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CONTENTS

NOTES

INTRODUCTION

beautifulwith

its

elaborate

hope; and everything is covered in

waterfront promenade in Shanghai.

Versace sweaters, Calvin Klein

out the price: $120. The regular retail

lifea

luxurious

life.

Thirty-five

years old. In Asia, the customer

with

the

support

of

fashion

introduction to a luxury brand. It has

leisurely, and had the seamstress

youll walk out with a rope-handled

themselves apart by decorating their

fancy clothing out and would be

out of cheap materialsgold-gilded

social circles. Luxury wasnt simply

themselves. In this machine age,

said. Their descendentsskilled

indulge in the trappings of luxury

everyone from teachers and sales

controversy and make headlines.

afford. They expanded their retail

brings many advantages to a luxury

replaced

individual

marketing of dreams has made

reported that its business from

stores,

which

stay

open

until

point. In 2004, Japanese consumers

And

luxurys

barons

interact. It has become part of our

PART ONE

CHAPTER ONE

AN INDUSTRY IS BORN

Jacobs says, sitting in his Paris

millions of people from a wide range

thousand

employees

and

suitcases on wheels are today. A

tended rose beds sits a simple two-

of the period. The canvas hinge

attached to hold items in place. The

the monogram toile, or something

is carefully planned with the most

2006.

Pierres a kind-looking fellow,

rooted in old Europes royal courts

encouraged

and

supported

the

mines in Peru, declared Louis

time the greatest luxury and the

canvas

he

developed

called

first true arbiter of style: he dictated

one client all year long. His prices

like those used by French architect

third trunk on display is a chocolate

monogram line.

and

European

antiques,

Hollywood stars as Mary Pickford,

Angeles in 1930. Our inventory lists

her gowns with semiprecious jewels

Occupation, the Nazis ransacked

her book Louis Vuitton: une saga

down by the Nazis except Vuitton.

nostalgic voyage back to elegance.

Never. And they had great authority.

this was before the fall of the Berlin

staircase.

Magnifique!

Dior

himself

was

dress because, she knows, an

hours. Dior, Marc Bohan, Givenchy,

exactly

to

your measurements.

Fifth Avenue in New York or I.

middle market was the future of

contacted leading manufacturers in

signature a coveted logo.

Leslie Caron told me. I remember

about making money, a lot of

rack on wheels are two dozen $5,000

in

Nicea

piddly 70 million FF

asked for help, he agreed.

revolutionary in luxury fashion and a

almost thirty times, to about $22

remain as designer until he wanted

someone who had no emotional

CHAPTER TWO

GROUP MENTALITY

leather goods house that had, under

during the last decade he had used

Sole, the Harvard-educated lawyer

of Gucci is half that of Vuitton. So

a sexy, modern edge; strengthen

Most other luxury-group chairmen

a boy, Arnault took up piano and

of Arnault.) He didnt wear a

business conservatives like Arnault

he

stands

six

feet

fourand

that

LVMH

had

launched

the

Boussac Group. (Marcel Boussac

were also from the north of France,

began to ruffle feathers both in

relied on a small group of loyal

companies, many

below

luxury

as the cornerstone. His model was

be Arnaults modus operandi: move

companies

back

then,

Clines

you.

himself with Arnault would tip the

daily newspapers published stories

Vuittons packed up their belongings

His motivation was simple: the

and advertise like crazy.

them. You think of Vuitton and you

livened up the design side. For the

Dior. Its whether theyre on the

like his pals Sofia Coppola and Kim

During Racamiers reign, Vuitton

an incompetent valet, Bohan told

Givenchy

learned

of

the

accent, and enough rage to make

McQueen later changed

blooded

when

reorganizing

the

fulfilled

their

mandatethey

Arnault

didnt

care;

and Chlo, and is controlled by

Manhattan and Lazard Frres in

interrupting

you.

