Ghazawat-e-NABWI [ PBUH ]

1. 2. 3. M. AAMER WAQAS IDREES ROLL # 03 Sohrab khan Roll # 52 Zafar khan Roll # 41

BBA-1ST ( Morning ) Submitted to: Miss. Khadija Dated: 14TH APRIL 2011




1. Guide-map of Ghazwat-e-Nabwi [ PBUH ]… 2. Ghazwa-e-Badr… 3. Ghazwa-e-Uhud… 4. Hamra Al-Asad… 5. Battle of Trench… 6. Invasion of Banu-Qurayza… 7. Battle of Khyber… 8. Battle of Mu’tah… 9. Battle of Hunain…

B. RefeReNceS…

[ Part of the Muslim-Quraish Wars ]

Date March 13, 624 AD/17 Ramadan, 2 AH Location At the wells of Badr, 80 miles (130 km) southwest of Medina Result Decisive Muslim victory Belligerents: Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders and leaders MUSLIMS: NON-MUSLIMS: Muhammad Abu Jahl Hamza ibn ‗Abd al-Muttalib Utba ibn Rabi'ah† Ali ibn Abi Talib Umayyah ibn Khalaf† Strength 313 Infantry & Cavalry: 2 Horses and 70 camels Camels Casualties and losses MUSLIMS: NON-MUSLIMS: 14 killed 70 killed 43-70 captured INTRODUCTION: 900 Infantry & Cavalry: 100 Horses and 170

The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ‫) غزوة‬, fought March 13, 624 AD (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca. The battle has been passed down in Islamic history as a decisive victory attributable to divine intervention, or by secular sources to the genius of Muhammad. It is one of the few battles specifically mentioned in the Quran. Most contemporary knowledge of the battle at Badr comes from traditional Islamic accounts, both hadiths and biographies of Muhammad, some written after the battle. The battle A map of the Badr campaign: In the spring of 624, Muhammad received word from his intelligence sources that a trade caravan, commanded by Abu Sufyan and guarded by thirty to forty men, was traveling from Syria back to Mecca. Abu Sufyan sent a message via Damdam, in fear of being attacked by Muslims, to warn Mecca and to get reinforcements. As the trade caravan was carrying a lot of wealth, the Quraish responded well to the call, and an army of 900-1000 men was sent for its protection. The march to Badr: When Muhammad received the news of the Meccan army, he commanded his own army himself and brought many of his top lieutenants, including Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali, Hamza, Mus`ab ibn `Umair, Az-Zubair bin Al‗Awwam, Ammar ibn Yasir, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari. The Muslims also brought seventy camels and two horses, meaning that they either had to walk or fit three to four men per camel. However, many early Muslim sources indicate that no serious fighting was expected, and the future Caliph Uthman stayed behind to care for his sick wife Ruqayyah,the daughter of the Prophet. Salman the Persian also couldn't join the battle, as he was still not a

free man. Many of the Quraishi nobles, including Amr ibn Hish ām, Walid ibn Utba, Shaiba, and Umayah ibn Khalaf, joined the Meccan army. Their reasons varied: some were out to protect their financial interests in the caravan; others wanted to avenge, a few must have wanted to take part in what was expected to be an easy victory against the Muslims. By this time Muhammad's army was approaching the wells where he planned to either waylay the caravan, or to fight the meccan army at Badr, along the Syrian trade route where the caravan would be expected to stop or the meccan army to come for its protection. However, several Muslim scouts were discovered by scouts from the caravan and Abu Sufyan made a hasty turn towards Yanbu.

The Muslim plan:
― Behold! Allah Promised you one of the two (enemy) parties, that it should be yours: Ye wished that the one unarmed should be yours, but Allah Willed to justify the Truth according to His Words and to cut off the roots of the Unbelievers; ‖ —Qur'an: Al-Anfal 8:7 When the word reached the Muslim army about the departure of the Meccan army, Muhammad immediately called a council of war, since there was still time to retreat and because many of the fighters there were recent converts (called Ansar or "Helpers" to distinguish them from the Quraishi Muslims), who had only pledged to defend Medina. Under the terms of the Constitution of Medina, they would have been within their rights to refuse to fight and leave the army. However, according to tradition, they pledged to fight as well, with Sa'd bin 'Ubada declaring, "If you [Muhammad] order us to plunge our horses into the sea, we would do so." However, the Muslims still hoped to avoid a pitched battle and continued to march towards Badr.

The Badr wells were located on the gentle slope of the eastern side of a valley called "Yalyal". The western side of the valley was hemmed in by a large hill called 'Aqanqal.

