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IZE-04001A
Daikin Air-conditioning Automatic Support System for Technical Calculations

For Windows

DACCS-PC Series

Heat Load Calculation Software

DACCS-HKGSG
Ver. 1.02

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Before using this software


This program is the revised version of the heat load calculation software, which is designed for the use in Japan. Thus the values such as the overall heat transfer coefficient of outer wall assembly, and the number of persons and personnel calorification according to the usage of building, which is automatically set, are determined based on typical usage in Japan. Therefore, you need to check the data inputted automatically and amend them if necessary.

Any inquiries or comments to DAIKIN Industries, Ltd. / Email: webvoiss@daikin.co.jp

Agreement The following conditions must be agreed to when using this software. 1. Daikin Industries, Ltd. reserves all rights concerning the software. 2. Daikin Industries, Ltd. prohibits the reproduction of the software in part or in its entirety. 3. Daikin Industries, Ltd. prohibits revision, deletion, or any other changes to part of or entirety of the contents of the software. 4. Daikin Industries, Ltd. has full confidence in the accuracy of the software, however cannot be responsible for any damage or loss incurred from its use. 5. The contents of the software are subject to change without prior notice.

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Table of Contents

Before using this software....................................................................................................................... 2

1. Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 4
1.1 Outline........................................................................................................................................... 4 1.2 Features......................................................................................................................................... 4

2. Software Setup ............................................................................................................................ 5


2.1 Required System Configuration ........................................................................................................ 5 2.2 Starting Setup Program---Installation from CD-ROM ......................................................................... 5

3. Operation Flow............................................................................................................................ 6 4. Starting Software......................................................................................................................... 7 5. Data Input Method...................................................................................................................... 8


5.1 Starting the HKGSG program........................................................................................................... 8 5.2 Data Input [Project Outline] ............................................................................................................. 9 5.2.1 Input Project Outline................................................................................................................. 9 5.2.2 Change the Design Data ...........................................................................................................10 5.3 Data Input [Room Data] .................................................................................................................10 [Flow of Room Data Input] ..............................................................................................................10 5.3.1 Move to the Submenu of Room Data Input.................................................................................10 5.3.2 Add Room Room Spec Input .................................................................................................11 5.3.3 Add Room Other functional buttons .........................................................................................15 5.3.4 Change Room .........................................................................................................................16 5.3.5 Delete Room ...........................................................................................................................17 5.3.6 Insert Room............................................................................................................................17

6. Data Change ................................................................................................................................18


6.1 Standard Data Change in [Room Data] .............................................................................................18 6.1.1 Outline of [Change Standard Data] function................................................................................18 6.1.2 Change of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients .............................................................................18 6.1.4 Change of Schedule .................................................................................................................20 6.1.5 Change of Others ....................................................................................................................21 6.1.6 Change of Canopy ...................................................................................................................25 6.1.7 Change of Material II ...............................................................................................................26 6.1.8 Change of Extension ................................................................................................................27 6.2 Design Data Change in [Project Outline] .........................................................................................28 6.2.1 Design Data Change [Weather Data] ..........................................................................................28 6.2.2 Design Data Change [Heat Transfer Coefficient] .........................................................................29 6.2.3 Design Data Change [Design Room Temperature and Humidity] ...................................................29

7. Sum and Print .............................................................................................................................30 8. Appendixes ..................................................................................................................................41

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1. Introduction
1.1 Outline
The DACCS-HKGSG program uses a steady-state load calculation method to the compute heat load over a 24-hour period (1 day) on a summer day and a winter day. It also applies effective temperature differences in consideration of the effect of the heat accumulated in the walls, since the heat load, which is received from strong sunlight through the outer walls and roofs in summer, is substantial. The program contains the 24-hour weather condition data of major cities in summer and winter (TAC 5%). The standard design data include weather data of 140 countries, which is contributed by the climate data of the British Meteorological Office and Japan Meteorological Agency.

1.2 Features
The DACCS-HKGSG program has the following features and functions. Reliable, detailed heat load calculation Only a simplified calculation method by easy input operations provides detailed and accurate estimation of the heat loads. Easy operation You can operate this program by using both keyboard and mouse as well as other application for Windows. Extensive input and output items It offers extended functions for the system heat load table and input of multiple wall material types. It shows the calculation result with graphs (both in display and in prints) visually effectively. World wide weather data base Flexible compatibility It is compatible with the variety of OS such as Windows 98, 2000, Me, and XP. *Note: The DACCS-HKGSG cannot be used with Windows 3.1, Windows 95 or Windows NT.

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2. Software Setup
2.1 Required System Configuration
Before starting the set-up, check the hardware and software of your computer system. <The required hardware and software to use the DACCS-HKGSG> Personal computer: CPU486DX2 or higher OS: English-version of Windows 98, 2000, Me, and XP Note: the DACCS-HKGSG cannot be used with Windows 3.1, Windows 95 or Windows NT Hard disk capacity: more than 7 MB of available memory area HKGSG (Approx. 3 MB) Shared area with DACCS (Approx. 2 MB) Area required for installation (work area) (Approx. 2 MB)

CD-ROM drive(s) *It is used to install the program. Display device compatible with Microsoft Windows (Recommended resolution: 800 x 600dots) Note: Though the 640 x 480dots resolution is also applicable, its display area will extend beyond the screen on a display device.

Printer compatible with Windows to print the calculation result. (Output: A4 size, horizontal orientation)

2.2 Starting Setup Program---Installation from CD-ROM


1) Insert the DACCS CD-ROM in the CD-ROM drive. 2) Open the CD and find the program called SETUP.EXE to install all files for using the DACCS-HKGSG program on your hard disk. 3) Double click on Setup icon written above. 4) Follow instructions displayed on a screen and complete the setup.

Note: Before Using Software The DACCS-HKGSG software is an application program that operates on English-version of Windows 98, Me, 2000, and XP. Therefore, you are required to have basic operation knowledge of the Windows system to use this software. This manual does not explain these basic operations in details, such as how to open a menu and how to give a name to file using a dialog box. For details of Windows, refer to the Windows manual or use the online help function.

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3. Operation Flow
The DACCS-HKGSG was designed to enable everyone to carry out the accurate* load calculation easily and quickly. Users can operate it only by inputting data along with the functions from [1. Project Outline] to [4. Exit] on its main menu. *Though computers provide the accurate calculation results normally, the calculation result can be unreliable if the input data itself is not appropriate. [Main Screen of Simplified Heat Load Calculation Program]

Main Menu

[Flowchart of Operation] (Flow of Load Sum Table Production) You can input the project name, country/city names, address and outer wall assembly data. If necessary, you can change the design data such as default heat transfer coefficient and weather data with this function. You can determine the room specification such as room name, floor number, usage of room, ventilation system, and so on. If necessary, you can change the standard data such as the heat transfer coefficient, design temperature and humidity, and so on. You can perform calc ulations and print its results. (The printed data consists of the heat load table, system heat load table, system table, input room data, graph, room heat load table and peak heat load detail table.) This is the function to exit the program. If data is not saved, the attention message will be displayed, asking whether to save data or not.

1. Project Outline

2. Room Data

3. Sum / Print

4. Exit

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4. Starting Software
As soon as the program setup is completed, a "DACCS-PC" folder (B) is created in a "Program" folder (A) at a start menu. Program short-cut menu (C) is also created under the "DACCS-PC" folder. Click on this short-cut menu to start the application program.

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5. Data Input Method


5.1 Starting the HKGSG program

When starting the program, you are asked to choose whether to input new data or to load stored data. Select either options, New or Open. (If you input data for the first time, select "New".)

