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Click It or Ticket

Suite of Surveys
SSRC Evaluators:
Mr. Jim Landrum Dr. Wolfgang Frese Mr. David Parrish Ms. Jean Mann Completed for the Mississippi Office of Highway Safety Dr. Billy White Jr., Executive Director Division Of Public Safety Planning Mr. Billy Terrell, Director Office of Highway Safety Department of Public Safety Governor’s Highway Safety Representative

December 6, 2001

THE MISSISSIPPI “CLICK IT OR TICKET CAMPAIGN” Introduction “Traffic Safety Fact in 1996: Rural Areas” reported that crashes in rural areas accounted for 59 percent of all traffic fatalities. Additionally, in fatal crashes for which restraint use was known, a higher percentage of drivers in rural areas were unrestrained than in urban areas. According to the same report, in 1996, 30 percent of occupants killed in rural areas were ejected from their vehicles, compared to 21 percent in urban areas. In the same year, Rural Interstate fatality rates were twice that of Urban Interstate Highways. (Traffic Safety Facts 1996) The figures can be doubly underlined in the Rural South. The fatality rates are even more emphatically pronounced in Mississippi, where seat belt use continues to be very low. Mississippi citizens are aware of the dangers of driving in Mississippi. In recent surveys taken by the Social Science Research Center, 76% of Mississippians feared being in an automobile accident. One out of every five persons reported being in a serious automobile accident. (Snow 1998) Nationwide 69% feared being in an accident, and almost one out of every four persons reported being in a serious accident.. (Snow 1999) During the 1990's Mississippi was one of the top three states in the nation in highway fatalities with regard to percentages of registered vehicles, population, and vehicle miles driven. Except for 1990 and 1991 Mississippi ranked in the top two States in terms of fatalities per 100,000 licensed drivers. In spite of having a small population of slightly more than 2.5 million people the actual number of persons killed on Mississippi roads approaches many of the nation’s larger states. During the decade of the 1990's, 8,249 persons were killed on Mississippi roads. There was on average more than two persons killed every day or 69 persons every month for10 years. In Table 1 the ranking of Mississippi in fatality rates for the decade of the nineties is presented.

2 Table 1: NATIONAL RANK OF MISSISSIPPI IN FATALITY RATES 1990 -1999 Rank Per 100,000 licensed drivers 5 5 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Per 100,000 Registered Vehicles 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 Per 100,000 population Fatality rates per 100 million vehicle miles traveled 2 1 ** ** 1 ** 1 2 ** 1

Year

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

2 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2

Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration provide support for some of the reasons that rankings are so alarmingly high. Some highlights of FARS data are listed below: During the 1990's, 8,249 persons were killed on Mississippi roads. • • • • • • • • • 4,887 were riding in automobiles and station wagons 1,727 were riding in pickup trucks 580 were pedestrians 555 were killed while riding in utility vans, mini vans, and limousines 176 were killed on motorcycles, mopeds or ATVS 129 were killed while riding in big trucks. 73 were killed while riding on bicycles 13 were killed on farm equipment 109 of those killed had missing information as to the type of vehicle. There is little doubt that the Draconian fatality rates in Mississippi are in part attributable

3 to the embarrassingly low use of seat belts in the State. Further information taken from FARS demonstrates this observation. • • • • During the 1990s Mississippi had one of the lowest rates of seat belt use in the entire nation. Fewer than one in five persons killed riding in passenger type vehicles were wearing a restraint. Overall 28 percent of those riding in sedan type cars, pickup trucks, utility vehicles, and big trucks were ejected or partially ejected. None of the persons totally ejected and only 11 of those partially ejected were wearing seat belts.

Click It or Ticket Campaign in Eight Southeastern States Similarly, the Southeastern region, as a whole, lags behind the rest of the nation in seat belt use. To combat the low seat belt use in the region a media and enforcement campaign was conducted in a “Click It Or Ticket” Memorial Day Mobilization Campaign. The media and enforcement interventions took place between May 7- June 3, 2001. The campaign resulted in raising seat belt use from 65% to 74% in the eight states that make up Region IV of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Increases in seat belt use occurred in all states. Tennessee had the largest gain (20 percentage points) followed by Mississippi which added 13 percentage points. Georgia and Kentucky gained 10 percentage points. According to the NHTSA regional office this translates into 659 lives being saved and $937 million saved in health care and other costs. (Click, Summer 2001). Troy Ayers, the NHTSA Region IV Administrator, summed the results of the Southeastern wide Click It or Ticket Campaign at the Embassy Suites in Atlanta on August 7, 2001. Ayers reported that the Click It or Ticket Campaign was probably the largest law enforcement mobilization ever conducted. In a remarkable effort of coordination all 3,250 State and local law enforcement agencies in the region participated in the Campaign. During the law enforcement phase of the “Click It or Ticket Project” there were more than 25,000 checkpoint or patrol events, 138,000 seat belt citations issued, 8,500 drunk drivers cited, and 250 stolen car theft arrests. The paid

4 media campaign, which ran from May 14-28, cost about 3.5 million dollars. As a part of the campaign strategy, a standard evaluation plan was implemented in all eight states. In the August 7 meeting in Atlanta, Dr. Jim Nichols of NHTSA reported that this was perhaps the most intensive campaign and evaluation of this type of effort ever conducted. The Click It or Ticket Program was modeled after a highly successful program, by the same name, that was previously conducted in the State of South Carolina. Representatives from the States of (1) Alabama, (2) Georgia, (3) Kentucky, (4) Florida, (5) Mississippi, (6) North Carolina, (7) South Carolina, and (8) Tennessee met on a number of occasions to design the campaign and to standardize the evaluation efforts of the eight states. The Click It or Ticket Campaign in Mississippi The Click or Ticket campaign for the State of Mississippi was conducted under the sponsorship of the Mississippi Office of Highway Safety and the Mississippi Highway Patrol. All law enforcement agencies in the State of Mississippi participated in the campaign for increased traffic and seat belt enforcement. In Mississippi more than 2,200 checkpoints and patrol interventions occurred over the Memorial Day Weekend. An earned media campaign was conducted by State public relations offices of the Highway Patrol and the Office of Highway Safety. Earned media is positive news coverage you actively work to get. This happens through the creation of newsworthy stories or events and offering this stories to news outlets. A paid media campaign was prepared and conducted by Greer, Margolis, Mitchell, Burns and Associates of Washington, D.C., also with the assistance of the Mississippi Office of Highway Safety and Mississippi Highway Patrol. The paid media campaign cost more than $250,000. Evaluation of the Campaign was conducted by the Social Science Research Center at Mississippi State University with the assistance of the Preusser Research Group in Trumbull, Connecticut.

5 The project included a number of interventions. First, there was an earned media campaign in which public service spots were provided for the various media. Secondly, some paid media spots, developed by a Burns, Margolis, Mitchell, Burns and Associates for the State of Mississippi were used extensively. Thirdly, a law enforcement intervention, that included a series of checkpoints, was implemented in all 82 Mississippi Counties over the Memorial Day weekend. This report will describe the findings of an intensive and extensive evaluation effort designed to measure the effects of these interventions. This effort included (1) baseline and post scientifically implemented statewide seat belt surveys, (2) pre and post scientific telephone surveys of Mississippi residents, (3) surveys conducted at selected Drivers’ License stations during the baseline period, after the earned media phase, after the paid media phase and after the enforcement phase, and finally (4) mini observational seat belt surveys were conducted in 64 representative sites in eight Mississippi counties prior to, and after the earned media phase, after the paid media phase and following the enforcement phase. Information collected during the Mini Surveys included seat belt use by race, sex, cars, and pickup trucks. This information aided in determining the effectiveness of the various interventions on different groups of people. The following is a description of the campaign and an evaluation of the results for the State of Mississippi. This Report will be divided into four separate sections: (1) Telephone Surveys, (2) Drivers’ License Surveys, (3) Mini Surveys, and (4) Statewide Seat Belt/Motorcycle Surveys.