The Meccan plan:
― [The] Arabs will hear how we marched forth and of our mighty gathering, and they will stand in awe of us forever. ‖ —Abu Jahl By contrast, while little is known about the progress of the Quraishi army from the time it left Mecca until its arrival just outside Badr, several things are worth noting: although many Arab armies brought their women and children along on campaigns both to motivate and care for the men, the Meccan army did not. Also, the Quraish apparently made little or no effort to contact the many tribes allies they had scattered throughout the Hijaz. Both facts suggest the Quraish lacked the time to prepare for a proper campaign in their haste to protect the caravan. Besides it is believed since they knew they had outnumbered the Muslims by three to one, they expected an easy victory. When the Quraishi reached Juhfah, just south of Badr, they received a message

The Badr wells were located on the gentle slope of the eastern side of a

from Abu Sufyan telling them the caravan was safely behind them, and that they could therefore return to Mecca. Abu Jahl was still determined to fight, boasting "We will not go back until we have been to Badr." During this period, Abu Sufyan and several other men from the caravan joined the main army.

The day of battle:
The battle began with champions from both armies emerging to engage in combat. Three of the Ansar emerged from the Muslim ranks, only to be shouted back by the Meccans The Muslims dispatched the Meccan champions in a three-on-three melee. Hamza killed his opponent Utba, Ali killed his opponent Walid ibn Utba, then after Ubayda was wounded by his opponent Shayba, Ubayda then killed him. So this was a victorious traditional 3 on 3 combat for the Muslims. Now both armies began striking arrows at each other. A few Muslims and an unknown number of Quraish warriors were killed. Before the real attack began, Muhammad had given orders for the Muslims to attack with their ranged weapons, and only engage the Quraish with melee weapons when they advanced. Now he gave the order to charge, throwing a handful of pebbles at the Meccans in what was probably a traditional Arabian gesture while yelling "Defaced be those faces!" The Muslim army yelled "Yā manṣūr amit!"-- "O thou whom God hath made victorious, slay!" and rushed the Quraishi lines. The Meccans, understrength and unenthusiastic about fighting, promptly broke and ran. The battle itself only lasted a few hours and was over by the early afternoon. The Qur'an describes the force of the Muslim attack in many verses, which refer to thousands of angels descending from Heaven at Badr to terrify the Quraish. It should be noted that early Muslim sources take this account literally, and there are several hadith where Muhammad discusses the Angel Jibreel and the role he played in the battle.

Aftermath Casualties and prisoners
Al-Bukhari lists Meccan losses as seventy dead and seventy captured. This would be 15%-16% of the Quraishi army, unless the actual number of Meccan troops present at Badr was significantly lower, in which case the percentage of troops lost would have been higher. 'Ali alone accounted for 18 of the dead Meccans. Muslim losses

are commonly listed at fourteen killed, about 4% of their engaged forces.

During the course of the fighting, the Muslims took a number of Meccan Quraish prisoner. Their fate sparked an immediate controversy in the Muslim army. The initial fear was that the Meccan army might rally and that the Muslims couldn't spare any men to guard the prisoners. Sa'eed and Umar were in favor of killing the prisoners, but Abu Bakr argued for clemency. Muhammad eventually sided with Abu Bakr, and most prisoners were spared, either because of clan relations (one was Muhammad's son-in-law), desire for ransom, or the hope that they would later convert to Islam (in fact, several later did). At least two high-ranking Meccans, Amr ibn Hishām and Umayyah, were executed after the battle, and two other Quraish who had dumped a bucket of sheep excrement over Muhammad during his days at Mecca were also killed during the return to Medina. In the case of Umayyah, his former slave Bilal was so intent on killing him that his companions even stabbed one of the Muslims guarding Umayyah.

The Battle of Badr was extremely influential in the rise of two men who would determine the course of history on the Arabian peninsula for the next century. The first was Muhammad, who was transformed overnight from a Meccan outcast into a major leader. Marshall Hodgson adds that Badr forced the other Arabs to "regard the Muslims as challengers and potential inheritors to the prestige and the political role of the [Quraish]." The victory at Badr also allowed Muhammad to consolidate his own position at Medina.

[ Part of the Muslim-Quraish Wars ]

 UHUD: DATE: LOCATION: BELLIGERENTS: COMMANDERS: March 19TH, 625 AD Valley OF Uhud Muslims of Madina Muhammad[PBUH] Hamza ibn Mutalib Hazrat Ali [R.A] STRENGTH: MUSLIMS: Infantory 700 Cavalory 2-4 CASUALTIES: MUSLIMS: 70 QURAISH: Infantory 3000 Cavalory 200 QURAISH: 44-45 Quraysh-e-Makkah Abu Sufyan Ibn Harb Khalid bin Waleed
 An Abyssinian slave called Wahshi; his master, Jubayr ibn al-Mut‘im, said to him, 'Go with the army and if you kill Hamza, the uncle of Muhammad [PBUH], I will set you free.