When you chose New, the screen shown in the next page (Section 5.2.1) will appear.

[Window for Opening the Stored File] When you choose Open, the window shown at the left will appear. Then, select a data file to open. *You can change the drive and folder in the same way as for other Windows application programs.

Extension for load calculation files is hks

Project information of the selected file is shown here.

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5.2 Data Input [Project Outline]


5.2.1 Input Project Outline Clicking on the 1. Project Outline button on the main menu, the data-input window will appear.

You can input 1) Project Name, 2) City, 3) Address and 4) Outer Wall Assemblies. You can also change Design Data if necessary. (See the next page.) 1) Project Name should be within 60 characters. 2) Click on either City/Country or Map button to select a City/Country. 3) Address should be within 30 characters. 4) Outer Wall Assemblies can be selected from listed 5 options. *If Selecting Others, you can input its type manually. Note: Selecting the wall type, the heat transfer coefficients of the outer wall, inner wall, roof and floor for effective temperature difference are automatically determined. Project name and address are printed on the cover of the heat road table. (They do not affect to the calculation results.)

[City Selection Support Tool]

[World Map Support Tool]

. When the City/Country button is clicked, City Selection Support Tool screen will appear. You can easily select a registered country and city with this tool.

When the Map button is clicked, World Map Support Tool screen will appear. You can select the registered country and city by clicking on a city location.

Concerning the following 2 points that sunlight and outside air temperature affect to the outer wall and roof, and that the heat storing capacity of the wall generates the time lag in heat transmission, the program adopts effective temperature differences. Depending on wall material and thickness, values of effective temperature difference are designated in Wall Type I, II, III, IV and S. (See the Appendix (p.45).)

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5.2.2 Change the Design Data You can change the default values of the weather data and heat transfer coefficients, which are categorized as a Standard Data, with Design Data function, if necessary. *Revised data with this function is applicable only to that relevant project. Note: For the detailed procedure to change the design data, refer to section 6. Data Change 6.2 Design Data Change in [Project Outline] (p. 29). Design Data = the default (initial) values for the weather data and heat transfer coefficients (= part of a Standard Data) for each room. Standard Data = the data which are automatically determined according to the room type. (= number of persons, personnel calorific volume per person, number of infiltration ventilation, schedule, coefficient of internal temperature difference, lighting and blind type)

5.3 Data Input [Room Data]


[Flow of Room Data Input]
Room Specification Input

Standard Data Change

End of Add Room and Room Spec Change Input

Following specification can be input. - Room name - Floor no. - Number of rooms - Usage of room - Ventilation system - With or without ceiling board - Floor area - Ceiling height - Non-conditioned ceiling area - Non-conditioned floor area, - Calorific volume from equipment - Outer wall length - Window area on outer wall - Non-conditioned inner wall length

5.3.1 Move to the Submenu of Room Data Input Clicking on the 2. Room Data button,
2. Room Data

the submenu of the room data input function (Section A) will be activated.

Note: When the submenu (section A) is activated, the main menu functions become inactivated. If you want to go back to the main menu, click the Main Menu button at the bottom of section A.

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5.3.2 Add Room Room Spec Input You can input room data (= room specification) with Add function. Clicking the Add button, the room data input screen will appear.
[Room Spec Input Screen]

-Room Name Input the room name within 20 characters. (It will be printed on hardcopy.) -Floor Input a floor number from 5* to 99. *Use a negative (-) value for underground floors.
Note to input floor number

To calculate the heat loads in winter (= heating operation), the cooling effect of atmospheric heat radiation is incorporated into calculation. In addition, the radiant cooling effect is incorporated into calculation of heat load from 18:00 to 7:00, which is the heat loads of roofs and roof windows. However, if the room located higher than 4th floor, the radiant cooling effect is incorporated into the calculation of the heat loads of glass windows and outer walls between 18:00 and 7:00.
Heating load = Azimuth factor x Increasing factor of ceiling height x Temperature difference x Heat transfer coefficient x Area *Temperature difference (8:00 to 17:00) = Indoor temperature - Outside temperature *Temperature difference (18:00 to 7:00) = Indoor temperature - Outside temperature + t a (radiant cooling effect) 4th to 9th floors: t a = 2 10th floor and above: t a = 3 Roof windows and roofs: t a = 6 (With no regard of floor no.)

-Qty Input the number of same-type rooms* from 1 to 99. (Heat loads of all same-type rooms are added in the heat load table.) *"Same-type room" means the room having the same structure, same size, same purpose and same next room conditions in the same building. (Ex. rooms in a hotel, classrooms in a school) -System Input the system number* from 1 to 999. *It is used to calculate a system heat load. (If heat load is not calculated for individual systems, input "1.") -Usage of Room Select a type of room usage. If you select "Others", you can input any name within 10 characters. Note: Once selecting room usage, some values such as the number of persons, personnel calorific volume per person, number of infiltration ventilation, schedule, coefficient of internal temperature difference, lighting and blind type will be automatically optimized according to the Usage of Room. These data are indicated as a Standard Data. (See the Appendixes in details (p.41).) *If you select Others, the same standard data as for Office is optimized for this type.

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-Ventilation System Select a ventilation system from the following options: Natural ventilation: Only an infiltration heat load is incorporated in calculation. Ventilation Fan: An infiltration heat load and outside air heat load are incorporated in calculation. Total heat exchanger: An infiltration heat load and outside air heat load minus a total heat exchanger heat load are incorporated in calculation. Note: Depending on the ventilation system, calculation method of the infiltration heat load* and outdoor air heat load** are changed. *Infiltration heat load A heat load of drafts coming through the doors and the gap between the windows and outer walls. **Outside air heat load A heat load of outside air circulated to the room artificially by the mechanical ventilation systems.

-Ceiling Board Select "Avail" (=available) or "No ceiling" depending on if the room has a ceiling board or not. Note: Depending on whether the room has a ceiling board or not, heat transfer coefficients of roof and ceiling are changed. (See the Appendixes in details. => p.42) -Floor Area 2 Input the floor area of the room from 0 to 9999.9 (m ). *It is used to calculate the heat load of the room per square meter. [Diagram of Ceiling Board and Ceiling Height] -Ceiling Height Input the distance between the floor surface and the 2F ceiling board if the room has a ceiling board. Ceiling height Input the floor height (=the distance between the floor surfaces) if the room has no ceiling board. Ceiling height 1F *The value should be from 0 to 99.9. Room A Room B *It is used to calculate the outer wall area.
With ceiling board Without ceiling board

Calculation method for the outer wall area


- Without a ceiling board: Outer Wall Area = Outer wall length x Ceiling height - Window area - With a ceiling board: Outer Wall Area = Outer wall length x (Ceiling height + Attic height*) - Window area *Attic height can be changed with Others function of the [Change Std Data] Section. (Initial value: 0.6 m)

<In the case of a high ceiling> If the ceiling height is more than 5 m, the heat loads for the outer wall, roof and glass are multiplied by the corresponding increasing factor* of the ceiling height as shown below.
Increasing factors [5m to 10 m]: [More than 10 m]: 1.05 1.15

-Roof & Non-Conditioned Ceiling Area Input the ceiling area to each entering field from 0 to 9999.9 (m2). Each field is categorized depending on the situation above the ceiling. -Upper Room: Ceiling area where air conditioner is not used in the room above -Flat Roof: Ceiling area just under the roof -Inclined roof: Ceiling area just under the inclined roof* -Glass: Ceiling area with roof window that faces to the outside air directly. * Heat load of inclined roof is calculated by multiplying heat transfer efficient of flat roof by 1.1.