Click It or Ticket 2001

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Telephone Surveys

TELEPHONE SURVEYS Introduction Two scientifically conducted Telephone Surveys were conducted on Mississippi residents before (April29-June 5)and after (June 2-14) when the of media and law enforcement interventions were completed. The surveys were utilized to measure (a) the awareness of Mississippi residents about seat belt usage, (b) knowledge of seat belt laws, and (c) their awareness of the Click It or Ticket Campaign, before and after its implementation. Respondents were asked the same questions before the campaign was conducted and after the campaign implementation. Questions were designed to elicit information on a wide range of questions such as (1) frequency of driving and seat belt use, (2) reasons for wearing seat belts, (3) knowledge of seat belt laws, (4) attitudes toward seat belt use, (5) attitudes on seat belt enforcement, and (6) the respondents’ knowledge of the various media and enforcement waves of the Click It or Ticket Project. The before project survey population included 500 Mississippi residents and the after survey had 514 respondents. The surveys were weighted by age. The Surveys were conducted by the Survey Research Unit of the Social Science Research Center at Mississippi State University. Seat Belt Use Respondents were asked a number of questions about their use of seat belts before and after the media and law enforcement interventions. Positive increases in attitudes of the respondents attitudes toward belt use and safety issues were substantially increased by the campaign. These strong increases by the respondents occurred on two important fronts. First, there was a huge increase in respondents’ reason given for use of seat belts being because it was the law (from 18% to 59%). Lower but positive changes took place in (a) increased reported use

8 of shoulder and lap belts, (b) not wanting to get a ticket, (c) and frequency of those reporting that they always use their seat belt use. Peer influence and the experience of being in a crash did not appear to have much influence on reported use. In Table 1, the before and after figures of the frequency of seat belt use are reported.

Table: 2

SEAT BELT USE

TELEPHONE SURVEY
Before n=452 63% 20% n=433 63% 20% n=463 15% n=69 46% 18% 7% 15% 6% After n=482 75% 16% n=447 73% 16% n=487 24% n=118 39% 59% 25% 0% 2%

Question How often do you wear your shoulder belt? (a) All of the Time (b) Most of the Time How often do you wear your lap belt? (a) All of the Time (b) Most of the Time In the past 30 days, has your seat belt usage increased? (Percent answering yes) What caused your use of belts to increase? (a) Increased awareness of safety issues (b) Use seat belt because it is the law. (c) Use seat belt because they don’t won’t to get a ticket. (d)Use seat belt because they had been in a crash. (e)Use seat belt because of influence/pressure from others

Knowledge of Mississippi’s Seat Belt Law Mississippians, for the most part, know that Mississippi has a seat belt law. Interestingly, the people’s perception of Mississippi having a primary law, even though it does not, increased considerably (from 40% to 58%) from the time of the prior to the time of the post Telephone Survey. The belief that police should be able to stop drivers for only seat belt violations also increased considerably from 38% to 68% between the pre and post surveys. See Table 3

9

Perception of the Likelihood of Getting a Ticket The perception that they would get a ticket if they did not wear their seat belt in the next six months increased sharply from 24% in the pre survey to 43% in the post survey. The reality of getting a ticket, however, appears to be quite low however. Very few respondents reported getting tickets from pre (4%) to the post (6%) surveys. The respondents were asked whether they agreed or disagreed with the statement “Police in my community will not bother writing tickets for seat belt violations.” In the pre survey 41% did not think that police would write a ticket while 29% agreed that they would. In the post Telephone Survey only 31% agreed that police were not likely to give a ticket for a seat belt violation, while 48% thought that their community police would give a ticket for a seat belt violation. This represents a strong increase, although not by a majority of respondents. Information concerning the knowledge and perception of the respondents concerning law enforcement and seat belt use is presented in Table 3.

10
TABLE 3: KNOWLEDGE OF BELT LAW AND PERCEPTION OF SEAT BELT ENFORCEMENT

Question Does Mississippi have a law requiring seat belt use by adults? (Percent answering yes) If you do not use your seat belt at all during the next six months how likely are you to get a ticket? (a)Very Likely (b) Somewhat likely According to Mississippi law, can police stop a vehicle if they see only a Seat Belt violation? According to Mississippi law, police can stop a vehicle for a seat belt violation only if they see another violation. Should Police be allowed to stop a vehicle for a seat belt violation when there are no other traffic violations? Have you ever been arrested for not wearing a seat belt? Police in my community will not bother to write tickets for seat belt violations. (a) Strongly Agree (b) Somewhat Agree (c) Strongly Disagree (d) Somewhat Disagree

%Before n=500 94 n=434 24% 29% n=471 40% n=471 44% n=500 58 n=500 4 n=500 22% 19% 15% 16%

% After 97 n=514 n=475 43% 25% n=501 58% n=501 27% n=514 68 n=514 6 n=514 11% 21% 26% 22%

Attitudes Toward Seat Belt Use Attitudes toward seat belt use did not show strong increases between the pre and post telephone surveys. However, it should be noted that there was already strong agreement among the respondents in the before the interventions survey that it is important for the police to enforce seat belt laws. The respondents were equally divided on whether or not seat belts were as likely to help as to harm you. While there was only a slight increase in those who responded that they would like to have their seat belt on in accidents, it must be remembered that more than 90% of the respondents in the pre and post surveys agreed that they would want to have a seat belt on if they were in an accident. Seventy-seven percent in both interviews did not think that

11 putting on a seat belt made them worry about being in an accident. Interestingly, there is very strong support (87, 89%) in both pre and post interviews for police to enforce the seat belt laws. In Table 4 information is provided on pre and post survey attitudes of the respondents on seat belt use. TABLE 4: ATTITUDES TOWARD SEAT BELT USE
Question It is important for Police to enforce seat belt laws (a) Strongly Agree (b) Somewhat Agree (c) Strongly Disagree (d) Somewhat Disagree Seat Belts are just as likely to harm you as to help you. (a) Strongly Agree (b) Somewhat Agree (c) Strongly Disagree (d) Somewhat Disagree If I was in an accident, I would want to have my Seat Belt on. (a) Strongly Agree (b) Somewhat Agree (c) Strongly Disagree (d) Somewhat Disagree Putting on a seat belt makes me worry about being in an accident. (a) Strongly Agree (b) Somewhat Agree (c) Strongly Disagree (d) Somewhat Disagree 64% 23% 7% 6% _____ 17% 21% 32% 21% ____ 79% 11% 3% 3% ____ 9% 10% 56% 22% 68% 21% 4% 5% ____ 14% 24% 29% 24% ____ 82% 11% 2% 1% ____ 11% 10% 54% 23% % Before n=500 % After n=514

Respondent were asked a series of questions about their awareness of the campaign before and after the media was used. There was a huge increase in the public awareness before any intervention had taken place to after the law enforcement intervention. Before the Click It or Ticket Campaign 13% said they had heard of special efforts. Following the law enforcement

12 intervention more than 62% of the respondents were aware of the increased law enforcement effort. This information is presented graphically in Chart One CHART ONE: RECENTLY HEARD OF CLICK IT OR TICKET CAMPAIGN

In Table 5 more detailed information is provided on the specific sources from people he

Special Effort Awareness
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Telephone Survey
Yes
64

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

ar d ab o ut

In the past 30 days have you seen or heard of special effort by police to ticket drivers in your community for seat belt violations?
12.8%
426

No

85.3%

th
Don 't Kn o w
0 10

1.9%
100 200 300

Before
400 500 319

e Cl ic k

Yes

62.0%

No

181

35.3%

Don 't Kn o w
0

14

2.7%
100 200 300

After
400 500

It or Ti

cket Campaign. There were significant increases from before the campaign to after the campaign in the awareness by the respondents of the campaign from a number of the media campaign sources. Observe the fact that the percentages on the pre interview are based on quite different n’s from the pre to the post survey. So while some of the pre and post differences appear to be close in percentage of responses, i.e., “hear the message from a friend or relative,” the actual number of those responding on the post interview is much higher than the baseline survey. In Table 5:

13 Furthermore, it can be observed that all forms of media efforts made an impact on public awareness. Commercials, advertisement, public service announcements and TV appear to have been very effective. Almost 50% of the respondents reported hearing about the campaign on news programs. Radio and hearing the information from friends and relatives appeared to be the least effective. Table 5: PROGRAM AWARENESS BY TYPES OF MEDIA CAMPAIGNS.
Question % “Yes” Before 13 n=500 28 n=64 10 n=64 20 n=64 53 n=64 62 n=22 33 n=22 % “Yes” After 62 n=514 57 n=319 20 n=319 19 n=319 30 n=319 70 n=202 49 n=202

In the Past 30 days, have you seen or heard of any special effort by police to ticket drivers in your community for seat belt violations? Did you hear that message on TV? Did you hear the message on radio? Did you hear that message from a friend or relative? Did you see or hear the message some other place? (Please specify) (a) commercial or advertisement or public service announcement? (b) part of a news program?