It is located about 08 km & 05 miles from Madina.

Background: WHEN the survivors of the defeated Quraysh at Badr returned to Mecca gathered to speak with Abu Sufyan. They said, 'Muhammad has best men, so help us to fight him so that we may avenge those we have lost.' In order to do this it was agreed that everyone who had had a share in the caravan should put his profits towards the cost of a new army, which would be three times as big as the one at Badr. Strategy for battle: While the Meccans made their plans, the Prophet's uncle, ^Abbas, one the few Muslims still living in Mecca, sent a letter of warning to the Prophet (pbuh) in Medina. He told him that Quraysh were setting out with a huge arm for Uhud, a place just outside Medina. On receiving this timely warning the Prophet (pbuh) gathered his companions around him to discuss what they should do. He thought it would be better to wait for the enemy inside city rather than go out to meet them, because it would be easier to defend Medina from inside the city walls. One of the rulers of Medina, ‗Abd Allah ibn Ubayy, however, agreed with the Prophet (pbuh) and advised him to remain in the city, but when the Prophet (pbuh) saw that the majority was in favor of going out to meet Quraysh, he decided to do

 Hind, Abu Sufyan's wife, too, wanted Hamza dead because he had killed both her father and brother.

so, and after the Friday prayer he put on his armor. The Muslims then set out with one thousand men in the direction of Mount Uhud which overlooks Medina. 'Abd Allah ibn Ubayy was angry that the Prophet (pbuh) had not followed his advice and after going part of the way, turned back for Medina, taking one third of the entire army with him. This left the Prophet (pbuh) with only seven hundred men to meet the enormous Meccan army, which numbered three thousand. The remainder of the Muslims went on until they reached the mountain of Uhud. There the Prophet (pbuh) ordered them to stand in ranks in front of the mountain, so that they would be protected from behind. He then positioned fifty archers on top of the mountain, giving them the following order: 'Keep the Meccan cavalry away from us with your arrows and don't let them come against us from the rear, whether the battle goes in our favor or against us. Whatever happens keep to your places so that we cannot be attacked from your direction, even if you see us being slain or booty being taken.' War: When the Muslims were in position, the Prophet (pbuh) held up his sword and said, 'Who will use this sword with its right?' This was a great honor and many men rose to claim it, but the Prophet (pbuh) decided to give it to Abu Dujanah, a fearless warrior. Then the battle commenced. As the fighting increased the Quraysh women, led by Hind, began to beat their drums to urge their men on. They called out poems to encourage their men to be brave. As usual, Hamzah, the Prophet's uncle, fought with great courage, but while leading the Muslims in a fierce attack, which nearly defeated the Meccans, he was suddenly and cruelly struck down by the slave Wahshi. The Quraysh warriors were soon scattered and forced to retreat. It looked as though they had been defeated! Seeing this, forty of the fifty Muslims archers on top of the mountain ran down from their position to collect booty, for the Quraysh army had left many of their belongings behind. The archers rushed to take what they could, forgetting the Prophet's orders. Khalid ibn al-Walid, Commander of the Quraysh cavalry, saw what' happening and quickly turned his men around and ordered them to attack the Muslims from behind. The Muslims were taken completely by surprise. The Quraysh then began attacking from both sides at once. Many Muslims were killed and instead of winning they began to lose the battle. To add to the confusion, it was rumored that the Prophet (pbuh) had killed. When the Muslims heard this they were at a loss to know what to do. Then a man named Anas called out, 'Brothers! If Muhammad (pbuh) has been killed what will your lives be worth without him? Don't think about living or dying. Fight for Allah. Get up and die the way Muhammad (pbuh) died!‘ and on hearing these words the Muslims took courage. There had been several cavalry attacks on the position held by the Prophet (pbuh) and his companions and the Prophet's cheek had been badly gashed. As the Meccans closed in again he called out, 'Who will sell his life for us?' At this, five Ansar got up and fought until they were killed, one by one. Their places were soon taken, however, by a number of Muslims who drove off the attackers. Amongst the defending Muslims was Abu Dujanah who put his arms around the Prophet (pbuh) and made himself into a human shield. Throughout the remainder of the battle he held on to the Prophet (pbuh), but as the fighting drew to a close he suddenly let go. Abu Dujanah was dead, killed by the many arrows in his back that had been aimed at the Prophet (pbuh). With the defeat of the Muslims, Quraysh were at last avenged. As they left the field of battle Abu Sufyan called out to his men, 'You have done well; victory in war goes by turns-today in exchange for Badr!' When he heard this, the Prophet (pbuh) told ‗Umar to answer him, saying, 'Allah is Most High and Most Glorious. We are not equal. Our