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-Non-Conditioned Floor Area Input the ceiling area to each entering field 0 to 9999.9 (m2 ). Each field is categorized depending on the situation under the ceiling. -Earth Floor: Floor area faced on the earth (without underground) -Air Layer Exist: Floor area where air conditioner is not used in the room below -Air Layer No: Floor area where air conditioner is not used in the room below -Pilotis: Floor area faced to the outside air (=pilotis) Note: In the case of an underground wall (= when a negative (-) sign is attached in front of the outer wall length), total "earth floor" area is calculated as an "underground earth" floor area. (Due to different heat transfer coefficient and temperature difference value, the heat load of earth floor is changed.) Example of Input [Roof & Non-Conditioned Ceiling Area / Floor Area]
Roof Non-Conditioned Ceiling Area Upper Room
Air conditioned Non airconditioned

21.5 51.0 21.5 0.0

Flat Roof

Flat roof
51.0m
2

Inclined roof
21.5m
2

Inclined Roof Glass

Upper Room 21.5m2

Non-Conditioned Floor Area Earth Floor 21.5

Target Room for Heat Load Calculation


Earth floor 21.5m2 Airconditioned Mezz floor 27.6m2 Mezz floor 31.2m2 Pilotis 19.5m2

Air Layer Exist 27.6 Air Layer No Pilotis 31.2 19.5

Ground

Non airconditioned

Non airconditioned

Outside

ATTENSION: Do not input the air-conditioned area since it is assumed that no heat transfer occurs with this area.

-Equipments Input the calorific volume of the sensible heat and latent heat emitted from equipments, from -99999 to 300000 (kcal/h). *It is possible to determine these values automatically with the Heat Source Input function (= input support tool) shown below.
[Input Support Tool]

Clicking on the Heat Source Input button on the bottom of the [Equipment] section, the input support tool window shown at the left will appear. Input the unit number of the equipments used in the relevant room into the applicable boxes and click the OK button, and then the sensible heat load and latent heat load are calculated automatically.

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-Outer Wall Length Input the length of the wall faces to outside air or the underground earth (as in the case of basement). (-999 to 999.9 m) Note to input the Outer Wall - Input the length of outer wall in meters. - If the outer wall faces the underground earth, add a negative (-) sign to the length as a direction data. - If the outer wall is in the shade of an adjacent building, input the total outer wall length in the shady space regardless of the direction. -Window Area on Outer Wall Input the area of windows faces to outside air. (0 to 999.9 m2 ) Note to input the Window Area on Outer Wall Be sure to input the outer wall length and ceiling height before inputting window area, since the outer wall area is calculated by the following formula. Outer wall area = Outer wall length x Ceiling height - window area Thus, the outer wall length must be input even if the entire outer wall is covered with the windows. -Inner Wall Length for Non-Conditioned Space Input the length of inner wall adjacent to the non-conditioned room. (0 to 999.9 m) Example of Input [Outer Wall Length / Window Area / Inner Wall Length] Top view
Airconditioned Non airconditioned Non airconditioned

Side view

5m 4m 9m

Window

Ground 5m 5m
Target Room for Heat Load Calculation
15m Window 4m2 Window 6m2 N

4m2
Window

4m2

Ground
The west side on the 1st floor is in the ground.

E 9.0 8.0 0.0

S 15.0 10.0 0.0

W -5.0 0.0 4.0

NW 0.0 0.0 0.0

SE 0.0 0.0 0.0

SW 0.0 0.0 0.0

NW 0.0 0.0 0.0

Shade 0.0 0.0

Outer Wall Length (m) Window Area on Outer Wall (m2) Inner Wall Length for Non-Cond Space (m)

0.0 0.0 10.0

Note1: If the outer wall faces to the underground earth, add a negative (-) sign to the length data. Note2: Do not input the air-conditioned area since it is assumed that no heat transfer occurs with this area.

-Change Std Data Each function on this section enable you to change the standard data such as the heat transfer coefficient, design temperature and humidity, schedule, canopy, others, material II and data for extend. (See section 6.1 in details.) Note: Selecting "Usage of Room" as written above, the standard data corresponding each usage is automatically determined. However, its initial values may not be applicable to some projects. In this case, you need to change the condition of the standard data with this function (See Appendixes for each initial value in details. => P.40)

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5.3.3 Add Room Other functional buttons -Prev room / Next room button Clicking these buttons, the room spec of the previous room or next room will be displayed. (These buttons are activated only when you input more than 2 room specifications.) - Add Room button * Clicking this button, the original data is automatically saved and the room spec screen will be changed to input the new room data. (This button is inactive when you open the [Room spec] screen that has been already saved.)

- OK button Click it to save the input data. Then the [Room spec] screen is closed and the input room is added to the list.

- Cancel button Click it if you dont want to save the input data. The [Room spec] screen is closed and the no room is added to the list. Note to use Add / Add Room button Using the Add / Add Room buttons, some specifications of the original room are carried over as follows. -Following room specifications are carried over: [Floor number], [System], [Usage of Room], [Ventilation System], [Ceiling Board] and [Ceiling height] -Following Standard Data are carried over: All contents of [Schedule]*, all contents of [Others]* except for [Persons] (= total number of persons), and [Glass Surface Ratio]** of [Extension] *If you change [Usage of Room] of the new room, the value of [Schedule], [Others] (except for [Safety Factor] and [Underground Wall Depth]) are accordingly changed to the default value for the selected usage of room.) **If a room is inserted at the top, its values are changed to the default values.

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5.3.4 Change Room You can change the input room data with Change function. 1) Change the specific room data Selecting the room you want to change the data from the list (Section A) and clicking the Change button, the following screen will appear.

If you want to change data of only selected room, select "Change Selected Room Data and click the OK button. Then the [Room spec] screen of the selected room will be opened, and you can make necessary changes. *Be sure to click OK button to save the changed data. 2) Change the Standard Data for All Rooms If you want to change the standard data* for all rooms simultaneously, just click the Change button without selecting the room, and then select Change All Room Data on [Select Change System] screen.

[Batch Change Screen] Clicking the OK button, [Batch change] screen will appear, and you can make necessary change. *The item data you dont want to change leave blank. *Standard data = Heat transfer coefficient, Design temperature and humidity, Operating time zone, Fresh air intake, Number of infiltration ventilation, Safety factor Attention Since changed data cannot be set back to original settings anymore, be careful to use this function.

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5.3.5 Delete Room You can delete the inputted room data with Delete function.

Selecting the room you want to delete the data from the list (Section A) and clicking the Delete button, the selected room will be deleted.

*The [Delete] key on the keyboard works as same.

5.3.6 Insert Room You can insert the new room data with Insert/Copy function.

Selecting the room you want to insert a new room before and clicking the Insert/Copy button, the [Insert (room)] screen will appear as follows.

[Insert room screen]

If you want insert a new room, select New Room and click the OK button. Then a new room will be inserted immediately before the selected room.

If you want insert a copy data of the saved room on

the list, select "Copy Saved Room". Then the section B (= the list of the saved room spec) will be activated, and you can select one of them from the list Clicking the OK button, the copy of the selected data is inserted immediately before the selected room.