Strength of Awareness of Click It Or Ticket Campaign The next series of questions attempts to measure the strength of the public awareness concerning the Click It Or Ticket Campaign and in the increased law enforcement effort. There was a perceptible increase by the public in the increase of ticket writing by the police. Sixty-seven (67%)of the public perceived that the police had increased their ticket writing efforts as opposed to thirty (30%) before the project began. The public awareness of checkpoints jumped from nineteen(19%) in the baseline survey to sixty-six (66%) in the post campaign survey. There was considerable effort by the media to let the public know that there would be checkpoints.

14 Apparently the combined media outlets were quite successful in informing the public of checkpoints. The most substantial source in the increase of the respondents’ awareness of the Click or Ticket from pre to post interviews came from television spots. Increases in awareness from commercial, public service announcements or ads also rose significantly from pre to post Surveys, from nineteen (19%) to forty-eight (48%). However, numbers of respondents in these categories were small, particularly from the pre interview. See Table 6. Table 6: STRENGTH OF AWARENESS OF TICKET OR CLICK IT CAMPAIGN Question
Police in my community are writing more tickets than they were a few months ago? n=500 (a) Strongly Agree (b) Somewhat Agree (c) Strongly Disagree (e) Somewhat Disagree (f) Don’t Know In the past 30 days, have you seen or heard anything about the police setting up seat belt checkpoints where they stop motor vehicles to check whether drives and passengers are wearing seat belts. Where did you see or hear about the police checkpoints for seatbelts? (a) TV (b) Radio (c) Friend or Relative Something else (specify) (a) Commercial, ad or public service announcement (b) News story or program (c) Something else (specify) 15 17 13 10 45 n=500 19 n=76 22 4 23 n=76 61 19 n=20 87 0 n=514 42 25 8 3 22 n=514 66 n=325 38 9 28 n=325 37 48 n=136 73 2

% Before

% After

The next grouping of questions is concerned with the public’s actual experience with law enforcement during the enforcement phase. Thirty-six (36%) of the respondents reported actually seeing checkpoints within the past thirty days. That figure represents better than one out of every

15 three Mississippians of driving age reporting that they had seen checkpoints. Forty six (46%) of respondents in the pre interview and seventy(70%) in the post interview reported that they had been stopped by police in a checkpoint. However, the number responding for the pre Click It or Ticket Survey was relatively small, 60 for the pre interview and 176 for the post interview. This means that more than one out of every five respondents was stopped in a road block.. As can be observed in Table 7 there was a huge increase the percentage of people who had heard of a special effort to issue tickets to those who did not have their children restrained.

Table 7:

PUBLIC DIRECT EXPERIENCE OF CLICK IT OR TICKET
Question % “Yes” Before 13 n=500 46 n=60 26 n=500 % “Yes” After 36 n=514 70 n=176 87 514

In the past 30 days did you personally see any check points where police were stopping motor vehicles to see if drivers and passengers were wearing seat belts Were you personally stopped by police at a seat belt checkpoint? In the past 30 days, have you seen or heard of any special efforts by police to ticket drivers in your community if children in their vehicles are not wearing seat belt or in car seats?

Although there was only a slight increase between the pre and post interviews in the percentages of persons who had heard some type of media message about seat belt use in the past 30 days, there was a huge increase, 15% to 70%, between the pre and post telephone interviews. Likewise, there was a huge decrease, 79% to 28%, in the percentage of those who thought that the number of media messages had remained the same. Persons who thought that seat belt enforcement was very important increased slightly from 62% in the pre interview to 69% in the post interview. The number of Mississippians who think that seat belt enforcement is at least fairly important was very high in both interviews, (79, pre and 82, post). Less than 20% of Mississippians think that seat belt use should not be enforced.

16 TABLE 8: PUBLIC AWARENESS OF THE INCREASE OF MEDIA AND EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN CLICK IT OR TICKET PROGRAM
Question Now I would like to ask you a few questions about educational or other types of activities. In the past 30 days have you seen or heard any messages that encourage people to wear their seat belts. This could be public service announcements on TV, messages on the radio, signs on the road news stories, or something else Would you say that the number of messages you have seen or heard in the past 30 days is (a) More than usual. (b) Fewer than usual (c) About the Same Are the any other type of activity that you have seen or heard about in the past 30 days? Thinking about everything you have heard, how important do you think it is for Mississippi to enforce seat belt laws for adults more strictly? (a) Very important (b) Fairly important (c) Just somewhat important (d) Not that important % before 79 n=500 % After 87 n=514

n=393 15 5 79 17 n=500 n=500 62 17 11 9

446 70 1 28 12 514 n=514 69 13 12 5

The graphic on the following page provides summary information on the key findings of the Click It or Ticket Telephone Survey

TELEPHONE SURVEYS SUMMARY

Click It or Ticket 2001

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Telephone Survey Summary
• Those who reported using their shoulder and lap belt use 100 percent of the time increased from 63%to 74% • 97%of respondents know seat belt usage is a MS LAW • The perception that Mississippi has a primary law increased from 40%in the pre-telephone survey to 58%in the post survey. • The belief that Mississippi should have a primary law increased from 58%in the pre -survey to 68%of respondents law in the post survey. • 15%of respondents in the pre-survey strongly agreed that more seat belt tickets were being written in their community while 42%in the post survey strongly agreed that more tickets were being written in the their community. • Awareness of Click It or Ticket increased from 12%in the pre-survey to 79%in the post telephone survey.

Click It or Ticket 2001

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Driver’s License Surveys

DRIVERS LICENSE SURVEYS Introduction The following series of surveys were implemented at locations where drivers’ licenses are obtained or renewed. The surveys were conducted to provide further measures of the effectiveness or lack of effectiveness of the media and law enforcement interventions. Much of the same information collected on the telephone surveys, was also collected on the Driver’s License Survey. While the Telephone Surveys were collected before and after the completion of the campaign, the Driver’s License Surveys were collected four times, before, during and after all interventions. They were collected during the same time periods that the Mini Observational Surveys were done. (Mini Surveys will be discussed in the next section.) The Driver’s License Survey thus provided another validation of the information gathered in the telephone surveys and the corresponding Mini Observational Surveys. Driver’s License Surveys were conducted at seven Mississippi Highway Patrol substations, located in the seven of the eight counties in which the Mini Surveys were conducted. Survey counties included Bolivar, Desoto, Harrison, Hinds, Lauderdale, Lee, and Lowndes. Surveys were administered to persons who came to obtain a driver’s license or to renew their driver’s license. The only Mini Survey county where the surveys were not conducted was in Lamar County, due to the fact that there were no licensing substations in Lamar County. Personnel at the substations were trained to administer questionnaires by the Preusser Research Group Inc., Trumbull, Connecticut, in cooperation with the Mississippi Office of Highway Safety and the Mississippi Highway Patrol. Persons applying for or renewing their licenses at these selected Highway Patrol Substations were administered questionnaires prior to and immediately following the project interventions, i.e., the earned media week, the paid media week, and after the law enforcement blitz. The surveys were designed and tabulated by the Preusser Research Group. Drivers’ License Surveys