dead are in Paradise and your dead are in Hell!' The Muslim soldiers then followed the departing Quraysh part of the way to make sure they were not going to attack Medina. After the enemy had left, the Prophet (pbuh) made his way around the Battlefield to see the extent of the Muslim losses. Many of the most faithful Muslims had been killed. Among the dead, the Prophet (pbuh) found the body of his closest friend and uncle, Hamzah, who had been killed by the slave, Wahshi. At the sight of this, the Prophet (pbuh) said, 'There will never be a moment as sad for me as this.' Hamzah's sister, Safiyya, came to pray and ask forgiveness for her brother, saying 'We belong to Allah and to Allah we are returning.' After the Prophet (pbuh) had prayed over the many dead, he said, 'I tell you that no one has been wounded Allah's cause but Allah will remember him and on the Day of Resurrection will raise him from the dead. Look for the one who has lthe Koran and put him in front of his companions in the grave.' They were buried where they had fallen as martyrs. Of them Allah says:

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful Do not Think that those, who were killed for Allah's sake are dead. Nay, they are alive. With their Lord they have provision. Jubilant (are they) because of that which Allah hath bestowed upon them of His bounty, rejoicing for the sake of those that have not yet joined them because they have nothing to fear or grieve over.
(Koran iii.169-170) It is said that the Prophet (pbuh) swore that no Muslim who had died for his beliefs would want to come back to life for a single hour, even if he could own the whole world, unless he could return and fight for Allah and be killed a second time. The Muslims realized that their defeat had been caused by their disobedience to the Prophet (pbuh). The Koran tells us that the Muslims had been tested by Allah at Uhud and had failed but that Allah forgave them their weakness.

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful Some of you there are that desire this world, and some of you there are that desire the next world. Then He turned you from them, that He might try you; and He has forgiven you; and Allah is bounteous to the believers.
(Koran iii.145) Result: Tactically: Strategically: Meccan Victory. Indecisive.

Implications: People living nowadays should learn from the lessons learned by the early Muslims at Uhud. Disobedience to the Prophet (pbuh) and love for the things of this world caused their defeat. The same can happen to us as well. Even if we have no battle like Uhud to fight, we can still die for Allah's sake by fighting what is bad in ourselves. When the Prophet (pbuh) came back from a battle he said to his men, 'We have returned from the lesser jihad (struggle) to the greater jihad.' He meant by this that the struggle that goes on within every human being to become a better person is the more difficult battle.

[ Part of the Muslim-Quraish Wars ]

Date: March 24, 625 , 3 AH Location: Hamra Al Asad Belligerents: Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders and leaders: Muhammad [PBUH] Abu Sufyan ibn Harb Strength : 700-1000 infantry, 3,000 infantry,

2-4 cavalry (survivors from Uhud)
Casualties and losses: NON-MUSLIMS

200 cavalry (survivors from Uhud)

3 beaheaded 3 captured

2 spies killed

INTRODUCTION: The Battle of Hamra al-Asad (Arabic: ‫حم اء غزوة‬ ‫)ا‬, was a Ghazawat, a battle in which the prophet Muhammad took part. It occurred in 625 AD (3 AH) after the Battle of Uhud, when the Quraysh were returning to Mecca. In this battle the Meccans wanted to finally exterminate the Muslims after weakening them in Uhud, by preventing their return to Mecca and finishing them off at Medina. Muhammad [PBUH] successfully prevented this by spreading false information using a spy and by lighting 500 camp fires to make it look as if his force was very big. As a result, the Meccans cancelled their attack and decided not to return to Medina. Later, Muhammad [PBUH] was able to get the upper hand over them. Background After the Meccan victory in the Battle of Uhud, Muhammad [PBUH] wanted to boost the morale of his followers and of his fighters the Mujahideen, and planned many attacks against the Meccans at Hamra al-Asad. Call for Jihad On Sunday the 8th of Shawaal, AH3 (March 24, 625), the day after the battle at Uhud, when the Muslims woke up they heard that Muhammad [PBUH] had called on them to join him in the pursuit of the returning Quraysh army. He gave a general order of mobilization, with the condition that only those who had participated in the Uhud battle were eligible to participate in the new operation. One Muslim, who missed out the Uhud battle because his father did not let him fight in the Jihad at Uhud, was allowed to join the Muslim army. The son of a martyred soldier sought Muhammad‘s [PBUH] permission to join in this expedition and was also allowed to take part. Besides them, several wounded Mujahideen also joined the march. Gathering intelligence: A little before Muhammad [PBUH] set out in the pursuit of the departing Meccan army, he sent three spies, all belonging to Banu Aslam, to track the departing Meccan army. Two of them met the Meccan army at Hamra alAsad, about eight miles from Medina. Abu Sufyan had already learned about Muhammad‘s [PBUH] venture to pursue the Meccans. The two spies heard the discussion among the Quraysh: whether they should go back and finish off the Muslims once and for all or to continue their journey to Mecca. Abu Sufyan was in favor of inflicting a deciding blow to the Muslims, but on the counsel of Safwan ibn Umayyah, he decided against it and, instead, proceeded towards Mecca. This happened a day before the Meccans arrived at Hamra al-Asad. Prior to their departure from Hamra al-Asad, the Quraysh spotted the two Muslim spies, and caught and killed them, leaving their corpses on the road. Nothing