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6. Data Change
There are two [Data Change] function on this program, [Change Design Data] and [Change Standard Data]. [Change Design Data] You can change the initial values for the part of the standard data, which are applied to the whole project [Change Standard Data] You can change the values of the standard data for each room, which are applied to the relevant room 6.1 Standard Data Change in [Room Data] 6.1.1 Outline of [Change Standard Data] function As written above, the standard data is automatically determined in typical value when "Usage of room" is determined. However, this typical data may not be applicable to some projects. Therefore, you need to re-determine the condition of the standard date with this function, if the initial values, which are listed in the Appendixes in details, are not applicable. (refer to page12). The [Change Std Data] include functions listed below; -[O.H.T.C. (Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients)] You can determine the heat transfer coefficient according to the outer wall assemblies. -[Temp& Humid] You can determine design temperature and humidity of the room for summer and winter. -[Schedule] You can determine the operating time zone (= time period of heat load calculation), the radiation from lighting, number of persons and equipments. -[Others] You can determine fresh air intake, number of infiltration ventilation, safety factor, window glass type, blind type, humidifying method, lighting, number of persons, underground wall and attic height. -[Canopy] You can determine dimensions of window and canopy. -[Material II] You can determine different heat transfer coefficient values that are different from those of normal outer walls, inner walls, windows and blinds. (Maximum of two types including normal materials) -[Extension] * Normally, the value in [Extension] should not be changed. You can determine the exothermic volume from human body / person and the condition of the adjacent room. 6.1.2 Change of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients Clicking the O.H.T.C. button, the screen shown at the left will appear. You can make necessary change with this screen.
If the room does not have a ceiling board, input field for with (Ceiling) Board is inactive, and vice versa.

[Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient] Rate of outside air heat transmitted into the room. The value of heat transfer coefficient K of a wall is obtained based on the material thickness, heat conductivity coefficient of material and heat conductivity coefficients of internal and external surfaces. [Wall Type] Effective temperature difference varies according to the wall type. *The wall type does not change automatically even if the
heat transfer coefficient is changed. Thus, you need to select an appropriate wall type according to the assembly type. (Refer to the wall type table in 7. Appendix.) Heat transfer coefficients for underground items can be changed only when the room is in the underground floors. (The outer wall length is expressed in a negative value on a Room spec screen.)

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Heat load calculation uses the following formula to obtain the basic heat load values for individual building structure types. Heat load = heat transfer coefficient x effective temperature different x area (Other factors may also be used in some cases.) If the value of the heat transfer coefficient is small (high heat insulating performance), the heat load becomes smaller.
[Formula for heat transfer coefficient calculation]
K = 1

K: Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.K) o: Heat conductivity coefficient of external surface (W/m2.K) i: Heat conductivity coefficient of internal surface (W/m2.K)

1 2 o + 1 + 2 +
1

+ n + 1 n i

i: Heat conductivity coefficient of i-layer material (W/m.K) i: Thickness of i-layer material (m)

The HKGSG uses effective temperature difference for outer walls and roofs. In effective temperature difference values, the solar heat loads and outside air and the delay in heat transmissions caused by the heat storing capacity of walls are taken into consideration.

Explanation of Wall Types Depending on the heat storing capacity and slow heat conducting time, the effective temperature difference varies from wall to wall. According to its material type and thickness, walls are generally categorized into Type I, II, III and IV, as indicated in the wall type table (Appendix), and the specific effective temperature difference is determined to each wall. And more, Type S is added on this program HKGSG, which is determined as having no effective temperature difference value, and used for materials that do not store heat, such as slate roofs.

6.1.3 Change of Design Room Temperature and Humidity Clicking the Temp & Humid button, the screen shown below will appear. You can make necessary change with this screen. [Change of the temperature value] Changing the temperature value, the outside air temperature difference and the effective temperature difference are accordingly changed, which are determined depending on the wall heat storing capacity. *Both of them are used for heat load calculation. Thus, this change affects to the heat load value of the outer wall assemblies. (The larger the temperature difference is, the higher the heat load becomes.)

[Change of the humidity value] Changing the humidity value, the latent heat values of the infiltration load and outside air load are accordingly changed, which based on the amount of humidification in heating operation.

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6.1.4 Change of Schedule Clicking the Schedule button, the screen shown at the left will appear. You can make necessary change with this screen. [Operating Time Zone] Setting the operating time zone as you like and clicking the Set Schedule button, the operating time periods indicated in the table below will be changed as you set. <Input examples> 8 Hr 18 Hr 20 Hr 5 Hr *Time zone can be extended over midnight in HKGSG.

Operating rate of the operating time zone you set will changed to 100 (100 is the initial value)

Each numerical value indicates operating rates.

Whats Operating Time Zone - Heat load is calculated for a period of time specified by the operating time zone. It means that calculation results do not include heat loads generated out of this period. - The initial values of operating time zone are different depending on the usage of room. (Refer to 7. Appendix for the setting of initial values for each usage of room)

[Lighting / Persons (=Number of persons) / Equipment (=Operating rate of equipment with calorification from internal equipment)] You can set each operating rate for each hour of the day (24 hours) as you like. (0% to 100%) *This rate is used in the heat load calculation. *Though you can set it for the hour out of the operating time zone, it is not used in heat load calculation. <Input Examples> Situation Input The equipment is always shut down at 4:00 => the calorification from internal equipment is 0% after 4:00. Outside light is bright from 9:00 to 16:00 => 70% is used for the lighting setting during it.

Attention Heat load calculation is performed to provide a safety margin (maximum load values) in its results. Therefore, be sure to change the settings only when you confirm that the load reduction (setting change) occurs without a fail.

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6.1.5 Change of Others Clicking the Others button, the screen shown below will appear. You can make necessary change with it. Note to change the settings in [Others] Standard data in [Others] are greatly affected by the room specification such as usage of room, floor number, floor area, and ceiling height. Thus, if you change them after changing the settings in [Others], the standard data in [Others] are reset to the initial values depending on the changed items. *The caution message will appear to inform it.
<< Correlation between room spec and std data in [Others] >> Room spec items Std data in [Others] Usage of Room => Number of persons, infiltration, lighting, blind type Floor number => Underground wall height Floor Area => Number of persons Ceiling Height => Underground wall depth (in the case of underground floor) *Changing each room spec affects to the corresponding std data in [Others].

[Fresh Air Intake] -Air Volume Select the items to be changed: m3/h person (= amount of fresh air per person) or m3/h (= air volume) Then, -If you select m3/h person, input the amount of fresh air intake per person in the room. -If you select m3/ h, input the amount of fresh air intake into the room per hour. (Initially m3/h person is selected and the value is set to 20.0 m3 /h-person both in winter and summer.) *Fresh air intake volume = amount of fresh air intake per person x number of persons Note: It can be active only when "Ventilation fan" or "Total heat exchanger" is selected in the ventilation system setting on the [Room Spec] screen. -Total Heat Exchange Efficiency Input the total heat exchanger efficiency (%). (Initial value is set to 60% for both summer and winter) Note: It can be active only when "Total heat exchanger" is selected in the ventilation system setting on the [Room Spec] screen. Estimation of Fresh Air Intake Volume Generally, the number of persons in a room varies depending on the time, and consequently the number of persons per area also differs even in the same zone of the same room. Therefore, the standard values of fresh air intake volume per 1 m2 are determined for each room usage in advance on this program. (See the table below.) [Volume of fresh air intake per floor area unit (m3 /m2 h)]
(m3/m2h) Recommended value Minimum value Office 5 3 Restaurant, Department store 10 6 Conference room 15 10 Theater 25 25 Residence, Hotel guest room 3 Lobby, Entrance, Hall 3

2 2 *Reference values applicable in Japan

In the case of the lavatory or the kitchen where an exhaust ventilation system is provided, or the case of the factory where the installed machines produce exhausts, the amount of exhaust air is compared with the fresh air intake volume calculated in the standard formula, and the largest value is used as the volume of fresh air intake.