20 Summary Information on the overall results of the Driver’s license surveys is presented in Table 9. As can be observed, increases of various magnitudes occurred in 14 of 19 categories. Table 9:
Question

Mississippi Driver’s License Office Survey Results by Wave *
Baseline (n-950) % 61.3 25.5 32.4 22.2 8.5 31.6 21.9 69.5 24.4 19.1 37.3 11.7 2.5 6.5 9.7 4.1 17.1 68.6 8.5 1st Earned Media Week ( n=440) % 61.1 24.1 28.9 22.3 6.4 35.0 24.5 70.5 23.4 23.2 35.2 10.7 3.9 7.3 6.2 6.4 17.3 65.7 8.2 Paid Media Week Pre Law Enforcement (n=440) % 62.0 30.2 34.1 21.4 6.8 38.9 25.9 81.8 26.8 24.1 51.8 10.0 3.6 6.1 8.4 31.4 17.7 57.4 10.9 Post Law Enforcement (n=783) % 67.3 31.8 38.6 27.6 6.6 65.9 30.9 92.7 37.7 37.5 64.9 8.4 2.0 9.3 6.3 64.2 12.3 42.9 8.6

Reported “Always” uses a seat belt. Reported “Always a high-likelihood of a seat belt ticket for non use. Reported strictness of State Police as “Very” Reported strictness of Local Police as “Very” Reported ever receiving a seat belt ticket Reported having read about seat belt checkpoints in the past month Reported going through a seat belt checkpoint in the past month. Reported recently read/seen/heard seat belt message Read about seat belt in the paper Heard about seat belts on the radio Saw seat belt message on TV Saw seat belt message on poster Read about seat belts in a brochure Heard about seat belts at a check point Heard about seat belts by other means Heard of Click It Or Ticket Program Heard of No Excuses Buckle Up Program Heard of Buckle Up Mississippi Program Heard of Operation Stay alive Program *Source Preusser Research Group, Inc. 7/23/01.

The responses of persons filling out the Drivers’ License Surveys are remarkably similar to the responses of persons interviewed in the Telephone Surveys. Persons reporting that they

21 “always used” their seatbelt increased slightly after the post law enforcement intervention, but showed little increase following the earned media and paid media phases. The information displayed in Chart Two also depicts the interrelationship between the percentage of respondents who report “always” wearing their seat belts and their perception of the likelihood of getting a ticket and the reality of getting a ticket for failure to wear a seat belt. Those reporting “always” using their seat belts rose slightly during the campaign, as did their expectation of getting a ticket. However, the number of respondents actually getting a ticket went down slightly. CHART TWO DRIVER’S LICENSE SURVEYS, PERCENTAGE OF PERSONS “ALWAYS” USE THEIR SEAT BELTS, FEEL THAT THEY ARE LIKELY TO GET A TICKET, AND ACTUALLY GETTING A TICKET

The perception of police strictness rose slightly during the campaign. However, there

Seat Belt Usage
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Driver’s License Survey
80.0% 61.3% 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% 0.0% Baseline 1st Earned Media Week Paid Media Week 25.5% 8.5% 24.1% 6.4% 30.2% 6.8% 61.1% 62.0%

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

67.3%

31.8%

6.6%

Enforcement

Always Uses Seat Belt Ever received ticket for nonuse

Likely to get ticket for nonuse

Source: Preusser Research Group, Inc.

doesn’t appear to be any strong sense of police strictness in enforcing seat belt laws among the

22 respondents. The respondents did feel that the Highway Patrol was much stricter than Local Police. Information on this question is presented in Chart Three. CHART THREE PERCEIVED POLICE STRICTNESS BY WAVE

In Chart Four a graphic representation is presented of respondents (a) hearing of checkpoints and (b) actually going through checkpoints. The number of persons hearing about

Police Strictness
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Driver’s License Survey
60.0%

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

40.0%

32.4%

34.1% 28.9%

38.6%

20.0% 22.2% 0.0% Baseline

22.3%

27.6% 21.4%

Earned Media Week

Paid Media Week

Enforcement Week

State Police Very Strict

Local Police Very Strict
Source: Preusser Research Group, Inc.

checkpoints increased dramatically during the various waves of the project. In the baseline 31.6% reported hearing of checkpoints. This figure increased dramatically to 65.9% after the enforcement phase. Likewise, the most dramatic rise came after the law enforcement intervention. While the increase in the percentage of those who actually went through a checkpoint was not as dramatic, it was substantial.

23 CHART FOUR: AWARENESS AND EXPERIENCE OF POLICE CHECKPOINTS

Seat Belt Checkpoints
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Driver’s License Survey
80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% 21.6% 0.0% Baseline Earned Media Week Paid Media Week 31.6% 35.0% 38.9%

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

65.9%

24.6%

25.9%

30.9%

Enforcement Week

Heard about seat belt checkpoints in the last month Gone through checkpoint in the past month
Source: Preusser Research Group, Inc.

There is a steady and progressive increase of public awareness of a special effort to increase seat belt use. In the questionnaire taken after the law enforcement phase, an incredible percentage (92.7%) of the respondents had heard of special efforts to increase seat belt use. There was also a significant increase after the paid media phase. When asked where they had heard, read or seen these messages, respondents singled out TV, both after the paid media phase, and also the post law enforcement phase. Immediately following the earned media phase a majority of respondents (51.8%) reported seeing the message on TV. This percentage increased sharply again after the post law enforcement phase to 64.9%. No other media forms were nearly as effective. The next highest types of media in reaching the public were the radio and news papers. More than 37% of the respondents had heard of the program in the post enforcement phase through newspaper and the radio. A slight increase in knowledge occurred as the result of checkpoints. Brochures and posters provided no increased knowledge. A summary of these findings is presented

24 in the following Table 10. TABLE 10: TYPES OF MEDIA WHERE PUBLIC MADE AWARE OF EFFORTS TO INCREASE SEAT BELT USE

Baseline (n=950) %

1st Earned Media Week (n=440) % 70.5 23.4 23.2 35.2 10.7 3.9 7.3 6.2

Paid Media Week pre-enforcement (n=440) % 71.8 26.8 24.1 51.8 10.0 3.6 6.1 8.4

Enforcement post (n=783) % 92.7 37.7 37.5 64.9 8.4 2.0 9.3 6.3

Reported as recently having seen/heard seat belt message Read in the newspaper Heard on radio Saw messages on TV Saw on Poster Read in Brochure Heard at checkpoints Other means

69.5 24.4 19.1 37.3 11.7 2.5 6.5 9.7

Chart Six provides a graphic visualization of the above table. It can readily be seen that television is the media from which respondents became aware of the Click It or Ticket campaign. By the end of enforcement week 65% of the respondents reported that they heard of the campaign on TV. Newspapers and radio followed, but far behind TV, as a source of message awareness. About 38% of the respondents reported that they had heard or read about the campaign from these two sources. Other types of media showed little evidence of effectiveness as a media tool.

25 CHART FIVE: AWARENESS BY MEDIA OF EFFORTS TO INCREASE SEAT BELT USAGE

Awareness by Media
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Driver’s License Survey Recently heard about seat belts by:
N ew sp ap er P o ster Oth er m ean s R ad io B ro ch u re 70.0%

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

T elevisio n C h eckp o in t

64.9%
60.0%

51.8%
50.0%

40.0%

37.3%

35.2%

37.5%
37.7% 26.8%

30.0%

24.4%
20.0%

23.2%
23.4%

24.1%

19.6%

10.0%

0.0% B aselin e E arn ed Med ia W eek P aid Med ia W eek E n fo rcem en t W eek

Source: Preusser Research Group, Inc.