is known about the whereabouts of the third Muslim spy. Camping at Hamra al-Asad: The Mujahideen, under the leadership of Muhammad [PBUH], went to Hamra al-Asad and found the two dead bodies of the spies. Once Muhammad [PBUH] learned that the Quraysh were not there to attack him further, he decided to spend three nights – or five, according to ibn Sa‘d – until Wednesday, (March 25–27, 625) before returning to Medina. To deceive the enemy, while at Hamra al-Asad he ordered five hundred camp fires, which could be seen from a great distance away, to be lit on the adjoining heights, to make it appear as if Muhammad [PBUH] was chasing the Meccans and that his military force was very strong. Muhammad [PBUH] executed his battles so that there were as few Muslim casualties as possible, and used deception to his advantage. While at Hamra al-Asad, Muhammad [PBUH] made an agreement with Mabad al-Khuzaah at Tihamah, in which Mabad pledged not to conceal anything from him. Mabad was then sent to Mecca to spread false information. In Mecca, Mabad met with Abu Sufyan and spread disinformation that Muhammad [PBUH] had gathered a great force to fight Abu Sufyan. Abu Sufyan and his companions were planning a massive and decisive attack on Medina to finish off the Muslims once and for all. Hearing Mabad‘s talk of the great military strength of Muhammad [PBUH], Abu Sufyan retreated from his plan of an immediate attack on the Muslims. In this fashion Muhammad [PBUH] successfully managed to prevent the massive onslaught the Meccans were planning. Capturing and beheading Quraysh soldiers: After staying at Hamra al-Asad for three days, Muhammad [PBUH] returned to Medina. He captured Abu Azzah al-Jumahi as prisoner. Abu Azzah had previously been one of the prisoners of Badr. Abu 'Azzah 'Amr bin 'Abd Allah al-Jumahi had been treated kindly by Muhammad [PBUH] after the Battle of Badr, being a poor man with daughters, he had no means to pay ransom, he was released after Battle of Badr, on the condition that he would not take up arms against Muslims again. But he had broken his promise and participated in Battle of Uhud. He pleaded for mercy again, but Muhammad [PBUH] ordered him to be killed. Az-Zubair executed him, and in another version, Asim bin Thabit. A Meccan spy Muawiyah bin Al Mugheerah, the cousin of Uthman ibn Affan, had been captured after Uhud. Uthman gave him shelter. He was given a grace period of three days and arranged a camel and provisions for his return journey to Mecca. Uthman departed with Muhammad [PBUH] for Hamra-al-Asad, and Muawiyah overstayed his grace. Though he fled by the time the army returned, Muhammad [PBUH] ordered his pursuit and execution. The orders were carried out.
Result :

* Muslim victory (Muhammad [PBUH] prevents final attack) * Muhammad [PBUH] sets 500 camp fires alight * Muhammad [PBUH] sends spies (later killed) * Quraish Soldiers beheaded

[ Part of the Muslim-Quraish Wars ]

Date: Location: Result: Belligerents:

March and April 627 AD- (Shawwal, 5 AH) Surrounding perimeter of Medina Failure of siege; Decisive Muslim victory Muslims Confederates including * the Quraysh of Mecca * the Jewish/Arab tribes of Banu Qaynuqa, Banu Nadir and Banu Qurayza * Other Arab tribes such as Banu Murra, Khaybar, Huyyay ibn Auf Murri, Banu Ghatafan, Bani Assad, Banu Shuja, and more.