He

travels

however long it takes for the return.

was quickly picked up by LVMH.

in the Piaget factory. [Thats] what

operating

profits,

according

to

started

experimenting

with

new

very low price points. No truly

in New York and become Guccis

the verge of bankruptcy. Investcorp,

womens show down the runway

brand, and now he wanted it, badly.

called a press conference in Paris

Pinault laughed. What,

at Chlo, and Alexander McQueen,

brands and the cornerstone for an

neofascistlines. That, and the

haute

bourgeois

society,

with

rendered in marble by masters, and

help of La Scalas set designer

a tortoise and enamel watch from

it,

she

bristled

and

answered

children, Alberto, Marina, and Maria

in

Italy

at

the

time.

Miuccia

rich to being just well-off, Miuccia

management or one day of on-the-

opening a factory? I didnt see it as

youthful line, as well as mens wear

people hate status. You dont look

chosen the companys stationery,

if its profitable at the time when he

promote Prada Sportnow known

quit as CEO and designer of the

It was discussing the

today: in becoming leaders of global

In the last decade, more

about achieving certain financial

CHAPTER THREE

GOING GLOBAL

Tokyo and, over cups of jasmine

sister cleaned up her act when she

want to put any kind of trash in the

are able to identify themselves in

the Japanese economy flourished,

market.

The

parallel

market

memoir, Louis Vuitton Japan: The

Tokyo, he found Vuitton monogram

Japans upper crust but alsoand

Vuitton

headquarters

in

France

1978,

prices were about two and a

the posh Ginza district.

to an American woman. She tried it

Van Goghs Portrait of Dr. Gachet in

Parasite Singles shopped like mad

In the early 1980s, Rolf

purses, gold chain belts, and two-

into the old space.

Joyce

Okano,

regional

vice

companies in the world today, but

and on aircraft on international

Honolulu airport in Hawaii to target

underprivileged

youth

programs,

In 1994, Feeney decided

leading producer of luxury goods

called the DFS Galleria to sell

competitive than those of the other

have their return boarding pass and

as

handbags,

wallets,

jewelry,

serious shopping. Because of this,

are made to order and theres a

satisfy ithas dramatically changed

convenience

shops

that

sell

image. Put simply, brands had to

accent, dresses like a biker in black

style is deeply French, and he

avenue

Montaigne

store.

fashioned

wood-and-glass

sales

styles, tea rose satin chairs with

thrilled with Marinos transformation

themselves as the fashion tribe.

compromise: he was crazy creative,

designed luxury brand boutiques

select an unknown architect to build

shopping

address

in

Japan. It

When I visited it in November 2005, a

like the French phrase Its luxury

framed

mirrors,

displaying

inaugurated a stunning $137 million

staggering $117 million at auction. It

the top floor, with a commanding

she expected the store to recoup its

PART TWO

CHAPTER FOUR

STARS GET IN YOUR

glance.

Choi,

the

companys

instructed

Choi

in

her

acute

pumps with big jeweled buckles.

their clients. For big events, like the

big in the 1970s, including Giorgio

4.6

percent, in 1994. By 1999, Guccis

and became the spokesmen for

glamour about them.

that fans wrote to her begging to buy

Prince Aly Khan off his feet.

claimed that more money was spent

power

was

formidable.

When

persuading you if this or that was

and

ordered

pumps

for

their

liked it in Italy. He was a beautiful

them.

snob. He ranked living, breathing

out what she wanted. I had no time

exploit the force of celebrity.

Mackie, who started as an assistant

1950s,

there

were

handful

of

to the office a couple of days a week

kitchen at Conrad Hiltons famed

over the store. He acquired the shop

store, Hayman told me. We had

called

the

Galleria

that

VIP

Rodeo Drive into a destination

and we were right for the times,

well, as was the case in Americas

sometimes with disastrous results.

clothes; and Giorgio Armani, a

wasnt so lucky. The neighborhood

one of these things, not both. His

photographer, a window dresser, an

boyfriend, Sergio Galeotti, scraped

dress or a tight little suitclothing

specialty stores couldnt get it,

role. Days before shooting was

and poured himself into his work.