26 A sharp increase in the awareness of respondents of the Drivers’ License Survey of the Click It or Ticket Program was reported. Once again the sharpest increases occurred after the paid media effort and after the law enforcement intervention. Awareness of the campaign increased from a low of 4.1% to more than 64% after the conclusion of the intensive law enforcement effort over the Memorial Day weekend. This sharp increase in awareness is very similar to the increase reported in the before and after Telephone Surveys as the awareness of the Campaign rose from 13% in the baseline survey to 62% in the post project survey See Chart Six below.

CHART SIX: PERCENTAGE REPORTING HEARING ABOUT CLICK IT OR TICKET

Click It or Ticket Awareness
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Driver’s License Survey

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Percentage Reporting Awareness of the Click It or Ticket Program
70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

64.2% 31.4% 4.1%
Baseline
(N = 950)

6.4%

1st Earned Media Week
(N = 440)

Paid Media Week
(N = 440)

Enforcement
(N = 783)

Source: Preusser Research Group, Inc.

27 The remainder of this section will be devoted to comparing the above reported variables by the subgroups, gender, race, age, miles driven, and type of vehicle driven. Those who reported “always” wearing a seat belt increased slightly from baseline to the post law enforcement phase in all categories, i.e., gender, race, age miles driven and type of vehicle driven (except for persons driving vans, pickup trucks and persons who drove 10,000-15,000 miles). Information on this variable is presented in Table 11 below. TABLE 11 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONS WHO “ALWAYS” WEARS A SEAT BELT*
Baseline (n=950) % 61.3 54.6 68.0 62.1 59.7 48.9 64.5 76.6 63.8 67.0 53.6 64.1 54.0 56.3 77.6 1st Earned Media Week ( n=440) % 61.1 53.8 69.5 62.2 57.98 49.5 60.2 75.8 65.8 55.2 58.8 65.3 43.6 69.8 73.3 Paid Media Week Pre Law Enforcement (n=440) % 62.0 50.9 72.4 60.3 64.1 54.7 61.3 75.0 65.9 51.9 61.9 67.8 46.4 67.9 69.6 Post Law Enforcement (n=783) % 67.3 60.4 74.0 66.7

Question

Reported “Always” uses a seat belt. Male Female White Non-White Age <26 Age 26-49 Ages 50+ Miles <10,000 Miles 10,000-15,000 Miles> 15,000 Passenger Car Pick Up SUV Van

68.7
58.4 68.8 77.7 71.6 63.5 63.5 72.9 48.3 65.7 69.2

*Source Preusser Research Group, Inc. 7/23/01

Similarly, persons reporting that there was “always” a likelihood of receiving a ticket increased slightly for all the various subgroups of gender, race, various age groups, miles driven
C l i c k I t o r T i c k e t A w a r e n e s s
S o c i a M l S i s c s i i e s n s c i p e p R i S e t s a e t e a r U c h n i C v e e r n s t i e t y r

28 and type of vehicle driven (except for those reporting driving pickup trucks.) See Table 12 below.

Table 12:

REPORTED ALWAYS A LIKELIHOOD OF A SEAT BELT TICKET FOR NON USE *
Baseline (n-950) % 25.5 21.9 29.0 21.3 33.6 18.4 27.0 33.3 26.1 21.3 22.0 27.6 20.7 21.0 32.7 1st Earned Media Week ( n=440) % 24.1 23.6 24.9 22.3 26.4 22.4 21.6 31.6 29.1 19.6 20.3 26.0 18.8 25.6 20.0 Paid Media Week Pre Law Enforcement (n=440) % 30.2 22.2 37.7 24.9 39.7 28.8 28.3 37.6 37.9 28.4 18.7 34.3 25.9 17.9 34.8 Post Law Enforcement (n=783) % 31.8 26.7 37.9 27.4 41.8 28.6 32.3 34.9 40.1 27.1 23.0 34.5 23.4 32.4 38.5

Question

Reported “Always” a likelihood of a seat belt ticket for non use Male Female White Non-White Age <26 Age 26-49 Ages 50+ Miles <10,000 Miles 10,000-15,000 Miles> 15,000 Passenger Car Pick Up SUV Van

*Source Preusser Research Group, Inc. 7/23/0

The chart below graphically demonstrates that there was a sharp increase in awareness of “Click It Or Ticket after the paid media week and another sharp increase after the enforcement week. This occurred for both males and females. The level of awareness of the campaign by the public is quite remarkable. More than 64% of all the respondents reported hearing of the “Click It Or Ticket Campaign.”

29

CHART SEVEN:

AWARENESS OF CLICK IT OR TICKET CAMPAIGN BY GENDER

Awareness by Gender
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Driver’s License Survey
80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% 0.0% 7.0% 6.0% Earned Media Week
Male

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Heard of Click It or Ticket Program?
64.3% 64.1% 33.8% 28.8%
On

6.6% 2.6% Baseline

Paid Media Week
Female

Enforcement Week

e of the key

Source: Preusser Research Group, Inc.

me

asures of evaluation is the ability to reach all groups of people. For example, a lot care was taken to include the African American communities in of planning and discussion of the project. It was important that they they understood that the campaign was about saving lives not racial profiling etc. The next chart demonstrates the awareness of the “Click It or Ticket Campaign” for different racial groups. Both groups, white and non white showed a high awareness of the program. It is

30 Both groups rose sharply in their awareness. While non whites were somewhat less likely to report awareness of the Campaign, the fact that 58% were aware othecampaign is quite substantial. CHART EIGHT: AWARENESS OF CLICK IT OR TICKET BY RACE

Awareness by Race
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Driver’s License Survey
80.0% 60.0%

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Heard of Click It or Ticket Program?
67.1%

58.4% 40.0% 20.0% 4.3% 0.0% 3.8% Baseline 5.4% Earned Media Week
White

36.0% 8.6% 25.0%

Paid Media Week
Non White

Enforcement Week

Source: Preusser Research Group, Inc.

The comprehensiveness and the effectiveness of the overall campaign not only extends to gender and racial groups, but also to all age groups, as the following chart vividly demonstrates. All age groups were almost equal in level of awareness.

31 CHART 10: AWARENESS OF CLICK IT OR TICKET BY AGE

Awareness by Age
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Driver’s License Survey
80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% 0.0% 6.1% 3.9% 1.2% Baseline 9.3% 3.7% 2.1% 1st Earned Media Week
Less Than 26

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Heard of Click It or Ticket Program?
66.9% 63.9% 36.3% 36.2% 21.6% 63.5%

Paid Media Week
26-49

Enforcement

50 or older
Source: Preusser Research Group, Inc.

In Table 13 a summary of information on the level of awareness of the “Click It Or Ticket Campaign” by respondents in all on all categories that were measured. In addition to gender, race, age, miles driven and types of vehicles are remarkably consistent in demonstrating the high level of effectiveness the message had on all types of groups. Variables such as miles driven and type of vehicle show a similar sharp rise in awareness after the paid media and enforcement interventions. More than 60% of all groups measured had heard or read about the program by the end of the enforcement period.

32 Table 13: Respondents Reporting that they had heard of “Click It Or It”
Baseline n=950 % Respondents reporting that they had heard of Click it or Ticket Total Male Female White Nonwhite Age <26 Ages 26 to 49 Ages 50+ Miles <10,001 per year Miles 10,001 to 15,000 Miles> 15,000 Passenger Car Pick Up SUV Van 4.1 6.6 2.6 4.3 3.8 6.1 3.9 1.2 4.0 3.0 4.9 3.6 6.1 3.4 4.1 6.4 5.0 7.0 5.4 8.6 3.7 9.3 2.1 2.0 10.3 10.1 5.8 5.0 7.0 10.0 31.4 28.8 33.8 35.0 25.0 21.6 36.3 35.2 28.5 38.3 33.1 27.4 34.8 37.5 52.2 64.2 64.3 64.1 67.1 58.4 63.9 63.5 66.3 63.1 67.1 64.3 64.7 63.0 69.4 61.5 1st Earned Media n=440 % Paid Media n=440 % Enforcement n=783 %

*Source Preusser Research Group, Inc. 7/23/0

The next chart summarizes the key findings of the Driver’s License Survey concerning the level of awareness people had before during and after Click It or Ticket Campaign. These seven locations included all the mini-sites except Lamar County.

