (2).

Spool (3) is moved upward by the force of spring (4). Spool (3) blocks pilot oil flow from port (7) to piston chamber (14). Brake spring (18) forces brake piston (17) downward. The oil in piston chamber (14) flows through port (15) and line (10) to pilot oil manifold (8). The oil then flows into spool chamber (6) and passage (9) of spool (3). The oil then flows through passage (5) to the hydraulic tank. As brake piston (17) moves downward, separator plate (13) and friction plate (12) are forced together. Since separator plates (13) are splined to body (11), the rotation of cylinder barrel (16) in the swing motor is stopped. Rotation of the upper structure is prevented.

Since the engine and pump controller does not de-energize the swing parking brake solenoid valve until approximately 6.5 seconds after the swing joystick is returned to the NEUTRAL position, the rotation of the swing motors stops before the swing parking brake is engaged. If the solenoid is de-energized before the rotation of the swing motors stops, damage and wear to the swing parking brakes would result.