There was just one thing missing: I

savvy for Armani. She was born and

months she had the town wired. Her

became a Hollywood power couple,

gown with a giant bow on the

called and said, What else are you

asked.

Aw ards. Vogues Anna Wintour

met Gianni Versace in a cabana

Golden Globes or some other big

distant glamour. Celebrities are in

Indeed, Dana Telsey, former luxury

spend billions of dollars on luxury

dressingor stylingmodels for

matter how beautiful actresses are,

Confidential ,

Escadasand

level of Paris couturier. Bloch wrote

brand fashion plates.

Hollywood today! At some shows,

George Washington University in

magazines. Often her subjects were

of free clothes to dress her girls

collections, Zoe explains. And the

two dresses from the same house

arrivals.

They

send

unsolicited

of 2007. Luxury brands, on their own,

a pair of glamorous shoes on a

The mileage for the rest of the year

French designer Roland Mouret

Chris McMillan tended to their

AIDS Foundation benefit, which

Oscar week, booking the roomy

collection. Most want clutches,

THE POWER and the money involved

mortgage

payments,

exotic

the best-dressed star on the red

I had ever heard. I held the phone

Harry Winstons Carol Brodie. And

she was wearing a cross by Asprey-

me a $10,000 gift certificate. And

part of the stars branding.

time

with

its

official

position

brand from shoes to hats. Celebrity

CHAPTER FIVE

THE SWEET SMELL OF

jasmine. Mul and his family have

known as an accent du Midi. Pain

moved

to

southern

Italy

and

that money can buy.

de mai, or May rose, because it

the Chanel contract, he built an

hundred grams of concrete, a waxy

Fahrenheit)

until

their

sacs

of

explained. All the communication

conservatory in Versailles, and told

itself. Prehistoric man applied scent

palm oil for the jaw and chest; and

and in 1990 founded Osmothque,

filling the salons with a rich aroma.

Something you could wear today.

crystal makers as Baccarat and

weaker version of the extract and

brands began to focus more on the

and to earn more profits, luxury

corporate behemoths that churn out

educated consumers to be volatile,

standard by which one measures a

Louis Vuitton. She was born in

courtesan and a milliner for the

French perfumers in Russia in the

strawberries, Polge explained to

Polge said with a laugh, but then it

perfume? When the buzz rose to a

mostly to no availthat by 1928,

York, they sent an American named

Chanel

turned

coat,

the

Parfums Chanel made an inferior

retrospective. The crowd snickered

in

the

company.

Wertheimer

Roure Bertrand Dupont, decided to

Jacques Polge to work for its New

in distribution, pulling Chanel No. 5

Cristalleand No. 5 accounted for

ten years later. The scent had

old-fashioned indigo blue flacons of

BACK IN THE EARLY twentieth century,

companies, sniffed Polgeor big

from luxury brand perfumes to

had grown into a $2 billion business

dream up a new scent together over

brief will also say, And it should be

juice. If it sells well, theyll order

tucked in the fragrant parasol pines

the living roomto make his point.

He dipped a touche into

Ellena explained, and perfumes

Eau parfume au th for Bulgari,

base notes. Thats bull, he said.

Jardin sur le Nil. I had an idea in

scrunched them to release their

Jardin sur le Nil with both synthetic

Este

Lauder

Companies,

frustration. From the 1960s to the

was uneven.

pleased with how the corporate

hangar,

with

towering,

mad-

Ellena explained to me. Lavender

organic vegetables, Toulemonde

[Luxury perfume] has become such

by executives and samples of the

served during the flight, since it was

magazine stories. You might spend

business, Polge blames the crisis

Cartondruck, a leading packaging

Descourtieux, marketing director for

we would thirty years ago, but its

government

regulations

on

CHAPTER SIX

ITS IN THE BAG

handbag

changes

every

few

in the world, you will find yourself

With the bag!there are

monogram stamped

in

rainbow

the trend. Back in 1996, as we sat in

woman who played backgammon

staged

happening

called

she recreated a Louis Vuitton store

Herms handbags are considered

opined in the Washington Post.

each season to sell to customers

the antithesis of an It bag: most of

immigrantsmostly Muslims from

scarves. Next to the lift on each floor

special orders workshop. It is here

atelier has about forty workers, all

months of taking over the helm in

Limoges making porcelain dinner

earphones to listen to music on their

have one special thing.