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[Infiltration] Infiltration indicates the amount of outside air that comes into a room through doors, gaps around window frames and gaps with outer walls. This infiltration of outside air naturally occurs due to the temperature and pressure difference between inside and outside or due to wind pressure. On this program, it is shown by the frequency (= number of times) that the room air is replaced by a ventilation cycle method per hour. Though the initial value is different depending on the usage of room, you can manually input it on this screen, referring to the table below. Number of Infiltration Ventilation (Times/h) Outer Wall Assemblies No. of Ventilation (Times/h) In Heating Operation 0 to 0.2 0.2 to 0.6 0.3 to 0.6 0.5 to 1.0 In Cooling Operation 0 0.1 to 0.2 0.1 to 0.3 0.2 to 0.6 Note to select the input values for large rooms For large room, the ventilation cycle method tends to produce overestimated values due to large room capacity. Thus you have to be careful. (There is no problem in using the ventilation cycle method for small rooms.)

Concrete Structure (large scale) Concrete Structure (small scale) Western-style Wooden Structure Japanese-style Wooden Structure

*Reference values applicable in Japan

<Input Example> If the air to room is replaced every 5 hours in summer => Input 0.2 times/h for input field of [Summer]. * Infiltration Volume per Hour (m3/h) = No. of Ventilation (times/h) x Floor Area (m2) x Ceiling Height [Safety Factor] This setting is used to calculate the select heat load of air conditioner. * The initial value is 1.05 for Cooling (in Summer) and 1.10 for Heating (in Winter). * Select Heat Load (Required Capacity) = Total Heat Load x Safety Factor [Lighting] This data are used to calculate the heat load generated by lighting. Input the power ratings (W) of the fluorescent lamps and the incandescent lamps. *The initial value is different depending on the usage of room. (See Appendix.) *Since lighting load is generally a positive factor in heating operation, it is not added in calculation of the heating load. * Lighting Load (W) = Calorification per 1 W x Power Rating (W) of Lighting *Calorification per 1 W is 1 W for incandescent lamps and 1.16 W for fluorescent lamps (including ballast)

[Internal Heat Gain in Heating (= Calorification from Internal Equipment in Heating Operation)] Since the calorification from people, lighting and equipment offsets the external heat loss during heating operation, it is not incorporated in conventional manual calculation in many cases. However, an excessive safety margin can result in overrating of air conditioner capacity. This not only causes uneconomical operation of air conditioners but also lowers the operating efficiency in normal condition. To avoid them, you can incorporate a percentage of internal calorification in heating operation into calculation of the heat load in cooling operation on HKGSG. This setting can be made for each room. *Initial setting is no consideration. <Example> The following shows the cases that internal calorification may be incorporated in heating. (1) Extended air conditioner warming up time is acceptable. (2) Steady internal calorification volume is expected. (3) Calorification volume is excessively large. * Note that heat load becomes smaller if internal heat gain is incorporated in heating.

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[Window Type] and [Blind Type] You can select the window type and blind type from the list. Once you change them, the shading factor and heat transfer coefficient used in the calculation of the heat load from the glass area will be changed accordingly. *The initial value for window type is Clear 5mm. (= the normal glass: 5 mm) *The initial value for blind type is different depending on the usage of room. Selecting "Others" at the list of [Window Type], the screen at the left will appear. You can input any settings as needed. -Window Type Input the name of the window. -Shading Factor Input the shading factor of the window. -O.H.T.C. (Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient) Input the overall heat transfer coefficient of the window. -Glass Type Select an appropriate type. *The standard solar calorification varies depending on the glass type. [Input Screen of Window Type Others]

[Humid Method (= Humidifying Method)] You can change the humidifying method. *It determines whether the latent heat load is added to the total heating load (= sensible heat load) or not. Humidifying Method Without Humidifier Evaporative Humidifier Pan type Humidifier Ultrasonic Humidifier Steam Spray Water Spray Pressurization Spray Addition of the Latent Heat Load No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes * Regardless of whether a humidifying system is used or not, the amount of humidification is indicated on output tables.

[Number of Persons] You can change the number of persons in the room. *Since the value of area per person is set according to the usage of room, the number of persons is changed if the floor area is changed. * Since the exothermic load from Area per Person (m2/person) (Reference values applicable in Japan) human body is usually calculated as a safety margin, it is not added to Typical Design the heating load. Usage of Room and its situation area value Office Office room 5 to 8 5 In the audience sections of the movie Conference room 2 to 5 2 theaters or the other theaters, 2.5 Department store, Normal 1 to 4 exothermic fro the human body 0.5 to 2 0.7 Retail shop Crowded place accounts for the majority of the heat Fewer people 4 to 8 5 load. Therefore, it is necessary to Restaurant 1 to 2 1.7 obtain an accurate estimation of the Theater Audience section 0.4 to 0.7 0.5 number of persons for this input. School Classroom 1.3 to 1.6 1.4 *Note that the number of people in Museum Exhibition room 2 to 4 2.5 a movie theater sometimes far Library General 1.8 to 3 2 exceeds the number of seats due to Coffee shop 1.5 to 4 2 the standing audience and so on. Beauty parlor, barber shop 2 to 4 2.5

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[Underground Wall Depth] *Only applicable when the room is in the underground Input the under ground wall depth if the room is in the underground. * The HKGSG recognizes a wall as in underground if the outer wall length has a negative (-) sign. Since the external heat load of an underground wall (including semi-underground wall) is different from that of a ground wall, the HKGSG calculates it with a special calculation method. *Another methods are used to calculate shallow underground wall and deep underground wall. The initial value for shallow underground wall (-2.4 m or less) = Floor height [ceiling height + attic height] x underground floor no. <Example of Input> 1st Basement Floor 1F Ground Underground 1st basement floor Ground Underground
Underground wall depth

2nd Basement Floor 1F

Depth from the ground surface is accounted as underground wall depth.

1st basement floor 2nd basement floor


Underground wall depth

1st basement floor with wall partially above 1st Floor with Wall partially below Ground Surface 1F Ground Underground Ground Underground
Underground wall depth

1F
Underground wall depth

1st basement floor

When outer wall length has negative (-) sign Earth floor => Underground earth floor

[Underground walls definition on HKGSG] * This program automatically performs calculation with the following logic, so that you dont need to consider it on data input. (1) Shallow underground walls (less than -2.4 m from ground surface) Sections that are not deeper than 2.4 m are greatly affected by outside air temperature, so that the temperature difference with the outside air temperature is incorporated in calculating heat load.
Underground wall heat load= Kp X p X (Tr To) Kp: Heat transfer coefficient per unit periphery (W/mK) Tr: Room temperature (DegC) / p: Ambient length (m) / To: Outside air temperature (DegC)

(2) Deep underground walls (more than -2.4 m from ground surface) For sections that are -2.4 m or more in depth, the heat load received from underground heat (underground temperature) is obtained.
Underground wall heat load = Kb X Ab X (Tr Tg) Kb: Heat transfer coefficient of underground wall (W/m2.K) / Ab: Underground wall area (m2) Tr: Room temperature (DegC) / Tg: Underground temperature (DegC) [Underground temperature] Underground temperature at depth of x (m) Heating Ts + To Ts To -0.4x Cooling Ts + To Ts To Tx = --------- - ----------- X e Tx = ---------- + --------- X 2 2 2 2 Tx: Underground temperature at depth of x (m) / Ts: Highest outside air temperature in summer To: Lowest outside air temperature in winter * Underground temperature is also used for underground earth floors. -0.4x

[Attic Height] *Only applicable when the ceiling board is provided Input the attic height if the room has a ceiling board. (Initial value is 0.6 m) The HKGSG adds the attic heat load into the calculation of the outer wall heat load. Outer Wall Area = Floor Height [Ceiling Height + Attic Height] x Outer Wall Length

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6.1.6 Change of Canopy Clicking on the Canopy button, the screen shown below will appear. [Input Window and Canopy Screen]

On HKGSG, solar heat gain through the window is designed to decrease depending on the shadow of a canopy and a fin. Thus, if the window has a canopy, input the dimensions of the window and the canopy in each direction on this screen. *If the window does not have a canopy, input only the window dimensions (Ww and Hw) and leave other items zero.