33

Click It or Ticket 2001

Social Science Research Center M ississippi State University

Driver’s License Survey Sum ary m
• Percentage reporting “always” wearing seat belt increased 6% • O 39%perceived the State Police as “Very Strict” &28%of nly respondents perceived Local Police as “Very Strict” in seat belt enforcem ent • Seat belt m essage awareness increased from23%in the baseline to 93% in the enforcem period ent • Awareness of Click It or Ticket Programincreased 60%from 4% (Baseline) to 64%(Enforcem ent) • 65%of the respondents heard about Click It or Ticket on TV • The closet other m types to TVin hearing Click It m edia essage by respondents were radio and newspapers at 38%each. • M (64% wom (64% white (67% Non-white (58% and persons of all en ), en ), ) ) age groups (range from64%to 67% were very com ) parable in their awareness of Click It or Ticket

Click It or Ticket 2001

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Mini Surveys

MINI SURVEYS Introduction Each year the State of Mississippi is required to conduct a scientifically designed. “Seat Belt/Motorcycle Helmet Survey” approved by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The sampling methodology will be more fully described in the next section of this report. The sample is drawn from 16 Mississippi counties including a total of 409 sites at which seat belt observations take place. Two observers are present at every site; one observer-counts pick up trucks while the other observer counts all other passenger type vehicles, i.e., sedans, suv’s, vans etc. In 2001 two full surveys were conducted in order to more fully evaluate the “Click It or Ticket” Campaign. One survey was conducted prior to the campaign and the other survey was conducted after the completion of the project. Separate, but within the framework of the larger surveys, four Mini Observational Surveys were conducted. The Mini Surveys consisted of eight representative sitesin eight of the sixteen sample counties. Therefore, the baseline Mini Survey, consisted of 64 total sites, eight sites drawn each of the representative eight counties. The first Mini Survey was conducted as a part of the statewide baseline survey. The mini sites for the baseline survey were counted at the regularly scheduled time for the regular seat belt survey, except additional data was gathered at the mini sites. This additional data included recording information on gender and race. Information at the mini sites thus included passenger vehicles, pickup trucks, gender and race. Additionally, three other Mini Surveys, including only the 64 sites in eight counties, were collected after the earned media campaign, after the paid media campaign and immediately after the enforcement phase. Finally, another full statewide survey was conducted several weeks after the completion of the campaign. This survey included the mini survey sites but no data was collected on gender and race. This section of the report deals with results of the Mini Surveys. The

36 data of the Mini Surveys were collected by the Social Science Research Center and coded by Preusser Group. In Chart 11 information is presented on the observed seat belt usage by wave across the duration of the campaign. There is a gain from 50.6% to 54.8% of people using seat belts in the baseline survey, to the first earned media intervention. Belt use remains much the same through the paid media week, but rose more than 10 percentage points, from 54.7% after the paid media week to 64.8% after the enforcement week. Overall, using only the Mini Survey sites, seat belt use increased by more than 28%. Other comparisons were conducted to see how the mini sites in the baseline and post surveys compared to the other sites the in the counties with mini sites, as well as sites in counties in which were no mini sites. Seat belt usage in mini vs. non mini sites was found to be very similar. Baseline non mini sites were found to have a 53.5% rate of use as compared to 51.4% in the mini sites. In the post survey the mini sites had a 65.8% use vs. a 66.5% belt use rate in the remaining sample. CHART ELEVEN: SEAT BELT USE BY WAVES

Seat Belt Use by Wave
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Mini Surveys
80.0%

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

64.8% 60.0% 50.6% 49.4% 45.2% 45.3% 35.2% 20.0% Baseline Earned Media Week
Percent Using

54.8%

54.7%

40.0%

Paid Media Week

Enforcement Week

Percent Not Using

37 One of the key evaluation criteria was to discover if the intervention applied to different groups of people. For example, did seat belt usage increases apply to other categories such as gender, race, passenger vehicles and pick up trucks? The next series of charts illustrate the information collected for these categories. Firstly, it can be seen in Chart Twelve that there were increases for both males and females following each of the interventions. The most dramatic increase in seat belt usage takes place after the law enforcement phase. Seat belt use for females rose from 60% in the baseline survey to almost 74% after the enforcement phase. While the percentage increase for males and females is about the same, the amount of improvement in belt use for males is somewhat higher. Males improved their seat belt use more than females, 34% as compared to 23% by females. CHART TWELVE: BELT USE BY WAVE BY GENDER

Belt Use by Wave by Gender
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Mini Surveys
80.0% 59.6% 60.0% 63.8% 64.3%

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

73.6%

58.6% 40.0% 43.6% 47.8% 47.9%

20.0% Baseline Earned Media Week
Female

Paid Media Week
Male

Enforcement Week

38 In Chart Thirteen information comparing seat belt usage following the various interventions is presented by race. Once again a sharp increase is observed for both whites and non whites across the intervention waves, particularly following the law enforcement phase. While seat belt usage was not as high for non whites, nonwhite seat belt usage increased much more than whites (19% for non whites to as compared to11.8%) for whites. This represents a 48% improvement in seat belt use by non whites as compared to 26.9% improvement for whites. Improvement in seat belt use for both groups is excellent. CHART THIRTEEN: BELT USE BY WAVE BY RACE

Belt Use by Wave by Race
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Mini Surveys
80.0%

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

66.9% 60.0% 55.1% 58.6% 58.3% 58.9% 40.0% 39.9% 20.0% Baseline Earned Media Week
White

45.0%

45.6%

Paid Media Week
Non White

Enforcement Week

In Chart Fourteen comparisons are presented on the seat belt usage by men and women of both races, separately. Belt usage increased sharply for white and non white men and women. The greatest percentage increases took place among non whites in both males and females. Non white males

39 increased belt usage 20% and non white females by 19%. This represents an improvement in seat belt usage of 63% in non white males, and a 37% improvement in non white females. Improvement in seat belt use by white males and females was also quite impressive. Seat belt usage improved in white males by 26% and 18% in white females. It should not go unnoticed that females of both races show a considerably higher rate of seat belt usage than males.

CHART 14:

BELT USE BY WAVE BY GENDER AND BY RACE
Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Belt Use by Wave by Gender and Race
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Mini Surveys
W hite Male Non W hite Male

W hite Female Non W hite Female

80.0%

75.8% 67.9%

60.0%

60.8% 52.2%

40.0%

20.0% B aseline Earned Media Week Paid Media Week Enforcement Week

The next comparison to be addressed is whether persons riding in cars and pickup trucks were affected by the “Click It or Ticket “ campaign. The next Chart provides a visual presentation of these comparisons. Once again the project interventions appear to very effectively increase the

40 use of seat belts by both passenger car and pick up truck riders. The percentage of persons wearing their seats belt increased significantly for persons in cars by 14% and in pickup trucks by 16%. This represents a 23% improvement in seat belt use for persons riding in cars and 36% for persons riding in pickup trucks. C

Belt Use by Wave by Vehicle
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Mini Surveys
80.0% 59.0% 58.0%

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

H A R T

69.0%
FI F

60.0%

56.0%

60.0%
T

40.0%

44.0%

49.0%

50.0%
E E

20.0% Baseline Earned Media Week
Car

Paid Media Week

Enforcement Week

N: B E

Pick Up Truck

LT USE BY WAVE BY VEHICLE

41

Chart Sixteen provides a comparison of the seat belt use of drivers and passenger across the various project waves. As can be observed, there were significant increases in observable belt use by both drivers and passengers. Drivers and riders are very comparable in belt use through the various project interventions. Driver seat belt use increased by 29%, while passenger seat belt use increased by 34%. These are huge increases in both groups.