The alligator has small rectangular

and therefore the bagis not water

light,

bright

colors

you

see

the fittings for the Herms store in

retourner, which means the seams

beeswax

to

make

it

strong,

half hours to make. If the handle is

shape. The pearls hold the two

Bobigny, to be inspected again. If it

walls hang beautiful eighteenth-and

has made more than forty-three

by Hermss director of cultural

Greek and Latin at the Lyce

success in the luxury business: by

cosmopolitan quarter, de Bazelaire

Saint-Honor, near the Champs-

haut courroies saddlebag. He

Frank, the Giacometti brothers, and

distributed

potato

soup

to

the

behind his desk in the museum. A

elegance is power. By the time he

in New York to learn the fashion

Kink for his sexually powerful

succumbed to a malaise, Newton

staid womens wear line. And then

of

amulets

and

icons.

African

coming and going at will, of being

displaying luxury brand logos.

man has, for goodness sake.

and the game bag, a largish sac

wardrobethe hat, the parasol, the

to be taken seriously in a mans

big ad campaign promoting the 2.55

coats to a stamped impression on

pocket. Beside her sat Jean-Louis

Birkins specs and dubbed it the

the cheapest level: eau de toilette

leather. She had it made on sewing

use the tiny triangle label that her

with Prada at the time. It was

the while, Miuccia Prada sat in her

the runway of his Gucci womens

handbag in the success of a luxury

nestles comfortably under the arm. It

tried to buy the company, first

Rome store, opening more than

more

efficiently.

Louis

Vuitton

how Gucci handbags were made.

long tables to show me how it

artisans study the skins and figure

the sides. There were three of these

blocklike building housing one of

piles of bags from Gucci, Yves Saint

representatives come to the factory,

had long been a conservative

2001,

its sales were a respectable

Japan, after Louis Vuitton.

a seasonal influx of new, more

trailblazing success, other luxury

Scotlandlabels were the cachet,

cost of their goods and maintain the

add

another seam to

keep

it

were literally falling apart at the

the Chinese workers. With each

detail. In May 2005, Prada CEO

manufacturer told me that one

fiercely protective of the logo and

handle. The bag is shipped to Italy,

manufacturer told me. But thats

To my right, on the shelf, sat the

the workers arent healthy and our

said. They work enough to support

slatted to allow for cross-breezes.

canvas to make sure the straps

more in wages and perks. Salaries

the manufacturer told me. Its one of

CHAPTER SEVEN

THE NEEDLE AND THE

French tulips in springtime.

Pucci di Barsento, the founder of

masters degree in social sciences.

pink, and sunshine yellow. In

1954,

of his sizable fortune into the factory

cylindrical

contraption

called

scrunched shape, like tinfoil. Thats

looms. Though it is a magical room

learn how to weave on small looms

two

rooms

of

the

Kremlin;

it

mulberry leaves and increases its

make thread by hand, unwinding

Chinas prosperous and culturally

discovered the rich iridescent fabric

Renaissance masters as Leonardo

loss. Como has remained a textile

conservative black knit tie. His

China, and changed their business

finest. If a

client only

wants

Grob Horgen looms moves so

manufacturers have moved over the

the late 1940s to 150 in the 1960s, but

brunette with an hourglass figure

cellophane sleeves, and places

previous prints and weaves for

plain section of twill. Once the

room

upstairs

to

be

finished.

at ISAat least for the time being

as ready-to-wear, is farmed out to

have to declare where their goods

sugarcane fields surround jagged

blankets, and T-shirts for everyone

sugarcane business with the help of

allowed companies like Shibani

manufacturers in Mauritius, decided

people cut up fabric and sew it

Generally, clients bring their own

Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and India

sweater factories. Shibanis four

gross domestic product. As a result,

eight

key

garment-producing

was the pulsating heart of the

Fangs main business is knitwear

returned to Hong Kong to join and

Delta

of

Guangdong,

the

China.