Dc: Depth of Canopy Dl: Depth of Left Fin Dr: Depth of Right Fin Al: Distance between Window and Left Fin Ww: Width of Window Ar: Distance between Window and Right Fin B: Distance between Window and Level Hw: Height of Window Hc: Height of Canopy (= Height of Right/Left Fin) *Note: Ga p between canopy and fin is not considered. Width of Canopy = Ww :+ Al + Ar

After inputting the window and canopy dimensions, value of [Window area on Outer Wall] of the [Room spec] screen becomes inactive as shown below.

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6.1.7 Change of Material II Clicking on the Material II button, the screen shown below will appear. You can make necessary change with it.

Since the HKGSG program is designed to establish simplified heat load calculation system, the maximum number of material types is limited to two. If you need to use more than two material types, it is necessary to approximate heat transfer coefficient values using area ratios.

On this screen, you can determine a maximum of two heat transfer coefficients and a glass types for each structure (outer wall, inner wall, window) in addition to the dimension and the heat transfer coefficient that is determined on the [Room Spec] screen. Input heat transfer coefficients (for both outer wall and inner wall) and window type in the same way as for the dimension input on the "Room Spec" screen.
*Select necessary items from heat transfer coefficient, window type and dimension for data input.

<Example of use> - The wall on the north side is different from the other walls in structure, and thus, different heat transfer coefficient and wall type must be selected. - Different heat transfer efficient must be used for an entrance. - Two window types must be used.

Note to input window area on the screen of [Material II] The value of [window area] should be smaller than the value of [outer wall length] x [floor height]. The program uses the following formula, and does not accept a negative value for outer wall area II. Outer Wall Area II = (Outer Wall Length of Material II x Floor Height) - Window Area II

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6.1.8 Change of Extension Clicking the Extension button, the screen shown at the left will appear. You can make necessary change with it. You can amend the detailed settings for each room with this screen. However, note that these data usually do not need to be changed. [Personal Heat Gain per person] You can set the exothermic volume from the human body according to the usage of room. The value should be set in the range from 0 to 300. (Initial value: See the Appendix.)

[Glass Surface Ratio] In summer, the solar heat load through glass windows should be calculated in addition to the transfer heat load. This solar heat load is calculated by using the glass area, and the glass area value is calculated by using glass surface ratio (without sash area)*. As its initial value (=0.95) is not appropriate in a particular case, you have to change the value as needed. *Since the sash area is included in the normal window area, which is used to calculate the transfer heat load, it is not included in the glass area. Summer Transfer heat load => Calculated by using the window area (with sash area) Solar heat load => Calculated by using the glass area Winter Transfer heat load => Calculated by using the window area (with sash area)

[Next Room Condition] If the next room has a special usage such as the boiler room or the kitchen, click the button on the column of Boiler/Kitchen is in Next Room. This changes the value of standard coefficient of temperature difference with the next room to "20DegC". (Initial value is automatically set according to the usage of room.) - The temperature difference with the next room is used to calculate the heat load from the inner wall of a non-conditioned room. (Formula 1) - The temperature difference with the next room is calculated by the formula 2. - The temperature difference coefficient changes in accordance with the outside air temperature. (Formula 1) Heat Load from Inner Wall = Temperature Difference with Next Room Heat Transfer Coefficient Inner Wall Area of Non-conditioned Room (Formula 2) Temperature Difference with Next Room = (Outside Air T emperature - Room Temperature) Temperature Difference Coefficient

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6.2 Design Data Change in [Project Outline] On the edit screen of [Project Outline], you can change the default value of weather data and heat coefficient. Clicking the Design Data button, the following screen will appear. Select the item that you want to change and click the OK button.

6.2.1 Design Data Change [Weather Data] Selecting the [Weather Data] on the [Design Data Change] screen above, the screen at the left will appear, which shows the graph and numerical data for visual confirmation. - To make a change, click the Change button. - To return the revised data to the initial values, click the Initial Value button. [Change Weather Data] Clicking the Change button, the screen at the right will appear. Then select the changing method, [Change Shift] or [Value Input]. -Change Shift If you select this method, the boxes to input the temperature shift for summer and winter will be activated. Input these values, which should be different, and click the OK button. Then entire temperature curve on [Change Design data (Weather Data)] screen is shifted according to input values. -Value Input If you select this method, the temperature table on [Change Design data (Weather Data)] screen will be activated, and you can directly input numerical data.

[Supplementary information] Temperature

Time

Temperature curve is shifted according to the input value.

Note: Humidity Data Display It is not a problem that the relative humidity values (%) on the table remain same even after you changed the weather data by [Change Shift] function. This is because the relative humidity is automatically converted to the absolute humidity on the program and its converted humidity is used to calculate the heat load of the outside air temperature after the change. Thus, you dont need to care about it even if you cant see any change on the table.

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6.2.2 Design Data Change [Heat Transfer Coefficient] Selecting [Overall Heat Transfer Coeff] on the [Design Data Change ] screen shown above, the screen at the left will appear. You can change the initial values for heat transfer coefficients applied for the project. After you change the values and click the OK button on this screen, the revised (=changed) values are set as the initial values for the heat transfer coefficients for each room, which are reflected to the values on [O.H.T.C] screen in the [Change Standard Data] section of each [Room Spec] screen.
*See the Appendix for Wall Type.

6.2.3 Design Data Change [Design Room Temperature and Humidity] Selecting [Temp & Humid] on the [Design Data Change ] screen shown above, the screen at the left will appear. You can change the initial values for the design room temperature and humidity data for each room. After you change the values and click the OK button on this screen, the revised (= changed) values are set as the initial values for the design room temperature and humidity for each room, which are reflected to the values on [Temp & Humid] screen in the [Change Standard Data] section of each [Room Spec] screen.

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7. Sum and Print


To meet the diverse needs of users and to provide information in the most suitable arrangement, the HKGSG offers a variety of formats to output the calculation result. 7.1 Flowchart of Sum and Print Function Summing
---

Function to complete the data calculation

Calculation Result Display - - - You can see the result on the screen display. Heat Load Sum Table

Room Heat Load Table

System Heat Load Table

Print Menu

Printing

Graph

System Table

Contents of the printing 1) Cover - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Title, company name, attention, date and remarks are printed. 2) Room input data- - - - - - - - - - - - - - Table of data and conditions of individual rooms. 3) System table - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Chart of system number and corresponding room names. 4) Heat load sum table - - - - - - - - - Chart of heat loads of registered rooms in summer and winter, and peak load of building. 5) Room heat load table - - - - - - - - Detailed time-based charts of heat loads in summer and winter. 6) System heat load table - - - - - - Chart of heat loads of individual systems entered in room data input. 7) Peak load detail table - - - - - - - Results of calculation of peak loads in summer and winter by outer wall assembly and direction. (Peak load detail table function can be used only in printing or Print Preview.) 8) Heat load graph - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Time-based heat load curve for easy understanding

7.2 Using Sum and Print Function Click Sum/Print button to start summing and printing function. If the calculation is not completed, the message

window shown below will appear.