CHART SIXTEEN:

BELT USE BY DRIVER AND PASSENGER

42 Another question to be addressed is the whether the effect on seat belt use applies on all

Belt Use by Wave by Driver & Passenger
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Mini Surveys
80.0%

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

66.2% 60.0% 51.4% 54.6% 47.9% 40.0% Baseline Earned Media W eek
Drive r

54.9%

54.5% 54.4%

64.3%

Paid Media W eek
Passe nger

Enforcem ent W eek

types of roads. As in all other types comparisons used in these analyses, seat belt use rose significantly on all categories of roads. As expected, roads with the lowest baseline uses had the highest increases in seat belt use. Seat belt use rose by 56% on urban local roads, by 44% on rural local roads, by 31% on urban interstates, 23% on rural major roads and urban major roads, and by 15% on rural interstates. This finding is graphically illustrated in Chart Seventeen

43 CHART SEVENTEEN: BELT USE BY WAVE BY ROAD TYPE

Belt Use by Wave by Road
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Mini Surveys
Rural Interstate Urban Interstate Rural Major Road Urban Major Road

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Rural Local Road Urban Local Road

80.0%

77.1% 72.9% 64.7%

60.0%

59.5% 58.6% 57.7%

40.0%

20.0% Baselin e Earn ed Media Week Paid Media Week En forcemen t Week

A summary of the findings of the Mini Surveys is presented in the summary chart on the next page.

44

Click It or Ticket 2001

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Mini Survey Summary
• • For some unexplained reason, Lee county showed decreases in the mini survey waves (43% to 36%) through the enforcement phase but increased from baseline (43%) to Post Survey in mini sites (52%) Seat belt use increased in both cars (56% to 69%) and pick up trucks (44% to 60%) Seat belt use increased on all types of roads in mini survey sites. Rural Interstates (67% to 77%), Urban Interstates (56% to 73%), Rural Major Roads (53% to 65%), Urban Major Roads (49% to 60%), Urban Local Roads (37% to 58%), Rural Local Roads (41% to 59%). Seat belt use increased for whites (55% to 67%) and non whites (40% to 59%). Seat belt use increased for males (44% to 59%) and females (60% to 74%) White females (77%) had the highest seat belt use Non whites males (52%) had the lowest use. White (67% to 77%) and non white (49% to 68%) females had a higher percentage of use than either white (48% to 61%) or non white (32% to 52%) males Seat belt use increased for both drivers (51% to 66%) and passengers (48% to 64%) in the mini- survey sites Highest use of seat belts was following the enforcement wave (65%)

• • • • • • •

Click It or Ticket 2001

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Baseline & Follow-Up Surveys

SEAT BELT/MOTORCYCLE HELMET SURVEY Introduction Two full Seat Belt/Motorcycle Helmet Surveys were conducted in the Spring of 2001. The first survey was conducted prior to the implementation of the Click It Or Ticket Project and the second survey was conducted after the implementation of the project. The survey sampling plan used for the surveys was developed in accordance with NHTSA guidelines and formally approved by NHTSA. The original plan was modified once in order to include pickup trucks in the sample. The surveys were conducted by the Social Science Research Center at Mississippi State University for the Mississippi Office of Highway Safety. The Seat belt and motorcycle survey for Mississippi uses a multistage area probability approach. In the first stage, an appropriate number of sampling units are randomly selected. The primary sampling unit for the Mississippi survey is the county. The least populated counties, approximately 15% of the State’s population, are excluded from the sampling process. The survey was conducted in 16 Mississippi Counties containing approximately 46% of the State’s population. Summary of Sampling Methodology I. Three counties were selected as certainty counties because of having populations much larger than other Mississippi Counties. The certainty counties were Harrison, Hinds, and Jackson. II. Thirty-two of the least populated counties, whose combined population accounted for only 15% of the state’s population, were eliminated from sampling. III. Sampling was done with replacement. In addition to the three certainty counties, 13 other counties were chosen, thus the sample consists of 16 counties. IV. The sample includes 409 forty-minute observation periods. The three certainty counties were allotted 28 observation periods, while the remaining 13 counties were allotted 25

47 observation periods each. V. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) provided floppy disks that included information on which all road segments which Average Daily Travel (ADT) was equal to or exceeded 500 miles. Through a random variable generated by the computer program Statistical Program for the Social Sciences (SPSS), all road segments in each of the counties were randomly selected. VI. The roads were then sorted by county and functional road classification. The functional road classifications of the road were re coded into six functional classes. VII. Total Vehicle Miles Traveled per year (VMT) for each county were calculated by multiplying ADT times road segment length. A similar statistic was calculated for each of the functional road classes. This figure was divided by the total county VMT and then multiplied by the number of observation time periods. For example, there are 3,860 road segments in Hinds County with a VMT of 5,905,627.26. Functional road Class 1 had a VMT of 640,676. The 640,676 was then divided by 5,905,627.26 equaling .1084857 which was in turn multiplied by 28 or the number of observation periods allotted to Hinds County. Thus 3.0375991, or three observation periods were allotted to Class 1 roads in Hinds County, etc. The first six segments from road Class 1 in Hinds County were chosen for the sample, were roads for each road class for the remaining five road classes. VIII. All road segments were randomly selected and sorted by functional class. The number of roads to be sampled in each class was selected in the order that they were chosen in the random sampling process. For example, if Hinds County needed to sample three Class 1 roads, the first three Class 1 roads plus several back up selections were chosen. The TP number or location designation was then sent to MDOT to be placed on maps and sent back to Mississippi State. IX. Sites for each county were then clustered according to geographical proximity.

48 X. For each cluster and each site a day of the week was randomly chosen. All days of the week were eligible for selection. XI. Once a site was assigned a day of the week, observation times between 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. were randomly chosen in hourly increments. One hour for lunch was randomly chosen from the hours from 11:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. XII. Direction of observation was randomly assigned for all 409 sites using random assignment procedure generated by SPSS. XIII. Observers were instructed to observe from a site using the assigned direction for a period of 40 minutes. Interstate sites were surveyed on off ramps. XIV. The sampling frame includes counting all passenger vehicles, sports utility vehicles, vans and pickup trucks not exempted by state law. Two observers are used at each observation site. One observer counts the driver and outside passengers on the front seat of passenger cars, sport utility vehicles and vans. The other observer counts the driver and outside passenger in pickup trucks. Further details on the sampling methodology of the survey “DOCUMENTATION OF MISSISSIPPI OBSERVATIONAL SURVEYS OF SEAT BELT AND MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE” prepared by Dr. Stephen H. Richards Director, Transportation Center of the University of Tennessee and Dr. Tommy Wright Adjunct professor of Statistics of the University of Tennessee, and can be obtained from the Social Science Research Center at Mississippi State University, Box 5287 Mississippi State, MS 39662, or by calling Mr. Jim Landrum at 662-3257962.

Statewide Survey Results The impact of the Click It or Ticket Campaign effected a huge change in seat belt usage in

49 the State of Mississippi. As can be observed in the chart below, belt use improved by 26%. This represents a 13 percent increase. The margin of error for both surveys at a 95% probability is less than 4 percent. CHART EIGHTEEN: SEAT BELT USAGE

Seat Belt Usage
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Statewide Survey Official Statewide Seat Belt Usages Sites Surveyed = 409

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

B ase line S urvey

49 %

Follow -U p Sur vey

62%

Se
0% 10% 2 0% 3 0% 4 0% 5 0% 6 0% 7 0% 8 0%

at

belt usage improved across all areas of comparison. The following graphic demonstrates the increased use in all counties of the survey. While the differences were varied, the belt use increases were substantial. The largest increases occurred in Desoto and Bolivar Counties. In Desoto County, which borders Tennessee, near Memphis, seat belt usage increased by 29%. This translates to a huge 65% improvement in seat belt use.