As

with

accessories

and said it was primarily leather

secretary

of state

for Northern

textile companies in Guangdong

Province are $50 to $100 a month.

this: there are now fashion shows in

for drinking and cooking. In January

Belgium-based

International

employees pay packets, the study

In response to rising

Shaw-Lan

Wang

bought

the

to be part of a distribution plan and

PART THREE

CHAPTER EIGHT

GOING MASS

front of Cartier, ogled dresses at

none of these shops in Oxford. No

Caesars

Palace,

home

of 150

member of the board of directors of

In the old days, when

finest addresses, without fear of

overseas, the tycoons turned their

to take your money. It was only a

the rising stock market kicked off the

changed, too. According to a Roper

41

percent of Americans between

product in the last twelve months.

collection, from couture gowns to

their hometown, theyll hit the lower-

In

Beverly

Hills

the

which had opened in 1981 as an

the revenue from May to December

were at Neiman Marcus but didnt

was

already

doing

terrific

opened a third, sleek, modern

Centers, making it one of the most

Taubman Centers Inc. Weve come

see back home, with lots of glitter

the next time youre in town. In its

the stores, too, with Bach in tow.

making owners and shareholders

volume of leftovers was immense.

centers around the world. When I

up the trunk.

power

to

enchant

seemed

to walk into a flagship store.

giant bins of jeans, bras, T-shirts,

As

outlet

shopping

esplanade lined with handsome

for $5 that offer further discounts in

Humphers, editor in chief of Value

by phone, Frederiksen tells me.

relations

representative,

and

shopping experience: it has a VIP

estate developer J. W. Kaempfer

WHILE MUCH of luxurys expansion to

How,

she

wondered,

online fashion magazine where you

flack and a Chanel showroom

designers she had worked with

bedrooms was our stock room and

tailer they called Boo.com. Boo got

that they used on such follies as

mistakes to avoid when launching a

the retail side, the webzine would

launched a week after we did and I

began to make substantial cuts in

send

them

out,

Massenet

wed only had a few of Boo.coms

Massenet has carried Givenchy in

attracting a hundred new customers

she only has 250 employees, and

pocket

squares,

bracelets,

and

luxury brands now have no choice

because it is simply a conduit and it

theft, known euphemistically in the

add more security cameras and

elsewhere. They make off with a lot

he said, would go into a jewelry

dressing, and retail expansion has

McDonalds wearing Burberry hats.

on

the

clothes,

jewelry,

and

devalue status. It wasnt bling. It

Beyonc

Knowles,

decking

& Gabbana dressed Mary J. Blige

through any of my various brands,

brand executives saw the Asian

But

in

July 1997,

diminished it greatly for two years,

view of foot traffic, it might. What I do

Group, which includes Nina Ricci,

CHAPTER NINE

FAUX AMIS

native Southern Californian was fit

the age of twenty-six, he decided to

straightforward: he gets leads from

discreetly. With us was Buckners

a few steps in front, constantly

We

headed

toward

and logos have been increasingly

$100 million a year to advertise it,

upper classes was to possess what

about superficial things, Stamp

would then copy.

counterfeiting as a viable business.

revenue due to counterfeiting is

lucrative

fashion

knockoffs

are

according to the IACC. Interpol

day, closed shop. And during a raid

Louis Vuitton designer Marc Jacobs

($18.1 million) each year fighting

success

that

the

owners

Drive.

Some

knockoff

handbags

are

with a bold OC instead of the

CCthat half the O peels off,

Vuitton.