Commanders and leaders: Muhammad [PBUH] Strength: 3,000 (Muslims)

Abu Sufyan 10,000 (Non-Muslims)

Casualties and losses: Light (Muslims)

Extremely Heavy (Non-Muslims)

Introduction: The Battle of the Trench (Arabic: ‫ ;ال خ ن ق غزوة‬Transliteration: Ghazwah al-Khandaq) also known as Battle of Ahzab, Battle of the Confederates and Siege of Medina (Arabic: ‫ ;االح زاب غزوة‬Transliteration: Ghazwah alAhzab), was a fortnight-long siege of Yathrib (now Medina) by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the Median numbered 3,000. The battle began on March 31, 627. The largely outnumbered defenders of Medina, mainly Muslims led by Islamic prophet Muhammad, opted to dig and fight the confederates from a trench. The trench together with Medina's natural fortifications rendered the confederate cavalry (consisting of horses and camels) useless, locking the two sides in a stalemate. Hoping to make several attacks at once, the confederates persuaded the Banu Qurayza to attack the city from the south. However, Muhammad's diplomacy derailed the negotiations, and broke up the confederacy against him. The well-organized defenders, the sinking of confederate morale, and poor weather conditions caused the siege to end in a fiasco. The siege was a "battle of wits", in which the Muslims tactically overcame their opponents while suffering very few casualties. Efforts to defeat the Muslims failed, and Islam became influential in the region. As a consequence, the Muslim army besieged the neighbourhood of the Banu Qurayza tribe, leading to their unconditional surrender. The defeat caused the Meccans to lose their trade and much of their prestige.

Siege of Medina: The siege of Medina began on March 31, 627 and lasted for 27 days. The Confederates tried to attack with horsemen in hopes of forcing a passage, but the Medinans entrenched rigidly, preventing such a crossing. Both of the armies gathered on either side of the trench and spent two or three weeks exchanging insult in prose and verse, backed up with arrows fired from a comfortable distance. The Quraysh veterans grew impatient with the deadlock. A group of militants led by ‗Amr ibn ‗Abd Wudd (who was thought to be equal to a thousand men in fighting ) and Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl attempted to thrust through the trench and managed to cross the trench occupying a marshy area near the hillock of Sala. 'Amr challenged the Muslims to a duel. In response, Ali ibn Abi Talib accepted the challenge, and was sent by Muhammad to fight. After a short engagement, Ali killed 'Amr and the dust rose up around them. Then the words 'Allahu Akbar' God is the Greatest - were heard: Ali had killed his opponent. The Confederate army made several other attempts to cross the trench during the night repeatedly failed. Crisis in Medina: The Muslims found themselves in greater difficulties by day. Food was running short, and nights were colder. The lack of sleep made matters worse. So tense was the situation that, for the first time, the canonical daily prayers were neglected by the Muslim community. Only at night, when the attacks stopped due to darkness, could they resume their regular worship. According to Ibn Ishaq, the situation became serious and fear was everywhere. War: The provisions of the Confederate armies were running out. Horses and camels were dying out of hunger and wounds. For days the weather had been exceptionally cold and wet. Violent winds blew out the camp fires, taking away from the Confederate army their source of heat. The Muslim camp, however, was sheltered by such winds. The enemy‘s tents were torn up, their fires were extinguished, the sand and rain beat in their faces, and they were terrified by the portents against them. They had already well nigh fallen out among themselves. During the night the Confederate armies withdrew, and by morning the ground was cleared of all enemy forces. Implications The failure of the siege marked the beginning of Muhammad's undoubted political ascendancy in the city of Medina. The Meccans had exerted their utmost strength to dislodge Muhammad from Medina, and this defeat caused them to lose their trade with Syria and much of their prestige with it. Watt conjectures that the Meccans at this point began to contemplate that conversion to Islam would be the most prudent option. From the magnitude of the defeated army, it had become clear that the Arab military forces regardless of size would not be able to hold off Islam.  Immediately after hearing the rumors about the Qurayza , Muhammad had sent 100 men to the inner city for protection. Later he sent 300 horsemen (cavalry was not needed at the trench) as well to protect the city.

[ Part of the Muslim-Quraish Wars ]

Date: Location: Result: Belligerents:

February/March, 627 AD Fortress of Banu Qurayza * Successful 25 day siege of Banu Qurayza tribe Muslims Banu Qurayza Muhammad [PBUH] Ali ibn Abi Talib Huyayy bin Akhtab Ka‘‘ab bin Asad Unknown

Commanders and leaders: Strength:

3000 infantary, 30 horsemen

Casualties and losses: 2 killed (Muslims) Introduction:

600-900 beheaded (Banu-Qurayza)

The Invasion of Banu Qurayza, took place in the Zi-Qa‗dah, 5 A.H i.e. in February/March, 627 AD. The siege lasted 25 days, after which all male members of the tribe were beheaded, the Muslim jurist Tabari quotes 600900 being executed. The Sunni hadith do not give the number killed, but states that all male members were killed and 1 woman. The rest of the woman and children were sold in exchange for weapons and horses, according to Islamic sources. The event is also referenced in the Quran verse 3:26-27. Visit of Angel Gabriel to declare war: Muslims believe Archangel Gabriel, visited Muhammad while he was washing clothes at Umm Salama‘s house, asking that he should unsheathe his sword and to go to the Banu Qurayza and fight them. Muslims believe Gabriel said that he with a procession of angels would go ahead to shake their forts and cast fear in the hearts of the Banu Qurayza. This is mentioned in the Sunni hadith collections:

― When Allah's Apostle returned on the day (of the battle) of Al-Khandaq (i.e. Trench), he put down his arms and took a bath. Then Gabriel whose head was covered with dust, came to him saying, "You have put down your arms! By Allah, I have not put down my arms yet." Allah's Apostle said, "Where (to go now)?" Gabriel said, "This way," pointing towards the tribe of Banu Qurayza. So Allah's Apostle went out towards them. ( Sahih alBukhari, 1:1:5 ) ‖

Siege of Banu Qurayza: When they reached the habitations of Banu Quraiza, they laid tight siege to their forts. Seeing this terrible situation they were in, the chief of the Jewish tribe, Ka‗b bin Asad offered his people three alternatives: to embrace Islam, and consequently their life, wealth, women and children would be in full security, to kill their children and women and then challenge his followers to the sword to either exterminate the Muslims or be exterminated, or as a third possibility to take Muhammad and his people by surprise on Saturday. None of those alternatives appealed them, so their chief, angrily and indignantly, turned to them saying:

"You have never been decisive in decision-making since you were born"
Muslims continued their siege for many days and were getting tired. Ali bin Abi Talib and Az-Zubair bin ‗Awwam proceeded with ‗Ali swearing that he would never stop until he had either stormed th eir garrisons or been martyred like Hamza. Demise of Banu Qurayza: Tabari and Ibn Hisham mention 600-900 of the Banu Qurayza were beheaded. After their garrisons were stormed by Ali ibn abi Talib they had no choice but to comply with Muhammad's judgement. Muhammad ordered that the men should be handcuffed, but Thereupon Al-Aws tribe interceded begging Muhammad to be lenient towards them. He suggested that Sa‗d bin Mu‗adh a Muslim convert who was a former ally of the tribe, should decide their fate. Sa‗d bin Mu‗adh decided that all the able-bodied male persons belonging to the tribe should be killed, women and children taken prisoners and their wealth divided among the Muslim fighters. Muhammad accepted his judgment saying that Sa‗d had adjudged by the Command of Allâh. The male members of the tribe who reached puberty were beheaded. This is also referenced in the Sunni hadith collections, stating:

― Then the Prophet said, "O Saad! These people have agreed to accept your verdict." Saad said, "I judge that their warriors should be killed and their children and women should be taken as captives." The Prophet said, "You have given a judgment similar to Allah's Judgment (or the King's judgment).
"Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:58:148 ‖
Only one woman of the Jews was killed because she had killed a Muslim warrior by flinging a grinding stone upon him. This is also mentioned in Sunni Hadith collections:

― No woman of Banu Qurayza was killed except one. She was with me, talking and laughing on her back and belly (extremely), while the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) was killing her people with the swords. Suddenly a man called her name: Where is so-and-so? She said: I I asked: What is the matter with you? She said: I did a new act. She said: The man took her and beheaded her. She said: I will not forget that she was laughing extremely although she knew that she would be killed. ―
( Abu Dawud 14:2665 )
The siege of Banu Quraiza‘s forts lasted for 25 days. A few elements of the enemy embraced Islam and their lives,

Treaty of Hudaybiyya

In 628, when the Muslims attempted to perform the pilgrimage, After much negotiations, the Muslims entered a peace treaty with the Quraysh, ending the Muslim-Quraysh wars. Some of his followers, however, were discontent at the terms Muhammad [PBUH] had agreed to.

wealth and children were spared. As for the spoils of the war, Muhammad [PBUH] divided them.

[ Campaign of Muhammad [PBUH] against Jews ]
Date: Location: Result: Belligerents: 629 AD. Khaybar Muslim victory Muslim army Jews of Khaybar oasis

Commanders and leaders: Muhammad [PBUH] Ali ibn Abi Talib [R.A] Strength: Muslims 1,600 Casualties and losses: Less than 20 killed (Muslims ) 50 wounded Overview: The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Muhammad and his followers against the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers (95 miles) from Medina in the north-western part of the Arabian peninsula, in modern-day Saudi Arabia. According to Muslim sources, the Muslims attacked Jews who had barricaded themselves in a fort. The Jews of Khaybar finally surrendered and were allowed to live in the oasis on the condition that they would give one-half of their produce to the Muslims. Jews continued to live in the oasis for several more years until they were finally expelled by caliph Umar. The imposition of tribute upon the conquered Jews served as a precedent for provisions in the Islamic law requiring the exaction of tribute known as jizya from non-Muslims under Muslim rule, and confiscation of land belonging to non-Muslims into the collective property of the Muslim community. In return, non-Muslim citizens were permitted to practice their faith, to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy, to be entitled to Muslim state's protection from outside aggression, and to be exempted from military service and the Zakat, which is obligatory upon Muslim citizens Khaybar 10,000 Banu Ghatafan 4,000 93 killed ( Enemies ) Al-Harith ibn Abu Zaynab