50 The Mississippi Delta Counties present a big challenge in improving seat belt use. The project had three Mississippi Delta Counties, Bolivar, Leflore and Yazoo. Seat belt use was substantially increased in all three counties. Bolivar County had the second highest increase in seat belt usage in the project counties. Seat belt usage in Bolivar County increased by 25%. This was an improvement of 88 % in belt use. Bolivar County in the baseline survey had only a 28% weighted rate of seat belt usage. While the overall use of seat belts remains low in Delta Counties, the Click It Or Ticket Campaign appears to have had a substantial impact. Seat Belt use improvements following the campaign were 88% in Bolivar, 44% in Leflore County and 16 in Yazoo County. The effect appears to have an impact across race and gender. Perhaps an unexpected benefit of conducting the project in eight Southeastern States at the same time occurred in counties bordering other states. For example, Desoto County, the county showing the greatest increase in percentage of persons wearing seat belts, is for all practical purposes a part of the Memphis Metropolitan Area. Tennessee was also the state showing the highest increase in Seat Belt Use in the Southeastern region. Persons living in that geographic region were probably bombarded with media and the law enforcement efforts occurring in both Jackson County, which borders Alabama, raised the percentage of those wearing seat belt from 48.94 in the baseline survey to 63.61 in the post survey. This represents a 30 percent improvement in seat belt use in Jackson County. It is remarkable that increases in seat belt usage occurred in all sample Counties. See Chart 19 and Table 14 for a county by county breakdown in seat belt use.

CHART 19: INCREASE IN SEAT BELT USAGES BY COUNTY

51

Increases in Usages
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Statewide Survey
Harrison Yazoo Lee Scott Lowndes Madison Hinds Leflore Jack son Lamar Simpson W arren Lauderdale Rankin Bolivar Desoto
2% 8% 9% 9% 9% 11 % 13% 13% 1 5% 1 5% 16 % 17 % 18% 19%

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Percentage Increases in Seat Belt Usages from Baseline Survey to Follow-Up Survey

25% 29 %

0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

30%

The following table provides a county by county breakdown of seat belt use in the pre and post surveys in person count and weighted count by County.

Table 14:

County by Count Comparisons of Increases in Seat Belt Usage by Per Person County and by Weighted Count

52 County Percent of Persons Using Seat Belts in Baseline Survey % Percent of Persons Using Seat Belt in Baseline Survey Weighted by Lanes, Road Segments etc. % 28.21 44.30 51.94 51.80 48.94 52.27 47.79 41.53 28.78 54.63 56.88 54.58 36.30 47.63 57.67 48.92 Percent of Persons Using Seat Belts in Follow-Up Survey % Percent of Persons Using Seat Belt in Follow-Up Survey Weighted by Lanes, Road Segments etc. % 52.98 72.99 53.89 64.26 63.61 67.12 65.36 50.69 41.53 63.83 68.15 73.49 45.12 63.98 74.45 56.65

Bolivar Desoto Harrison Hinds Jackson Lamar Lauderdale Lee Leflore Lowndes Madison Rankin Scott Simpson Warren Yazoo Total

33.15 46.84 52.45 55.57 53.96 59.64 52.13 45.64 31.35 57.77 59.72 57.26 49.36 55.77 63.47 59.21 53.14

51.58 77.37 56.58 69.46 70.35 69.27 70.02 51.08 45.62 67.61 70.49 70.57 56.97 71.29 76.90 68.13 66.36

49.00 ± 3.32

61.61 ± 3.74

No matter what category is used for comparison, the result is the same. Such is the case when pre and post belt use is compared by the type of road on which the observation took place. Significant increases occurred on all categories of roads.

53 CHART TWENTY: INCREASES IN USAGES BY ROAD TYPES

The final category of comparison is improvement in belt usage by type of vehicle. Persons

Increases in Usages
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Statewide Survey

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Percentage Increases in Seat Belt Usages from Baseline Survey to Follow-Up Survey by Type of Road
R ural Inters tates R ural M ajor R oads R ural Lo cal R oa ds Urban Interstate s Urban Major R oads Urban Local R oads
9% 15% 13% 12% 13% 15%

0%

5%

10%

15%

2 0%

riding in cars and pickup trucks increased their seat belt usage dramatically from the baseline survey to the follow-up survey. Persons riding in cars increased from 11% baseline to 65% in the follow-up survey. While it is quite evident that persons riding in pickup trucks are far less likely to use a seat belt; they also showed a significant increase between surveys. Pickup truck riders’ seat belt use increased 14% from baseline to follow-up. Seat belt usage in pickup trucks belt improved by a very large 34%. Similarly, car belt use increased 11 percentage points which represents and improvement in belt usage in cars improved of 21%. Overall belt usage, for cars and trucks

54 combined, from baseline to follow-up, increased by 13%. This is improvement of overall belt usage of almost 27%

CHART TWENTY-ONE: PERCENTAGES AND INCREASES FROM BASELINE TO FOLLOW-UP

Percentages & Increases
2001 MS Click It or Ticket Statewide Survey

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Follow-Up Survey Percentages and Percentage Increases in Seat Belt Usages from Baseline Survey to Follow-Up Survey by Type of Vehicle
Cars at F ollow-Up

65%

Ca rs Inc re as e from B ase lin e

11%

Pick up Truc ks a t Follo w-Up Picku p Truck s In creas e from Ba se line

53%

14%

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

55

CLICK IT OR TICKET 2001
Before and After Statewide Surveys
• • • • Official statewide seat belt use in post survey was 62% ± 3.74.

Social Science Research Center Mississippi State University

Official statewide seat belt use in baseline survey was 49% ± 3.32.

All survey counties increased in belt use in the post project survey, both in per person observations and in the weighted percentage. Highest increases occurred in Desoto (29%), Bolivar (25%), Rankin (19%), Lauderdale (18%), Warren (17%), Simpson (16%), Lamar (15%), Jackson (15%), Leflore (13%), Hinds (13%), and Madison (11%). Lowest increases occurred in Harrison (2%), Yazoo (8%), Scott (9%), and Lee (9%), and Lowndes (9%) . Seat belt use increased on all types of roads : Rural Interstates (13%), Rural Major Roads(15%), Rural Local Roads (13%), Urban Interstates (12%), Urban Major Roads (9%), Urban Local Roads ( 15%). Seat belt use increased in both cars (11%), and pickup trucks by (14%). Seat belt use in cars is 65%, and in trucks 53%.

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• •

56

Motorcycle Helmet Survey
Introduction The Final segment to be discussed concerns the Motorcycle Helmet Use in Mississippi. As a part of the Seat Belt Survey, Motorcycle Helmets are also counted. Mississippi is fortunate to have an excellent Motorcycle Helmet law. All motorcycle riders must wear helmets or receive a ticket. Motorcycle Helmet use is over 99 percent in Mississippi. Thus, there is little room for improvement in helmet use. Motorcycle Helmet Usage Rates for 2001 In the baseline sample only 3 persons out of 572 observed motorcycle riders were not wearing a helmet. Helmet Use was 99.81 (+/-) .2583. Helmet use in the post survey was 99.87 (+/-) .26384. Only one person out of 309 observations was not wearing a helmet.

57

SUMMARY OF CLICK IT OR TICKET CAMPAIGN RESULTS

Reported seat belt use increased significantly from baseline to post Telephone and Drivers License Surveys. Awareness of seat belt issues increased significantly from baseline to post Telephone and Drivers’ License surveys. Awareness of the “Click It or Ticket Campaign increased from 12% in the baseline Survey to79 % in the Post Telephone Survey. Awareness of the Click It or Ticket Campaign increased from 4% to 65% from baseline to post Drivers’ License Surveys. Media and Law enforcement efforts of the campaign were found to be effective with all racial, gender, age and income groups. Media and Law enforcement efforts were effective no matter what type of vehicle was driven, whether driver or passenger, regardless of the number of miles driven, or type of road. Television was by far the most effective media tool used in the campaign. The greatest increases for almost all measures evaluated came after the Law Enforcement intervention followed by the paid media campaign. Seat Belt use improved by 26% from baseline to the post survey. Seat Belt use improved for riders in all counties, on all types of road, in all types of vehicles studied.

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