UCLA and needed some quick

have someone taking the chance.

know. I looked at her and wondered,

few

farmers out in the fields,

War broke out when Qing Emperor

Guangdong and told the provincial

declared

that

the

statenot

convicted counterfeit vendors to

movie star Jackie Chan starred in

conditioned stalls filled with fake

monogram wallet, 150 yuan ($19) for

around

Guangzhou.

Counterfeit

workshops at the destination. Each

containersfive

with

bogus

Street, wired thousands of dollars in

into labor. They, too, have been

SHORTLY

AFTER

LUNCH

in

thugs there to beat up the cops.

We hoofed it up the

The

cops

told

the

When it was time to

factories or turn to prostitution and

Thailand a couple years ago and

home.

What? I asked.

she had $60,000 in cash stashed in

down dark corridors, through locked

lawyer Steven Gursky, of the Gursky

prices, and picked up an order of

what they are selling is real. And

Tiffany products offered on the site

university, and one of the worlds

worth of handbags in from China

counterfeiting

has

become

members come from Fujian, a

counterfeit goods. Police seized

the

number 18 tattooed on his

around the market in 2004, and the

houses, cars, and bank accounts.

Fake watch vendors closed up on

CHAPTER TEN

WHAT NOW?

parents fled China in 1949. They

Lee invited me to lunch

contemporary art. There was fresh

There was a lot of political content

can

do

whole

as well as production. And it is

delicate porcelain, and handcrafted

brands such as Boss, Dunhill, and

expats from Taiwan and Hong Kong

compared to that of his competitors:

Spa; four restaurants, including

corset dresses and Armani suits,

Kong, but its not far behind.

shoe designer Denise Huang told

Chinese buy luxury as a status

grew from five stores in April 2005 to

booming. The Chinese economy

Black

Label

space

as

well.

flagships,

in

Beijing

and

in

In

Shanghai,

Lee

is

because we were really convinced

trip]. They might save on dinner or

Luxury

brands

have

burnish

their

credentials

as

to respect them in the future.

Russians

spent

their

wealth

Now luxury brands are

firm in Milan, stated in 2004 that the

in

October 2006, actress Sharon

haute-priced

haute

cuisine

said. Crocus City is a place where

that the company sells more ready-

India in the last few years is the

Hotel. The French press reported

want to embody Western ideals and

will be the fastest-growing major

colors and latest bags. There are a

Delhi, the streets are congested and

sensor in each room that lets

introduced

lower-priced

jewelry,

logical step. After all, tycoons like to

Giorgio

Armani

They opened the Milan hotel three

September 2004, Pariss hip set

round and ship to their stores

reported to be quietly consulting for

H&Ms business is based on high

for the brand. We wanted to do a

designs and worked with H&M to

they do business to keep up.

shops at Gucci. Mizrahi calls the

CHAPTER ELEVEN

NEW LUXURY

He sold LVMHs stake in Michael

Youre only a commodity and a

Lamborghini. In early 2007, Prada

Gucci store. When you get greedy,

handful

of

major

embroidery

house

Lesage,

Maximum, unique. Its the way you

old-time couture clients to find gems

at vintage not as vintage but as

says. Every woman at every age

been the emergence of a new tribe

have it. The world was becoming a

luxury fashion brand known simply

wanted to buy my company again,

in

several

upscale

department

Its about service. I cannot accept a

X; spike heels wrecked the parquet.

important part of the shoe is the

opened his shop. It was a jewel box

referring to the chic French movie

price. He liked the place because it

or are foreign to you. A franchise is

brand new and have it fitted to your

When can we buy a bit

was chatting with a Hollywood

reptiles,

found

it

to

be

youre looking for, and takes your

cast of the French retro whodunit 8

$20,000 for a basic suit to $100,000 for

the Chanel couture show in July

because there will be people who,

trunk of their ivory Maybach 62

people call me from the office and

neighboring Four Seasons hotel in

blankets, Baccarat crystal vases, or

for

in-house

nose

Jean-Michel

Brazilian high fashion. Then shed

the business grew, Lucia added

remembered. And my friends said,

told me, and he chose Daslu,

armored limos with bulletproof glass

the

countrys

188

million possess

is one of the most important markets

If

youre

regular

tones with thick champagne-hued

On

the

second

floor

there and is now carried by several

hundred.