[ Part of the Byzantine-Arab Wars ]
Date: Location: Result: * Byzantine victory according to modern scholars. * Muslim victory or stalemate according to Muslim sources. * Byzantine victory according to Christian sources. Belligerents: Muslim Arabs Byzantine Empire, Ghassanids September 629 A.D. Near city of Karak, Jordan

Commanders and leaders: Zayd ibn Haris Jafar ibn Abi Talib Abdullah ibn Rawahah Khalid ibn al-Walid Strength: 3,000 Casualties and losses: 12 (not exact figures) , 100,000 ( according to Muslim sources ) 200,000 ( according to Western Scholars ) un-known , , , , Theodore Heraclius, Shurahbil ibn Amr


( including: 1. Zayd ibn Haris R.A. 2. Jafar ibn Abi Talib R.A. 3. Abdullah ibn Rawahah R.A. )
Overview: The Treaty of Hudaybiyah initiated a truce between the Muslim forces in Medina and the Qurayshite forces in control of Mecca. Badhan, the Sassanid governor of Yemen, had converted to Islam and many of the southern Arabian tribes also joined the rising power in Medina. Muhammad [PBUH] was therefore free to focus on the Arab tribes in the Bilad al-Sham to the North. The Battle of Mu'tah (Arabic: ‫ مؤت ة مع ك ة‬, ‫ )مؤتة غزوة‬was fought in 629 A.D. (5 Jumada al-awwal 8 AH in the Islamic calendar), near the village of Mu'tah, east of the Jordan River and Karak in Karak Governorate, between an army sent by the Prophet Muhammed [PBUH], and an army of the Byzantine Empire- The Eastern Romans. The battle was so intense that Muslims lost their top command with passage of time. First was Zayd ibn Haris R.A, second was Jafar ibn Abi Talib R.A, next to go was Abdullah ibn Rawahah R.A. At last, command transferred to Khalid bin Waleed R.A. Who fought so bravely that got nine swords broken during the dreadful battle. Later he got the title of ―Saif-Ullah (Sword of Allah)‖ from Muhammad [PBUH] on his display of such bravery. In Muslim histories, the battle is usually described as the Muslims' attempt to take retribution against a Ghassanid chief for taking the life of an emissary; it ended in a draw and the safe retreat of both sides, according to Muslim sources, but is recorded as a Byzantine victory by Christian sources.

Date: Location: Result: Belligerents: 630 (8 AH) Hunain, near al-Ta'if in south-western Arabia Muslim victory Muslims, Quraysh Bedouins of the Hawazin and Thaqif tribes

Commanders and leaders: Muhammad [PBUH], Ali Strength: 12,000 Casualties and losses: 12 Overview: The Battle of Hunain was fought between Muhammad [PBUH] and his followers against the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin and its subsection the Thaqif in 630 in a valley on one of the roads leading from Mecca to al-Ta'if. The battle ended in a decisive victory for the Muslims, who captured enormous spoils. The Battle of Hunayn is one of only two battles mentioned in the Qur'an by name, in Sura Preparations: The Hawazin and their allies, the Thaqif, began mobilizing their forces when they learnt from their spies that Muhammad [PBUH] and his army had departed from Medina to begin an assault on Mecca. The confederates apparently hoped to attack the Muslim army while it besieged Mecca. Muhammad [PBUH], however, uncovered their intentions through his own spies in the camp of the Hawazin, and marched against the Hawazin just two weeks after the conquest of Mecca with a force of 12,000 men. Only four weeks had elapsed since quitting Medina. Course of the battle: The Bedouin commander Malik ibn Awf al-Nasri ambushed the Muslims at a place where the road to al-Taif enters winding gorges; the Muslims, surprised by the assault of the Bedouin cavalry, who they thought were encamped at Awtas, began retreating in disarray. Modern historians have been unable to fully reconstruct the course of the battle from this point onwards because the different Muslim sources describing the battle give contradictory accounts. Flight of the Army (Aftermath): Because Malik ibn Awf al-Nasri had brought the families and flocks of the Hawazin along, the Muslims were able to capture huge spoils, consisting of 6,000 women and children and 24,000 camels. Some Bedouins fled, and split into two groups. One group went back, resulting in the Battle of Autas, while the larger group found refuge at alTa'if, where Muhammad [PBUH] besieged them. 20,000 Unknown Malik ibn Awf al-Nasri




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