Clicking Start button, the summing is started


*If Sum/Print button is inactive, click the Main Menu button at the lower left on the screen. Then all main menu buttons become activated.

and [Heat Load Sum up Table] shown in the next page will appear. *If the calculation has already completed, it will appear immediately. Page 30

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Unit can be switched between W and kcal/h. [Heat Load Sum up Table (Sum and Print Screen)]

Buttons to switch to other table and print screen

Clicking each button on the lower left, each corresponding table will appear as follows; - Clicking Table of Room button, [Table of Room Heat Load] will appear.
[Room Load Table]

You can select cooling load or heating load, and W or kcal/h (unit).

[Heat Load Graph]

Clicking

Graph

button,

[Heat Load Graph] screen will be shown.

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- Clicking Table of System button, [Table of System Heat Load Sum] will appear.
[Table of System Heat Load Sum]

- Clicking Print button, setup screen for the printing form will appear. Print Setup You can make various setting for printing form as follows; [Cover] Input the Messrs., company name, attention, date and remarks, which are printed on the cover. Also, check the [Signature] box if you want to print the signature on the cover. *Message in remarks should be up to 130 characters. [Header] Check the [Date] or [Project Name] box, if you want to print the date and project name on the header (= upper right corner of each page excluding cover). Check the [Comments] box and input any comments within 26 characters if you want to print them on the footer (= lower right corner of each page excluding cover).

[Footer]

The cover has a remarks section (up to 130 characters) and other pages have comments section on the footer (up to 26 characters) so that information such as design number and estimate number can be indicated.

[Output Room] Select the starting number and ending number of room to output. [Print Range] [Page] Check the boxes of items to print.

Select the print with or without page number. You can also determine the page number to print on the first printed page for the case that data is not printed from the beginning.

Usually heat load calculation results are outputted horizontally on paper. However, with some printers like serial printers that use stack form, tables may not be printed in proper direction. In this case, check the [Use Strip Sheet] box , and you can get the output in vertical. IZE-04001A

[With kcal/h value] Check the box if you want that Heat load tables include values in the kcal/h unit in addition to W values. [Use Strip Sheet] Check the box if you use stack form (= output in vertical). Page 32

Sample of the output [Cover]

[Heat Load Sum Table]

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[System Heat Load Sum Table]

[System Table]

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[System Heat Load (Cooling)]

[System Heat Load (Heating)]

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[Input Room Data]

[Input Room Data (Canopy)]

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[Room Heat Load Table]

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[Peak Load Detail Table (Cooling)]

[Peak Load Detail Window with Canopy (Cooling)]

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[Peak Load Detail Table (Heating)]

[Graphs]

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8. Appendixes
[Initial Values for Each Usage of Room] The initial values for each standard data on HKGSG, which are set according to the selection of room usage, are as follows:
Exothermic volume of human body W/ pers. Coefficient of Temperatu re difference with next room Cooling 0.4 Heating 0.4 Cooling 0.4 Heating 0.4 Cooling 0.4 Heating 0.4 Cooling 0.4 Heating 0.4 Cooling 0.4 Heating 0.4 Cooling 0.3 Heating 0.3 Cooling 0.9 Heating 0.6 Cooling 0.4 Heating 0.4

Area per Person

Infiltration volume

Schedule

Lighting

Outside air Intake m3/h person

Window type

Blind

m2/pers.

times/h

oclock

W/m2

Office

132 SH 56 LH 76 145 SH 59 LH 86 145 SH 59 LH 86 145 SH 59 LH 86 264 SH 84 LH 180 132 SH 56 LH 76 132 SH 56 LH 76 132 SH 56 LH 76

Cooling 0.2 Heating 0.3

8 to 18

20

20

Clear 5 mm

Neutral tint

Store

2.5

Cooling 0.3 Heating 0.45 Cooling 0.2 Heating 0.3 Cooling 0.3 Heating 0.45 Cooling 0.2 Heating 0.3 Cooling 0.2 Heating 0.3 Cooling 0.5 Heating 0.75 Cooling 0.2 Heating 0.3

10 to 22

30

20

Clear 5 mm

Neutral tint

Hotel

4 to 24

30

20

Clear 5 mm

Neutral tint

Hospital

4 to 24

20

20

Clear 5 mm

Neutral tint

Factory

10

8 to 18

20

20

Clear 5 mm

Neutral tint

Condom inium

6 to 24

20

20

Clear 5 mm

Neutral tint

House

6 to 24

20

20

Clear 5 mm

Neutral tint

Others

8 to 18

20

20

Clear 5mm

Neutral tint

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[Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 1] The program contains specific heat transfer coefficient data for the roof, ceiling, earth floor, pilotis, outer wall, underground wall and inner wall for each building structure type, as listed below.
* Roman numerals in parentheses ( ) indicate wall types.

Normal Outer wall Inner wall Roof (with ceiling board) Roof (without ceiling board) Ceiling (with ceiling board) Ceiling (without ceiling board) Mezz floor (with air layer) Mezz floor (without air layer) Pilotis Earth floor Underground wall (depth: less than 2.4 m) Underground wall (depth: 2.4 m or more) Underground earth floor concrete 2.72 (III) 2.62 1.66 (IV) 2.16 (IV) 1.95 2.69 1.49 2.69 3.29 0.90 Per unit ambient length 1.56 0.45 0.28

ALC plate 1.33 (II) 2.30 1.66 (IV) 2.16 (IV) 1.95 2.69 1.49 2.69 3.29 0.90 Per unit ambient length 1.56 0.45 0.28

Metallic curtain Wooden wall 1.55 (II) 2.30 1.66 (IV) 2.16 (IV) 1.95 2.69 1.49 2.69 3.29 0.90 Per unit ambient length 1.56 0.45 0.28 construction 1.23 (I) 2.81 1.03 (II) 1.03 (II) 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.73 3.29 0.90 Per unit ambient length 1.56 0.45

0.28 Unit [W/m2 K] ([W/mK] in the case of Underground wall of less than 2.4m in depth)

(Note) The heat transfer coefficient values indicated above are initial values set in the software at the time of shipment.

When values are changed and registered by the "Change design data/heat transfer coefficient" function, revised values become initial values in the next use.

The heat transfer coefficient of a wall is determined by the material type and t hickness, as shown in [Heat transfer coefficient 2] table in the next page. *The heat transfer coefficients of materials are based on the following. -Heat conductivity coefficient of external surface = 23 (W/m2 K) -Heat conductivity coefficient of internal surface = 9 (W/m2 K) -Thermal resistance of enclosed air layer = 0.15 (m2 K/W) -Thermal resistance of open air layer = 0.07 (m2 K/W)

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[Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 2]


Normal concrete
Material and thickness Heat conductivit y coefficient

ALC plate
Material and thickness ALC 100mm Mortar 20mm Heat conductivit y coefficient 0.17 1.5

* Roman numerals in parentheses ( ) indicate wall types. Metallic curtain wall Wooden construction
Material and thickness Heat conductivity Material coefficient and thickness Heat conductivity coefficient

Outer wall

Inner wall

Synthetic resin 10mm 0.190 Normal concrete 200mm 1.4 Mortar 20mm 1.5 Plaster 3m 0.79 2.72 (III) Plaster 25mm 0.79 Normal concrete 150mm 1.4 Mortar 19mm 1.5 Plaster 6mm 0.79 2.62

1.33 (II)

Aluminum 1.5mm 210.0 Sprayed-on asbestos 20mm 0.051 Air layer Gypsum board 5mm 0.17 1.55 (II) 0.17 0.17