Mendes said. No one notices or

gym equipment; a travel agency; a

facialist in town. It takes four or five

you are ushered into a lounge-like

and security guards. Next door,

Mendes as we walked down the

her guests.

On the second day I

the cuisine is a Best of Europe tour:

as a So Paolo socialite: You can

stores also sell cars? You just think

maintain their legitimacy, I asked

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Bennett at Janklow & Nesbit, had

the real story behind the luxury

interviews in far-flung places, and,

Laudomia

Pucci,

Kris

Buckner,

images for Deluxe, Andre Balazs,

day of my career.

NOTES

Embroidery

for

French

May 15May 22, 2006, p.

Optimisms the Point, Not

Palmer White, The Master

Worths dresses: White,

New (New York: Arcade,

Couture houses: Ibid., p.

Chapmans, 1992), p. 82.

August 17, 1997, Sec.3, p.

Levine,

Libert,

In the spring: Ibid., p. 137.

109.

& Finance: When Time Is a

Kirkpatrick, Luxury Wars,

We passed: Ibid.

Macdonald, Mandy Deex,

30, 1996, p. D1.

Feeney and Parker: Vicki

Miles Socha, King Louis:

September

19,

2000;

24.

The Man Who Made the

Stabiner, Spring Fashion:

December 11, 1988, p. 42.

48.

History

of

the

Senses

Thophile Bader: Ibid., p.

11, 2001, p. 5.

Daily News, September

We

are

frightened:

The modern handbag:

Socha, with contributions

brown

leather

tag:

(Florence, Italy: Le Lettere,

China

Inc.

(New

York:

Zarcostas, Chinas Textile

F i r m s , Womens

Wear

Stores Step Up Services

C e n te r, Womens Wear

The luxury industry:

Thief:

Independent

Hold-Up; Boston Boutique

Business

Forever

(New

1997), pp. 26061.

Trafficking in Counterfeit

S mu g g l i n g , New

York

Womens

Wear

Daily,

2006, p. 17.

Upper-Class Quest Starts

New Russian and Indian

Feitelberg, On to India,

1.

Whittaker,

Luxury

&

Zargani, with contributions

BIBLIOGRAPHY

2001.

Away: All About Bags .

Hollywood

Legends

as

Rodeo Drive: The Store,

York: Henry Holt, 1990.

Rawsthorn,

Alice. Yves

Twitchell, James B. Living

INDEX

Allure perfume

soft suit

Beckham, Victoria

Birnbaum, David

Bravo, Rose Marie

in Hawaii

handbags

and Wertheimer

luxury brands,

and Net-a-Porter

Computerization, Gucci handbag

and Mourides

Cuir de Russie perfume

De Palma, Brian

Arnault make-

Duchin, Peter

Eau parfume au th

Fang, Kenneth

First perfume

of

Gieves & Hawkes

designer hotels

Gucci

Guerlain, Jean-Paul

Herms

Hawaii

museum

Hitchcock, Alfred

manufacturing

Industrial Revolution, luxury during

duty-free

Jil Sander

Knockoffs. See Counterfeiting

accessories

individual companies

Loper, Don

in Hawaii

Loy, Myrna

measures

perfume

Fendi buy-out

Madame Grs

Mass marketing. See Middle market

department stores

Miu Miu

Newton, Helmut

profitability of

Parfums de Rosine

new perfume

Petit Campadieu, Le flower farm

Polge, Jacques

Prada, Martino

Recognition Media

perfume use

Ryder, Winona

Schiek, Lisa

Shields, Brooke

Smith, Kent

role of

Textile production

Travolta, John

Veblen, Thorstein

Vipiana, Richard

Outlets

Zara

Empics/Abaca.