Gypsum board 12mm Air layer Gypsum board 12mm 2.30

Mortar 15mm 1.5 Plywood 10mm 0.19 Glass wool 25mm 0.042 Plaster 3mm 0.79 1.23 (I) Plywood 6mm 0.19 Air layer Plywood 6mm 0.19 2.81

Roof (with ceiling board) Roof (without ceiling board)

No ceiling board+ Air layer Gypsum board 12mm 1.66 (IV) Mortar Lightweight concrete Asphalt Normal concrete Mortar Plaster 0.79 2.16 (IV) No ceiling board Air layer Gypsum board 12mm 1.95 Synthetic resin Mortar Normal concrete Mortar Plaster 2.69 Synthetic resin Mortar Normal concrete Air layer Gypsum board Asbestos sound-absorbing board 1.49 Synthetic resin Mortar Normal concrete Mortar Plaster 2.69

0.17 20mm 65mm 10mm 150mm 15mm 1.5 0.78 0.11 1.4 1.5 3mm

Ceiling (with ceiling board) Ceiling (without ceiling board)

0.17 5mm 5mm 150mm 15mm 3mm 5mm 5mm 150mm 9mm 12mm 5mm 5mm 150mm 15mm 3mm 0.190 1.5 1.4 1.5 0.79 0.19 1.5 1.4 0.17 0.064 0.19 1.5 1.4 1.5 0.79

Roofing tile 22mm 1. 0 Moisture proof paper 10mm 0.21 Plywood 9mm 0.19 Glass wool 25mm 0.042 Air layer Plywood 6mm 0.19 1.03 (II) Flooring 13mm 0.198 Sub-slab board 18mm 0.14 Air layer Hardtex 12mm 0.133 1.73 Flooring 13mm 0.198 Sub-slab board 18mm 0.14 Air layer Hardtex 12mm 0.133 1.73

Mezz floor (with air layer)

Mezz floor (without air layer)

Table is continued to the next page

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Pilotis

Earth floor

Synthetic resin Mortar Normal concrete Mortar Plaster 3.29 Mortar Normal concrete Rubble Concrete sub-slab Soil 0.90 1.56 (Value per unit ambient length) 0.45

5mm 5mm 150mm 15mm 3mm 20mm 150mm 150mm 150mm 1000mm

0.19 1.5 1.4 1.5 0.79 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5

Underground wall (depth: less than 2.4 m) Underground wall (depth: 2.4 m or more) Underground earth floor

0.28

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Without heat insulation Without heat insulation Normal concrete Single-layer wall Aerated concrete plate Single-layer wall

Wall Normal concrete type I d=0 to 5(*) to30 II III IV d=30 to 100(*) to140

Aerated concrete d=0 to30 d=30 to 130 d=130 to 210 d=210(*) or more

d=140 to190(*) to 230 d=230 to 320(*) or more

[mm]

[mm] I II l=25 d= 0 to 100 (0 to 70) d=100 to 190 (70 to 140) d = 190 or more (140or more) l=25 d= 0 to 100 l=50 d= 0 to 90 (0 to 60) d=90 to 180 (60 to 140) d=180 or more (140or more) l=50 l=100 d= 0 to 80 (0 to 50) d=80 to 170 (50 to 130) d=170 or more (130or more)

Inner heat insulation (outer heat insulation) Normal concrete Multi-layer wall Outside Inside

(Outside)

(Inside)

III IV

Normal concrete d (mm) Styrene foam board l (mm) Gypsum board or equivalent 12 mm (Applicable for outer heat insulation) Inner heat insulation (outer heat insulation) Normal concrete Multi-layer wall

I II

l=100 -

Outside

Inside

III
(Outside) (Inside)

IV

d= 0 to 90 d= 0 to 80 (0 to 20) (0 to 20) d=100 to 200 d=90 to 190 d=80 to 180 (20 to 100) (20 to 80) d=200or more d=190or more d=180or more (100or more) (80or more)

Normal concrete d (mm) Styrene foam board l (mm) Air layer: semi-enclosed, gypsum 9 mm, rock wool sound-absorbing board 12 mm With heat With heat insulation insulation Metallic Metallic board board Multi-layer wall Multi-layer wall
Steel board 1.5 mm Aluminum board 3.0 mm Sprayed-on rock wool Air layer: Semi-helmetic l (mm) Sprayed-on rock wool l (mm) Gypsum board 12 mm

I II III IV

Left (steel board) d=0 to 30 d=30 to 60 d=60 to 90 d=90 or more

Left (aluminum board) d=0 to 20 d=20 to 50 d=50 to 80 d=80 or more

For dimensions with an asterisk (*), obtained effective temperature difference values are used as the representative values of those materials. The HKGSG includes wall type S. For this wall type, no effective temperature difference is set. This wall type is used for materials that have no heat storing capacity, such as slate roofs.

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[Shading Factors and Heat Transfer Coefficients of Different Glass Types]

Shading factor (SC) Glass type Without blind Clear glass 3 mm Clear glass 5 mm Clear glass 6 mm Clear glass 8 mm Clear glass 10 mm Clear glass 12 mm Heat absorbing glass 3 mm Heat absorbing glass 5 mm Heat absorbing glass 6 mm Heat absorbing glass 8 mm Heat absorbing glass 10 mm Heat absorbing glass 12 mm Clear reflective coated glass 8 mm Tinted reflective coated glass 8 mm Reflecting tinted glass 3mm Heat absorbing heat & reflective coated glass 8 mm Clear glass 3 mm + Clear glass 3 mm Clear glass 5 mm + Clear glass 5 mm Clear glass 6 mm + Clear glass 6 mm Clear glass 8 mm + Clear glass 8 mm
Heat absorbing glass 3 mm + Clear glass 3 mm Heat absorbing glass 5 mm + Clear glass 5 mm Heat absorbing glass 6 mm + Clear glass 6 mm Heat absorbing glass 8 mm + Clear glass 8 mm 0.89 0.85 0.83 0.79 0.81 0.72 0.69 0.62 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.52 0.50 0.48 0.45 0.43 0.39 0.40 0.63 0.60 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.51 0.49 0.44 0.44 1.00 0.97 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.89 0.93 0.86 0.83 0.77 0.72 0.68 0.74 0.65 0.62 0.58

Heat transfer coefficient (K) W/m2 K Glass Glass Blind


6.47 6.35 6.29 6.19 6.06 5.97 6.47 6.35 6.29 6.19 6.06 5.97 6.19 6.19 5.57 6.19 5.06 4.97 4.95 4.88 4.80 4.77 5.06 4.97 4.95 4.88 4.80 4.77 4.88 4.88 4.40 4.88

Blind Blind Bright color Neutral tint


0.54 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.50 0.50 0.52 0.49 0.48 0.46 0.43 0.41 0.48 0.44 0.41 0.38 0.66 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.61 0.56 0.55 0.52 0.48 0.45 0.55 0.49 0.46 0.42

3.50 3.43 3.40 3.34 3.50 3.43 3.40 3.34 3.40

3.05 2.99 2.97 2.92 3.05 2.99 2.97 2.92 2.97

Tinted reflective coated glass 6 mm + Clear glass 6 mm

*Air layer is 6 mm for all multi-layer glass types.


In the HKGSG, when "Others" is selected for the window glass type, the shading factor and heat transfer coefficient can be set to any

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Heat Load Calculation Software DACCS-HKGSG

Operation Manual

Second Edition

Published on May 2008 DAIKIN INDUSTRIES, LTD. Copyright2008 DAIKIN INDUSTRIES , LTD. All Rights Reserved

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